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Aull 4", PROCEEDINGS VOL fol'i-owo-o" 4,11 zz' lp, ?a, Ij 11 @@ GC 1001 .025 1988 v. 3 COASTAL ZONE INFORMATION CENTER OCEANS '88 CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITbN PRESENTED BY MTS-OES-lEEE IN COOPERATION WITH THE PORT OF BALTIMORE BALTIMORE CONVENTION NTER. BALTIMORE, MARYLAND OCTOBER 31 -NOVEMBER 2, 1988 DONALD,SCHAEFER-,@ERNOR OF MARYLAND, HONORARY CHAIRMAN ACIMIRAL PAUL A. YOST, COMMANDANT UNITED STATES COAST GUARD, GENERAL CHAIRMAN OCEANS 88 A Partnership of Marine Interests PROCEEDINGS Conference Sponsored by Marine Technology Society IEEE Baltimore, Maryland October 31-November 2, 1988 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NOAA COASTAL SERVICES CENTER 2234 SOUTH HOBSON AVENUE CHARLESTON , SC 29405-2413 Property of CSC Library IEEE Catalog Number 88-CH2585-8 Oceans '88 Proceedings Volume 1: Pages I to 2 74 Volume 2: Pages 2 75 to 718 Volume 3: Pages 719 to 11086 Volume 4: Pages 1087 to 1732 Copies of the Oceans '88 Proceedings are available from: The IEEE Service Center 445 Hoes Lane 'Piscataway, NJ. 08854 and The Marine Technology Society 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Suite 500 Washington, D.C. 20006 Copyright and Reprint Permissions: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limits of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this collection that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through the Copyright Clearance Center, 29 Congress Street, Salem, Mass. 01970. Instructors are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for noncommercial classroom use without fee. For other copying, reprint or re-publication permission, write to Director, Publishing Services, IEEE, 345 E. 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. All rights reserved. Copyright '1@1 1988 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. IEEE Catalog Number 88-CH2585-8 OCEANS '88 Proceedings Volume Three Table of Contents PLASTICS IN OUR OCEANS: WHAT ARE WE DOING MESOCOSMS AS TOOLS FOR COASTAL AND ESTUARINE ABOUTIT? ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH-I Chairman: Chairman: B. Griswold G. F. Mayer OAR, National Oceanic and Atmospheric National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Administration E. Klos 1529 J. M. Coe and A. R. Bunn I An Experimental Estuarine Salinity Gradient Marine Debris and the Solid Waste Disposal Crisis S. W. Nixon and S. W. Granger 16o4 D. Cottingham 6 Development of Experimental Ecosystems for the Federal Programs and Plastics in the Oceans Study of Coastal Lagoons X. Augerot 1711 J. G. Sanders and G. F. Riedel 23 Sea Grant Faces Oceans of Plastic The Use of Enclosed Ecosystems for the Study of Cycling and Impact of Trace Elements K. J. O'Hara 12 Education and Awareness: Keys to Solving the Marine S. J. Cibik, J. G. Sanders and C. F. D'Elia 29 Debris Problem Interactions Between Insolation and Nutrient Loading and the Response of Estuarine Phytoplankton J. R. Whitehead 1507 Reducing Plastic Pollution in the Marine Environment: MESOCOSMS AS TOOLS FOR COASTAL AND ESTUARINE The U.S. Coast Guard and Implementation of Annex V ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH-H of MARPOL 73/78 Chairman: CONTINENTAL SHELF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH R. E. Turner Center for Wetlands Resources, Chairman: Louisiana State University W. W. Schroeder University of Alabama A. G. Chalmers 1652 Experimental Manipulations of Drainage in a Georgia R. Rezak and D. W. McGrail 1602 Saltmarsh: Lessons Learned Geologyand Hydrology of Reefs and Banks Offshore Texas and Louisiana M. R, DeVoe, M. E. Tompkins and J. M. Dean 35 South Carolina's Coastal Wetland Impoundment W. W. Schroeder, M. R. Dardeau, J, J. Dindo; P. Project (CW[P): Relationship of Large-Scale Research Fleischer, K. L. Heck, Jr. and A. W. Schultz 17 to Policy and Management Geological and Biological Aspects of Hardbottom Environments on the LMAFLA Shelf, Northern Gulf of R. E. Turner 41 Mexico Experimental Marsh Management Systems in Louisiana W. W. Schroeder, R. Rezak and T. J. Bright 22 A. G. van der Valk, B. D. J. Batt, H. R. Murkin, P. J. Video Documentation of Hardbottom Environments Caldwell and J. A. Kadlec 46 The Marsh Ecology Research Program (MERP): The Organization and Administration of a Long-Term Mesocosm Study iv. TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY AND WATER REUSE ON ONSHORE MARICULTURE AND SAFETY PROCESSING FACILITIES Chairman: Chairman: D. Attaway R. Becker Sea Grant, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Louisiana State University Administration J. M. Fox and A. L. Chauvin 1536 R. R. Colwell 1606 Depuration of Oysters in a Closed Recirculating New Approaches for IndiceslMonitoring Microbial System Pathogens in Seafood M. P. Thomasson, D. G. Burden and R. F. Malone 70 J. Liston 52 Micro-Computer Based Design of Recirculating Microorganisms as a Cause of Economic Loss to the Systems for the Production of Soft-shell Blue Crabs Seafood Industry (Callinectes sapidus) G. J. Flick, Jr. 56 G. E. Kaiser and F. W. Wheaton 76 Sea Grant Advances in Seafood Science and Computerized Rapid Measurement of Ammonia Technology Concentration in Aquaculture Systems S. Garrett and M. Meyburn K. Rausch, W. H. Zachritz II, T. C. T. Y-Hsieh and Development of New Approaches to Seafood R. F. Malone 84 Inspection Use of Automated Holding Systems for Initial Off- Flavor Purging of the Rangia Clam, Rangia cuneata TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY AND SAFETY GULF OF MEXICO CHEMOSYNTHETIC PETROLEUM SEEP COMMUNITIES Chairman: G. J. Flick, Jr. Chairman: Virginia Polytechnic Institute R. Carney Louisiana State University R. C. Lindsay 61 Flavor Chemistry and Seafood Quality Factors I. MacDonald, R. Carney and D. Wilkinson 90 Gulf of Mexico Chemosynthetic Communities at Oil H. 0. Hultin 66 Seeps: Estimating Total Density Technical Problems and Opportunities Related to Utilization of Our Seafood Resources R. S. Carney 96 Emerging Issues of Environmental Impact to Deep-Sea J. P. Zikakis 1608 Chemosynthetic Petroleum Seep Communities A Biotechnological System for the Utilization of Waste Products of the Seafood and Cheese Manufacturing H. H. Roberts, R. Sassen and P. Aharon 101 Industries Petroleum-Derived Authigenic Carbonates of the Louisiana Continental Slope A. P. Bimbo 1513 The Production of Menhaden Surimi V. UNDERSEA VEHICLES AND PLATFORMS FOR SCIENCE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRIES CONFLICT APPLICATIONS Chairmen: Chairman: R. W. Middleton A. N. Kalvaitis Minerals Management Service National Undersea Research Program, M. Holliday National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service G. A. Smith and R. S. Rounds 106 J. Brashier 136 Scientific, Technological and Social Impact of NOAA's Coexistence of Fishing and Oil and Gas Industries in Mobile Undersea Research Habitat the Gulf of Mexico P. J. Auster, L. L. Stewart and H. Sprunk 1286 B. R. Clark 143 Scientific Imaging Problems and Solutions for ROVs Potential Conflicts Between Oil and Gas Industry L. L. Stewart and P. J. Auster 1610 Activities and Commercial Fishing Low Cost ROVs for Science R. M. Meyer 146 R. A. Cooper and I. G. Babb 112 Information on Fisheries Risk Assessment in the Alaska Manned Submersibles Support a Wide Range of OCS Region Underwater Research in New England and the Great R. C. Wingert 150 Lakes Geophysical Survey and Commercial Fishing Conflicts, R. 1. Wicklund and B. L. Olla 119 Environmental Studies and Conflict Mitigation in the Field Research Programs at the Caribbean Marine Minerals Management Service Pacific OCS Region Research Center-National Undersea Research Program A. S. Knaster 156 The Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution in OCS FISHERIES AND RESOURCES Resolving Outer Continental Shelf Disputes Chairmen: CUMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE OIL AND R. W. Middleton GAS LEASING PROGRAM-I Minerals Management Service M. Holliday Chairmen: National Marine Fisheries Service J. Goll Minerals Management Service R. W. Middleton 123 J. M. Teal Oil and Gas Industry Conflicts on the Outer Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Continental Shelf D. Christensen 1624 D. V. Aurand 161 Outer Continental Shelf Fisheries and Resources in the The Future of the Department of the Interior OCS Northeast Region Studies Program R. J. Essig 127 T. Chico 166 Outer Continental Shelf Fishery Resources of the Air Quality Issues, Environmental Studies, and South Atlantic Cumulative Impacts in the Pacific OCS Region B. G. Thompson 1613 R. E. Miller 172 Outer Continental Shelf Fisheries and Resources in the Georges Bank nitonng Program: A Summary Gulf of Mexico J. M. Teal 177 S. Koplin 132 The Role of the Scientific Advisory Committee, Outer The Outer Continental Shelf Fishery Resources of the Continental Shelf Program of Minerals Management Pacific Coast Service vi. CUMULATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE OIL AND OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION-11 GAS LEASING PROGRAM-11 Chairmen: Chairmen: J. R. Pearcy J. Gott Minerals Management Service Minerals Management Service C. Welling J. M. Teal Ocean Minerals Co. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute C. A. Dunkel 208 R. M. Rogers 953 A Qualitative Assessment of the Hydrocarbon Potential Factors Contributing to Wetland Loss in the Coastal of the Washington and Oregon Continental Shelf Central Gulf of Mexico M. Galloway and M. R. Brickey 1611 S. D. Treacy 180 The Hydrocarbon Potential of the Federal OCS, The Minerals Management Service Bowhead Whale Offshore Northern California Monitoring Program and Its Applications J. Kennedy and C. Grant 213 R. B. Clark 184 Impact of the Oil-bearing Monterey Formation on Impact of Offshore Oil Operations in the North Sea Undiscovered Resources of Offshore California J. P. Zippin 1615 S. Sorenson, C. Alonzo and M. Ibrahim 1612 Cumulative Environmental Effects of the Department Wilson Rock Field: A Case History of the Interior's Offshore Oil and Gas Program: 1987 Report to Congress OIL AND GAS RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION-1 Chairmen: R. V. Amato Chairman: Minerals Management Service J. R. Pearcy C. Welling Minerals Management Service Ocean Minerals Co. F. R. Keer 188 G. M. Edson 219 Geologic Characteristics of an Atlantic OCS Gas The Ancient Atlantic Reef Trend Discovery and Its Implications P. K. Ray 193 B. J. Bascle 223 Hydrocarbon Potential of the Deepwater (600 Feet) The Effect of Exploration on Resource Estimates for Gulf of Mexico the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf W. E. Sweet and J. C. Reed 202 D. Mayerson 229 Correlation of Cenozoic Sediments-Gulf of Mexico Pre-lease Geophysical Permitting for the Pacific OCS: Outer Continental Shelf Procedures, Problems, and Solutions D. A. Steffy 235 Post-Lease Sale Exploration of the Navarin Basin, Bering Sea, Alaska vii. OFFSHORE DRILLING-ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES ACOUSTIC APPLICATIONS-If Chairman: Chairman: D. Cottingharn A. L Eller National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Applications International Corp. D. K. Franqois 241 L. C. Haines, W. W. Renner and A. 1. Eller, 295 Environmental Studies and Impact Assessment on the Prediction System for Acoustic Returns from Ocean Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Bathymetry R. B. Krahl and C. E. Smith 250 G. P. Vellemarette 298 Developing Technologies for Offshore Oil and Gas Programmable Subsurface Acoustic Recording System Structures in Frontier and Hazardous Areas D. F. McCammon 304 OCEAN LEASING AND DEVELOPMENT The Relationship Between Acoustic Bottom Loss and the Geoacoustic Properties of the Sediment Chairman: G. Pettrazzulo ACOUSTICS-NOISE Technical Resources Inc. Chairmen: S. Ashmore 259 D. J. Ramsdale Offshore Leasing Boundaries Along the Receding Naval Ocean R&D Activity Alaskan Coastline N. Miller T. J. Mac Gillvray 262 West Sound Association Development and Analysis of DCF Computer Models W. S. Hodgkiss 310 for EEZ Marine Mining Source Ship Contamination Removal in a Broadband M. E. Dunaway and P. Schroeder 268 Vertical Array Experiment Minimizing Anchoring Impacts During Construction of R. J. Lataitis, G. B. Crawford and S. F. Clifford 315 Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities A New Acoustic Technique for Remote Measurement of the Temporal Ocean Wave Spectrum ACOUSTIC APPLICATIONS-I Chairman: ACOUSTICS-PROPAGATION A. 1. Eller Science Applications International Corp. Chairman: D. G. Browning W. Hill, G. Chaplin and D. Nergaard 275 Naval Underwater System Center Deep-Ocean Tests of an Acoustic Modem Insensitive to Multipath Distortion D. G. Browning, P. M. Schiefele and R. H. Mellen 318 Attenuation of Low Frequency Sound in Ocean A. Novick 1617 Surface Ducts: Implications for Surface Loss Values A Shallow Water Sonar Performance Prediction System W. J. Vetter 1540 On Ray Trajectories and Pathtimes for Acoustic R. L. Spooner 283 Propagation in a Medium with Velocity Gradients Signal Processing Using Spreadsheet Software D. K. Roderick 1619 J. M. Tattersall, J. A. Mingrone and P. C. King 1618 An Introduction to the Physics of Underwater Sound A VCR Based Digital Data Recorder for Underwater and Their Application to Passive Anti-Submarine Acoustics Multipath Measurements Warfare L. Wu and A. Zielinski 287 Multipath Rejection Using Narrow Beam Acoustic Link viii. ACOUSTICS-SIDE SCAN SEA BOTTOM PROPERTIES Chairman: Chairman: R. Walker M. Cruckshank USCG R&D Center University of Hawaii A. St. C. Wright 323 R. B. Perry 366 The Wide Sw2th, Deep Towed SeaMARC Mapping the Slopes of Expanding Continental Margins R. G. Asplin and C. G. Christensson 329 C. de Moustier, T. Hylas and J. C. Phillips 372 A New Generation Side Scan Sonar Modifications and Improvements to the Sea Beam System On Board RIV Thomas Washington E. Kristof, A. Chandler and D. Schomette 335 Using a Sector-Scan Sonar to Hunt for Shipwrecks D. E. Pryor 379 Through Ice Theoryand Test of Bathymetric Side Scan Sonar J. W. Nicholson and J. S. Jaffe 338 S. M. Smith, J. S. Charters and J. M. Moore 385 Side Scan Sonar. Acoustic Variability Processing and Management of Underway Marine Geophysical Data at Scripps R. Gandy and S. Paulet 1620 Re2ltirne Side Scan Sonar Target Analysis R. L. Cloet 1636 Implications of Using a Wide SWATH Sounding W. R. Abrams 344 System A Practical High Tech Advance in Side Scan Sonar Target Positioning and Analysis SEDIMENT STUDIES-I ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILING Chairman: A. G. Young Chairman: FUGRO-McClelland H. R. Frey Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessments, S. K. Breeding and D. Lavoie 391 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Duomorph Sensing for Laboratory Measurement of Sheir Modulus G. F. Appell, J. Gast, G. Williams and P. D. Bass 346 Calibration of Acoustic Doppler Current Profflers D. Lavoie, E. Mozley, R. Corwin, D. Lambert and P. Valent 397 Y. Kuroda, G. Kai and K. Okuno 353 The Use of a Towed, Direct-Current, Electrical Development of a Shipboard Acoustic Doppler Resistivity Array for the Classification of Marine Current Proffler Sediments D. Wilson, D. Bitterman and C. Roffer 359 P. F. Wainwright, B. Humphrey and G. Stewart 405 The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling System at Sediment Contamination by Heavy Metals and AOML Hydrocarbons ix. SEDIMENT STUDIES-11 SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Chairman: Chairmen: H. G. Herrmann III D. E. Weissman Naval Facilities Engineering Command Hofstra University A. E. Hay, L. Huang, E. B. Colbourne, J. Sheng and J. Gallagher A. J. Bowen 413 Naval Underwater Systems Center A High Speed Multi-Channel Data Acquisition System M. R. Willard 1625 for Remote Acoustic Sediment Transport Studies Ocean Sensing Capabilities on Landsat 6 D. G. Hazen, A. E. Hay and A. J. Bowen 419 S. W. McCandless, Jr. and J. Curlander 479 Design Considerations for RASTRAN-System 2 The Influence of Packing Technologies on A. G. Young, L. V. Babb and R. L. Boggess 423 Environmental Application of Space-Based Synthetic Mini-Probes: A New Dimension in Offshore In Situ Aperture Radar Testing J. R. Benada, D. T. Cuddy and B. H. jai 473 K. L. Williams and L. J. Satkowiak 428 Adapting the NSCAT Data System to Changing Bounded Beam Transmission Across a Water/Sand Requirements Interface, Experiment and Theory W. B. Campbell and M. L. Weaks 1626 L. J. Satkowiak 433 An Inexpensive Interactive Processing System for Remote Sea Bottom Classification Utilizing the NOAA Satellite Images Ulvertech Bottom Profiler Parametric Source D. S. Bryant, A. M. Ponsford and S. K. Srivastava 485 A Computer Package for the Parameter Optimization THE GREAT LAKES AS AN OCEANIC MICROCOSM of Groundwave Radar Chairman: L. Pittman Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee, U.S. Congress J. R. Krezoski 437 Particle Reworking in Great Lakes Sediments: In-Situ Tracer Studies Using Rare Earth Elements J. R. Krezoski 442 In-Situ Tracer Studies of Surficial Sediment Transport in the Great Lakes Using a Manned Submersible L. F. Boyer 443 Video-Sediment-Profile Camera Imagery in Marine and Freshwater Benthic Environments L. F. Boyer, R. J. Diaz and J. D. Hedrick 448 Computer Image-Analysis Techniques and Video- Sediment-Proftle Camera Enhancements Provide a Unique and Quantitative View of Life at or Beneath the Scdiment-Waterface Interface X. OCEAN APPLICATIONS OF REMOTELY SENSED MICROWAVE WATER COLUMN MEASUREMENTS-[ TECHNIQUES Chairmen: Chairmen: R. S. Mesecar D.E. Weissman Oregon State University Hofstra University T. M. Dauphinee J. Gallagher National Research Council, Canada Naval Underwater Systems Center W. Kroebel 491 .C. Bostater and V. Klemas 462 Results of Exact Investigations About the Remote Sensing of Physical and Biological Properties Characteristics of the Extremely Fast and Accurately of Estuaries Measuring Kiel Multisonde and Representations About Its Newest Performance D. E. Weissman 1546 The Dependence of the Microwave Radar Cross K.-H. Mahrt and C. Waldmann 497 Section on Ocean Surface Variables During the Field Proven High Speed Micro Optical Density Fasinex Experiment Proffier Sampling 1000 Times Per Second with 10- Precision W.-M. Boerner, A. B. Kostinski, B. D. James and M. Walther 454 R. Mesecar and C. Moser 505 Application of the Polarimetric Matched Image Filter Multi-Sample Particle Flux Collector (PM1F) Technique to Clutter Removal in POL-SAR Images of the Ocean Environment J. M. Moore, C. de Moustier and J. S. Charters 509 Multi-Sensor Real-Time Data Acquisition and D. L. Murphy 467 Preprocessing at Sea Radar Detection of Oceanic Fronts L. S. Fedor and E. J. Walsh 1697 WATER COLUMN MEASUREMENTS-11 Interpretation of SEASAT Radar Altimeter Returns Chairmen: from an Overflight of Ice in the Beaufort Sea J.Jaeger L. S. Fedor, G. S. Hayne and E. J. Walsh 1704 Honeywell Hydro Products Airborne Pulse-Limited Radar Altimeter Return K. Hill W,aveform Characteristics over Ice in the Beaufort Sea Honeywell Hydro Products J. Wagner and R. Mesecar 518 A Common XBTIPersonal Computer Interface D. 1. Nebert, H. Saklad and G. Mimken 1627 CTD Data Acquisition Package H. Tremblay 522 Hydroball-A New Expendable: Uses and Issues xi. COMMUNICATIONS OCEAN ENGINEERING-1 Chairman: Chairmen: R. A. Buddenberg, USCG C. A. Kohler Office of Command and Control USCG R&D Center R. A Buddenberg and A. Givens 526 R. Geminder shipboard Tactical Computer: The Coast Guard's Mechanic Research Inc. Combat Information Center Modernization R. L. Benedict 577 R. L. Moe 532 Destruction of Offshore Platforms by Accelerated Networking and Ship-to-Shore Ship-to-Ship Galvanic Corrosion Communication C. A. Kohler 582 S. C. Hall 537 Corrosive-Wear of Buoy Chain The Defense Mapping Agency's Navigation J. Larsen-Basse, B. E. Liebert, K. M. Htun and Information Network A. Tadjvar 1628 Long-Term Abrasion and Corrosion Damage to the COLD REGIONS OPERATIONS Hawaii Deep Water Power Cable Chairmen: M. Briere, K. C. Baldwin and M. R. Swift 588 S. Smith Collision Tolerant Pile Structures: Design Analysis U.S. Coast Guard Software E. Early T. Dowd 595 University of Washington United States Naval Experience with Antifouling Paints J. D. Crowley 543 Cold Weather Effects upon Marine Operations OCEAN ENtINEERING-II S. M. Smith and D. Strahl 549 Chairmen: Articulated Lights in Ice J. R. Vadus Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessments, M. Gorveatt and M. C. Yee 555 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Arctic Ice Island Coring Facility K. Okamura Special Assistant to the Minister of Science and COLD REGIONS MEASUREMENTS Technology, Japan Chairmen: A. Bertaux 598 S. R. Osmer Tapered Interface in Harsh Environment Connectors USCG International Ice Patrol W. E. Hanson J. F. Legrand, A. Echardour, L. Floury, H. Floch, J. USCG International Ice Patrol Kerdoncuff, T. Le Moign, G. Loaec and Y. Raer 602 Nadia: Wireline Re-Entry in Deep Sea Boreholes W. E. Hanson 561 P. K. Sullivan and B. E. Liebert 606 Operational Iceberg Forecasting Concerns Impedance Measurements of Biofouling in Seawater G. Steeves and S. Grant 567 Condensers: An Update An Autonomous Atmospheric Pressure Recorder for E. A. Fisher and H. P. Hackett 607 Establishing Polar Sea Surface Height World's First Rigid Free-Standing Production Riser T. K. Newbury and A. J. Adams 573 F. El-Hawary 291 Estimated Ice-Gouge Rates on a Manmade Shoal in the Compensation of Vertical Displacement Components Beaufort Sea in Marine Seismic Applications Using the Coupled Heave and Pitch Model xii. INFORMATION SYSTEMS-I INFORMATION SYSTEMS-111 Chairmen: Chairmen: J. A. Smith C. D. Kearse USCG R&D Center Office of Marine Operations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration G. Williams Texas A&M University D. White General Instrument Corp. H. Bhargava and S. 0. Kimbrough 1554 Ooni: An Intelligent Decision Support System fior the G. Samuels 648 U.S. Coast Guard A Shipboard Data Acquisition, Logging and Display System T. F. Pfeiffer 612 A.Single Board Computer Based Sail Controller C. V. Baker and W. T. Whelan 650 Offshore Oceanographic Applications for Battery- M. R. Nayak 615 Powered, High-End Microprocessors On the Knowledge-Based Expert System for Marine Instrumentation R. Findley 655 CIDS-A Shipboard Centralized Integrated Data R. J. Smith 618 System OPDIN-One Way the Ocean Community Informs M. Reynolds, R. Hendershot, M. jungck,. and INFORMATION SYSTEMS-11 B. Reid 1560 The Zeno Alliance Network: A Dual-Loop Fiber Optic Chairman: Instrumentation Network for Ships P. Topoly Systems Planning NESDIS, MOORING National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chairmen: D. Stamulis and M. P. Shevenell 623 K. R. Bitting The Use of WORM Optical Disks in Ocean Systems USCG R&D Center W. B. Wilson 629 R. Swenson A Method for Optimizing Environmental Observing Neptune Ocean Engineering Networks J. D. Babb 66o W. C. Sutherland 632 Validation of Computer Model Predictions of the A User-Friendly Muld-Functional CTD Software Large-Scale Transient Dynamic Towing Response of Package Flexible Cables D. Hamilton and J. Ward 637 H. 0. Berteaux, D. E. Frye, P. R. Clay and On-line Access to NODC Information Services E. C. Mellinger 670 Surfqce Telemetry Engineering Mooring (STEM) E. Voudouri and L. Kurz 641 Robust Sequential m-Interval Approximation Detectors D. R. May 681 with Q-Dependent Sampling New Technologies and'Developments in NDBC Buoy and Mooring Design X111. OPERATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR EXPLORATION OF THE SEA Chairman: Chairmen: S. R. Osmer J. B. Pearce USCG International Ice Patrol ICES Marine Environment Quality Committee S. R. Osmer and D. L. Murphy 687 J. N. Moore International Ice Patrol Applied Oceanography Center Ocean Law and Policy, University of Virginia R. L. Tuxhorn 691 J. F. Pawlak 719 Oceanography on EAGLE Australia '88 Cruise A Review of the Origins, Responsibilities, Composition J. A. McNitt 696 and Main Activities of the International Council for United States Navy Operational Oceanography: the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Fighting Smart with Oceanography Intelligence S. A. Murawski 726 An Evaluation of Shellfish Research in the, OCEANOGRAPHY-MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Chairman: J. B. Pearce 732 W. D. Scherer The ICES Marine Environmental Quality Committee Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessments, (MEQC): Its History and Activities National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration F. P. Thurberg 736 P. Clemente-Colon and J. Zaitzeff 1629 The ICES Working Group on Biological Effects of Upwelling Monitoring Off Western Sahara Contaminants: A Case Study K. Monkelien and T. L. Murrell 699 SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL AND MONITORING Windrose, PC Software for Wind Data Analysis M. Enomoto, T. Kawanishi and W. Kato 703 Chairmen: Measurement of Luminance Distribution on the Sea C. Dougherty Surface for Comfortable Living Space Environmental Protection Agency G. Lotzic UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY New York City Department of Environmental Protection Chairman: J. C. Swanson and K. jayko 740 E. Kristof Modeling the Impacts of CSO Treatment Alternatives National Geographic Society on Narragansett Bay E. Kristof, J. Stancampiano and A. Chandler 709 H. M. Stanford and D. R. Young 745 Use of a Macro-Hybrid Camera at National Geographic Pollutant Loadings to the New York Bight Apex E. Kristof, A. Chandler and W. Hamner 713 S. E. McDowell, C. S. Albro, W. R. Trulli, 3-D as an Underwater Too] W. G. Steinhauer and F. G. Csulak 1630 Optimum. Techniques for Tracking Plumes in the Ocean: A Case Study of Sludge Plume Dispersion at the 106-Mile Site C. E. Werme, P. D. Boehm, W. G. Steinhauer and F. G. Csulak 1631 A Monitoring Plan for Disposal of Sewage Sludge at the 106-Mile Site C. D. Hunt, W. G. Steinhauer, C. E. Werme, P. D. Boehm and F. G. Csulak 1632 Monitoring Water Quality Characteristics During Dispoasl of Sewage Sludge at the 106-Mile Site xiv. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES PROBLEMS IN OUR BAYS AND ESTUARIES Chairman: Chairman: B. Haynes V. K. Tippie Environmental Protection Agency Estuarine Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R. J. Greenwald and H. F. Hennigar, Jr. 752 Designation of an Ocean Mining Stable Reference Area E. M. Burreson and J. D. Andrews 799 Unusual intensification of Chesapeake Bay Oyster R. M. Mink. B. L. Bearden and E. A. Mancini 762 Diseases During Recent Drought Conditions Regional Geologic Framework of the Norphlet Formation of the Onshore and Offshore Mississippi, C. F. D'Elia and P. R. Taylor 803 Alabama, and Florida Area Disturbances in Coral Reefs: Lessons from Diadema Mass Mortality and Coral Bleaching T. J. Rowland 768 Availability of Minerals Offshore Virginia P. A. Tester, P. K. Fowler and R. P. Stumpf 808 Red Tide, the First Occurrence in North Carolina C. E. McLain 777 Waters: An Overview Ocean Mining: An Opportunity for Public-Priv2te Partnership B. L. Welsh 1633 Hypoxia in Long Island Sound (LIS), Summer of 1987 R. V. Amato 783 Recent Nonenergy Mineral Activity in the Atlantic P. Molinari 1609 Outer Continental Shelf EPA's Response to the Flotables Incidents of the Summer of 1987 TRASK ALONG THE COAST THE DOLPHIN DIE-OFF Chairman: L. Swanson Chairman: State University of New York N. M. Foster National Marine Fisheries Service J. B. Pearce 786 Events of the Summer of '87 D. R. Cassidy, A. J. Davis. A. L. jenny and D. A. Saari 812 L. Schmidt 790 Pathology of the Diseased Dolphins Impacts and Implications of the Summer of 1987, New Jersey Flotable Incidents J. Geraci 1634 Epidemiology of Bottlenose Dolphin Disease-U.S. R. E. Dennis, R. P. Stumpf and M. C. Predoehl 1569 Atlantic Coast, 1987-1988 Environmental Conditions in New York Bight, July- August, 1987 J. G. Meade, C. W. Potter and W. A, McLellan 815 Statistical Characteristics of the 1987 Bottlenose R. L. Swanson, R. Zimmer and C. A. Parker 794 Dolphin Die-Off in Virginia Meteorological Conditions Leading to the 1987 Washup of Floatable Wastes on New Jersey Beaches W. Medway 818 and Comparison of These Conditions with the Results of the Dolphin Epidemic Investigation as the Historical Record Disease was Presented in Newjersey Specimens of Bottlenose Dolphins in 1987 G. P. Scott, D. M. Burn and L. J. Hansen 819 The Dolphin Dieoff- Long-Term Effects and Recovery of the Population xv. SHIPWRECK ARCHEOLOGY OIL SPILL MOVEMENT Chairmen: Chairman: W. C. Phoel D. F. Paskausky NMFS, Sandy Hook Laboratory, USCG R&D Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration J. Bondareff I. M. Lissauer 842 A Verified Model for Oil Spill Movement, Beaufort House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee Sea, Alaska J. D. Broadwater 824 M. Reed and E. R. Gundlach 847 Historic Shipwrecks: Resources Worth Protecting Hindcast of the Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill A. G. Giesecke 827 E. J. Tennyson and H. Whittaker 853 The Abandoned Shipwreck Act: A Context The 1987 Newfoundland Oil Spill Experiment: An P. J. A. Waddell 833 Overview Reburial of a 16th Century Galleon E. J. Tennyson 857 J. D. Broadwater 837 Shipboard Navigational Radar as an Oil Spill Tracking Supporting Underwater Archaeology with Ocean Too]: A Preliminary Assessment Technology C. M. Anderson and R. P. LaBelle 1673 R. W. Lawrence 1627 Update of Occurrence Rates for Accidental Oil Spills on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Consequences of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act: The North Carolina Example DRIFT MEASUREMENT J. Fullmer 1677 Myth and Management-The Shipwreck Management Chairmen: Act 1. M. Lissauer USCG R&D Center ART R. Q. Robe USCG R&D Center Chairman: H. B. Stewart, Jr. A. A. Allen and C. B. Billing 860 Old Dominion University Spatial Objective Analysis of Small Numbers of Lagrangian Drifters C. Olsen 1576 Art and Technology on 20th-Century Vessels M. J. Lewandowski 865 A Minicomputer Application to Graphically Display H. B. Stewart, Jr. 840 Tidal Current Drift Artists on Oceanographic Expeditions: A Neglected Partnership E. A. Meindl 871 Drifting Buoy Data Quality and Performance Assessment at the National Data Buoy Center P. J. Hendricks 1635 Drift Current Measurements from a Submarine Xvi. ECONOMICS OF MARINE OPERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY Chairmen: Chairmen: F. Olson S. Bolton Environmental Consultant Office of Legislative Affairs, D. M. King National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ICF Inc. R. Dye House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee M. D. Aspinwall 876 Commercial Vessel Operations in the Exclusive R. W. Zeller 905 Economic Zone: Will the Jones Act Keep Up? Resolving the Environmental Decisionmaking and Research Dilemma M. W. Clark, Jr., D. P. Robinson and L. G. Antle 1690 Economic Impacts from Coal Exports: Through the C. A. Crampton and R. C. Helland 910 Port of Baltimore and the Port of Norfolk A Strategy for Program Implementation C. D. MacDonald and H. E. Deese 880 J. N. Leonard 914 Opportunities for Development: A Growth Scenario Updating the Stratton Commission: A Proposal for the and Situation Analysis of Hawaii's Ocean Industries U.S. Coast Guard Ocean Survey Corps D. L. Soden, J. D. Reighard and W. H. Hester 891 H. E. Schultz 920 Outside Influence on Port Operations: The Insider's National Response Mechanism Perspectives J. S. Hawkins 925 M. G. Johnson 896 Satellite Ocean Monitoring at Ten Years: Perceptions Use of Systems Analysis, Techniques in Ocean and Realities Resources Development P. Stang and E. Turner 1616 EDUCATION AND TRAINING Legal and Policy Issues at Stake in the Current 5-Year Program Chairmen: Richard Asaro, USCG ESTUARINE STUDIES-1 Office of Marine Safety, Security and Environmental Protection Chairman: Thoyer Shafer D. J. Basta Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessments, J. Morton 899 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Field Projects: Teaching is the Easy Part S. E. McCoy 930 S. Teel 1582 Monitoring the Estuary Maritime Training and Ocean Education I. C. Sheifer 937 H. F. Trutneff 902 Climate, Weather, and Coastal Recreational Growth in The Impact of Marine Technology on Education and the Southeast U.S. in 1986 Training in Marine Transportation A. Stoddard 942 An Innovative Approach for the Synthesis of Large Oceanographic Data Sets with Pre-Processing and Post-Processing of an Ecosystem Model of the New York Bight J. Gerritsen 948 Biological Control of Water Quality in Estuaries: Removal of Particulate Matter by Filter Feeders Xvii. ESTUARINE STUDIES-11 OCEAN POLICY-A MATRIX OF FEDERAL, STATE AND INTERNATIONAL ISSUES Chairmen: S. E. McCoy Chairmen: Estuarine Program Office, E. W. Cannon National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration USCG Governmental Affairs Staff D. Ashe K. U. Wolniakowski House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee State of Oregon Oral only E. W. Cannon 1717 The USCG: A Prototype for National and International FISHERIES AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS Ocean Policy Implementation Chairman: L. A. Berney R. Smolowitz The Unspoken Yet Vital Partnership Between the National Marine Fisheries, USCG Reserve and the Civilian Community at Large National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration C. R. Corbett 992 F. L. Ames 961 International Oil Spill Liability and Compensation Improved U.S. Strategy for Fisheries Law Enforcement E. Hout, R. Bailey and K. U. Wolniakowski 994 G. Reetz 966 Ocean Resource Management in Oregon: Pushing California Sea Otter: Impact Assessment and Mitigation Open the Window of Opportunity D. Luo 972 J. S. S. Lakshminarayana 1000 Theoretical Analysis of Fish School Density Overview and Analysis of Coastal Zone Management in the Atlantic Provinces, Canada R. J. Smolowitz and F. M. Serchuk 975 D. C. Slade 1006 Marine Fisheries Technology in the United States: Coastal States and Marine Resource Development Status, Trends and Future Directions Within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone B. F. Beal 980 Public Aquaculture in Downeast Maine: The Soft-Shefl OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM Clam Story Chairman: P. H. Averill 1637 J. H. Clotworthy Development of Separator Trawl Technology Consultant FISHERIES-IMPACT STUDIES P. Brown, K. Lighty, R. Merrill and P. D. Rabinowitz 1012 Chairman: Collection and Quality Control of Marine Geological J. Chambers Data by the Ocean Drilling Program National Marine Fisheries Service D. Graham, B. Hamlin, B. julson, W. Mills, A. Meyer, H. A. Carr 984 R. Olivas, P. D. Rabinowitz, D. Bontempo and Long Term Assessment of a Derelict Gillnet Found in J. Tauxe 1018 the Gulf of Maine Shipboard Laboratory Support: Ocean Drilling Program A. E. Pinkney, L. L. Matteson and D. A. Wright 987 P. Weiss, G. Bode, C. Mato, R. Merrill, P. D. Effects of Tributyltin on Survival, Growth, Rabinowitz, M. Angell, J. Miller, P. Myre, S. Prinz, Morphometry and RNA-DNA Ratio of Larval Striped D. Quoidbach and R. Wilcox 1025 Bass, Morone saxatilis Core Curation: Ocean Drilling Program xviii. OCEAN ENERGY-I MARINE MAMMALS RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT Chairman: Chairman: D. Cotter D. Swanson CBI Industries National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P. Vauthier 1029 The Underwater Electric Kite: East River Deployment H. H. Armstrong and K. R. Banks 1073 Modern Eskimo Whaling in the Alaskan Arctic D. E. Lennard and F. A. Johnson 1034 British OTEC Programmes-] OMW Floating and G. H. Allen 1079 0.5MW Land Based Observations on the 1987 Subsistence Harvest of Northern Fur Seals on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, R. K. Jensen 1039 Alaska Hydro Power from the Ocean R. T. Bennett 1083 A. Thomas and D. Hillis 1045 Endangered Species and Marine Mammal Protection First Production of Potable Water by OTEC and Its During Offshore Structure Removals in the Gulf of Potential Applications Mexico OCEAN ENERGY-11 SHIP DESIGN AND REPAIR Chairman: Chairmen: L. Lewis M. S. Canavan Department of Energy USCG Office of Engineering and Development T. Colton D. C. Hicks, C. M. Pleass and G. R. Mitcheson 1049 Colton Company DELBUOY Wave-Powered Seawater Desalination System M. S. Canavan and M. D. Noll 1087 K. P. Melvin 1055 U.S. Coast Guard's New Polar Icebreaker Design A Wave Energy Engine and Proposals for its D. W. Yu and J. H. DevIetian 1098 Development and Usage Electroslag Surfacing for Construction, Restoration, L. Claeson 1638 and Repair of Ship Structures Recent Wave Energy Research in Sweden RESEARCH VESSELS K. Kudo, T. Tsuzuku, K. Imai and Y. Akiyama 1061 Chairman: Wave Focusing by a Submerged Plate W. Barbee Y. Masuda, M. E. McCormick, T. Yamazaki -and University-National Oceanographic Laboratory Y. Outa 1067 System The Backward Bent Duct Buoy-An Improved Floating Type Wive Power Device J. A. Chance 1107 Conversion of Surplus Oilfleld Supply Vessels to Research Vessels C. Hamlin 1111 Research Vessels: A Systems Engineering Approach B. L. Hutchison and S. jagannathan 1117 Monohull Research Vessel Seakeeping and Criteria R. J. Wilber, C. E. Lea and S. E. Humphris 1639 The SSV Corwith Cramer: Sea Education Association's New Sailing Research Vessel Nix. SALVAGE AND TOWING SWATH SHIPS-1 Chairman: Chairman: J. H. Boyd R. Dinsmore Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution J. K. Edgar 1640 G. R. Lamb 1131 Haz2rdous Materials in Marine Salvage Operations Relationship Between Seakeeping Requirements and SWATH Ship Geometry C. M. Kalro 1603 Launch and Retrieval of 2 1,000 Ton Barge Shaped M. Rice, E. Craig, S. Drummond and Vessel from a Conventional Tanker C. junemann 1144 Conceptual Design of an Intermediate Size J. Strandquist 1124 Oceanographic Research Ship for the University- Removal of the Wreck of the Ex-USS TORTUGA National Oceanographic Laboratory System THE SMALL PASSENGER VESSEL INDUSTRY-I R. D. Gaul, A. C. McClure and F. E. Shumaker 1149 Design of a Semisubmerged SWATH Research and Chairmen: Survey Ship E. G. Sharf C. Kennell 1157 National Association of Passenger Vessels Tankage Arrangement for SWATH Ships H. Parker National Association of Passenger Vessels SWATH SHIPS-H W. B. Hamner 1641 Chairman: The Future of the Tourist Submarine Industry K. W. Kaulum Oral only Office of Naval Research T. G. Lang, C. B. Bishop and W. J. Sturgeon 1163 THE SMALL PASSENGER VESSEL INDUSTRY-H SWATH Ship Designs for Oceanographic Research Chairman: E. Craig and S. E. Drummond 1169 E. G. Scharf SWATH CHARWIN-Range Support Ship National Association of Passenger Vessels A. Galerne 1573 T. MacRae 1125 Development of Deep Water Technology as It Relates The Realities of Birebo2t Chartering to Future Salvage Oral only E. Craig Real World Experience with SWATH Design XX. SHIPBOARD TECHNICAL SUPPORT AN INTERIM STATUS REPORT ON ORGANOTINS-11 Chairman: Chairmen: H. L. Clark P. F. Seligman National Science Foundation Naval Ocean Systems Center H. L. Clark 1644 M. A. Champ Shipboard Technician Program of the National Science National Science Foundation Foundation K. W. M. Siu 1716 J. D. Guffy, M. A. Spears and D. C. Biggs 1173 Analytical Chemistry of Butyltins Automated Analyses of Nutrients in Seawater with the T. L. Wade, B. Garcia-Romero and J. M. Brooks 1198 Technicon TrAAcs-800 Autoanilyzer System Tributyltin Analyses in Association with NOAA's D. J. Murphy, E. Wilson and E. Powell 1178 National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program An Application of a Low Flow Current Meter to Broad C. M. Adema, W. M. Thomas, Jr., and Temperature Range Estuarine Current Measurements S. R. Mangum 1656 M. Maccio and C. Langdon 1181 Butyltin Releases to Harbor Water from Ship Painting Description of Conversion of an EG&G VMCM into a in a Dry Dock MVMS (Multi-Variable Moored Sensor) B. Cool Summary and Status Report of EPA's Special Review AN INTERIM STATUS REPORT ON ORGANOTINS-I (PD14) Chairmen: WAVE MOTION P. F. Seligman Naval Ocean Systems Center Chairman: M. A. Champ R. H. Canada National Science Foundation National Data Buoy Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P. F. Seligman, J. G. Grouhoug and C. M. Adema Field Monitoring of TBT Concentrations in Pearl L. J. Ladner, W. B. Wilson and P. J. Kies 1202 Harbor Correlated with Model Simulation Studies Lake Superior Winter Weather Station R. S. Henderson 1645 N. Lang Chronic Exposure Effects of Tributyltin on Pearl The Linear Properties of Spectra from a PitchlRoll Harbor Organisms Buoy M. H. Salazar and S. M. Salazar 1188 E. D. Michelena and R. Dagnall Tributyltin and Mussel Growth in San Diego Bay A Computer Controlled Signal Simulator for Buoy, Motion Sensors M. H. Salazar and M. A. Champ 1497 Tributyltin and Water Qu2lity: A Question of D. Smith and F. Remond Environmental Significance 3-Meter Directional PitchlRoll Buoy W. R. Blair, G. J. Olson, T. K. Trout, K. L. Jewett and F. E. Brinckman 1668 Accumulation and Fite of Tributyltin Species in Microbial Biotilms Xxi. WAVE MEASUREMENTS UNDERWATER VEHICLES Chairman: Chairman: L. Baer R. Blidberg Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessments, University of New Hampshire National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration M. Higgins and R. Whyte 1646 H. Brown 1205 Controlled Depressor Towed Sensor Platform-The Infrared Laser Wave Height Sensor U.S. Navy's Mk28 Search System G. Kontopidis and G. Bowers 1207 M. Higgins, B. Lawson and B. Field 1647 WavePro: An Autonomous Wave Processor with Long- Development and Testing of a Heavy-Duty Work ROV Range Telemetry for 10,000 Foot Service F. Ziemer, H. Ganther and E. Stockdreher 1212 H. Momma, K. Ohtsuka and H. Hotta 1253 Measured Transfer Functions for Shipmotions in JAMSTECIDeep Tow System Natural Seaways J. jalbert, M. Shevenell, S. Chappel, R. Welsh and D. W. Farrell 1587 R. Blidberg 1259 The Next Generation Water Level Measurement EAVE III Untethered AUV Submersible System: The Next Step in Real-Time Data for Navigation M. E. Cooke, S. Gittings, J. M. Brooks and D. C. Biggs WAVE ACTION ON SEA SHORES Texas A&M University Remotely Operated Oceanographic Vehicle (TAMU-ROOV) Chairman: M. Earle UNDERWATER VEHICLE SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT MEC Systems Corp. Chairmen: M. J. Briggs and P. J. Grace 1218 S. B. Cable Influence of Frequency and Directional Spreading on Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory Wive Transformation in the Nearshore Region R. Wernli D. D. McGehee and J. P. McKinney 1224 Naval Ocean Systems Center Tidal Circulation Data from the Los AngeleslLong F. Dougherty, T. Sherman, G. Woolweaver and Beach Harbors G. Lovell 1265 S. L. Da Costa and J. L. Scott 1231 An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Flight Wave Impact Forces on the Jones Island East Dock, Control System Using Sliding Mode Control Milwaukee, Wisconsin M. L. Nuckols, J. Kreider and W. Feild 1271 J.Rosati III and G. L. Howell 1239 Thermal Modelling of Electro-Mechanical Cables for A Hierarchical Multiprocessor Data Acquisition System ROV Applications for Field Measurement of Structural Response in M. P. Shevenell and C. Millett 1276 Breakwater Concrete Armor Units A LISP Environment for Real-Time Ocean Systems J. P. Ahrens and E. T. Fulford 1244 S. B. Cable 1280 Wave Energy Dissipation by Reef Breakwaters A Guideline System for the Navy's Submarine Rescue E. H. Harlow 1250 Ship (ASR) Class Why Breakwaters Break W. J. Herr 1290 AUV Technology: Development and Demonstration Program xxii. MANNED SUBMERSIBLES HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT Chairman: Chairmen: R. W. Cook L. H. Gibson Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute USCG Central Oil Identification Laboratory Oral only E. F. Batutis Phasesep Corp. DIVING OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS W. R. Cunningham 1321 NOAA Fleet Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste Chairmen: Management W. C. Phoel National Marine Fisheries Service, L. H. Gibson and M. S. Hendrick 1326 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Coast Guard Oil Identification System J. M. Wells T. J. Haas, J. J. Kichner and T. J. Chuba 1332 Office of Marine Operations, Course in Hazardous Materials National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration J. K. Jeffries BUOY-BASED METEOROLOGY Standards and Procedures for Dry Suit Diving Education Chairman: R. Canada J. K. Jeffries National Buoy Center Thermal Guidelines for Diving Operations S. P. Burke and D. G. Martinson 1335 R. 1. Wicklund 1614 An ARGOS Meteorological Oceanographic Spar Buoy An Inexpensive Mobile Self-Contained Habitat System for Antarctic Deployments for Marine Research D. B. Gilhousen 1341 J. W. Blackwell and C. D. Newell 1300 Methods of Obtaining Weather Data in Real Time Diving in Hazardous and Polluted Waters E. D. Michelena 1649 J. M. Wells 1305 The Measurement of Precipitation at National Data The Use of Nitrogen-Oxygen Mixtures as Diver's Buoy Center Stations Breathing Gas R. R. Miller and R. Canada 1650 J. P. Fish and H. A. Carr 1309 Mini-Drifter Test Deployment Data-Gulf of Mexico Integrated Remote Sensing of Dive Sites Spring 1988 S. L. Merry, S. L. Sendlein and A. P. Jenkin 1315 P. M. Friday, J. S. Lynch and F. S. Long 1344 Human Power Generation in an Underwater Interactive Marine Analysis and Forecast System Environment (IMAFS): The Oceanographic Workstation of the Future D. A. Storey and W. E. Woodward 1348 The Global Ocean Platform Inventory VESSELS OF THE 80s AND BEYOND Chairmen: E. K. Pentimonti American President Lines, Ltd. P. Mentz Advanced Ship Operations, MARAD Oral only Xxiii. FACILITIES IN SUPPORT OF MARINE FREIGHT NAVIGATION CHARTING TRANSPORTATION Chairmen: Chairmen: R. Vorthman M. J. Vickerman, Jr. USCG Operations Control Center, Atlantic Area Vickerman, Zachary, Miller M. Kumar R. Katims Defense Mapping Agency Container Transport Technology W. M. Maynard 1371 Oral only Cooperative Electronic Chart Development: The GAADS Project NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONS P. W. Mushkat and C. Lamson 1589 Chairmen: Electronic Chart Display Information Systems: G. R. Perreault Operational, Policy and Legal Issues Office of Navigation, N. D. Smith 1374 U.S. Coast Guard Automated Nautical Data and Charting Development J. Illgen E. A. Soluri A. F. E. Fuentes 1651 Defense Mapping Agency's Navigational Information A Survey of Radionavigation System Users System L. Mehrkam 1352 NAVIGATION SYSTEMS Leading Lines for the Nineties G. R. Perreault 1356 Chairmen: Contract Service of Federal Aids to Navigation C. D. Kearse Office of Marine Operations, R. J. Weaver and R. M. Piccioni 1362 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Radionavigation of the Future P. Stutes John E. Chance & Assoc. Inc. L. V. Grant 1365 Federal Radionavigation Plan Overview J. L. Hammer III and W. R. Hoyle 1379 The Continuing Need for Accurate Positioning in J. Hammer III and W. R. Hoyle 1684 Naval Tactics The Continuing Need for Accurate Positioning I .n Naval Tactics E. F. Carter and J. Lewkowicz 1594 A Computer Navigation System Using Kalmaro Filter Smoothing R. Gandy and S. Paulet 1648 Design and Applications of SEATRAC, an Integrated Navigation and Data Management System D. C. Slade Solar Navigation A. E. Shaw III and T. E. Bryan 1384 Oceanographic Applications of the ARGOS System xxiv. AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT SEARCH AND RESCUE-SURVEILLANCE EXPERIMENTS Chairman: Chairman: T. S. Winslow W@ H. Reynolds Office of Engineering, USCG R&D Center U.S. Coast Guard D. Finlayson, D. Bryant, B. R. Dawe and T. S. Winslow, M. D. Dawe, K. R. Schroeder and A. J. Armstrong 1417 W. A. Fisher 1390 Results ofqn Experiment to Examine Certain Human High-Volt2ge Sol2r-Powered Navigation Range Design Factors Relating to Searches Conducted with Marine Radar J. McCaffrey An Alternative Hull Design for the U.S. Coast Guard D. Bryant, B. R. Dawe, D. Finlayson, W. Reynolds Bell Buoy and M. J. Lewandowski 1422 Results of Canadian Shipborne Night Search GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM Exp erim en ts Chairmen: B. R. Dawe, D. Finlayson -and D. Bryant 1427 K. Nakamura Results of -a Canadian Shipbome Radar Search and Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense Rescue Detection Experiment R. S. Warren D. Finlayson, B. R. Dawe and D. Bryant 1433 TASC Results ofa Canadian Visual Search and Rescue Detection Experiment L. D. Hottram Relative GPS Kinemetric Surveying and Applications F. Replogle, Jr. 1436 for Marine Positioning A New Coast Guard Search Technique M. J. Mes 1395 SEARCH OPERATIONS Accuracy of Satellite Survey Measurements on Offshore Platforms for Monitoring Subsidence Chairmen: E. M. Geyer and R. S. Warren R. Q. Robe Mission Planning Issues and Answers for GPS Users USCG R&D Center B. Dawe SHIP OPERATIONS AND SCHEDULING Nordco Ltd. Chairman: R. W. Berwin 1439 C. Pritchett Alaska SAR Facility Archive and Operations System USCG R&D Center M. K. Kutzleb 1444 S. Cook, R. Benway, W. Krug, M. Nestlebush. A. The Search for South African Airways Flight 295 Picciolo, W. Richardson, P. Stevens and D. R. Paskausky, W. Reynolds, R. Gaines and V. Zegowitz 1400 R. Q. Robe 1605 Volunteer Observing Ships and the U.S. Improving Search Success; Real-Time Collection and Government-A Winning Partnership Transfer to User L. C. Kingsley, K. S. Klesczewski, J. A. Smith and R. A. Walters 1405 R. Q. Robe, D. F. Paskausky and G. L. Hover 1448 Comparing the U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tender Performance of Coast Guard Medium Range Surveillance (MRS) Aircraft Radars in Search and Performance Using Simulation Rescue (SAR) Missions K. S. Klesczewski 1411 J. B. Brewster I.454 Using Spacefilling Curve to Generate the Feasible Sea Based Aerostats (SBA): Effective Surveillance for Routes for the Set Partitioning Problem Maritime Interdiction S. F. Roehrig 1643 Scheduling Patrols Using a Hybrid Integer Programmingl Rule-Based System Approach XXV. PORT MANAGEMENT AND SECURITY Chairmen: T. Robinson Port Safety and Security Division, U.S. Coast Guard D. Smith House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee D. J. Evans, R. W. Owen and P. R. Farragut 1457 Innovative Technology Applied to Maximize a Port's Lifeline: A Case History for the Sea Lanes of the Chesapeake Bay N. A. Marziani 1463 The Multi-Agency MOU on Port Security: A Model for Conflict Resolution D. J. Sheehy and S. F. Vik 1470 Mitigation Planning for Port Development J. J. Zagel, R. T. Kilgore and S. M. Stein 1642 Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport Modeling of Navy Harbors MARINE SAFETY Chairmen: C. L. Hervey USCG R&D Center S. Steele House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee F. H. Anderson 1598 Awakening the Consciousness of the Boating Public Regarding Pollution, Intoxication, and Common Sense Safety of the Nation's Waterways A. Colihan 1476 Coast Guard Recreational Boating Product Assurance Program C. L. Hervey 1482 Determining Horsepower Limits on Recreational Boats S. Johnson and J. Veentjer 1487 Regulation of Passenger Carrying Submersibles G. L. Traub 1493 Recreational Boating Accidents in Ocean Waters Manuscript unavailable for publication Xxvi. Authors List Abrams, W. R ............... 344 Boehm, P. D ......... 1631, 1632 Clark, M. W., jr ............ 1688 Adams, A. j ................. 573 Boerner, W.-M .............. 454 Clark, R. B ................. 184 Ademal C. M ............... 1656 Boggess, R. L ............... 423 Clay, P. R .................. 670 Aharon, P .................. 101 Bonetempo, D ............. 1018 Clemente-Colon, P .......... 1629 Ahrens, J. P ................ 1244 Bostater, C ................. 462 Clifford, S. F ................ 315 Akiyama, Y ................ 1061 Bowen, A. j ............ 413, 419 Cloet, R. L ................ 1636 Albro, C. S ................ 1630 Bowers, G ................ 1207 Coe, J. M ..................... 1 Allen, A. A ................. 86o Boyer, L. F ............. 443, 448 Colbourne, E. B ............. 413 Allen, G. H ................ 1079 Brashier, j .................. 136 Colihan, A ................ 1476 Alonzo, C ................. 1612 Breeding, S. K .............. 391 Colwell, R. R .............. 1606 Amato, R. V ................ 783 Brewster, J. B .............. 1454 Cook, S ................... 1400 Ames, F. L .................. 961 Brickey, M. R .............. 1611 Cooper, R. A ................ 112 Anderson, C. M ............ 1673 Briere, M ................... 588 Corbett, C. R ............... 992 Anderson, F. H ............. 1598 Briggs, M. j ................ 1218 Corwin, R .................. 397 Andrews, J. D ............... 799 Bright, T. j .................. 22 Cottingharn, D ................ 6 Angell, M ................. 1025 Brinckman, F. E ............ 1668 Craig, E ............. 1144, 116q Antle, L. G ................ 1688 Broadwater, J. D ........ 824, 837 Crampton, C. A ............. 910 Appell, G.'F ................ 346 Brooks, J. M ............... 1198 Crawford, G. B .............. 315 Armstrong, A. j ............. 1417 Brown, H ................. 1205 Crowley, J. D ............... 543 Armstrong, H. H ............ 1073 Brown, P ................. 1012 Csulak, F. G. . . . . 1630, 163 1, 1632 Ashmore, S ................. 259 Browning, D. G ............. 318 Cuddy, D. T ................. 473 Aspinwall, M. K ............. 876 Bryan, T. E ................ 1384 Cunningham, W. R .......... 1321 Asplin, R. G ................ 329 Bryant, D ........ 485, 1417, 1422, Curlander, j ................ 479 Augerot, X ................ 1711 1427, 1433 Da Costa, S. L .............. 1231 Aurand, D. V ............... 161 Buddenberg, R. A ............ 526 Dardeau, M. R ................ 17 Auster, P. j ........... 1286, 1610 Bunn, A. R ................... I Davis, A. j .................. 812 Averill, P. H ............... 1637 Burden, D. G ................ 70 Dawe, B. R ........... 1417, 1422, Babb, 1. G .................. 112 Burke, S. P ................ 1335 1427, 1433 Babb, J. D .................. 66o Burn, D. M ................. 819 Dawe, M. D ............... 1390 Babb, L. V .................. 423 Burreson, E. M .............. 799 Dean, J. M ................... 35 Bailey, R ................... 994 Burroughs, R. K ........... 1607 Deese, H. E ................. 880 Baker, C. V ................. 650 Cable, S. B ................ 1280 D'Elia, C. F .............. 29, 803 Baldwin, K. C ............... 588 Caldwell, P. j ................ 46 de Moustier, C .......... 372, 509 Banks, K. R ................ 1073 Campbell, W. B ............ 1626 Dennis, R. E ............... 1569 Bascle, B. j ................. 223 Canada, R ................. 1650 Devletian, J. H ............. 1098 Bass, P. D .................. 346 Canavan, M. S .............. 1087 DeVoe, M. R ..........I ...... 35 Batt, B. D. j ................. 46 Cannon, E. W .............. 1717 Diaz, R. j ................... 448 Beal, B. F .................. 980 Carney, R. S .............. 90, 96 Dindo, J. j ................... 17 Bearden, B. L ............... 762 Carr, H. A ............. 984, 1309 Dougherty, F .............. 1265 Benada, J. R ................ 473 Carter, E. F ................ 1594 Dowd, T ................... 595 Benedict, R. L ............... 577 Cassidy, D. R ............... 812 Drummond, S ........ 1144, 1169 Bennett, R. T .............. 1083 Chalmers, A. G ............. 1605 Dunaway, M. E .............. 268 Benway, R ................ 1400 Champ, M.A. 1497 Dunkel, C. A ................ 208 Berney, A ................. 1725 Chance, J. A ............... 1107 Echardour, A ............... 602 Bertaux, A .................. 598 Chandler, A ........ 335, 709, 713 Edgar, J. K ................ 1640 Berteaux, H. 0 .............. 670 Chaplin, G ................. 275 Edson, G. M ................ 219 Berwin, R. W ........... @ . . 1439 Chappel, S ................ 1259 EI-Hawary, F.. @ ............. 291 Bhargava, H ............... 1554 Charters, J. S ........... 385, 509 Eller, A. I .................. 295 Biggs, D. C ................ 1173 Chauvin, A. L .............. 1536 Enomoto, M ................ 703 Billing, C. 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A REVIEW OF THE ORIGINS, RESPONSIBILITIES, COMPOSITION AND MAIN ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE EXPLORATION OF THE SEA (ICES) Janet F. Pawlak ICES Palaegade 2-4 DK-1261 Copenhagen K, Denmark ABSTRACT FOUNDATION AND MEMBERSHIP IN ICES This contribution first outlines the main factors During the last decade of the Nineteenth Century, leading to the foundation of ICES in 1902 as an marine scientists and the governments of a number intergovernmental body, the first of its kind, of European countries became concerned over the concerned with the promotion and coordination of state of marine fish stocks following the expan- international cooperation in scientific investi- sion in European fisheries during the second half gations of the sea and its living resources in the of that century, that occurred after the introduc- North Atlantic area. It then traces the develop- tion of steam propulsion on fishing vessels. They ment of the Council's aims, responsibilities, com- recognized the need for an international body to position, organization, and main activities from organize and coordinate scientific investigations its foundation to the present time, with special related to fisheries. Moreover, they also realized attention to the years since World War Ii, during that isolated biological or hydrographic observa- which time the Council acquired a more formally tions were of little value in understanding a sea defined status through its 1964 Convention. The area as a whole. Accordingly, these scientists Council's role in providing scientific information proposed the establishment of an international and advice to member governments and international body that should coordinate marine scientific re- fishery management (NEAFC, IBSFC, NASCO) and pol- search on a broad basis, to understand the sea and lution control (Oslo, Paris, and Helsinki Commis- its living resources. sions) organizations, and possible future develop- ments in this and other activities are also des- After several years of discussion among these cribed. scientists and approaches by them to their respec- tive governments, the Swedish Government hosted a INTRODUCTION meeting in Stockholm in June 1899 to discuss in- ternational cooperation in the fisheries and The International Council for the Exploration of oceanographic fields in the Atlantic. While the the Sea (ICES) is the oldest intergovernmental desirability of establishing an international body marine organization in the world (Ref. 1). It was to coordinate marine scientific research was rec- founded in 1902 in response to concerns expressed ognized at that meeting, agreement was not reached by leading marine scientists and governments in as to the precise functions of such a body. A sub- northern Europe that the formation of an interna- sequent meeting in May 1901 in Kristiania (Oslo) tional body to coordinate scientific research in drew up a program of investigations on an inter- marine fields was needed to understand the con- national basis that should serve as the framework ditions in the sea and avoid the possibility of for scientific research by member states. Details overfishing. From an initial founding membership concerning the establishment of the Council were of eight countries, ICES has expanded over the also discussed (Ref. 2). years to include eighteen member countries and the entire North Atlantic and adjacent seas as its The formal establishment of ICES occurred on July area of interest. While the general aims of ICES 22, 1902 at a meeting in Copenhagen of representa- have changed little over the eight decades of its tives of governments. At this meeting, it was existence, the scientific fields covered by its agreed that the seat of the Council should be in work have expanded greatly, particularly during Copenhagen. A Central Laboratory was established the past two decades. The original fields of acti- in Kristiania, but was later closed. Officers of vity in marine, especially fisheries, biology and the Council were chosen, a General Secretary was hydrography have been expanded to encompass issues appointed, and a five-year program of coordinated related to mariculture, fish diseases, and pollu- marine research was adopted. tion of the marine environment. This expansion in numbers and types of activities has been accom- The following eight countries founded ICES: Den- panied by an increase in the number and subject mark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, areas of committees within ICES and the develop- Sweden, Russia, and the United Kingdom. ment of an extensive number of working groups re- porting to these committees. CH2585-8/88/oooo- 719 $1 @1988 IEEE Following the establishment of the Council, it basis for commercial fisheries, including possible rapidly became a major forum for the promotion of overfishing in any of the areas (Ref. 5). The in- international, cooperation in fishery science as vestigations on commercial fisheries included the well as in the field of hydrography. owing to the collection and publication of fishery statistics. Council's influence, a number of the member coun- tries provided accommodation and facilities for The Council conducted its work according to a set research that had not been available previously. of Statutes agreed among the member countries and Most member countries had special vessels built changed from time to time. After World War II, the for international marine scientific investiga- question of a more official international status tions. These developments were clearly very impor- for the Council was raised. This ultimately re- tant accomplishments resulting from the establish- sulted in the convening of a conference by the ment of the Council (Ref. 3). Government of Denmark in 1964 to conclude an in- ternational convention on the Council. Membership in ICES has varied through the years, depending on the interests of the countries and The 1964 Convention political conditions. Belgium joined the Council in 1903, and the USA in 1912. During World War I, The 1964 Convention on the International Council Germany, Russia and the USA withdrew from the for the Exploration of the Sea entered into force Council. France joined in 1920, Portugal in 1922, on July 22, 1968. This Convention defines the Estonia, Lithuania and Poland in 1923, Spain and structure of ICES and states that the duties of Latvia in 1924, and Ireland in 1925. Germany re- the Council are: entered the Council in 1926, Italy joined in 1927 and Iceland in 1938. (a) to promote and encourage research and investi- gations for the study of the sea, particularly During World War II, Estonia, Germany, Italy, those relating to the living resources thereof; Latvia and Lithuania withdrew from membership, and Poland did not renew its participation from 1950 (b) to draw up programmes required for this pur- to 1955, when it re-entered as a member. The pose and to organize, in agreement with the Con- Federal Republic of Germany re-entered in 1952 and tracting Parties, such research and investigations the USSR in 1955. Italy re-entered the Council in as may appear necessary; and 1957 and withdrew again in 1974. Canada joined the Council in 1967, the USA re-entered in 1973, and (c) to publish or otherwise disseminate the re- the German Democratic Republic joined in 1975 sults of research and investigations carried out (Ref. 4). under its auspices or to encourage the publication thereof. The following eighteen countries are present mem- bers of ICES: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, According to Article 2 of this Convention, ICES France, German Democratic Republic, the Federal shall "be concerned with the Atlantic ocean and Republic of Germany, Iceland, Ireland, the Nether- its adjacent seas, and primarily concerned with lands, Norway, Poland, Portugal. Spain. Sweden, the North Atlantic'. the United Kingdom, the USA, and the USSR. Immediately after the Convention came into force, ICES was initially founded to coordinate a five- a host agreement was concluded between the Council year program of marine scientific research, Before and the Government of Denmark, which gave the this period had expired, however, it was decided Council full international status, with privileges that the Council should continue to exist, with and immunities similar to those granted to agen- membership based upon an agreement between each cies under the United Nations. member country and the council. This form of mem- bership continued until July 22, 1968, when the The Council's headquarters have been located in 1964 Convention for the International Council for Copenhagen since its foundation. At present, the the Exploration of the Sea went into effect. Secretariat includes a General Secretary, a Fish- eries Statistician, a Hydrographer, an Environment AIMS AND ORGANIZATION OF ICES officer, and 22 other staff members, including persons involved in computerized data processing, When ICES was founded, the initial agreement was technical editing of ICES publications, and for international collaboration on a five-year printing. comprehensive program, aimed at practical results, to study hydrographic conditions, biology of the The Council food fishes, and plankton of the northern seas. 'The three areas of scientific study were: (1) in- The overall responsibility for the ICES program of vestigation of the hydrographic conditions in the work lies with the Council, which is composed of North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, White Sea, not more than two Delegates from each of the mem- and Baltic Sea, and their associations with ocean- ber countries. The Delegates are the chief contact ic circulation; (2) the study of the biological in their country in all matters with which the conditions of the animal and plant life in these Council is concerned. The Council is presided over seas, with special regard to the food, reproduc- by the President, who is elected from among the tion, growth, and distribution and migrations of Delegates for a period of three years. Upon being food fishes; and (3) an investigation into the elected, the President ceases to be a Delegate and 720 is an independent officer of the Council. overview of the working group meetings proposed for the next year and the tasks assigned to them, The Bureau to ensure that all such meetings will represent a productive use of time and effort. All recommenda- The President, together with the a Vice President tions approved by the Consultative Committee and and five other Vice Presidents, also elected for the results of its consideration of other matters three years by and from among the Delegates, con- are passed forward to the Council for ultimate stitute the Bureau. Unlike the President, the Vice approval, Recommendations accepted by the Council Presidents continue to serve as national Delegates become Council Resolutions, to be implemented by during their terms in office. The Bureau is the Member States; they are published in the annual Executive Committee of the Council. It is respon- reports of the Statutory Meetings, the Proc6s- sible for convening the annual Statutory MeetingSr verbal dt 1A g6union. preparing budgets, and ensuring that the Council's decisions are implemented. It forms the main link The Standing Committees between the Council and the Secretariat. The planning, coordination, and detailed appraisal The Consultative Committee of the individual items of work within the ICES research programs are conducted by the Standing The responsibility for maintaining a supervisory Committees. Member countries may appoint up to two overview of the Council's scientific interests members to each Standing Committee. These members lies with the Consultative Committee, which cur- serve as the chief contacts in their countries rently consists of the Chairmen of the twelve concerning the activities of that Committee. A scientific Standing Committees, the Chairmen of Chairman is elected by the Committee from among the two Advisory Committees, plus its own Chair- its members for a term of three years. The duties man, elected by the Consultative Committee from of Standing Committee Chairmen are specified in among the Delegates and experts for a term of the ICES Rules of Procedure and include maintain- three years. The Chairman of the Consultative Com- ing contact with persons in member countries who mittee is an officer of the Council and ceases to are carrying out the programs of the Committee to be a Delegate during his term of office. The ensure their conduct and preparing an annual re- chairman of the Consultative Committee also parti- port on the activities conducted in member coun- cipates in meetings of the Bureau. tries to implement the programs of the Committee. According-to the ICES Rules of Procedure, the Con- There are presently twelve Standing Committees, sultative Committee has general oversight over: six of which have terms of reference, specified in the Council's Rules of Procedure, covering broad (1) the scientific interests of the Council and topics in marine science or technology; the other its scientific work, six are concerned with studies of specific groups (2) the programs of research organized or coordi- of marine organisms. nated by the Council, (3) the arrangements for carrying out the Coun- The Standing Committees concerned with broad cil's scientific work and the programs of research topics in marine science or technology, including organized by it, and their terms of reference, are: (4) the arrangements for discussing all the fore- going matters at the Council's meetings, including (1) The Fish Capture committee keeps under review the organization of special scientific meetings. and coordinates investigations concerned with fish detection and searching techniques, the design and The Consultative Committee is responsible for ad- operation of fishing gear, and the behavior of vising the Council and the Bureau on the above fish in relation to fishing operations; matters. (2) The Hydrography Committee keeps under review The Consultative Committee meets immediately be- and coordinates investigations in physical and fore and during the Council's annual Statutory chemical oceanography, including studies of the Meeting, both ensuring that all final plans are environment of living resources; complete before the opening session and reviewing the outcome of the scientific sessions after they (3) The -Statistics Committee keeps under review, have been completed. In this context, the Consul- in consultation with other relevant organizations, tative Committee reviews the recommendations from the arrangements for the collection, treatment and each Standing and Advisory Committee and decides publication of statistics concerned with the regu- whether they should be approved for consideration lation of fisheries in the area with which the by the Council. With this overview of all the rec- Council is concerned; ommendations arising from the scientific sessions, both Standing Committee sessions and Theme Ses- (4) The Mariculture Committee keeps under review sions devoted to multidisciplinary topics, the and coordinates investigations relating to the Consultative Committee is in a position to deter- culture of marine organisms, including the trans- mine whether there are overlaps between research plantation and introduction of new species; programs or other projects proposed and whether certain proposals should have priority over (5) The marine Environmental Quality Committee others. The Consultative Committee also keeps an keeps under review and coordinates investigations 721 relating to the scientific study of man-made im- The Advisory Committee on Fishery Management pacts, other than fishing, on the sea and its living resources, in particular, studies of pollu- The Advisory Committee on Fishery Management tion (see paper by Pearce, this volume); and (ACFM) is responsible for providing, on behalf of the Council, scientific information and advice to (6) The Biolociical oceanography Committee keeps Fisheries Commissions and to the Council's Member under review and coordinates the studies of bio- Governments on matters on which they may request logical oceanography in the Council's area, in- advice, or on matters that the Council or the ACFM cluding studies of plankton and benthos, and in- may consider relevant. The ACFM presently consists vestiqations on food chain dynamics. of a Chairman, nominated by the ACFM and appointed by the Council, the Chairmen of the Demersal, Pel- The other six Standing Committees have the general agic and Baltic Fish Committees, and one scientist terms of reference of keeping under review infor- nominated by each Member State and appointed by mation about the species with which each is con- the Council. The ICES Fisheries Statistician cerned and the state of the relevant stocks, and serves as Secretary of ACFM. Since 1987, the Com- coordinating investigations related to them. These mission of the European Communities has been rep- Committees are: resented by an observer at ACFM meetings. (7) The Demersal Liph Committee, which is con- The ACFM meets twice per year, usually in May and cerned with, among others, cod, haddock, whiting, November, to formulate scientific advice for the saithe, plaice, flounder, sole, halibut, redfish, management of stocks of fish and shellfish and to Norway pout, and sandeel; respond to specific requests and questions posed by the management bodies. In formulating its ad- (8) 1hq Pelagic Fish Committee, which is concerned vice, the ACFM utilizes the results of the work of with, among others, herring, mackerel, capelin, stock assessment working groups, that have been blue whiting, sardine, and sprat; established by the Council at the request of ACFM to provide information on the state of stocks of (9) The Baltic Fish Committee, which covers both particular species of fish or shellfish in certain pelagic and demersal species in the Baltic Sea, sea areas and conduct other relevant work. At the including cod, herring, and sprat; present time, there are 27 stock assessment work- ing groups, most of which are concerned with fish (10) The Shellfish Committee, which covers all stocks, some with shellfish, and one group with major commercially exploited types of shellfish in seals. This work will be discussed in greater de- the North Atlantic, such as, lobster, clams (e.g., tail later in this paper. surf clams, ocean quahogs), mussels, oysters, shrimps, squid, and Nephrops; The Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution (11) The Anadromous and Catadromous Fish Committee The Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution (ACMP) which is concerned with such species as salmon, is responsible, on behalf of the Council, for pro- eel, sea trout, and alewife; and viding scientific information and advice on marine pollution and its effects on living resources and (12) The Marine Mammals Committee, which is con- their exploitation to Member Governments and any cerned with all species of marine mammals in the intergovernmental body for the control of pollu- North Atlantic, particularly seals, whales, pur- tion that may request such advice. The ACMP pres- poises, and dolphins. ently consists of a chairman, nominated by the ACMP and appointed by the Council, the Chairmen of The Standing Committees meet once per year, during the Marine Environmental Quality, Hydrography, the ICES Statutory Meeting. At this meeting, each Biological Oceanography, and Mariculture Commit- Committee reviews scientific papers, prepared by tees, and a number of coopted members chosen for Committee members or other scientists, and reports their expertise in scientific areas of relevance on various relevant activities. Most Standing Com- to ACMP. At present, there are ten coopted mem- mittees have one or more working groups, esta-b- bers, with expertise in such areas as organic and lished by the Council on recommendation of the inorganic chemistry, microbiology, fish diseases, Committee, that serve to coordinate studies or sedimentology, and marine ecology. The ICES Envi- provide information on specific issues of concern ronment Officer is the Secretary of ACMP. to the parent Committee. The Standing Committee considers the report of each working group under The ACMP meets once per year, usually in June, to it and reviews the recommendations made by that formulate scientific advice and provide appropri- working group for future activities, such as joint ate information on a number of topics related to research programs, surveys, workshops, intercali- the contamination of the marine environment and bration exercises, etc. The Standing Committee al- its living resources and the effects of contami- so reviews any recommendation by the working group nants and to prepare responses to requests from for a next meeting and the tasks proposed for that pollution regulatory commissions. In carrying out meeting. All recommendations for activities and this work, the ACMP reviews the reports of a num- working group meetings accepted or formulated by ber of working groups concerned with various as- the Standing Committee are then passed on to the pects of the study of contaminants and their ef- Consultative Committee for further handling. fects in the marine environment. This topic will be discussed in more detail later in this paper. 722 The Working Groups will relate to these activities separately, but it must be emphasized that the founding "fathers" of Although working groups are not mentioned in the ICES, and their successors throughout the years, Council's Rules of Procedure, they have become in- have fully recognized that the understanding of creasingly important vehicles for the ground-level marine fishery problems necessitates studies of planning of new activities and the implementation the sea itself and its complex ecology. of Council-approved programs or projects. Working groups are established by the Council to assemble Fisheries information or coordinate activities on certain specific subjects. When its terms of reference one of the main responsibilities of ICES is the have been fulfilled, a working group is disbanded. coordination of fisheries-related scientific re- However, the tasks of many working groups are of a search. This comprises monitoring the abundance continuing nature, such as the assessment of par- and composition of fish stocks in the Northeast ticular stocks of fish, the study of oceanographic Atlantic, including the development of appropriate conditions, and the study of fish diseases, Thus, methods to estimate abundance, and research on the most working groups meet on an annual basis. Each early life stages of fish, recruitment to fish working group reports to a "parent" Committee, stocks, and multi-species interactions. that reviews the activities of the working group during the previous year, provides comments and In the monitoring of fish and shellfish stocks, guidance, decides whether the working group should ICES collects statistics on fish catches, fishing meet the following year and, if so, formulates effort, and relevant biological data (e.g., age, tasks for this next meeting. The reports of many length, sex, maturity compositions; egg and larval working groups are considered not only by the production and young fish surveys). officially "parent" Committee, but, particularly for working reported fishery statistics are published in the groups concerned with environmental topics, also Bulletin qt@,@ @, which has been published an- by other Standing Committees and/or by the ACMP. nually since 1905, apart from breaks during the wars. In addition, a computerized data bank con- Each Member Country may appoint as many members to taining detailed information relevant to the as- a working group as it wishes. Attendance at work- sessment of stocks is held at the ICES Secretariat ing group meetings is at national expense. for use by fish stock assessment working groups and ACFM. Since its foundation, ICES has served as At present, ICES has 70 active working groups, an important forum for the promotion and appraisal distributed as follows: of work on stock assessment methodology, including the development of mathematical models for use in (a) 27 stock assessment working groups, most of determining the effects of fishing on individual which are for fish, some for shellfish, and one resources and assessing the need for their conser- for seals; all of these groups report to ACFM; vation and management through regulatory actions. An important area of focus at the present time is (b) 16 working groups dealing with other aspects the development of models for multi-species inter- of fish and fisheries, including fisheries acous- actions and their effects on individual fish tics, fishing technology, young fish surveys, stocks. larval fish ecology, etc.; these working groups report to various Standing Committees related to Although ICES has remained a scientific body with- fish; out any regulatory power, it has been instrumental in prompting the establishment of regulatory com- (c) one working group on fisheries statistics, re- missions (see Ref. 6). At present, ICES is the of- porting to the Statistics Committee; ficially recognized international scientific advi- sory body to three international fisheries regula- (d) 26 working groups concerned with environmental tory commissions: (1) North East Atlantic Fisher- subjects, including working groups related to ma- ies Commission (NEAFC), (2) International Baltic rine chemistry, physical oceanography, sediments, Sea Fisheries Commission (IBSFC), and (3) North benthos ecology, primary production, environmental Atlantic Salmon Conservation organization (NASCO). impact of mariculture, fish diseases, effects of These Commissions, the commission of the European contaminants in marine mammals, and biological ef- Communities on behalf of its members, and govern- fects of contaminants (see paper by Thurberg, this ments of other ICES member countries formulate re- volume]; most of these working groups report to quests to ICES for information and advice on spe- the Hydrography, Marine Environmental Quality, cific stocks or groups of stocks. It is the work Biological oceanography, or Mariculture Commit- of the ACFM to ensure that appropriate responses tees; the reports of many of these working groups are made to these requests, based on the detailed are also considered by the ACMP. data and other information compiled and analyzed by the stock assessment working groups. In total, RESPONSIBILITIES AND MAIN ACTIVITIES OF ICES hundreds of scientists and other specialists in ICES member countries contribute to the conduct of The responsibilities and main activities of ICES this work, from participation in fish stock as- can be divided into the broad areas of fisheries, sessment cruises or egg, larval, or young fish oceanography, and, during the past two decades, surveys to the evaluation of the data gathered for marine pollution. The discussion in this section each stock by the working groups and ultimately the ACFM. In the course of its work, the ACFM for- 723 mulates scientific advice for the management of dition, the Hydrographer maintains a check on the over 90 stocks or management units in the North- physical and chemical oceanographic data submitted east Atlantic and the Baltic Sea. to the ICES data center verify their consistency. Until recently, the advice provided by ACFM was ICES has coordinated a number of major oceano- generally in the form of a single recommended ac- graphic investigations and multi-disciplinary in- tion, such as the se 'tting of a TAC (Total Allow- vestigations with strong physical oceanographic able Catch) for a particular stock. However, in components. Among recent such exercises are: the recent years, following changes in the management hydrographic program of the International Geophys- regime and at the request of management authori- ical Year (IGY) (1158-1959); the overflow Experi- ties, ACFM advice has been provided increasingly ments in the Iceland-Shetland Ridge (1973); the in the form of a range of management options Joint North Sea Data Aquisition Program (JONSDAP) (e.g., a series of TACs of different magnitude) (1976); the Baltic Open Sea Experiment 1977 with accompanying indications of the implications (BOSEX); and the Joint Multi-Ship Investigation of of each option in terms of the resources and fish- Patchiness in the Baltic Sea (PEX) (1986). eries. Where there is a situation of severe stock decline and a need for urgent remedial measures, Marine Pollution ACFM provides advice on the appropriate action to take regardless of whether there has been a speci- During the middle of the 1960s, ICES member coun- fic request for it (Ref. 7). The reports of ACFM, tries became concerned about the levels of contam- containing all of the advice provided to member inants in marine fish and shellfish and the pos- governments and fisheries commissions, are pub- sible effects of marine pollution on them. Accord- lished annually in the Cooperative Research Report ingly, the Fisheries Improvement Committee was es- series. tablished to coordinate work on marine pollution; in 1978, this was replaced by the Marine Environ- oceanography mental Quality Committee. The coordination of investigations of physical much of the early work concerned the measurement oceanographic conditions and the chemical. nature of concentrations of organic and inorganic contam- of the sea in support of fisheries studies was the inants in fish and shellfish, including associated other main area for which ICES was founded. At its intercalibration exercises on analyses of these first meeting in 1902, the Council decided that contaminants and work to improve data quality. A international cruises should take place quarterly Coordinated Monitoring Programme on contaminants in February, May, August, and November. Data on, in fish and shellfish was begun in the North Sea for example, currents, temperature and salinity, in 1972 and expanded to the North Atlantic in acquired during these and other cruises were sub- 1974. Two major Baseline Studies of Contaminants mitted to ICES and, during the first six decades, in Fish and Shellfish have been conducted covering published in various types of bulletins. However, the North Atlantic, including the Baltic Sea, in since the early 1960s, the increase in the amount 1975 and 1985. Now entitled the Cooperative ICES of data and the introduction of computers led to Monitoring Studies Programme, the work is primari- the cessation of publication of such volumes. Par- ly aimed at monitoring temporal trends in contami- ticularly during the earlier decades, this func- nants in certain areas. tion of ICES as a center for the deposition of data has been very important. In fact, until the ICES also coordinates work on the measurement of establishment of the World Oceanographic Data Cen- trace metals in sea water and sediments, primarily ters A (Washington) and B (Moscow), ICES was the intercalibrating sampling techniques and analyses. only international data center for hydrograhic A Baseline Study of Trace Metals in Coastal and purposes in Europe (Ref. 2). In addition to the Shelf Sea Waters was conducted in 1985-1987. Other collection and exchange of hydrographic data, the areas of work include the development of techni- Council's Hydrographers have provided appropriate ques to monitor the biological effects of contami- analyses of various types of hydrographic data nants, studies of biogeochemical cycles of contam- that have been published by ICES (Ref. 8). inants in the sea, identification of new contami- nants, reviewing issues related to the study of Another important area of work has been the devel- contaminants in sediments and their bioavailabili- opment and calibration of hydrographic equipment ty, providing advice on monitoring strategies and and the maintenance of appropriate standards of methods, and coordinating assessments of the state quality and intercomparability of hydrographic of,the marine environment on a regional basis. data. From 1902 to 1908, ICES ran the Central Lab- oratory, which served as a facility for designing, In addition to its own work on marine pollution, testing and calibrating various types of hydro- ICES serves as a scientific advisory body to three graphic equipment, and preparing and distributing pollution regulatory commissions: (1) Convention standard sea water; this latter function was.con- for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping tinued by ICES until 1968. Although no longer in- from Ships and Aircraft (Oslo Commission), (2) volved in the design of equipment, ICES has con- Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution tinued to promote the intercomparability of data from Land-Based Sources (Paris Commission), and through the periodic conduct of intercalibration (3) Convention for the Protection of the Marine exercises, e.g., on the use of salinometers and Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Com- the measurement of nutrients in sea water. In ad- mission). These Commissions formulate requests to 724 ICES for information and advice on topics relevant Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences is a to their programs, including their respective new series containing detailed descriptions of marine pollution monitoring programs. This advice methods and procedures relating to chemical and is provided by the ACMP, on the basis of its re- biological measurements in the marine environment. view of the reports and other information provided by relevant ICES working groups. The ACMP advice ICES/CIEM information is a newsletter, published and information is published annually in the Coop- twice a year. erative Research Report series. FUTURE ACTIVITIES ICES has the first computerized international center for data on marine contaminants, containing For over eight decades, ICES has served as the data from its Cooperative monitoring studies Pro- main forum for the coordination of scientific in- gramme and also serving as the center for storing vestigations of marine fisheries and their envi- and processing data from the Oslo and Paris Com- ronment. While enormous advances have occurred, missions' Joint Monitoring Programme, covering the complexity of the ecosystem and man's in- contaminants in biota, sea water, and sediments. fluence on it underscores the continuing need for In this context, ICES has developed data reporting internationally coordinated studies of the marine formats for contaminants in all marine media. ecosystem and its living resources. New activities under ICES are being developed to explore further PUBLICATIONS the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological systems in the North Atlantic and ICES has published scientific literature since its its sub-areas. foundation. Through the years it has issued well over a thousand different publications, many of REFERENCES which are considered standard reference works in their particular fields. current ICES serial pub- 1. Wallace, M. and Singer, J.D. 1970. Intergovern- lications comprise the following: mental organization in the Global System, 1815- 1964: A Quantitative Description. International Journal d-u Conseil is the ICES journal of marine Organization 24:239-287, p.250. science, covering advances in all aspects of the work of the Council. It is a primary source for 2. Went, A.E.J. 1972. The History of the Interna- articles on fish population biology and assess- tional Council for the Exploration of the Sea. ment, shellfish and plankton studies, and sampling In: Proceedings of the Second International gear and instrumentation. Environmental topics and Congress on the History of Oceanography. Pro- oceanography are also covered. Three to four num- ceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburg bers are issued annually. 73:351-360. Rapports e_t Proc6s-Verbaux des g6unions is the 3. Went, A.E.J. 1972. Seventy Years Agrowing. A series in which papers and proceedings of ICES- History of the International Council for the sponsored symposia and special meetings are pub- Exploration of the Sea 1902 - 1972. Rapport et lished. Proc6s-Verbaux de la R6union Conseil Interna- tional pour 1'Exploration de la Mer vol. 165, The Cooperative Research Report series comprises 252 pp. reports prepared by ICES working groups, ad hoc groups, workshops, or other ICES-sponsored activi- 4. Tambs-Lyche, H. 1979. General. Information on ties. The series also includes the annual reports the International Council for the Exploration of the ACFM and ACMP. Approximately eight volumes of the Sea. 16 pp. (mimeo.) are usually issued annually. 5. Thomasson, E. 1981. Study of the Sea. The de- The Bulletin Stati@utz is the yearbook of fish-- velopment of marine research under the auspices ery statistics of the Northeast Atlantic. of the International council for the Explora- tion of the Sea. Fishing News Books Ltd. Farn-- ICES Oceanographic Data List and inventories con- ham, Surrey, UK. 256 pp. tain oceanographic data, mainly for the Northeast Atlantic, in tables and charts prepared by the 6. Tambs-Lyche, H. 1978. Monitoring fish stocks. ICES Hydrographer. The role of ICES in the North-East Atlantic. Marine Policy 2:127-132. The FiChes d'identification du Plancton are i.1- lustrated identification keys for planktonic or- 7. Parrish, B.B. in press. Scientific Advice for ganisms, including fish eggs and larvae, in the Management of Northeast Atlantic Fisheries. In: ICES area. Fishery Science and Management: objectives and Limitations. W.S. Wooster (Ed.) Springer-Verlag Fiches d'Identification des Maladies gt Parasites Pubs. des Poissons. Crustac6z ct Mollugques/ldentifica- tion Leaflets for the Diseaties -amd Parasites of 8. Smed, J. 1968. The Service Hydrographique of Li-*h and Shel-ItiLsh are illustrated diagnostic keys the International Council for the Exploration for the principal diseases and parasites of fish of the Sea. Journal de Conseil 32:155-171. and shellfish in the ICES area, 725 AN EVALUATION OF SHELLFISH RESEARCH IN THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE EXPLORATION OF THE SEA Steven A. Murawski National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service Northeast Fisheries Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 USA ABSTRACT Advisory Committee on Fishery Management Since its beginnings in 1902, the international Council for the Explo- Advisory Committee on marine Pollution ration of the Sea (ICES) has served as a catalyst for research on the Shellf ish Committee biology and management of shellfish species. This research has been Mariculture Committee focused in three major areas: (1) development and support of maricul- Marine Environmental Quality Committee ture (2) effects of coastal pollution on shellfish abundance and sanita- Demersal Committee tion, and (3) dynamics and management of natural populations of Fish Capture Committee mollusks and crustaceans in relation to fishing. In all these fields, Pandalus Working Group research by ICES member nations has been important in resolving Nephrops WG technical issues and has served as the scientific basis for various Study Group on Squids authorities to enact regulatory measures. Currently, at least three Fish TL-chnology WG standing committees of ICES are tasked to coordinate and review Marine Aggregate Extraction WG shellfish-related research (i.e., Mariculture, Marine Environmental Benthos Ecology WG Quality, and Shellfish). In addition, both the Advisory Committee on Algal Blooms, Mariculture and Fisheries Fishery Management and the Advisory Committee on Marine Pollution Biol. Effects of Contaminants WG routinely address topics concerning shellfish. As research and man- Transfers of Marine Organisms WG agement-related issues become more interdisciplinary in nature, the Genetics WG challenge in the future will be to more fully integrate mariculture, pol- Pathology and Diseases WG lution, biological oceanography, and population dynamics studies to better understand these issues in the context of coastal ocean ecosys- In this paper I outline the development of tems. shellfish research in its various disciplines conducted under the auspices of ICES, and its member nations. Rather than presenting a chronology of papers, meetings, events, etc., I have chosen to review selected contributions as indicative of changing directions and Emphases. INTRODUCTION The history of shellfish. research under ICES perhaps serves as prologue, and I have taken the Evaluating the current status and historical liberty of speculating as to the potential future contribution to shellfish research by the directions of both the science and the role of ICES international Council for the Exploration of the as a medium for scientific exchange. Sea (ICES) is indeed a daunting task. This is due in no small measure to the 85+ year history of OVERVIEW OF ICES SHEI.LFISH RESEARCH innovative and productive study conducted under the auspices of ICES, but, more importantly, to the The importance of mollusk and crustacean multi-disciplinary nature of what is collectively fisheries and mariculture has dictated a long referred to as shellfish research'. Even prior to history of investigations into fluctuations in the first meeting of ICES in 1902, European and abundance of natural populations, methods for North American researchers were pursuing shellfish culture, and the effects of environmental related research along three relatively divergent contamination on the safety of these products. No paths: (1) mariculture (primarily of oysters and more so than in northern European and North mussels) , (2) effects of sewage and industrial American waters. Today, nearly 700 thousand metric pollutants on shellfish sanitation and abundance, tons of shellfish are produced from the ICES area, and (3) population dynamics and fishery regulation of which nearly one half is derived from of natural stocks. Today, these three areas are mariculture (Figure 1; Andersonl). Although recognizably distinct in the structure of ICES. dwarfed by the 10 million metric ton combined one need only consider the names of current production of finfish, because of their high unit selected standing Committees, Advisory Committees value, shellfisheries and mariculture operations and Working Groups of ICES concerned with shellfish are important sources of income and employment. problem to trace their historical roots to the Research on problem of imrine mollusk and earliest specializations: crustacean culture and fisheries was well developed 726 United States Government work not protected by copyright as a science long before ICES was formed as an Publication of the Journal du Conseil, organization in 1902, and before the first formal beginning in 1926, had an important influence on ICES meeting devoted to shellfish problem the direction of cooperative shellfisheries convened in 1932 (Went2). Indeed, between 1870 research. Early volumes of the Journal contained and 1910 overfishing of natural beds of mussels extensive bibliographic citations of research and oysters had become so problematic in the published world-wide. Thus, researchers during northern European area that intensive culture of this period were kept abreast of, for example, these species was thriving by the turn of the pioneering work by P. Galtsoff and V. Loosanoff century (Bashf 'Ord Dean3,4, Wollebaek5, Friele6, in America, and oriental methods of mariculture. Petersen7). Havinga8 notes that oyster culture in Holland was initiated in the 1870s, and that Some of the earliest work on the dynamics by 1890 the annual production was 30 million and regulation of natural shellfish populations individuals. involved nearshore and deep-water crustaceans (Williamson22; Herdman23; Meek24, Hjort and The negative impacts of coastal pollution on Ruud25). In particular, small-mesh fisheries shellfish sanitation was clearly recognized as an directed at brown (=Crangon) and northern impediment to development of many mollusk fisheries by the early 1900s. Discharge of sewage and other by-products of the industrial PRODUCTION OF SHELLFISH IN THE ICES AREA - 1984 revolution had rendered numerous coastal stocks of cockles, oysters and mussels in the North and Baltic Seas unfit for human consumption. Much of BLUE MUSSEL the research on shellfish conducted during the early 1900s concerned the development of methods NORTHERN SHRIMP of testing for shellfish contamination (johnstone9). WrightlO noted in 1927 that 'the chief difficulty in extending the home-trade for cockles is the fact that the shellfish are liable CUPPED OYSTER to be contaminated by sewage'. Such was the case for numerous molluscan fisheries in the region NORWAY LOBSTER (Anon.11; Orton12). The first organized meeting of shellfish IBLE CRAB experts convened under the auspices of ICES occurred in Middleburgh, The Netherlands, in 1932 (Wentl; Havingal3). This initial meeting ESCALLOP concerned I Bacteriological investigations of mollusks', and was convened for the purpose of FISHERY CATCH developing standard procedures to measure the SQUIDS extent of shellfish contamination. Although these experts could not agree on uniform procedures for such testing (Havingal3) they nevertheless established the precedent for multi- CRANGON SHRIMP national cooperation in shellfish research that MARICULTURE would extend to fields far removed from shellfish sanitation in the decades to follow. COCKLE The period of the 1920s and 1930s also witnessed development of research on the effects QUEEN SCALLOP of industrial pollutants such as oil on fish and shellf ish populations - Roberts14 concluded in 1926 that the effects of oil were 'not very CUTTLEFISH marked, but if unchecked will become a menace in the future I . The period of the '20s and '30s also saw intensive research and perfection of OTHERS pilot methods for mariculture of a number of mollusk and crustacean species. Methods for artificial spawning and rearing of shellfish, and 100 200 300 methods for mass culture were perfected in this era (Ortonl5; Colel6; Dannevig and Meek17). just THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS as important at this time were early experimental introductions of non-indigenous species, and in particular oysters (Borodiriel8- Anon.19). In an FIGURE 1. Landings and mariculture produc- interesting juxtaposition of papers Ranson20 and tion of shellfish species from the ICES area orton2l simultaneously questioned the feasibility in 1984. Data are for all invertebrates of replacing local populations of oysters in exclusive of seaweeds. Total fishery catch France and England with introductions of the of shellfish was 682,000 mt, mariculture Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata). production was 341,000 mt. F ED S EUC SQ IL: @UEE, UTTL 727 (=Pandalus) shrimp were considered problematic in Shellfish Ccomittee, B. Havinga. This meeting is that by-catches of small finfishes were discarded historically hTportant since it was the only frcm these fisheries. special session devoted exclusively to mariculture prior to the establishment of a Research in mariculture, sanitation and formal Mariculture Committee within ICES. population dynamics of shellfish developed more or less independently during the 1930s and early The special meeting conducted in 1963 1940s. Numerous publications in the Journal du (Cole29) was devoted to 'Problem in the Conseil and elsewhere attest to the developing Exploitation and Regulation of Fisheries for sophistication in methodology in these areas. Crustaceal. During this meeting numerous However, it wasn't until the late 1940s that descriptive, analytical, and methodological researchers were coming to a consensus that a papers regarding crustacean biology were united discipline of shellfisheries research was presented. The period of the 1950s and ea ly necessary within the context of ICES. A landmark 1960s witnessed intensive research on a number of special meeting was called in 1949 (Havinga26; species including Norway lobster (=Nephrops), Korringa27) during which all current aspects of shrimps, and American and European lobsters, and shellfish research were discussed under the them much of this work was summarized and placed in of 'Shellfish Investigations'. In his preface context at the special meeting on crustaceans. remarks, the convener, B. Havinga, first stated the case for shellfish research as a separate The special meeting of 1976 (Thoms30) is discipline in ICES by noting that in the past, important not only since it was the first ICES shellfish research had not received due attention meeting devoted to population dynamics of because in no country were shellfish the shellfish, but it was among the first predominant fishery landings. Also, shellf ish international gatherings at which researchers researchers rarely attended meetings of the discussed the unique life history and population Council because most investigators in the f ield dynamics characteristics of mollusks and were specialists rather than being generalists. crustaceans. Because of the growth, recruitment He further pleaded the case for recognition of and spatial dynamics patterns exhibited by shellfish investigations by noting that the shellfish populations, the utility of models aggregate value of all countries shellfish originally developed for finfisheries was landings in the North Sea area %iare roughly seriously questioned. New methodological equivalent to that of the plaice, but that the developmnts relating to the use of quantitative research resources dedicated to plaice w1alre much tools for designing fishery sampling, estimation greater. Summarizing the current state of of growth and mortality, and the calculation of mariculture in relation to natural production, yields were put forward. Perhaps the seminal Havinga noted that 'While the oyster has proved paper of the meeting was the contribution by D.A. to be an organism that is extremely sensitive to Hancock on 'Population dynamics and management of overfishing, nearly all the natural banks being shellfish stocks', in which he contrasted extinguished by intensive fishing, artificial shellfish and finfish population dynamics, noting culture has provided a very efficient method of at the same time the need for better quantitative producing much larger quantities of oysters than studies of shellfish, but rejecting the universal has been possible from natural banks'. Given the application of finfish-derived methods. current (1984) production of oysters from mariculture relative to natural production Two subsequent special meetings conducted in (Figure 1), Havingals statement is as true today 1979 (McIntyre and Pearce3l) and 1980 (Stewart32) as nearly 4 decades ago. A few of the titles of are notable not because of their concentration on papers frcm the 1949 shellfish meeting emphasize shellfish issues per se, but rather because they its multi-disciplinary nature: 'British oyster attest to the diversity and intensity of industry and its problems', by H.A. Cole, 'On contemporary work relating to the biological crustaceans of commercial importance in Danish effects of contaminants and the status of waters', by E.M. Poulsen, and 'Les huitres de research on fish and shellfish diseases, cotes Francaise', by L. Lambert. respectively. After the successful meeting of 1949, ICES The late 1970s and 1980s have seen a virtual established a formal Shellfish Committee, which explosion in the diversity and quantity of met for the first time in 1951. Reports of the research directed to shellfish topics within the statutory meetings from 1951 - present show that ICES arena. In the field of mariculture, studies research presented at the Shellfish Committee of genetics and disease resistance, modern meetings has retained its diversity in interest. culture techniques, and increased interest in the However, special meetings regarding shellfish, effects of the use of non-indigenous species have conducted since 1949, have been more topical, proliferated. Significant in the studies of relating variously to mariculture, pollution and mariculture operations is the increasing its effects, and natural history and population aw@reness that intensive culture operations can dynamics. impact greatly on local waters wherein such operations are conducted (Rosenthal et al.33), In 1954 a special meeting on 'Oyster and and that such operations may result in Mussel Culture' (Havin4a28) was conducted to competition among cultured and natural assess the cur-rent status of mariculture and was populations for limited food supplies convened by the first chairman of the ICES (Sauriau34). 728 Population dynamics studies on shellfish, at Underlying all these considerations is the first based on careful investigations of the life fact that ultimately research on living marine histories of the animals, have been significantly resources will progress from evaluating the aided by increasingly sophisticated techniques limits to increasing productivity of individual for the ageing of mollusks through the constituents (e.g. natural or cultured shellfish examination of shell microstructure (Ropes et populations), to an holistic approach to al.35), and the use of radioisotopes to validate optimizing ecosystem productivity for the age determinations (Berthou36). For crustacean totality of benefits to society. By all studies, the development of techniques for appearances coastal systems, particularly but not length-based assessment has significantly limited to the ICES area, have reached their improved estimates of growth, mortality and capacity to generate production from both natural recruitment. An important issue in the sources and from mariculture. The ability of management of crustacean populations has been the coastal areas to absorb increased burdens of testing and development of selective harvesting contaminants is likewise conjectural. The gear to reduce the impact of by-catches of small challenge for the future is to conduct multi- finfish in small-mesh shrimp fisheries. disciplinary studies aimed at understanding the Multispecies assessments taking into account the impacts of management decisions regarding trophic and fishery interrelationships among mariculture, pollution/contamination and invertebrates and finfishes are in their infancy harvesting of natural populations in the context (Brander and Bennett37, Anon.38). of coastal ocean ecosystems. Current relationships among shellfish research programs Recent developments in the fields of within ICES (Figure 2) will, by necessity, be contaminant assessment in relation to shellfish modified to accommodate research of a more are documented elsewhere in this symposium. interdisciplinary nature. The critical need at this juncture is a forcing function to bring the These are but a few selected examples of the various specialties together to address these impact and diversity of shellfish research more integrative problems. Perhaps ICES will conducted by researchers operating under the ICES fill that need. purview. The reader is encouraged to consult the various publications of ICES and elsewhere for a more comprehensive treatment of particular REFERENCES subject areas. SPECULATIONS (1] Anderson, E. D. 1987. Bulletin Statistique des Peches Maritimes (1984) 69. International The period of the 1970s and 1980s witnessed Council for the Exploration of the Sea. an unprecedented increase in the degree of specialization of research in the various [2] Went, A. E.J. 1972. Seventy years agrowing, A disciplines of mariculture, contaminant history of the international council for assessment relating to shellfish, and the the Exploration of the Sea 1902-1972. dynamics and regulation of natural populations of Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. int. Explor. mollusks and crustaceans. Because of the degree Mer:165 252 pp. of technical sophistication in these fields, researchers by necessity developed expertise of [3] Bashford Dean. 1890. Present methods of oyster specific rather than general applicability. This culture in France. Bull. U.S. Fish. Cam. specialization in research emphasis, however, 10. p. 363. belies trends that will likely determine, the future of shellfish research in ICES. It is [4] Bashford Dean. 1891. Report on the European clear that management-related problems associated methods for oyster culture (Italy, Spain, with traditional' specialties in shellfish Portugal, Germany, Holland, Belgium, research transcend any of these areas taken England) Bull. U.S. Fish. Ccmm. 11 p.357 individually. Thus, for example, the questions of environmental effects of intensive mariculture (5) Wollebaek, A.(C.A. 1890) Kultur af blaaskjael. will require research on new culture methods, Norsk Fiskeritid 27 Aarg. P. 278 (Culture of biological oceanographic and contaminant Mussles in Norway). evaluations, and population dynamics studies to evaluate 'optimal, densities of mariculture (6] Friele, H. 1898. The oyster ponds of the coast operations in relation to environmental of Norway. Beretn. Intern. Fiskeri-Kongres. constraints. Likewise, traditional population dynamics studies will to a greater extent rely on [7] Petersen, C. G. J. 1908. Oysters and oyster investigations of biological productivity and fisheries in the Lim Fjord. Rpt. Danish species interactions, since, in many cases, Biol. Sta. harvested shellfish stocks are food sources for exploited fish populations. Improvements in [8] Havinga, B. 1939. Prediction of the time of f ishing technology will be important in setting of oyster spat and a method of minimizing harvesting interactions that are control. J. Cons. Int. Explor. problematic for optimizing productivity from Mer 14 (3):394-400. jointly harvested fin and shellfishes. 729 [9] Johnstone, J. 1910. Routine methods of shell- (191 Anon. 1927. La production artificielle de fish examination with reference to sewage 1 1 huitre Americaine. La Peche Maritime, pollution. J. Hygiene 9 p.412. 10:229. [10] Wright, F. S. 1927. A Report on the cockle [20] Ranson, G. 1926. Llhuitre Portugaise teride- beds and cockle fishery of England and. elle a remplacer 11huitre Francaise? Off. Wales. Min Agr. Fish. Fishery Invest. Ii Sci. et TL-chn. Peches Marit. Notes et 11(5). Memoires 47 (Paris). [11] Anon. 1927. Hygiene et salubrite ostreicoles; (21] Orton, J. H. 1926. Can Portuguese oysters be Pech. Maritime 644-5 (Paris). produced on English oyster beds by artificial fertilization of the sea? Nature [12] Orton, J. H. 1928. The biology of shellfish 67:857. in relation to health. Journ. Roy. Sanitary Inst. XLIX 263-74. [22] Williamson, H. C. 1900. Contributions to the life history of the edible crab. Rep. Scot. [13] Havinga, B. 1951. Report of a special meeting Fish. Bd. 18. on shellfish investigations. ICES Rapp. P, 1. Reun.128, part 11. [23] Herdman, W. A. 1904. An outline of the shrimp [14] Roberts, C.H. 1926. Oil pollution. J. Cons. question. Trans. Liverpool. Biol. Soc. 18. Int. Explor. Ner. 1 (2):245-275. (24] Meek, A. 1915. Experimental legislation with (151 Orton, J. H. 1937. Oyster biology and oyster reference to the crab and lobster fisheries of the east coast of Britain. J. Mar. Biol. culture. E. Arnold and Co., London. Assoc. 13. [16] Cole, H. A. 1938. A System of oyster Culture. [25] Hjort, J., and J. T. Ruud. 1938. Deep-sea J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 13(2):221-235. prawn fisheries and their problems. [17] Dannevig, A., and A. Meek. 1929. The rearing Hvalradets Skr.,Nr. 17:1-144. (Oslo). of lobster at Flodevigen. J. Cons. Int. [26] Havinga, B. 1951. Report of a special meeting Explor. Mer 4:105-106. on shellfish investigations. Rapp. P. - v. [18] Borodine, N. 1926. Nourelle methode de des Reun. 128 part II. reproduction artificielle en masse des [27] Korringa, P. 1950. A review of the papers on naissains de 11huitre Americaine. Bull. de la Soc. Centrale d'Aquiculture et Pech. mollusks presented at the special meeting on 33(10-12):91-101. shellfish of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Edinburgh, 10 October 1949. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Her 17(l):44-59. NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS ADVISORY COMMITTEE EEC ON MARINE POLLUTION MARICULTURE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC COMMITTEE MARINE ENVIROLNMENTAL FISHERY COMMISSION MMITT MMITTEE ADVISORY COMMITTEE NT BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY COMMITTEE SHE FISH COMMITTEE FISHERY WORKING GROUPS PANDALUS SHRIMP NORWAY LOBSTER SQUIDS FISH CAPTURE COMMITTEE LL QUALITY CO FIGURE 2. Relationshps among various working groups, standing committees, and fishery advisory and regulatory commissions dealing with shellfish issues in the ICES area. This diagram represents both formal and informal relationships among the various entities. 730 [28] Havinga, B. 1956. Report of a special meeting on oyster and mussel culture. Rapp. P.- v. des Reun. 140, part ii. (29] Cole, H. A. 1965. Report of a special meeting on problems in the exploitation and regulation of fisheries for crustacea. Rapp. P.-v. des Reunions 156.217 pp. [30) Thomas, H. J. 1979. Population assessment of shellfish stocks. A special meeting held in Charlottenlund, 29 September - 1 October 1976. Rapp. P. - v. des Reunions 175. 288 PP. [31] I-L-Intyre, A. D., and J. B. Pearce. 1980. Biological effects of marine pollution and the problem of monitoring. Proceedings from ICES Workshop held in Beaufort, North Carolina 16 February - 2 March 1979. Rapp. P. - v. des Reunions 179. 346 pp. [32] Stewart, J. E. 1983. Diseases of ccmTetrcially important marine fish and shellfish. A special meeting held in Copenhagen, 1-3 October 1980. Rapp. P. - v. des Reunions 182. 150 pp. [331 Rosenthal, H., D. Weston, R. Gowen, and E. Black. 1988. Report of the ad hoc study group on environmental impact of mariculture. ICES Coop. Res. Rpt. 154 83 PP. [34] Sauriau, P. G. 1986. Echantillonnage des populations naturelles de mollusques competiteurs trophiques des huitres cultivees Crassostrea qjgas du bassin des Marennes - Oleron - Aspects Me-thodologiques. ICES C. M. /1986/K:30. [35] Ropes J. W. , D. S. Jones, S. A. Murawski, F. M. Serchuk, and A. Jearld, Jr. 1984. Documentation of annual growth lines in ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica Linne. Fishery Bulletin 82(l):1-19. [36] Berthou, P. 1986. L'analyse des isotopes Stables de la coquille appliquee a la determination d l1age de quatre bivalves du Golfe Normano-Breton. ICES C. M. 1986/K:16. [37) Brander, K. M., and D. B. Bennett. 1986. Interactions between Norway lobster and Cod and their fisheries in the Irish Sea. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 92:219-281. [38] Anon. 1987. Assessment of technical inter- actions in mixed fisheries: report of a ,workshop held at IFREMER in Nantes (France) under the auspices of EEC. EEC Published Report 15. 731 THE ICES MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY COMMITTEE (MEQC); ITS HISTORY AND ACTIVITIES Dr. John B. Pearce DOC/NOAA/NMFS Northeast Fisheries Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 ABSTRACr oil pollution was raised by Odon deBuen, Spain. The Council invited him to prepare a paper This paper reviews the early history Of pollution "embodying all the information procurable as to research and its consideration in management as the ill affects of oil on fish and fisheries" to acccloPlished within the marine Environmental be given at future meetings. Subsequently Quality Committee (ME)QC) and predecessor units, several papers were developed, presented, and International Council for the Exploration of the published in ICES amceedirigs volumes. Sea. Recent issues and developments are discussed and used to illustrate the activities In 1925 there was a resolution that a major of the ME*c since 1975. reorganization should be made in the ICES structure. Indicated in the list of comittees to be formed or added was the Hydrographical Committee. This cmmittee was mandated to THE EARLY HISTORY formulate programs which would be involved with the studies of the "hydrographical conditions, It is frequently stated that the international which might affect the life and movements of C=-Pcil for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) is fishes." At this time in history the principal the world's oldest international organization issues of pollution were not identified and no dedicated to the study and management of the special responsibility to study pollution was world's oceans. The ICES started during a series given to any of the ICES standing cmmittees. No of meetings held in the late 189os, culminating doubt it was understood, even at this time, that in the first formal sessions of ICES in 1902. pollution could be a prcblem and that there was a The council was Organized in response to a general concern. In October 1951 yet another general feeling that the development of large scheme for the ICES Committee structure was trawling vessels, involving steam or diesel developed. Again it included pollution related propulsion, and the use of the otter trawl had activities that might be relegated to the several affected fish stocks. As was the case in the full standing committees, not to any specific 1960s, in the middle of the 19th century there committee. Wentl took note that as far back as was a "firm belief" in the ability of the seas to 1931 France and its delegation had asked the Produce unlimited amounts of food stuffs. The council to establish a camnittee to deal with the effects of ran, new harvesting techniques as one, "sanitary control of mussels and oysters." The however, led some scientists to believe that the matter was left, however, for informal settlement thinking of the 19th Century was erroneous. amongst the delegates and others concerned. In his history of ICES, "seventy years Agrowinglo, During the May 1966 ICES meetings held in Wentl, detailed the early meetings, including the Edinburgh, a new structure for scientific North Sea Convention of 1882, and how these led ccmittees was outlined, to be implemented on 1 to organizational meetings which gave birth to November 1966. The new Committee structure ICES. Much of the councills early attention was included one called the Fish Improvement given to averfishuig and how it might be Comnittee (FIC) which was to be concerned with, Controlled. Relatively little thought was given among other things, problems of pollution. to matters of pollution. The committee structure Papers presented to the FIC up to 1975 frequently that was adopted at the first meeting of the concerned topics having to do with aquaculture Council, July 1902, did not indicates any large and artificial propagation. As early as 1971 or immediate concern for matters of pollution or there was concern about the overlap between the the environmental effects of man's activities. FIC and the Anadromous and Catadronious Fish By the 1920s, however, papers had been published Committee, as well as the Shellfish and Benthic which were concerned principally with the effects CmTmittee. of various forms of pollution. The tenth meeting held in Copenhagen in April 1912 resulted in In 1975 a fair amount of the dialogue within the Plans concerned with the effects of pollution on Fish improvement Committee had to do with the salmon and their spawning grounds. During the establishment of a committee that would be so-called "Jubilee Year" of 1927 the matter of concerned solely with the quality of habitats for 732 United States Government work not protected by copyright the fisheries and shellfisheries. In 1978, the The working group was also to be responsible for first meeting of the Marine Errvirormiental Quality reviewing all known inputs of Pollutants to the Ccmittee (MEQC) took place in Copenhagen. The area of interest. Given the foregoing mandates, terns of reference for the MEQC suggested that the working Group report to the 1975 meeting was this committee would have lead responsibilities accepted by the FIC and one of the world's larger for matters concerned with the sources, fates, marine monitoring programs camnenced. In and effects of pollutants. Moreover, the MEQC addition to the matter of long-term pollution would have principal working groups which would monitoring, the Committee also was coricerned report to it. While it was understood that about the issue of extraction of sands and certain pollution related issues might be dealt gravels, especially from areas that might be with by other cannittees, i.e., Hydrography or inportant spawning grounds- Aggregate mining was the future Mariculture Committee, most issues then being done and proposed in important related to pollution and physical degradation of European and North American coastal waters and habitats would be the, responsibility of the MEQC aspects of the issue were seen as deleterious to and its associated working and study groups. the fisheries. Before going on with discussions about the A total of 45 papers was presented to the 1975 activities of the MEQC, it should be rioted that meeting. About half touched on issues of pollu- in 1971 the Council took under consideration the tion and the remainder were concerned with question of "international investigation of shellfish and benthos, mariculture, and pollution of the North Sea and the wider aspects anadrcmcus fish. of pollution within the Councils' area". The Council decided that all necessary steps be taken During the 1976 meetings additional progress was to establish an "advisory committee" to provide reported for the Working Group on Pollution and scientific information and advice on marine Baseline Monitoring Studies (WGPBK). It was pollution and degradation and its effects on reccmnended that studies should not necessarily living resources. Information and advice were to be done only at the same reference sites but that be directed to the member nations as well as special areas, i.e., "hot spots", should receive several intergavernuiental agencies or regulatory additional, more indepth treatment. It was bodies having responsibilities for control of during this Copenhagen uo-eting that a small study pollution. Moreover, such agencies could request group reported on the feasibility of biolggica advice from the ICES Advisory Committee on Marine effects monitor . While several national and Pollution (ACMP). It was noted that responsible international monitoring programs had been standing camTiittees within the ICES structure inplemented, to this time none had enphasized could be called upon by the ACMP to provide looking at the effect of Pollutants on the appropriate papers, advice, or plans necessary to physiology, genetics, or biochemistry of the activities of the ACMP. Finally, because of "sentinel species". The early discussions and these interests, Professor Cole (UK) that year subsequent recommendations resulted in an gave a special lecture on "Marine Pollution and international workshop on biological effects its Effects on Idving Resources - the Role of monitoring. This 1979 meeting was held at the ICES11. Duke marine Laboratory and resulted in a proceed- ings2 which almost a decade later is still a As will be seen in the following brief para:- principal source of knowledge on the subject. graphs, the future mission of the mEQC was well established in the 1960s and the consequences of It was during the 1976 ICES Statutory Meeting its activities have been instrumental in that extensive coverage was first given to oil establishing the courses of marine pollution spills and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons studies world-wide. on fisheries and supporting food chains. It was also noted that atmospheric irpit would be a THE REaWT BISTORY significant source of toxic trace metals and other contaminants in the Firth of Forth and the The 1975 meetings of ICES were held in Montreal North Sea In general. Several papers touched on and the work of the then Fisheries Irprovemmt trace metals, their distribution and abundance in Ccomittee (FIC) largely centered on the report of organisms, their role in the physical habitat, the Working Group on Pollution Baseline and and their possible effects on resources. monitoring Studies in the Oslo Coumssion and ICNAF areas. This working group had a responsi- By 1977, the Fic gave considerable attention to bility to develop the strategy for a baseline biologicalL effects monitoring and the use of monitoring program that would involve analyses pathological, physiological, and biochemical for contaminant levels in fish from the entire changes, and aberrant behaviors, as indicators of area of interest to ICES. Moreover, the stress due to pollution. A special report was monitoring would include a baseline survey of given on the Us ocean Pulse Program, a long-term metal levels in sea water in .the ICES area. This monitoririg program developed to assess the health latter activity was recognized as an extremely of living resources. Numerous reports were difficult task given the lack of interrelation- forthcoming from the WGPEM which reported on ships and intercalibration that might exist levels of trace metals in selected fish and between the various participating laboratories. shellfish from the North Atlantic. The data in It was to be, however, one of the first truly such reports became part of the aforementioned international efforts of its type. working group data holdings on pollution baseline 733 and monitoring studies. Spurred by several major is to concentrate on biological aspects of marine oil spills, extensive discussions were held about pollution and marine pollution monitoring. Trend haw best to assess the effects of oil spills and monitoring Contaminants in biological tissues and blow outs, such as at well head ]BRAVO in the the several physical compartments is now assigned North sea. to the working Group on Environmental Assessment and Monitoring strategies. A report on the In 1976 and 1977 discussions were held to the end Working Group on Biological Effects will be given that FIC was to be divided essentially into the during the present session. Committee emphasis Mariculture and Marine Environmental Quality has focused on determining sources and fates of Committees. This move had the distinct advantage contamination, as well as on the biolocii of concentrating presentations of all papers, effects of individual contaminants on key target reports, and activities in regard to marine species. pollution in a single committee. Prior to this time, papers on pollution could well appear at It was during the 1983 meeting that the MEQC the Hydrographic, Fish and Benthos, Fish focused on plankton blooms and from these Improvement, and several of the Fish committees, sessions the special ICES meeting on "The Causes, p2x se. Dynamics, and Effects of Exceptional Marine Blooms" evolved. Also during the 1983 meeting, It was during the 1978 session in Copenhagen that the first formal conceptualization of the the fourth report of the working Group on Marine precautionary app occurred. Several Pollution Baseline Studies in the North Atlantic scientists suggested that the world's oceans, (WGNA) (a name change from WGPBK) was presented especially coastal waters, were presently and discussed. By this time exercises concerned overloaded with wastes and it might be better to with the intercalibration of samples and begin to protect the world's oceans at the analytical methods were being widely discussed expense of other habitats. This debate has and plans for future work developed. oil pollu- continued to the present, with often very tion continued to be a maj or theme, with 13 different views held by different scientists and Papers presented. One of the min themes for the nations. Committee was the report on use of bivalve mollusks in long-term monitoring, with special Earlier, the WGRA had suggested a meeting to enphasis on the preliminary results from the develop regional assessments. In the 1982 Missel. Watch Program". Five papers were given Statutory Meeting a paper4 by J. M. Bewer et al on relationships between pollution and fish was read and discussed in terms of providing ti@e- diseases and other abnormalities. Likewise, the guidelines and protocols for preparation of first reports from mussel watch were given and regional assessments. During the 1983 meetings continued emphasis was placed on the use of of ICES, the first such assessments were biological effects monitoring. presented to the MBQC. These included overviews for and assessments of Massachusetts and Cape Cod In 1979 the meetings were held in Warsaw and the Bays. At this time it was well known that Boston principal them included information and reports Harbor was heavily polluted and that pollutants on the introduction of exotic or nonindigenous were being exported to adjacent coastal waters. marine organisms. Although there were 19 new A large NCAA/EPA offshore assessment for the papers on biological effects monitoring, am of area(s) involved with the 106-mile sludge the main thrusts of the meeting was envirmm-ental disposal site5 was also reviewed and discussed as quality in estuaries and coastal watears. Ten a paradigm for future assessments. Member Papers detailed the status of habitat quality in nations were asked to develop assessments to be estuaries along the coastline of the united used in the management of fisheries habitats States, from Maim to the Chesapeake Bay. These following the guidance given in the Bewer et al Papers, and others, were later published in an paper- ICES Cooperative Research Rep,,t3. A formal recommendation was made to the Council that During the eighties the MEQC meetings regularly mmTher nations should encourage future reports on resulted in the preparation and presentation of status of habitat quality or assessments of fully three score papers. Interests have con- national estuaries. The Committee also had joint tinued in many of the aforementioned areas but meetings with the Hydrographic Committee, with new issues and themes have emerged. These special emphasis on marine chemistry. This include the problem of floatable debris, meeting was the scene for reports from the first especially various plastics, and the matter of meeting of the Marine Chemistry working group, diseases in fish that are induced by pollution. one of the future dominant producers of water and sediment quality information for the AcmP and the The foregoing represents a necessarily brief MEQC- sketch of what the ICES MEQC has been involved with the past decade. It is important, however, All of the aforementioned "themes" have continued to note the foresight shown by this committee in into the 801s. The work of the Marine Pollution terms of its various recommendations and Baseline and Monitoring in the North Atlantic products. Working Group has continued with its assigrmients now divided between the Marine chemistry working Group and the recently formed Working Group on Biological Effects of Contaminants, whose mission 734 REFERENCES 1. Went, A.E.J. 1972. Seventy Years Agrowing: A History of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 1902-1972. Rapp.P.-v Reun Cons. Int. Explor. Mer: 165. 252 pp. 2. McIntyre, A.D. and J.B. Pearce. 1980. Biological Effects of Marine Pollution and the Problems of Monitoring: Proceedings from ICES Workshop held in Beaufort, NC, 2/26-3/2/79. Rapp.P.-v Reun Cons. Int. Explor. Mer:179. 346 PP. 3. Pearce, J.B. (ed.) 1983. Review of Water Quality and Transport of Materials in Coastal and Estuarine Waters. Cooperative Research Report:118. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 216 pp. . 4. Bewer, J.M. 1982. Guidelines for the preparation of regional assessments. Interna- tional Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Paper C.M. 1982/E:22. 5. Pearce, J.B., D C. Miller, and C. Berman. 1983. Northeast Monitoring Program NEMP 111 83- 0002 - 106-Mile Site Characterization Update. NOAA Technical Memorandum NM-F/NEC-26. US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Marine Fisher-tes Service, Northeast Fisheries Center, Woods 11ole, Massachusetts. 735 THE ICES WORKING GROUP ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CONTAMINANTS: A CASE STUDY Frederick P. Thurberg National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA Northeast Fisheries Center Milford Laboratory, Milford, Connecticut 06460 ABSTRACT The administrative component of ICES, located in Copenhagen since its founding, The activities of the ICES Working is run by a General Secretary and a staff Group on Biological Effects of of about 20 people. The scientific Contaminants are representative of the component comprises a series of committees responsibilities of the approximately 60 and their adjunct working groups. This Working Groups established by the Council. paper describes the role and function of The Working Groups address specific the scientific working groups. The questions and problems referred to them by Working Group on Biological Effects of the ICES Subject or Advisory Committees. Contaminants (WGBEC) will be used as an This Working Group develops and evaluates example; its function and operation is biological-monitoring techniques for typical of the approximately 50 to 60 monitoring marine pollution. It working groups active under ICES auspices coordinates its activities with other ICES at this time. Working Groups including those concerned with pathology, marine chemistry, benthic ORGANIZATION ecology, and environmental assessment, and also works closely with other national Briefly, the organizational structure and international organizations concerned of ICES through which each working group with biological effects of contaminants; operates is as follows: it has particularly close ties with the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Each member country appoints one or commission. two delegates to the Council. Thirteen scientific committees and two advisory committes report to the Council and each working group operates under the advice and direction of one of the scientific INTRODUCTION committees. Each working group is formed to carry out specific tasks and studies The International Council for the for its parent scientific committee, and Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was founded is composed of participants named by the in 1902 with eight member countries. member countries. Each country typically Since that time membership has grown to names one or two members to those working eighteen countries bordering the Atlantic groups in which it has an interest. The Ocean and adjacent seas. Although its chairman is confirmed by the Council and specific statutes have changed over the usually serves a three-year term. Each intervening years, its main function has group functions as long as the parent remained the same: to encourage research committee requires its work. and study of the sea and to coordinate these investigations among its member Working Group an Biological Effects nations. In 1964 the ICES mandate was of Contaminants functions under the redefined to promote and encourage direction of the Marine Environmental research focused particularly on living Quality Committee (MEQC). Although other marine resources, to draw up and organize committees deal with pollution issues as programs required for this purpose, and they relate to specific committee to publish the results of these interests, the MEQC has the lead investigations. These goals remain responsibility for investigation of essentially the same today, with an sources, fates, and effects of emphasis on the North Atlantic and its contaminants in the marine and estuarine adjacent seas. waters adjacent to ICES member countries. 736 United States Government work not protected by copyright The MEQC works closely with the Advisory Although the WGMPNA had a broad Committee on Marine Pollution, whose mandate for contaminant monitoring in the responsibility is to provide scientific North Atlantic, the following section will information and advice on marine be limited to those activities that focus pollution and its effects on living on biological aspects of marine pollution resources, as well as advice on the and marine pollution monitoring. control of pollution, to member governments and any interested ACTIVITIES intergovernmental bodies. The activities of MEQC are described by Pearce elsewhere The mandate given to the WGBEC by the in this volume. Council best summarizes the scope of the activities of this working group: The WGBEC had its origin within the Working Group on Marine Pollution and 1. To develop approaches and procedures Baseline studies in the North Atlantic for discrimination between biological (WGMPNA). That working group first met in effects induced by anthropogenic 1975 and was formed to develop coordinated activities and the natural background programs in the North Atlantic for incidence of abnormalities in fish investigating levels and trends of marine and shellfish, and thus promote the contaminants in water, sediments, and development of reliable approaches biological tissues, as well as the and techniques for the detection and development of a monitoring program for evaluation of the effects of biological-effects of contaminants. The contaminants in marine organisms. membership of that working group included both biologists and chemists. 2. To maintain close contact with the Intergovernmental oceanographic In 1984 an ad hoc study group was Commission Group of Experts an assembled to formulate recommendations for Effects of Pollutants (GEEP) and a biological monitoring program. That other relevant bodies, to ensure that, study group met in Hirtshals, Denmark, in where appropriate, ICES activities April of 1985 and recommended that a are coordinated with GEEP. biological monitoring program be developed within the ICES community using proven Cooperation between working groups techniques as well as those showing plays an important role in ICES. The promise of detecting sublethal contaminant Working Group has been active in effects on marine animals. A close monitoring levels of contaminants in the cooperation between ICES and the UNESCO flesh of fish and shellfish and has International Oceanographic commission developed an extensive monitoring program (IOC) biological program on contaminant in cooperation with the Marine Chemistry effects was strongly supported. Working Group. The two working groups also sponsored intercalibration exercises In 1986 the ICES Council accepted the for pollutants, especially PCBs, in recommendations of the Hirtshals Study biological tissues. An active cooperative Group and further recommended that the study on the possible Yinks between biological studies be separated from the contaminants and diseases of marine fish chemical studies of the WGMPNA. The and shellfish continues between the contaminant chemistry work, therefore, was Working.Group and the Working Group on transferred to the Marine Chemistry Pathology and Diseases of Marine Working Group and the task of organisms. investigating and evaluating biological effects of contaminants and developing a One of the most important ICES coordinated biological monitoring program initiatives on the effects of contaminants was given to a new working group - the on living marine resources was the Working Group on Biological Effects of Workshop on the Problems of monitoring Contaminants. Effects of Pollution in the Sea, held in Beaufort, North Carolina in March of 1979. The preceding paragraphs summarize the Although not sponsored by the Working position of a typical working group within Group, it was co-chaired by two Working the ICES structure and demonstrates the Group members and has been the foundation flexible nature of working groups; they of many of the investigations of the are formed, evolve, are modified, WGMPNA. The purpose of that workshop was replaced, and finally phased out as the to examine possible approaches to needs of the ICES community change. For monitoring biological effects, to identify clarity and ease of reading, the WGBEC and those that could be put to immediate use, its predecessor, the WGMPNA, will be and to make recommendations for the refered to as the Working Group unless implementation of a major monitoring specific clarification is needed. program in the North Atlantic using 737 selected biological effects measures. program for both groups, with the talents Seven areas of study were chosen for of two quite different groups working special attention: genetics, physiology, together in an area of common interest. A biochemistry, pathobiology, behavior, shipboard workshop, co-sponsored by both ecology, and bioassay. The recommendatons groups, is now in the planning stages; it and conclusions were published in 1980 (1) will be held in the North Sea in April of in a volume still considered one of the 1990 using Federal Republic of Germany very few comprehensive reviews of research vessels as well as a shore biological effects monitoring techniques. laboratory in Bremerhaven. This workshop will employ a variety of biological During the early 1980's the Working monitoring techniques at both contaminated Group recognized the need to test the and uncontaminated stations, and will work recommendations of the Beaufort Workshop closely with the Benthos Ecology Working .in a practical field situation so that Group on benthic community studies. those techniques, as well as other recently Moreover, IOC and ICES will cooperate in developed methods, could be tested on other biological effects workshops in the animals taken directly from a contaminated next several years. By doing so, we can environment. A shipboard workshop was take the years of laboratory proposed as an initial test of these experimentation on pollutant effects into techniques. For a variety of financial the field in a meaningful attempt to and logistical reasons, a hands-on relate field and laboratory observations. practical workshop was not undertaken until 1986, when the IOC Group of Experts other areas of ICES/IOC cooperation on Effects of Pollutants (GEEP) sponsored include the development of biological- a Workshop at the University of Oslo to effects handbooks of methods and their test biological effects measurements. evaluation, and the development of Animals collected from both clean and standardized tests that can be used in contaminated sites in the Oslo Fjord were regional and multinational programs of examined by a variety of physiological, biological monitoring of environmental biochemical, cellular, histopathological, contaminants. The need for inter- and ecological methods. In addition, organizational and international marine animals were held in large cooperation in methods development and 'mesocosms, dosed with a mixture of evaluation, in long-term data gathering, pollutants, and then examined using these and in joint use is clear (3). same techniques. Several Working Group members were invited to participate in International organizations have a this very successful workshop. An clear role to play in the development and evaluation of each technique as well as implementation of monitoring programs that the results of the workshop have been take advantage of biological measures of prepared for publication (2). pollutant stress. The worldwide shortage of funds currently available for broad Interest in a shipboard workshop has development of these programs necessitates continued over the past several years; the increased cooperation and increased success of the Oslo Workshop reinforced sharing of data and interpretations. It the desire of the Working Group to is also essential to apply the research undertake an at-sea workshop. It was findings from studies in one part of the agreed that the Beaufort suggestions and world to potential pollution situations the Oslo results would serve as the core in other areas to avoid costly duplication around which to design an at-sea, of effort. The cooperative efforts of ICES, hands-on, workshop. IOC, and other national and international groups thus will help to ensure that such In 1986 IOC and ICES recognized the programs become an effective reality. common goals of their parallel working groups in the area of biological effects REFERENCES studies on marine animals and agreed to work together on complementary projects. 1. McIntyre, A. and J. Pearce. 1980. Because only limited funds and personnel Biological effects of marine pollution and are available to be applied to the the problems of monitoring. Rapp. P.-v investigation of a complex and important Reun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer. 179:1-346. problem, an official liason was developed between the two groups. The chairman of 2. Bayne, B.L., K.R. Clarke, and J.S. the ICES WGBEC was assigned as an observer Gray (eds.) In Press. A workshop on the for the activities of IOC GEEP and the biological effects of pollutants, held at chairman of the IOC GEEP was similarly the University of Oslo, Norway, August, assigned to the ICES WGBEC. This 1986. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (Special cooperation has reduced duplication of Volume). effort and has resulted in a stronger 738 3. Dawson, R., J.M. Bewers, N.R. Armstrong and G. Kullenberg. 1988. Global strategies for the assessment of pollution in marine environments and progress achieved in the IOC-GIPME programme. Aquatic Toxicol. 11:345-356. 739 MODELING THE IMPACTS OF CSO TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES ON NARRAGANSETT BAY J. Craig Swanson Katherine Jayko Applied Science Associates, Inc. 70 Dean Knauss Drive Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 sewage treatment system is capable of treating the ABSTRACT regular (dry weather) load of sewage, the system overloads during severe rainstorms. During these A laterally averaged channel hydrodynamics model times, flows from storm water, municipal sewage and and a pollutant transport model have been coupled industrial waste, all flowing in the same network to predict water quality resulting from combined of sewer pipes, exceed the plant capacity and the sewer overflow (CSO) discharges into estuarine excess flow is shunted directly to the Providence environments. The hydrodynamic component of the River through 65 outfalls (2). Similar situations model system is driven by river and CSO flows plus exist in other communities at the head of the bay the tide at the lower model boundary. It is based and on the Seekonk River (Figure 1). on the conservation of momentum and water mass equations. The pollutant transport model is based on the conservation of mass equation, modified to PAWTUCKET account for settling, decay and interactions NORT" A COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS between water quality parameters. The model system PROVIDENCE ", is applied to the Providence, Rhode Island, sewer 11 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS A AA 1.10'.1MW system overflows which empty into the upper reaches A of Narragansett Bay. Total coliform loadings from A A SEEKONKAIVEfi A CSOs as they currently exist and as modified are FOX simulated. The impacts on the water quality in the WOONAS ATILICKIT POINT RIM EAST PROVIDENCE tributary rivers and Narragansett Bay are then --FROVIDENCE examined. FIELDS POINT PR VID1@41VIN SABIN POINT CRANSTON PEET INTRODUCTION Narragansett Bay is one of the major saltwater "Wit POINT BARRINGTON WARREN resources on the U.S. East Coast, from both economic and aesthetic viewpoints, Surrounded almost entirely by the state of Rhode Island, its waters provide a livelihood and recreation for many WARWICK p e o p I e . The Seekonk, Moshassuck, and BRISTOL Woonasquatucket Rivers at its northern end are the major sources of freshwater entering the bay (Figure 1). The Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers join to form the Providence River which PATIE.C extends 12 km south to Conimicut Point. At Fox ISLAND Point the Seekonk River also joins the Providence River. A hurricane barrier spans the Providence River north of Fox Point to provide protection to downtown Providence from flooding due to storm Figure 1. Upper Narragansett Bay point source surges. The Pawtuxet River enters the Providence discharges. River at the Warwick/Cranston city line south of Providence. Pollution in the Providence River and upper It has been proposed that the effluent from these Narragansett Bay has long been recognized as the num erous outfalls be collected into combined sewer most serious water quality problem in Rhode Island overflow (CSO) areas and holding or treatment (1). Sewage outfalls are a major source of facilities be provided at these locations to pol:lAxti:on to this area. Whire the Providence improve the water quality in upper Narragansett CH2585-slaB/oo0o. 740 $1 @1988 IEEE Bay. This study examines CSO impacts on the tidal Kh - horizontal eddy viscosity (cm2/s) portion of the rivers and upper Narragansett Bay K, - vertical eddy viscosity (cm2/s) north of Prudence Island, and examines the g - acceleration of the earth's gravity (cm/s2) improvements in the bay's water quality to be t - time (s) expected if various CSO treatment strategies are b - channel width (cm) implemented. An integrated hydrodynamic s/water h - channel depth (cm) quality model system is used to quantitatively define water quality impacts. The model consists of multiple channels with one or more upstream channels connected to a 2. THE WATER QUALITY MODEL SYSTEM downstream channel. The upstream velocity and surface elevation needed for the downstream channel The water quality model system consists of two calculation are flux weighted averages of the model components. The hydrodynamic model describes upstream channel or channels. the circulation patterns in response to tide, wind, and density induced forcing. The pollutant The transformed set of governing equations for transport (water quality) model predicts the each channel, in concert with the boundary spatial and temporal distribution of pollutants in conditions, is solved by a semi-implicit, split the water column. It requires as input a mode finite difference procedure on a space definition of the current field from the staggered grid system (3,4). In essence the hydrodynamic model plus estimates of the sources equations of motion are vertically integrated and and sinks of the pollutant and the interaction of through simple algebraic manipulation are recast in the pollutant of interest with other pollutants or terms of a single Helmholtz equation in surface organisms present in the receiving water. elevation. This equation is solved using a tridiagonal matrix solution technique to predict HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL the spatial distribution of surface elevation for each channel. The solution is embedded in an The hydrodynamic model is based on the iterative loop on all channels with iterations conservation of momentum and water mass equations. continuing until no change in elevation is seen in Since little variability is seen across the rivers, successive iterations. the full three dimensional equations are laterally averaged but retain their longitudinal and vertical POLLUTANT TRANSPORT MODEL variability. The standard approximations for estuarine flow are assumed: (1) the f low is The pollutant transport model is based on the incompressible, (2) vertical accelerations are conservation of mass equation modified to account negligible (hydrostatic), (3) density variations for settling, sources and sinks of material and ,are important only when multiplied by gravity and interactions between water quality parameters. For (4) direct tide generating forces may be neglected. the channels the laterally averaged pollutant For the channels we assume that the cross channel transport equation is variability is small and that the coriolis force is unimportant in the momentum balance. With these a-cbh + a-ucbh + a-wcbh assumptions the laterally averaged governing equations are: at ax az .Conservation of mass h a [DxbaT + h a (Dzbaj + Sbh (4) C) C) @_z E Bx @x az aubh + a-wbh 0 ax az where the overbar indicates a laterally averaged value and Conservation of momentum allbh + au-ubh + a-uwbh c = concentration (MPN/100 ml) at ax az Dx,Dz = diffusion coefficients in the x and z directions, respectively (cm2/s) 1 Bpbh + h L[Khba@' + h a [K,baU (2) S - source/sink term (MPN/100ml-s) d ul @_z L P ax ax @x a. The source-sink term is presently formulated as a ap = - (3) single or double stage decay, depending on the az pg pollutant (e.g., fecal coliform, DO-BOD cycle). The term includes sources, growth and/or decay, where the overbar indicates a laterally averaged settling, uptake, etc. to simulate the appropriate value and kinetics. x,z = Cartesian coordinate system with x It has been assumed in the derivation of the measured longitudinally, and z measured pollutant transport equation that molecular vertically upward from mean sea level (cm) diffusion is insignificant compared to its u,w = components of the current in the x and z turbulent counterpart and that mass conserving directions,/respectively (cm/s) estimates for the time averaged turbulent velocity p = pressure ( cm-s2) field can be obtained from the hydrodynamic model. P = density (g/cm3) The form of the pollutant transport equation used 741 allows one to address an individual water quality HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL parameter or the interaction between several interrelated parameters. The hydrodynamic model was used to predict the spatial and temporal variation in the currents A simple forward-in-time centered-in-space explicit through the system. River flows into the area were finite difference technique (5) is used to solve either measured or estimated from historical data the mass conservation equation on the same space for low flow conditions. staggered grid system used in the hydrodynamic model. Concentration values are defined in the The lower model boundary at Prudence Island was center of each grid cell. driven by an M2 tidal height time series with an amplitude of 58.9 cm determined during field 3. APPLICATION OF MODEL SYSTEM TO STUDY AREA measurement programs. The M2 constituent, with a period of 12.42 hours, was chosen because The model grid system is shown in Figure 2. It observations show that it is, by far, the strongest consists of five linked channels: the signal in the upper bay and Providence River. Woonasquatucket, Moshassuck, Providence, and Other constituents, including those at diurnal, Seekonk Rivers, plus the upper bay north of semidiurnal and higher frequencies contribute only Prudence Island. The Woonasquatucket, Moshassuck variations, such as the spring neap cycle on the and Seekonk River channels represent only the tidal basic M2 cycle. portions of these rivers with a dam being the upstream boundary of each. Model predictions of tidal height and velocity were compared with observations for the Providence River. The modeled velocity amplitude of 2.7 cm/s compares well with observations of 3.0 cm/s for the M2 constituent (6). The velocities lag the elevation by 3.0 hours which is typical for this type of estuary, while observations show a phase lag of 2.4 hours (7). The model predicts a phase shift of 17 min in the surface elevation between Prudence Island and Fox Point while observations indicate a phase shift of 26 min. Previous analyses of field observations (6) have shown that local wind effects on the flows are ................ Model grid boundaries minimal. Non-local wind forcing can impact the area by raising or lowering the water levels through storm surges but no significant surges have been observed during field programs. Both the local and non-local effects of the wind were thus excluded as driving forces. The vertical velocity structure in the Providence River as measured from current meters has been ... . ................. ... shown to be minimal (6). North of the Hurricane ............. ......... Barrier no upestuary bottom flow has been noted. A vertically averaged approximation to the flow is thus reasonable. This, of course, implies that density induced flows are of secondary importance ............. L and can be ignored. POLLUTANT TRANSPORT MODEL Figure 2. Model grid system. The pollutant transport model was used to predict concentrations of fecal coliforms since this bacteria is a major problem in the upper bay. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management The range of scales in the system varies widely- has closed the area north of Conimicut Point Flow in the Woonasquatucket River during dry permanently and periodically closes the area weather is approximately 0.57 m3/s while the tidal between Conimicut Point and Prudence Island exchange at Prudence Island is approximately 3300 whenever rainfall exceeds 1.3 cm in a 24 hour m3/s. The Woonasquatucket River has typical depths period. of 90 cm and widths of 7 m while the Providence River and upper bay vary in width from 1 to 10 km To examine the impact of fecal coliform loads on and have a dredged shipping channel approximately receiving water, the pollutant transport model was 12 m deep. For model simulations, actual run using loading data generated by prior land and geometries of the rivers and bay were obtained from river based model applications to the various CSO field measurements, nautical charts, and flood areas (8, 9, 10). Coliform loading data for maps. reference storms of 3, 6, and 12 month return 742 frequency were used. Loads from other CSO areas 10- which have not been analyzed in detail were scaled from an earlier system wide study (11). The (a) Valley St. reference storms are synthetic design storms C_ lasting 6 hours developed for the Seekonk River CSO study (8) and subsequently used for other CSO area lot- studies. Z lot Time series of CSO fecal coliforms for a typical CSO overflow are shown in Figure 3 for the 12 month 101. storm. This case shows the loads for the overflows lot- from the upper Woonasquatucket River CSO area entering the tidal portion of the Woonasquatucket 10- River at the Rising Sun dam. The storm begins at 10, hour 2 and lasts for 6 hours. The peak in flow and loads for the river occurs 3 hours after the storm Time (hrs) starts. The simulated time series ends at hour 12 (10 hours after storm start) but since loads and flows are not yet at pre-storm levels, an lot- additional 36 hours was simulated using linear (b) Hurricane Barrier interpolation from levels at hour 12 to pre-storm 101- levels at hour 48. A two day recovery time was E used since USGS records show such a response time 101- for the Woonasquatucket River (10). Z, IL 10, 10, 20 WER LOADS WTTH CSOS 0 12 MONTH REFERENCE STORM U 10. - FLOW Is FC Y 0 IS 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 425 450 10 ------------------------------------- Time (hrs) lot- 0 1 . I . I. (c) Prudence Island 0 4 8 12. 16 @O 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 lo4_ TIME (hr.) Figure 3. Typical time history of flow and fecal 103. coliform loads in the upper Woonasquatucket River. lot io, Typical model results are shown in Figure 4 for the 10. time history of fecal coliform concentrations at various locations for the 12 month storm with loading from upper Woonasquatucket CSO sources. At 1.1 ItI 211 111 309 325 350 371 400 415 00 Valley Street (Figure 4a) closest to the dam and Time (hrs) the CSO area's overflows, the concentration rises quickly after the start of the storm at hour 2. A Figure 4. Model predicted time history of fecal broad peak is seen during the storm. After the coliform concentrations at various storm, concentration levels drop immediately and locations. are almost at pre-storm levels within 12 hours. The load has stopped by hour 48 and a tidally induced variation in dry weather concentration is evident. The response at the Hurricane Barrier (Figure 4b) shows the tidal oscillations superimposed on the The maximum fecal coliform concentrations for the storm pulse throughout the simulation. The time 12 month storm event as a function of distance scale has been expanded from 120 hours to 470 hours downstream are shown in Figure 5. Four scenarios to show the system response in the upper bay area. are shown. Scenarios 1 and 2 include all sources The system returns to pre-storm conditions at the from the other CSO areas, rivers and sewage Hurricane Barrier in approximately 5 days. The treatment plants, but in Scenario 2 the loads from time history at Prudence Island (Figure 4c) the upper Woonasquatucket CSOs have been continues to show a phase lag in time of peak eliminated. The peak concentration occurs at the concentration and time to return to pre-storm confluence with the Moshassuck River at 107 MPN/100 Valley @St. conditions. ml indicating that the upper Woonasquatucket CSO 743 loads are not the cause of the maximum calculated From these results it is evident that little concentrations. In fact a comparison of Scenario 1 improvement will be seen by eliminating upper and Scenario 2 shows no difference below the Woonasquatucket CSOs. Other CSO area sources confluence, only above. When only upper overwhelm the signal for fecal coliforms and so Woonasquatucket loads are assumed to enter the their control should be a greatc--,- priority. system (Scenario 3) , the Valley Street concentration is the highest with a gradual decline in the river and then a steep decline from the 5. REFERENCES Moshassuck River confluence to the Hurricane Barrier. Below the Barrier, gradual dilution 1. Olsen, S., and V. Lee, 1979. A Summary and continues. The same response for the case of upper Preliminary Evaluation of Data Pertaining to Woonasquatucket C loads without CSOs (Senario 4) is the Water Quality of Upper Narragansett Bay, evident with a one to two order of magnitude Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode reduction in concentrations. Island, p. 189. 2. Robadue, D.D. and V. Lee, 1980. Upper Narragansett Bay: An Urban Estuary in Transition, Marine Technical Report No. 79, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island. 3. Madala, R.V, and S.A. Piacsek, 1977. A Semi Implicit Numerical Model for Baroclinic 1 11 1 Oceans, Journal of Computational Physics, 23, 1: Loads from all sources pp. 167-178. 101- 2. Loads from all sources except 4. Swanson, J.C. , 1986. A Three Dimensional upper Woonasquatucket R. CSOs 101- 3: Loads from upper Woonasquatucket 7 Numerical Model System of Coastal Circulation R. and Water Quality, Ph.D. Dissertation, 4: Lo.cssoararnalyupper Woonasquatucket - Department of Ocean Engineering, University of :z 101- 2 R. without cSos z Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island. 104 4 5. Roache, P.S., 1976. Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hermosa Publishers, Albuquerque, New 101 Mexico. 6. Swanson, J.C., A.C. Turner and K. Jayko, 1987. Providence, Rhode Island CSO Study Area B 10 Receiving Water Quality Analysis, report prepared for O'Brien & Gere, Syracuse, New 101 r York. 7. Turner, A, C. , 1984. Tidal and Subtidal Distcnce from Rising sun dam (rj) Circulation in the Providence River. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Ocean Figure 5. Model predictions of maximum fecal Engineering, University of Rhode Island, coliform concentrations in the study Kingston, Rhode Island, 285 p. area for the 12 month reference storm. 8. Metcalf & Eddy, 1986. Report to the Narragansett Bay Commission, Providence, Rhode Island on Combined Sewer Overflows in CSO Area 4. CONCLUSIONS A. Wakefield, MA. 9. O'Brien & Gere, 1988. Combined Sewer Overflow A laterally averaged channel model system was Mitigation Study CSO Area B Moshassuck River applied to upper Narragansett Bay to investigate Interceptor Drainage Basin, Syracuse, N.Y. water quality resulting from fecal coliform loads 10. CDM (Camp Dresser & McKee), 1988. Narragansett entering the bay through CSOs, rivers and sewage Bay Commission Combined Sewer Overflow Study, treatment plants. Specifically, the improvement in Area C Upper Woonasquatucket River Drainage water quality to be gained by eliminating the upper Basin. Boston, MA Woonasquatucket River CSOs was examined. When only 11. Martin, B.K. and D.D. Robadue, Jr., 1983. coliform loads from the upper Woonasquatucket River Estimates of Combined Sewage and Storm Water were considered, elimination of the CSO loads Flows from the City of Providence. Coastal resulted in a decrease in maximum fecal coliform Resources Center, Graduate School of concentrations by a factor of 100 in the Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Woonasquatucket River, a factor of 40 at the Narragansett, R.I. Hurricane Barrier and a factor of 25 at Gaspee Point. This reduction in concentrations was completely masked, however, when loads from other CSO areas were included in the simulations. Peak concentrations reached 107 MPN/100 ml at the Woonasquatucket/Hoshas suck confluence (versus 106 MPN/100 ml and 104 MPN/100 ml when only Woonasquatucket loads with. and without CSOs, respectively, were considered). Below the confluence the impact of the Woonasquatucket CSOs was indiscernible. 744 POLLUTANT LOADINGS TO THE NEW YORK BIGHT APEX Harold M. Stanford 1 and David R. Young2 U. S. NOAA Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessment 6001 Executive Blvd. (WSC-1), Rockville, MD 20852 2 U. S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory - Narragansett Hatfield Marine Science Center, Newport, OR 97365 ABSTRACT and cellar dirt or rubble). Effective and efficient management of such waste inputs to this Pollutant loading data obtained during the marine ecosystem requires the estimation of average 1970's and 1980's for the Hudson-Raritan Estuary annual loadings via the various input routes for (HRE) and the New York Bight have been reevaluated. the individual pollutants of concern. Annual inputs of up to 35 pollutants (major constituents, trace elements, synthetic organics, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) carried to the Apex of the Bight via seven routes were estimated. Barging of dredge material and sewage sludge, and HRE outflow, accounted for more than 95 percent of the loadings of the 11 pollutants for which compre- hensive estimates were possible. Dredge material LONG ISLAND, NY NORTH barging was the largest source, contributing 30 to 40' - 83 (median: 56) percent of the total loading for IKIIOIM@1.6. 1 10 these 11 constituents. HRE outflow contributed 13 CONTOURS IN FATHOMS to 45 (median: 27) percent, and sewage sludge 35- barging contributed 3 to 24 (median: 16) percent. ROCKA WA Y Moving the sludge dumpsite from 12 miles to 106 POINT miles offshore appears to have decreased loadings 61/ 14 r___ to the Apex by less than 25 percent. Better HUDSON- ;,0' ;D 40'30'N RARITAN // "Zkf AMBROSE 10-ul estimates will require significantly improved ESTUARY A;e ce0 1 LIGHT monitoring of pollutants in barged dredge material. SANDY CHRISTIAENSEN BASIN DREDG 25- 1ATERIAL SEWAGE IF SLUDGE INTRODUCTION IV C@LLAR 0-7. DIRT 20'- 7 " " The marine ecosystem lying off the mouth of 11 ACID rIt 1 10 the Hudson-Raritan Estuary is known as the New York "s, WASTE Z@ 1% M1 - Bight. The inner section of the Bight that is most exposed to anthropogenic effects is known as the NEW JERSEY 151- A. 1, Apex of the New York Bight. The Apex is bounded by IPA ZI the Long Island (NY) coastline on the north by the I 111r." BIGHT APEX 0 LIMI New Jersey coastline on the west, by latiQe 40 13'N on the south, and by 1ongitude 730 35'W on the 10, east (F@gure 1). It has an area of approx mately 05, 74-00V 55, 50, 45* 40 35' 73-301W 2000 km , about 5 percent of the 38,900 km area of the New York Bight. The Apex is a region of particular concern Figure 1. New York Bight Apex and historical because of the large quantities of wastes that have dumpsites (After McLaughlin et al., been released to it during the last century. The 1975). routes of.such input include net outflow from the Hudson River - Raritan Bay Estuary (across the OBJECTIVE "Transect" between the ends of Sandy Hook and Rockaway Beach), discharges from the Long Island The objective of this study was to compile and and New Jersey coasts (municipal and industrial compare estimated annual loadings of pollutants outfalls, gauged and non-gauged surface runoff, released between the mid-1970's and mid-1980's via groundwater leachate), aerial (atmospheric) the various input routes to the New York Bight deposition, and dumping of barged wastes (dredged Apex, taking into account the estimated "filtering material, sewage or municipal sludge, acid waste, efficiency" of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. @ANUY HOOK 745 United States Government work not protected by copyright BACKGROUND estuary obtained from Mueller et al. (1982) for additional reasonably conservative pollutants (not The comparison conducted here is based considered by Young et al. owing to a lack of principally on the results of the comprehensive sediment concentration data). Because nutrients pollutant input surveys reported for the New York are highly non-conservative, they were not included Bight (Mueller et al., 1976; New York City Dept. of in the mass balance approach. For the purpose of Environmental Protection, 1983) and the Hudson- this survey, we have simply assumed that, to the Raritan Estuary (Mueller et al., 1982). However, first order, essentially all of the total nitrogen these investigations suffered from a major and total phosphorus net input to the Hudson- oversimplification (clearly acknowledged by each Raritan Estuary is carried across the Transect into report). This was the fact that no estimation was the Apex. The resultant estimated annual Apex made for the "filtering" of pollutants (principally loadings from the estuary are listed in Table 1. via removal to bottom sediments) as they passed Detailed information regarding the approaches, through the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. Thus, that assumptions, and sources of data utilized in portion of a pollutant's annual loading to the estimating net loading values from the Hudson- estuary which is deposited to and accumulated in Raritan Estuary and the other routes of input to the bottom sediments of the estuary (at least until the Apex have been provided elsewhere (Young et al. dredged) was erroneously included in the "estuarine 1988a; 1988b). advection" subtotal of the estimated total annual loading value for the Apex and the Bight. This caused the total loading value to be too high. In Long Island Coastal Inputs addition, the 1976 report of Mueller et al. included estimated inputs to the entire Bight, even Mueller et al. (1976) did not identify any though the major concern was the significance of direct industrial discharges from the Long Island the "controllable" inputs (e.g., barge dumping) to coast into the waters of the Apex. However, they the Apex. Since the area of the Bight is much did identify four discharges of secondary-treated greater than that of the Apex, this also caused the municipal wastewater (Bay Park, Long Beach, estimated total loading of a pollutant (relative to Freeport, Wantagh) with a 1972 total discharge ilte concerns for the Apex itself) to be too high. of 85 million gallons per day (mgd) or 1.2 x 10 liter/yr. PROCEDURES AND RESULTS Because effluent concentration and loading values for most of the target constituents were Hudson-Raritan Estuary Advective Inputs either absent, estimated from other areas, or based on 1972 monitoring samples (often quite sparse), we A mass balance approach patterned after that have elected to use instead the more recent and of Olsen et al. (1984) was used by Young et al. comprehensive effluent concentration estimates for (1988a) to estimate the "filtering efficiency" of STPs in or near New York City (nationwide for the the Hudson-Raritan Estuary for particulate- additional priority pollutants) reported in Tables associated pollutants such as trace metals, the VI-5 through VI-7 of Mueller et al. (1982). (We higher molecular weight chlorinated hydrocarbons, note that the estimated concentrations for "New (e.g., PCBs; DDTs), and petroleum hydrocarbons. York City Secondary Effluent" were the values Based on average sediment accumulation rates and selected from Table VI-5.) These concentration pollutant concentrations, and assuming steady-state estimates were combined with the sum of the average conditions, they estimated that approximately 60 effluent flow rates for the four STPs to obtain the percent of the loadings of such materials to the loading estimates to the Apex from these STPs estuary obtained from Mueller et al. (1982) were situated on the Long Island coast (listed in Young removed to the bottom sediments. (In obtaining et al., 1988b). this estimate, Young et al. first assumed that 50 percent of the direct inputs to the East River by Mueller et al. (1976) identified three surface the six municipal wastewater treatment plants runoff channels on Long Island discharging into the situated there were removed by tidal action to Long Apex via South Bay (E. Meadowbrook, Bellmore, and Island Sound. They also assumed that losses from Massapequa Creeks), with a 1972 average flow rat To the estuary due to volatilization were negligible.) of 19.5 cubic feet per second (cfs) or 1.74 x 10 Thus, they applied a median "transfer coefficient" liter/yr. Because insufficient concentration data value of 0.4 to these modified values for loadings for the target constituents again were reported for to the estuary, to obtain estimated annual loadings these flows by Mueller et al. (1976), we have of eight metals, PCBs and DDTs, and five poly- utilized the average concentrations reported by nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via advection Mueller et al. (1982) for urban runoff from the from the estuary to the Apex of the New York Bight. adjacent New York Metropolitan Area (NYC 208 (Results of an independent budget by Connell, 1982, "separate" sites) to obtain the estimated loading for petroleum hydrocarbons as a class also yielded values (listed in Young et al., 1988b). a transfer coefficient of 0.4). Although use of this median value does not reflect the probable Mueller et al. (1976) also estimated annual differences in transfer coefficients for various loading values for a few pollutants via groundwater target pollutants based on their geochemical transport from Long Island to the New York Bight. differences, it appears to be the best estimate Because approximately one-third of the coastal obtainable from present data. Thus, here we have extent included in this groundwater transport adopted this approximation, and have also applied survey borders on the Apex, we assumed that 33 it to the modified loading estimates for the percent of the groundwater pollutant transport 746 values were applicable to our Apex inputs This analysis showed that the most rapid decreases estimates. The resultant estimated pollutant in air concentrations for the three metals (iron, inputs from the Long Island coast to the Apex are lead, and zinc) occurs between the Manhattan Island listed in Young et al. (1988b). The pollutant and the Transect sites, with a much more gradual loading estimates for these three input modes have decrease occurring toward the edge of the Bight. been summed to obtain the Long Island Coastal input Thus, the "application factor" used to extrapolate values presented in Table 1. the Manhattan data to the Apex was estimated as follows. For each metal, we first averaged the New Jersey Coastal Inputs value for the two areas beyond the Apex, and then obtained the average of this "outer zone" value and Twenty of the STPs (coded Ml - 1416 and M20 - the Transect value to obtain an estimated average M22a) on the northern New Jersey coast, identified concentration for the Apex. This Apex average by Mueller et al. (1976) as significant sources, concentration then was divided by the corresponding discharge directly into the Apex. Seventeen value for Manhattan Island (M.I.) to obtain the discharge9primary effluent (totaling 17.0 mgd or application factor. 23.4 x 10 liter/yr) and three discha�ge secondary The application factors obtained for iron, effluent (totaling 5.4 mgd or 7 .4 x 10 liter/yr). As was the case for the Long Island STPs, lead, and zinc were 0.10, 0.17, and 0.15, with a sufficient data were lacking to provide relatively median value of 0.15 (Young et al., 1988b). Com- comprehensive and up-to-date loading estimates. bination of this factor with the Manhattan Island Since these STPs are situated in a relatively pollutant deposition values (Mueller et al., 1982) urbanized section of the New Jersey coast, we have yielded the estimated average aerial deposition again utilized the estimated effluent concentration rates for the Apex presented in Table 1. values for the New York Metropolitan Area (if Barge Dumping Inputs available, otherwise for 20 plants nationwide), reported by Mueller et al. (1982). The resultant Historically, four major categories of wastes estimated annual pollutant loadings via STP discharges from the New Jersey coast to the New have been dumped from barges into the Apex of the York Bight Apex are listed in Young et al. (1988a). New York Bight. These are (1) sewage (municipal) sludge, (2) dredge material (spoil), (3) acid No significant direct industrial discharges waste, and (4) cellar dirt (rubble). The from New Jersey to the Apex were identified by designated dumpsites for these types of barged Mueller et al. (1976). Regarding surface runoff wastes are shown in Figure 1. Santoro and Fikslin inputs, we have estimated that an area of about 52 (1986) summarized the annual barge mass loadings of sq mi (135 sq km ) drains from the New Jersey coast municipal sludge to the apex, and average pollutant into the Apex. The major river in this area is the concentrations in this sludge. The average annual Manasquan R. (Mueller er al., 1976), wit@oa 41 year value for the years 1982-@985 was 7470 + 340 (S.E.) average flow rate of 72.6 cfs (6.48 x 10 English tons, or 6.8 x 10 kg/yr. Application of liter/yr). Since this river drains an area of 43 the average chemical constituent concentrations in sq mi (111 sq km), we have scaled up its flow rate ocean (barge) dumped sewage sludge from all plants by the factor 52/43 - 1.2 to obtain thei8stimated for the period 1982-1985 provided by these authors annual flow rate of 87.1 cfs (7.77 x 10 liter/yr) yielded the conventional and trace metal loadings for surface runoff from the New Jersey coast into listed in Table 1. Concentration values used to the Apex. The same pollutant concentration obtain the loadings via such sludge for trace estimates used for Long Island surface runoff were organics, beryllium and selenium (Table 1) were applied to this value to obtain Apex pollutant obtained from Fricke and Clarksen (1984). loading estimates for surface runoff from the New Estimated annual loadings for the target Jersey coast (Young et al., 1988b). No correspond- constituents via dumped acid wastes and dredge ing groundwater estimates are available, as Mueller material were obtained from the technical et al. (1976) concluded that groundwater pollutant information report prepared by New York Dept. of transport to the Bight from this coast was negli- Environmental Protection (1983). These values also gible. Our estimates of the New Jersey coastal are listed in Table 1. (Loadings of these chemical inputs to the Apex obtained by summing the STP and constituents via barge dumping of cellar dirt are surface runoff estimates are presented in Table 1. not reported here, as they are believed to be negligible compared to the other waste categories). Aerial Deposition Inputs DISCUSSION Although relatively few measurements of The estimated annual mass loadings of the atmospheric pollutants have been made in the New target constituents via the seven input routes York Apex or Bight, an extensive compilation of listed in Table 1 indicate that, for the chemical pollutant aerial deposition rates in downtown constituents considered here, the three dominant Manhattan has been provided by Mueller et al. input routes to the Apex are (1) advection from the (1982). Thus, in an effort to extrapolate these Hudson-Raritan Estuary, and barge dumping of (2) deposition rates to the Bight, surface air sewage (municipal) sludge and (3) dredge material concentrations of three trace metals, made by Duce et al. (1975) at the Transect and at two sites in (spoil). Thus, in obtaining the "Total Loading" the Bight outside the Apex (Middle-Bight and New values shown in the last column of Table 1, we have placed the sum of available data in a parentheses Jersey coastal), have been combined with corresponding data from the Manhattan Island site. if loading data from one of these three dominant categories is missing. Further, if more than one 747 Table 1. Distribution of estimated annual pollutant loadings to the New York Bight Apex (approx. 1980). Parenthesis indicates that "Total" value does not include estimates for one of the three largest sources (H-R Estuary, Sewage Sludge, or Dredged Material) No value is listed if two or more loading estimates are lacking for these three sources. H - R Long Is. New Jer. Aerial Acid Sewage Dredge Constituent Estuary Coastal Coastal Deposit. Waste Sludge Material Total Suspended Solids (10 3 kg) 7.2 x 10 5 3.9 x 10 3 9.8 x 10 3 --- --- 2.1 x 10 5 4.6 x 10 6 5.5 x 10 6 Oil and Grease (10 3 kg) 4.8 x 10 4 1.7 x 10 3 2.8 x 10 3 --- 6.0 2.1 x 10 4 3.2 x 10 4 1.1 x 10 5 Nutrients (10 3 kg) Total N 1.1 x 10 5 2.0 x 10 3 1.5 x 10 3 4.3 x 10 2 --- 2.2 x 10 4 --- 1.4 x. 10 5 Total P 1.4 x 10 4 2.6 x 10 2 2.7 x 10 2 2.9 --- --- --- --- Trace Metals (kg) Antimony 1.3 x 10 5 1.2 x 10 4 3.3 x 10 3 --- --- --- --- --- Arsenic 2.6 x 10 4 1.1 x 10 3 2.8 x 10 2 2.4 x 10 2 --- 4.0 x 10 3 5.8 x 10 4 9.0 X 10 4 Beryllium 5.2 x 10 3 4.3 x 10 2 1.1 x 10 2 --- --- 2.5 x 102 --- (5.9 x 10 3 co Cadmium 2.2 x 10 4 3.6 x 10 2 1.3 x 10 3 2.9 x 10 2 3.1 x 10 2 1.8 x 104 3.3 x 10 4 7.5 x 10 4 Chromium 2.8 x 10 5 2.3 x 10 3 3.4 x 10 3 1.7 x 10 3 1.4 x 10 4 2.1 x 105 6.4 x 10 5 1.2 x 10 6 Copper 4.4 x 10 5 1.3 x 10 4 1.4 x 10 4 --- 4.8 x 10 3 5.0 x 105 1.4 x 10 6 2.4 x 10 6 Cyanide 1.0 x 10 5 6.1 x 10 3 2.6 x 10 3 --- --- 9.1 x 104 --- (2.0 x 10 5 Lead 4.0 x 10 5 6.2 x 10 3 2.7 x 10 4 2.5 x 10 4 2.1 x 10 3 3.5 x 105 8.5 x 10 5 1.7 x 10 6 Mercury 1.1 x 10 4 7.2 x 10 4.2 x 10 --- 1.5 x 10 1.6 x 103 1.6 x 10 4 2.9 x 10 4 Nickel 2.3 x 10 5 5.8 x 10 3 9.6 x 10 3 2.6 x 10 3 --- 5.7 x 104 3.4 x 10 5 6.4 x 10 5 Selenium 1.9 x 10 4 7.7 x 10 2 2.0 x 10 2 --- --- 4.6 x 102 --- (2.0 x 10 4 Silver 1.0 x 10 4 1.9 x 10 2 4.9 x 10 --- --- 1.8 x 104 --- (2.8 x 10 4 Thallium 4.0 x 10 4 4.1 x 10 3 1.1 X 10 3 --- --- --- --- --- Zinc 1.3 x 10 6 2.1 x 10 4 4.8 x 10 4 3.4 x 10 4 2.6 x 10 4 7.6 x 10 5 2.6 x 10 6 4.8 x 10 6 Table 1 continued. H - R Long Is. New Jer. Aerial Acid Sewage Dredge Constituent Estuary Coastal Coastal Deposit. Waste Sludge Material Total Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (kg) Aldrin 7.2 x 10 --- --- 7.6 x 10 --- 2.0 --- (1.5 x 10 2 1@amma-BHC 3.4 x 102 7.0 1.8 3.6 x 10 2 --- 4.1 --- (7.1 x 10 2 Chlordane 3.1 x 10 1.2 0.3 2.0 x 10 --- 6.4 x 10 2 --- (6.9 x 10 2) DDT 1.4 x 102 5.7 2.6 x 10 1.3 x 10 --- 5.5 x 10 --- (2.3 x 10 2) Aeptachlor 3.1 x 102 --- --- 3.6 x 10 2 4.1 --- --- (6.7 x 10 2) PCB 1.8 x 103 4.0 x 10 3.3 x 10 2.0 x 10 2 --- 2.3 x 10 2 4.6 x 10 3 6.9 x 10 3 Pentachlorophenol 3.2 x 103 2.6 x 10 2 1.4 x 10 2 --- --- 2.2 x 10 3 --- (5.8 x 10 3) Phenol 9.6 x 103 2.2 x 10 2 2.5 x 10 2 --- --- 4.1 x 10 3 --- (1.4 x 10 4 Toxaphene 1.0 x 102 --- --- .7.9 x 10 --- --- Ar-@ Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (kg) 10 A,nthracene 4.4 x 10 3 --- --- --- --- --- --- Fluoranthene 7.2 x 10 3 1.6 x 10 2 7.2 x 10 2 --- --- --- --- --- Napthalene 4.8 x 10 3 4.8 x 10 2 1.3 x 10 3 --- --- --- --- --- Phenanthrene 2.9 x 10 3 1.3 x 10 2 4.5 x 10 2 --- --- 1.2 x 10 3 --- (4.7 x 10 3 Pyrene 5.6 x 10 3 --- 9.3 x 10 2 --- --- 1.4 x 10 3 --- (7.9 x 10 3 Total PAH --- --- --- 5.0 x 10 3 --- --- --- Phthalates (kg) Bis (2-ethylhexyl) 4.4 x 10 4 3.0 x 10 3 2.6 x 10 3 3.6 x 10 2 --- 1.8 x 10 3 --- (5.2 x 10 4 Butyl Benzyl 6.0 x 103 1.3 x 10 2 2.8 x 10 2 --- --- --- Di-N-Butyl 7.2 x 103 5.4 x 10 2 2.8 x 10 2 3.6 x 10 2 --- --- --- --- Diethyl 2.8 x 103 8.1 x 10 1.2 x 10 2 --- --- --- --- Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (kg) 1.3 x 10 7 --- --- --- 1.3 x 10 7 --- (2.6 x 10 7 Table 2. Distribution (percent) of annual loadings for constituents which include estimates for all three major input routes (Hudson-Raritan Estuary, Sewage Sludge, Dredge Material) H - R Long Is. New Jer. Aerial Acid Sewage Dredge Col. (1+6+7 Constituent Estuary Coastal Coastal Deposit. Waste Sludge Material Total Suspended Solids 13.0 0.1 0.2 3.8 83.0 99.8 Oil and Grease 45.3 1.6 2.6 0.0 19.8 30,2 95.3 Arsenic 29.0 1.2 0.3 0.3 4.5 64.7 98.2 Cadmium 29.2 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.4 23.9 43.8 96.9 Chromium 24.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 1.2 18.3 55,7 98.3 Copper 18.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 21.1 59.1 98.8 Lead 24.1 0.4 1.6 1.5 0.1 21.1 51.2 96.4 Mercury 38.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.6 55.7 99.6 Nickel 35.7 0.9 0.1 0.4 8.8 52.7 97.2 Zinc 27.1 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.5 15.9 54.3 97.3 PCB 26.1 0.6 0.5 2.9 3.3 66.7 96.1 MEDIAN 27.1 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.2 15.9 55.7 97.3 of these dominant categories are not represented CONCLUSIONS for a given constituent, no total loading value is calculated at all. Compilation of available data generally collected between the mid-1970's and the mid-1980's For only eleven of the target constituents indicates that the largest source of chemical were we able to obtain annual loading estimates for pollutants to the New York Bight Apex was the barge these three major input routes. Table 2 presents, dumping of dredge material. The second largest for these eleven constituents, the percentage of source was advection from the Hudson-Raritan the total loading carried.via each of the seven Estuary, even after accounting for the "filtering" input routes included in this study. It is seen effect via estuarine sedimentation. Barge dumping that inputs to the Apex via Hudson-Raritan of sewage (municipal) sludge generally ranked advection and dumping of sewage sludge and dredge third. Inputs from the Long Island and New Jersey material made up between 95 and 100 (median: 97.3) coastlines, from aerial deposition, and from barge percent of the estimated total load for these dumping of acid wastes generally were "representative" pollutants. insignificant. By far the largest input route was ocean Regarding the eleven constituents for which dumping of dredge material; percentage-of-total loading estimates were obtained for the three values ranged from 30.2 to 83.0 percent, with a dominant sources, sewage sludge contributed 3.3% to median value of 55.7 percent. In view of the 24% of the total loading; the median contribution importance of this vector, it is unfortunate that value was 16%. Thus, the recent transference of the absence of chemical concentration data the sludge barge dumping from the Apex to the 106- precludes meaningful loading estimates for more mile dumpsite appears to have decreased the known than two-thirds of the target pollutants surveyed chemical inputs to the Apex by less than about 25%. here. The second largest input route is net For the dominant input route (ocean dumped dredge advection from the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. material), concentration or loading data for less Percentage-of-total values ranged from 13.0 to 45.3 than one third of the target chemical constituents percent, with a median value of 27.1 percent. were located by this survey. Clearly a more Sewage sludge generally ranked third among the accurate assessment of the relative importance of major input routes; contribution values ranged from these input routes will require a substantial 3.3 to 23.9 percent (median: 15.9 percent). Thus, increase in the data base for chemical pollutants the recent transference of the sludge dump-site in dredge material. from the "12-mile" Apex site to the "106-mile" offshore site (Suszkowski and Santoro, 1986) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS appears to have decreased inputs of monitored chemical pollutants to the New York Bight Apex by The authors express their appreciation for less than 25 percent. Finally, median percent assistance and advice to E. Santoro and D. loading values from coastal Long Island, coastal Suszkowski (U.S. EPA-Region II, New York, NY), to New Jersey, aerial deposition, and barge dumping of J. Tavolar (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York, acid waste are each less than about one-half of one NY), and to K. Anderson, P. Glickman, C. Parker, J. percent of the corresponding calculated total O'Connor, L. Butler, and D. Toscano (NOAA Ocean loadings. Thus, the fact that loading values for Assessments Division, Rockville, MD). The research these routes often are based on earlier or was supported by NOAA/OAD Coastal and Estuarine incomplete surveys does not substantially weaken Assessment Branch (Rockville, MD), and EPA the principal conclusions of this survey. Environmental Research Laboratory (Narragansett, RI). ERL-N Contribution Number N-069. 750 REFERENCES Young, D.R., K.A. Anderson, and H.M. Stanford. 1988a. Pollutant transport from the Hudson- Connell, D.W. 1982. Approximate petroleum Raritan Estuary to the Apex of the New York hydrocarbon budget for the Hudson-Raritan Bight. NOAA Tech. Rept. NOS 014A 4, NOAA/OAD estuary-New York. Mar. Poll. Bull. 13:89. Coastal and Estuarine Assessment Branch, U.S. Dept. Commerce, Rockville, MD. Duce, R.A., G.T. Wallace, Jr., and B.J. Ray. 1975. Atmospheric trace metals over the New Young, D.R. and H.M. Stanford. 1988b. Pollutant York Bight. NOAA Tech. Rept. ERL 361-MESA 4, inputs to the New York Bight Apex. NOAA NOAA, Marine Ecosystem Analysis Program, U.S. Tech. Rept. NOS OMA 5, NOAA/OAD Coastal and Dept. of Commerce, Boulder, CO, 17 pp. Estuarine Assessment Branch, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Rockville, MD. Fricke, C. and C. Clarkson. 1984. A comparison of studies - toxic substances in POTW sludges. Final Report to U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Criteria and Standards Division, August 1984 (Contract No. 68-01-6403). Camp, Dresser and McKee, Annandale, VA 22003, 63 pp. McLaughlin, D., J.A. Elder, G.T. Orlob, D.F. Kibler, and D.E. Evenson. 1975. A conceptual representation of the New York Bight ecosystem. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL MESA-4. NOAA Marine Ecosystems Analysis Program, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Boulder, CO. Mueller, J.A., J.S. Jeris, A.R. Anderson, and C. Hughes. 1976. Contaminant inputs to the New York Bight. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL MESA-6, NOAA Marine Ecosystem Analysis Program, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Boulder, CO, 347 pp. Mueller, J.A., T.A. Gerrish, and M.C. Casey. 1982. Contaminant inputs to the Hudson- Raritan estuary. NOAA Tech. Memo. OMPA-21, NOAA Marine Ecosystem Analysis Program, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Boulder, CO, 192 pp. New York City Department of Environmental Protection. 1983. Technical information to support the redesignation of the 12-mile site for the ocean disposal of sewage sludge. Prepared by Ecological Analysts, Inc. (Sparks, MD) and SEAMOcean, Inc. (Wheaton, MD). Olsen, C.R., I.L. Larsen, R.H. Brewster, N.H. Cutshall, R.F. Bopp, and H.J. Simpson. 1984. A geochemical assessment of sedimentation and contaminant distributions in the Hudson- Raritan Estuary. NOAA Tech. Rept. NOS OMS 2, NOAA/OAD Coastal and Estuarine Assessment Branch, 101 pp. Santoro, E.D. and T.J. Fikslin. 1986. Biological and chemical characteristics of ocean dumped sewage sludge. In: Proceedings, Sixth International Ocean Disposal. Symposium held 21-25 April, 1986 at Asilomar, CA. Suszkowski, D.J. and E.D. Santoro. 1986. Marine monitoring in the New York Bight. In: Proceedings, Oceans 86:.Monitoring Strategies Symposium (Vol. 3), IEEE Ocean Engineering Society, New York, NY, pp 760- 763. 751 DESIGNATION OF AN OCEAN MINING STABLE REFERENCE AREA Richard J. Greenwald & Harold F. Hennigar, Jr. Ocean Mining Associates Gloucester Point, VA 23062 ABSTRACT The scientific concept of Stable Reference Areas DVI moved to offices in Gloucester Point, defined as reference areas for purposes of Virginia, in 1970, and continued the marine hard environmental and conservational assessment has minerals R&D program at increased scale and pace. been applied by NOAA and Ocean Mining Associates Test facilities were established in Virginia, and with OMA's "DELTA-GAMMA" USA-3 minesite in the ship operations were generally conducted from manganese nodule province of the northeast Pacific ports. equatorial Pacific Ocean. Two areas within the minesite have been proposed as environmental In 1974, OMA was organized to spread the costs reference areas: and risks of the marine hard minerals R&D (1) An area of approximately 8400 sq. km. program. OMA has managed the program from 1974 to within DELTA-GAMMA has been selected by the present, using DVI as a service contractor, OMA as a provisional Preservational calling upon the OMA partners for funding and Reference Area where mining and mining drawing upon partner affiliates for appropriate impacts will not occur. skills and facilities. (2) An area of approximately 4600 sq. km. within DELTA-GAMMA has been selected by Ocean Mining Associates ("OMA") is a Virginia, OMA as a provisional Impact Reference USA, partnership organized for the purpose of Area, which will be impacted by mining. evaluating the feasibility of mining manganese NOAA is presently evaluating the nodule deposits found on the seabed of the proposal and tentative approval is Pacific Ocean. OMA is owned in equal shares by forthcoming. domestic corporations owned or controlled by Enti Nazionale Idrocarburi S.P.A. (Italy), Societe Generale de Belgique S.A. (Belgium), The Sun INTRODUCTION Company (USA) and USX Corporation (USA). In 1962, The Board of Directors of OMA's RESOURCE BASE DEVELOPMENT predecessor-in- interest, the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company ("NNS&DDCo"), From 1962 to 1982, OKA and its predecessors - in- mandated its Director of Research and Forward interest conducted more than 100 extended mid- Planning to study the commercial potential of ocean survey cruises aboard the company's 152- marine hard mineral resources. NNS&DDCo foot research vessel, R/V PROSPECTOR, and a management had in mind both the assurance of number of chartered survey ships. These voyages company requirements for specialized steels and were early concentrated primarily in the area the potential for application of its skills in between the Clipperton and Clarion Fracture Zones hydraulics, marine engineering and shipbuilding. ("CC-Zone") of the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. During. the period 1962-68, NNS&DDCols Research Department formulated and implemented a research This effort represented approximately 2,500 days and development ("R&D") program of marine at sea, with about 70% of that time spent surveying and ocean engineering in order to productively on cruise-plan stations. evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of mining marine manganese nodules. A variety of state-of-the-art deep seabed survey equipment was bought and, if not available, In 1968, NNS&DDCo was purchased by Tenneco Inc. developed to gather and analyze geophysical and The marine hard minerals R&D program and its geotechnical data and samples. Many thousands of associated personnel, research vessel, patents, data points on nodule abundance and metal assay know-how, and other assets were transferred to were derived from information gained by Tenneco's newly organized, wholly owned deployment of free-fall grab samplers, box corers subsidiary, Deepsea Ventures, Inc. ("DVI"). and other nodule sampling devices. CH2585-8/88/oooo- 752 $1 @1988 IEEE These data points are supported and supplemented The operational area of DELTA-GAMMA, excluding an by analyses of over 100,000 still photographs of area reserved to the USSR, encompasses about the bottom and several thousand hours of towed-TV 150,000 sq. km. of seabed and contains two Stable bottom observations. They are supplemented by Reference Area ("SRA") environmental sites; a data from SEABEAM, FADS (Finite Amplitude Depth Preservational Reference Area ("PRA") of 8,600 Sounder), precision depth recorders, sq. km., and an Impact Reference Area ("IRA") of magnetometers and subbottom pr6filers 4,600 sq. km., as follows (FIGURE 1). representing tens of thousands of kilometers of ship tracks. In addition, OMA acquired many thousands of ship-log weather observations and a significant collection of micro-fauna samples and 1b N mega-faunal observations. Ten years of such effort in the CC-Zone led OMA, 'R IJ eH12HH1GRR'S in 1974, to publish notice of discovery of, and HOOK claim to, its chosen minesite (ILM,1975). This public disclosure facilitated the PRR identification and voluntary settlement of the +JRSHKHRBRO 513UTHI half-dozen adequately asserted overlap claims made against OMA by commercial entities in the USA, France, Japan, and the USSR. These 120 N 13MR'S settlements are part of the subject matter of DELTR-SRIdMR agreements and understandings between and among GFERNTIONRL RRER the governments of the USA, Belgium, France, the FRG, Holland, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the USSR 128'V4 123 14 (ILM,1984)(ILM,1987). These settlements, and a further ten years of at- Stable Reference Areas are to be used as sea survey and analysis of the particular reference areas for purposes of resource resource caused OMA to expand and amend its evaluation and environmental assessment of deep minesite, now known as "DELTA-GAMMA", the area of seabed mining. This requires the designation of which is now contained within the amended appropriate areas to insure a representative and coordinates of OMA"s Deep Ocean Mining License stable biota of the seabed (OPB/NRC). In the for Exploration at Site USA-3 (NOAA,1988). following sections, the history of the SRA concept is presented along with the This license was issued to OMA by the National implementation and application of the concept by Oceanic & Atmospheric administration ("NOAA") on NOAA and OMA. 28 August 1984 under the provisions of the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act of 1980 HISTORY OF THE STABLE REFERENCE AREA (SRA) (DSHMRA,1980). CONCEPT DELTA-GAMMA is located in international waters On 30 July 1970 a large tonnage of manganese some 3,200 kilometers west of Guatemala. The nodules was test@dredged from the seabed in 2,400 mineable terrain of interest in DELTA-GAMMA is feet of water on the Blake Plateau 150 miles off found in depths of 4,200 to 4,800 meters in the Georgia-Florida coast. This historic "first" undulating valleys between roughly parallel was accomplished after an eight year engineering ranges of hills trending North-South. development effort by Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company and Deepsea Ventures, Inc. The Steps, or small scarps, and small patches of dredging test utilized the 7,500 ton R/V DEEPSEA boulders and rocks are occasionally encountered MINER I , a dry cargo ship, purchased and In these valleys. Nodules are found resting on extensively converted by Deepsea for a 1/5 scale soft sticky thixotropic clay that varies in continuous mining "proof -of -concept" test of a surface shear strength, having a high shear seabed nodule collector and air-lift pumping strength gradient in the upper 30 to 60 system to be later deployed at far greater depths centimeters. in the Pacific Ocean (Kaufman et al.,1971). The nodules have a specific gravity of During these tests, a collaborative effort approximately 2, and are typically ellipsoid or between Deepsea Ventures, Inc., and Lamont oblate spheroidal in shape. Their size ranges Doherty Geological Observatory was undertaken to from sand-grain size to equivalent spherical determine the influence of ocean mining diameters of 14 centimeters, with an average of operations on the marine ecology, with specific 6.*4 centimeters. Nodule abundance in surveyed concentration on the ecological impact, if any, areas of DELTA-GAMMA varies from 0 to 30 of nutrient uplift and benthic sediment discharge kilograms per square meter (wet weight in air), at the air/sea interface (the "surface plume with an average of 10 kilograms per square meter. effect"). The results of this preliminary study, Abundance in the mineable terrain of interest in and follow-on reports, laid several questions to higher than that average. rest and pointed out the need for and direction 753 of further environmental research (Roels et (3) an information base, to prepare al. 1972). environmental guidelines for government and industry. In response to industrial seabed mining exploration activity, the National Oceanographic The DOMES project showed that many of the and Atmospheric Administration ("NOAA") activities which initially raised concerns about instituted in 1975 a cooperative NOAA/industry deep seabed mining were unlikely to have environmental research program, the Deep Ocean significant adverse impacts on the environment, Mining Environmental Study ("DOMES") project. The but that there were. three potentially adverse DOMES project involved a five year study of a 13 effects which needed to be studied further, as million square kilometer area of the Clipperton follows: Clarion Fracture Zone ("C-C Zone") of the east central Pacific Ocean (FIGURE 2), and the (1) effects of the nodule collector on potential effects of ocean mining effects on the benthic life in and near the mining marine environment therein. The final DOMES tracks, Report issued in 1981 (DOMES,1981). (2) effects of the benthic (bottom) plume on benthic life, and its food supply, away from the mining activity, and D DOMES StudY SIN suaw (3) effects of the surface plume on fish A- 0'2?'N. 150*4rW larvae. 401 - I'4YK 130-24W J 128'" 20- - The DOMES report and its associated scientific literature served as the technical foundation of @V- 7-5 a substantial number of subsequent environmental Am of Main C4nwnwcW studies and Federal actions. 0. - oil C42 During the course of the DOMES research, OMA 20- - tested its mining system at 1/5 scale and full depth at its DELTA-GAMMA mine near DOMES Site C. 40. - These tests comprised four separate test campaigns of the 20,000 ton R/V DEEPSEA MINER 11, a converted ore carrier. The tests culminated on GO-S1 10 November 1978 in a final mining run of 100-E 140* 180, 1401 100. GOV approximately 20 hours of continuous mining at 15,000 feet, during which approximately 400 tons of nodules were collected and air-lifted to the The DOMES area was selected by NOAA with the help ship as various system performance envelopes were of OKA, OMI, OMCO, and KCON, the four domestic explored. These tests proved that the OMA deep ocean mining consortia. Three specific engineering concepts worked at their mid-Pacific representative study sites within that area were Ocean site of intended application (Kaufman et designated by NOAA as loci for future ocean al.,1985). mining environmental research, captioned DOMES Sites A, B, and C. DOMES Site C was in OMA's During these tests NOAA placed scientist published claim area, later NOAA Exploration observers, or monitors, aboard the R/V DEEPSEA License Area USA-3 ("DELTA-GAMMA"). To provide MINER II to observe the mining tests and the focus for site-specific Environmental Impact attendant discharge phenomena. Additionally, Statements, the DOMES area was later reduced to a scientists aboard the NOAA vessel OCEANOGRAPHER smaller "area of main commercial interest". observed the test and sampled its surficial plume. Several years later, the Scripps DOMES consisted of two phases: DOMES I to Institution of Oceanography initiated a study of characterize the region environmentally, and the test equipment tracks, the resulting sediment DOMES II to monitor the effects of industry plumes, and the effects on benthic macrofauna. pilot-scale equipment tests therein. The specific These observations, and similar observations made objectives of DOMES were to develop: during tests by other domestic ocean mining consortia, led to useful findings regarding both (1) environmental baselines (biological, surficial and benthic plumes. However, the geological, physical, chemical) at the findings were of limited utility only, due to the three sites chosen as representative of lack of opportunity to observe sustained the range of environmental parameters operations (Ozturgut et al. 1981; Spiess et likely to be met during mining, al.,1987). (2) predictive capabilities, to identify In the light of on-going ocean mining activities potential environmental effects of in the US, France and Japan, at least one nodule recovery, and international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural 754 Resources ("IUCNNR"), early recognized the need Noting this, the IUCNNR tried again. In its 1981 for a program to set aside seabed reference areas General Assembly resolution, IUCNNR specifically to facilitate environmental monitoring of called upon UNCLOS's Preparatory Commission commercial mining operations. In 1978, at ("PrepCom") to develop and implement the concept. Ashkhabad, USSR, the IUCNNR General Assembly Failing to. detect any responsive movement upon resolved as follows (IUCNNR, 1978, 81, 84): the part of PrepCom in the next three years, the IUCNNR General Assembly, at its 1984 Meeting in "The (IUCNNR) General Assembly.... ; URGES all Madrid, resolved with continuing vigor (but more nations engaged in, or considering, deep seabed precision) as follows: mining activities to: "The (IUCNNR) General Assembly.... (a) precede commercial mining RECOMMENDS that the Preparatory operations by commissioning a Commission adopt at the earliest comprehensive ecological survey opportunity draft rules, regulations to determine the impact of such and procedures which adequately mining activity: reflect the concept of protected a r e a sand other appropriate (b) designate appropriate areas of environmental measures." the deep seabed as baseline reference areas and resource As of 1987, PrepCom was awash in draft rules. zones in which no mining will However, there was no indication that any PrepCom be allowed; draft rule yet addressed the environment or responded to ten years of persistent IUCNNR (c) designate the size and shape of resolutions on the subject (PrepCom, 1987). such area or areas to ensure that their stability will be To be fair, UNCLOS gave no mandate to PrepCom to maintained; and draft environmental regulations or to incorporate the stable reference area concept into its (d) establish guidelines for resource management scheme. It is unreasonable scientific research to ensure then to expect PrepCom to do so; bold UN minimum disruption of the organizations do not flourish. However, this natural state of such areas." revealed lack of vision in Part XI, and related institutional inflexibility, can only serve as an The US Congress became aware of the IUCNNR excellent example of why there is good reason to resolutions at an early date. At the time, sever Part XI from the otherwise equitable and domestic ocean mining legislation was being widely accepted provisions of UNCLOS. Meanwhile, crafted based upon the legal theory that ocean modern solutions to current deep seabed mining mining is a legitimate exercise of the freedom of problems must be sought elsewhere. the seas doctrine, which doctrine imposes duties as a corollary of the rights so asserted. As a Under the authority of DSHMRA, the Administrator result, Section 109 (f) of the Deep Seabed Hard of NOAA set up the Office of Ocean Minerals and Mineral Resources Act of 1980 ("DSHMRA") Energy (now the Ocean Minerals and Energy contained a requirement that the US government Division of the National Ocean Service, NOAA, US seek to establish internationally recognized Department of Commerce) which, in 1981, requested Stable Reference Areas ("SRAs") in the CC-Zone in the assistance of the Ocean Policy Board of the which no mining can occur. Recognizing that the National Academy of Science's National Research SRA concept required balance so as not to Council ("OPB/NRC") to evaluate the scientific encourage politically inspired moratoria or validity of the SRA concept, and to recommend a unreasonably exclusionary set-asides, Congress cost-effective implementation strategy. The provided that the SRA requirement shall not be resulting study report, issued in 1984, concluded construed as an authority to withdraw substantial that the SRA had two purposes: portions of the DOMES area (DSHMRA,1980). (1) to serve as preserves to ensure At the UN level, however, the IUCNNR concept fell (maintenance of) a representative and upon less fertile ground. Part XI ("the Area") of stable biota of the deep seabed, and the 1983 UN Conference on Law of the Sea ("UNCLOS") was negotiated in the 1970's to (2) to be used as a reference zone or regulate deep seabed mining, applying the zones for purposes of resource politicized solutions of the 1960's to the evaluation and environmental hypothetical problems of the 1950's. It should be assessment of deep seabed mining no surprise that the text of Part KI, finalized (impacts). in 1980, bears little relevance to present (or past) realities and contains no mention of the The OPB/NRC panel of experts concluded that the IUCNNR Stable Reference Area concept or its concept as outlined by IUCNNR in 1978 only had functional equivalent. scientific validity if two areas were established; one in which to study impacts and the other to serve as a preserve. The panel 755 stated its belief that existing knowledge was affected; IRA to be located close to insufficient to allow immediate designation of mining. SRAs, but urged "provisional" designation of such areas as early as possible to provide the loci OMA Proposals for further necessary research and to aid in the Agreed & incorporated definition of criteria for final designations (OPB/NRC,1984). 2. OPB/NRC Tmall-scaie resuspension experiment Based upon the OPBINRC study, NOAA accepted the required (highest priority research scientific validity and the utility of the two- need). area SRA concept by incorporating such concept in proposed Commercial Regulations published in OKA 1987. These regulations would require designation OMA IRA includes location of NOAA of both preservational and impact monitoring experiment planned early 1989. Data sites prior to issuance of any commercial ocean offered. mining permit, and monitoring of such sites thereafter (NOAA Regulations,1987). 3. OPB/NRC Divide CC-Zone into 9 "characteristic OMA believes that early establishment of environments", each with 1 PRA; preservational and impact reference areas in its modify if indicated by further data. ocean mining License Area DELTA-GAMMA will aid in its planning for initial mining operations and OKA future environmental monitoring, if established OMA f e e I sPRA areas may be according to scientifically valid criteria, consolidated in c e r t a I n Additionally, it is our belief that the earliest circumstances. Provisional area provisional approvals will substantially aid boundaries should be responsive to NOAA's efforts to establish such criteria for new data. final establishment and approval of such areas, if applied in an objective manner to achieve a 4. OPB/NRC valid scientific experiment. Map drift of bottom waters so PRAs are placed "upstream" of mining. Accordingly, OMA has petitioned NOAA to approve, on a provisional basis, two reference areas ONA within its license area; one area of 8,400 square Multi-layer current and sediment kilometers for use as an interim preservational excursion data needed. "Core" of PRA reference area, and the other of 4,600 square is well within outer limit. Current kilometers to serve as an interim Impact meter to be deployed in PRA by NOAA reference area. Upon provisional approval by NOAA in 1989. of each such reference area, proprietary data associated with such area would be released to 5. OPB/NRC NOAA for verification and use by NOAA in making Use future mining tests to findings and judgments leading to final tracksediment redeposition to designation of such areas (and final approval of determine PRA separation criteria. OMA's mining permit, when and if appropriate). 014A The locations of these two proposed reference This is why OMA proposes an interim areas in DELTA-GAMMA are shown in FIGURE 1. The or provisional designation. See * 8 total area encompassed within these reference below. areas aggregates to approximately 13,000 square kilometers, or about 5,000 square miles. For 6. & 7. OPB/NRC purposes of comparison, this is roughly the size Encourage Industry to disclose data of the state of Connecticut and is a bit larger and (data and samples, study existing than the island nation of Jamaica. photos and samples, and use ships of opportunity, for cost-effective OMA's environmental reference area proposals inventory of benthos to aid in PRA attempt to hew to the spirit of the IUCNNR designation. resolutions, the letter of the DSHMRA provisions, the direction of the proposed commercial regulations, and the detail of the OPB/NRC OKA findings and recommendations set forth as OMA has data and samples showing follows: biota (already furnished). 1. OPB/NRC Findings 8. OPB/NRC SRA concept scientifically valid only Make I n I t I a 1designation of with impact and preservational areas; provisional PRAs as soon as possible, PRA to be located to ensure biota not using data from * 2, 4, 5 and 7 above. 756 designation under present circumstances may be OKA tentative in nature, but trust that permanent This is the purpose of OKA's proposals. status will be forthcoming in time to provide predictability to OMA's exploration phase 9. OPB/NRC planning for at-sea commercial recovery Designate permanent PRAs upon issuance operations. Also, we believe that this proposal of first Commercial Permits using data could serve as the catalyst for, and nucleus of, from # 2, 5, 6 and 8. a constructive, cooperative program of research applicable to much of the CC-Zone nodule OKA province. Additional benefits to industry, the OKA may wish earlier Issue, if possible. Nation, and the international community would accrue should such a research program acquire 10. OPB/NRC multinational participation. We solicit an Continue long term monitoring of appointment in your offices at a time convenient selected PRAs. to you to begin these consultations relating to our planned license activities." OKA OMA has no present comment. NOAA responded to the above proposal by noting its consistency with the approach NOAA Is 11. OPB/NRC pursuing for monitoring the environmental effects Designate one IRA per Permit at time of deep seabed mining, and by stating that it Permit is issued; shape and size would be beneficial to pursue the proposal and designed to maximize potential of the potential for designation of the proposed experiment. reference area (NOAA Federal Register Notices,1988). OKA OMA feels designation should be This NOAA response, and subsequent consultations, e a r 11 e r ,if requested by license prompted ONA to supplement its PRA proposal as holder. OKA's proposed PRA is so shaped follows: and sized, subject to verification and change by NOAA if future research so "....As stated in our 19 October 1987 proposal, warrants. once the PRA is so approved, we will provide the proprietary data in the area, which derives from 12. OPB/NRC a broad spectrum of commercial sources and Promote international consultation to includes: maximize data collection and to minimize conflict. (a) results from more than 300 free-fall grabs, box cores OMA and dredge hauls, including OMA agrees. abundance estimates, 5-metal assays, and pulps for a 13. OP`B/NRC majority of samples, Committee did not address issues associated with processing at sea. (b) bathymetric data for a significant portion of the OKA PRA, OMA does not contemplate such practice in its approved exploration plan. (c) d a t a regarding nodule concentration and size, and 1. OKA PRESERVATIONAL REFERENCE AREA PROPOSAL obstructions along specific tracks, extracted from more OMA's formal proposals to NOAA took the form of than 100 nautical miles of lettens setting forth OMA's selection of two video observations. areas, one as a candidate preservational reference area and the other as a candidate As you have been informed, the PRA is classified impact reference area. Relevant excerpts from by OMA as a characteristic mining area in these proposals are set forth as follows: accordance with criteria established by OMA to identify future subareas with acceptable .... This proposal is made at this time in the topography, soil mechanics, and nodule belief that early designation of OMA's PRA best abundance/assay to qualify as component mining meets the needs of commercial planning, basic areas in a commercial mining plan. The only OMA science, and public policy. This action was criteria in which the PRA is marginal is that of contemplated in our Exploration Plan, does not total extent of the mineable resource; a affect OMA's License Area, Logical Exploration contiguous area encompassing roughly 1/3 of the Unit, ownership or capabilities, and thus is not total PRA contains nodules of acceptable an application for amendment of our license. We abundance and assay in what we have judged in a understand that any NOAA approval of our preliminary way to be acceptable terrain (more 757 detailed bathymetry of mining plan areas being a selection by OMA of an interim, or provisional, future exploration need). It thus ranks below Impact Reference Area ("IRA"). NOAA pointed out other larger mineable OMA subareas which, that its proposed commercial recovery regulations collectively, are considered sufficient to meet listed two criteria for selection of an IRA. the needs of any OMA 20-year mining plan. (1) The area should be representative of According to our data, the PRA mineable resource the environmental characteristics of is effectively surrounded by PRA terrain that the site, and lies well below several OMA criteria. It thus seems eminently qualified as the core of a (2) It should be located in a portion of preservational reference area. In addition, the a Permit area tentatively scheduled PRA is in relatively close proximity to several to be mined early in the Permit term. larger mineable areas, sharing with those areas all characteristics except abundance above the After consultations on the subject, NOAA and OMA commercial threshold. A caveat is necessary; the agreed that: OMA criteria mentioned above do not include judgments related to biological populations. (1) The IRA should be sized and shaped to While we have insufficient data to indicate that be proximate to, and to include the biota of the PRA is characteristic, we have portions of, at least two potentially no data to the contrary. early mining blocks to facilitate examination and/or monitoring of That the proposed PRA is of characteristic areas being mined, or mined out, or quality in economic and geological terms is dusted with sediment, confirmed by the fact that every known nodule mining operator who explored there ultimately (2) It should not lie exclusively within claimed all or part thereof. These claimants a previous test area, although it included OMA, OMI, OMCO, KCON, IFREMER, DORD, and could contain a test area, YUZHMORGEOLOGIYA. In fact, the PRA was the area most overlapped in the conflict resolution (3) Its boundaries should be somewhat process embracing the RSA, the FSA, the SSA, and flexible to ensure that a dusted area recent understandings concerning the USSR areas just outside would not be excluded of interest in the C-C Zone. from examination, and We are aware that the emerging stable reference (4) Its location, size and shape should area concept also contemplates the utilization of b e s e 1 e c t e d b y t h e an impact area to complete the data required to licensee/permittee, taking into judge the scale of the impact of human activity account (1) to (3) above. in virgin territory. Accordingly, we are preparing a proposal which will set forth a On the basis of these consultations, OMA further environmental monitoring site in the OMA submitted the following formal proposal of an operating area to be dedicated as an interim impact reference area to NOAA, excerpted below: impact reference area, taking into account prior NOAA activity in the OMA license area and our ONA herewith requests further consultations planning for mining activities under a Permit. It with your offices with the objective of early is our view that with these two approvals in hand designation of an area of approximately 4,629 the monitoring and research plans will be greatly square kilometers within DELTA-GAMMA to be facilitated." reserved as a Provisional Interim Impact Reference Area ("IRA"). This proposal is a On 16 May 1988 NOAA designated the proposed PRA supplement to our proposal dated 19 October 1987 as an environmental monitoring site and solicited to designate, on a provisional basis, a expressions of Interest from the public (NOAA Preservational Reference Area. It is intended to FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICES, 1988). As of I August flesh out our environmental monitoring site 1988, two other US consortia, OMCO and KCON, have proposals to you to aid in the establishment of agreed to contribute additional contiguous area criteria and locations for a scientifically valid as part of a larger Preservational Reference interim Stable Reference Area(s) in OMA License Area. To confirm the multi-consortia sources of Area DELTA-GAMMA, and to facilitate timely area contributions as well as to honor the 10th governmental research programs and industrial anniversary of the 1978 meeting of IUCNNR, which planning for environmental monitoring therein. first articulated and endorsed the Stable Said proposed IRA HENNIGAR'S HOOK is Reference Area concept, we refer to the "USA representative of t h e environmental Provisional Preservational Reference Area" as characteristics of DELTA-Gamma and portions have ASHKHABAD SOUTH. been tentatively scheduled to be mined early in the Permit term. HENNIGAR'S HOOK contains the 2. OMA IMPACT REFERENCE AREA PROPOSALS following categories of sub-areas: During April and May of 1988, NOAA and ONA (1) NOAA's "DOMES SITE C", in which NOAA entered into consultations regarding the and academia have conducted, and plan 758 further, nodule related environmental of the SRA concept must be careful to avoid the research, introduction of bias into the experiment. Should the data or conditions be deliberately skewed, or (2) areas including or impinging upon OMA's the "moratorium tendency" introduced into the "TEST SITE", which: process, the concept will lose utility. The victim would be the possibility for cooperation, (a) OMA utilized to conduct constructive consensus and useful results. multiple tests modelling a commercial nodule mining ship If NOAA can institute a procedure by which and system in all principal concerned scientists may participate with respects, government and industry in the identification of the characteristics implicit in provisional (b) NOAA and academia have become designation of preservational and impact quite familiar with, having reference areas, the result will be: monitored test operations and measured post-test impacts (1) the design of a new, valid and therein, defensible resource management tool ( the SRA concept) to assure (3) a r e a ( s )proximate to and environmentally responsible domestic impinging upon at least one government policy and actions, other potential OMA early mining site, and (2) t h e creation, through early participation, of a broad consensus (4) additional area shaped so as to to support such concept, policy and have a high probability of actions, containing at least some "downstream" area (ie; area (3) the provision to industry of a swept by currents originating predictable and reasonable set of in any nearby early mining site environmental guidelines and selected by OMA). obligations upon which to base present planning and future At the date of this writing (I August 1988), NOAA operations, and is considering the designation of the proposed IRA as an additional OKA environmental monitoring (4) the availability of an economically site. To minimize the potential for confusing rational, environmentally responsible OMA's Stable Reference Areas, the " OMA resource management tool for Provisional Impact Reference Area" is referred to consideration by other nations and as HENNIGAR'S HOOK. The hook is for capturing international institutions concerned elusive mining impacts and constructive with "shared" resources. participants in the process of implementing the Stable Reference Area concept. REFERENCES, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS USED SUMMARY AFERNOD: Formerly, the French deep seabed mining entity, now IFREMER. OMA is not an environmental society. It is a marine mining R&D company attempting to create AMR: A West German deep seabed mining entity. efficient technical assets and to marshal a business and regulatory environment that will C-C ZONE: The seabed area between the Clipperton impose the lowest level of investment risk during Fracture Zone and the Clarion Fracture Zone of future commercial operations. Early the northeast equatorial Pacific Ocean. implementation of. a carefully crafted stable reference area program, in association with DEEPSEA VENTURES, INC.: Service contractor to reasonable monitoring obligations, appears to OMA, offer substantial advantages in assuring that environmentally responsible operations will yield DELTA-GAMMA: OMA's minesite in the C-C Zone, NOAA the minimum of costly future "surprises". Deep Ocean Mining Exploration License Area USA--3. This will be true, however, only if the further DOMES, 1981: The Deep Ocean Mining Environmental development of the SRA concept is exposed to the Study, a long-term environmental research program earliest and broadest scientific enquiry and an funded by NOAA. The final DOMES report was absolute minimum of industrial, bureaucratic, and published as Volume 3, No. 1/2, Marine Mining political bias. Accordingly, the process of Journal (1981), Crane, Russak & Company, Inc., 3 establishment of the first "provisional" SRAs East 44th Street, NYC, NY, USA, 10017. A must be clearly understood by industry, compendium of over 150 individual domestic government, and public interest groups to be a environmental research projects and reports classic scientific experiment. As such, all funded by NOAA and supporting the DOMES report or parties engaged in development and implementation building upon its data and results may be 759 obtained from the Ocean Minerals and Energy Areas And Publication Of Revised Coordinates"; Division, OCRM, NOAA, US Department of Commerce, Federal Register, Vol. 53, No. 42, Pgs 6858-9, Room 704, 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, Thursday, 3 March 1988; "Deep Seabed Mining; DC, USA 20235. Designation Of Deep Seabed Mining Environmental Reference Area"; Federal Register, Vol. 53, No. DORD: The Japanese deep seabed mining entity. 94, Pgs 17237-8, Monday, 16 May 1988. DSHMRA, 1980: The Deep Seabed Hard Mineral NOAA Regulations, 1987: National Oceanic and Resources Act of 1980, US Public Law 96-283, 30 Atmospheric Administration, "Deep Seabed Mining; USC 1401. Regulations For Commercial Recovery And Revision Of Regulations For Exploration; Supplemental FSA: The Final Settlement Agreement, a private Proposed Rule"; 15 CFR Part 971; Federal Register overlap settlement signed among OMA, OMI, OMCO, Vol. 52, No,177, Monday, 14 September 1987. KCON, AFERNOD, and AMR on 18 May 1983. OMA: Ocean Mining Associates, a US seabed mining IFREMER: The French deep seabed mining entity. consortium. ILM,1975: International Legal Materials, "Notice OMCO: Ocean Minerals Company, a US seabed mining of Discovery and Claim of Exclusive Mining consortium. Rights, and Request for Diplomatic Protection and Protection of Investment by Deepsea Ventures, OMI: Ocean Management, Inc. , a US seabed mining Inc.", 14 ILM 51 (1975). consortium. ILM,1984: "Provisional Understanding on Deep OPB/NRC, 1984: Ocean Policy Board, Commission on Seabed Matters", 23 ILM 1354 (1984). Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council; "Deep Seabed Stable ILMo1987: "Agreement on the Resolution of Reference Areas"; National Academy Press, Practical Problems with Respect to Deep Seabed Washington, DC (1984). Mining Areas, and Exchange of Notes", 26 ILM 1502, (1987). Ozturgut et al., 1981: E. Ozturgut, J. Lavelle, R. Burns, "Impacts Of Manganese Nodule Mining On IRA: Interim Impact Reference Area. The Environment: Results From Pilot-Scale Mining Tests In The North Equatorial Pacific"; Chapter PRA: Interim Preservational Reference Area. 15, Marine Environmental Pollution, 2, Dumping and Mining, R. A Geyer (Ed.) Elsevier Publishing IUCNNR, 1978, 81, 84: The International Union for Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1981). Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland. The IUCNNR Is an independent, PrepCom, 1987: Preparatory Commission for the non-profit, international, natural resources- International Sea-Bed Authority and for the oriented organization with a General Assembly of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, members, and a permanent secretariat. At the time "Statement By The Chairman Of The Preparatory its 1984 General Assembly resolution was passed, Commission"; UN Document LOS/PCN/L.54/Rev. 1 (4 IUCNNR had 501 members from 114 countries, in September 1987). In the nature of UN documents, three categories: 57 nations; 123 government what is not said is frequently more important agencies; 315 non-governmental organizations; 6 than what is said. non-voting affiliates. Roels et al . , 1972: 0. Roels, A. Amos, Kaufman et al., 1971: R. Kaufman, J. Latimer, "Environmental Impact Of Mining Tests"; Manganese "The Design And Operation Of A Prototype Deep- Nodule Deposits Symposium/Workshop, Honolulu, Ocean Mining Ship"; Proceedings of SNAME Annual Hawaii (16 October 1972), Meeting, Honolulu Hawaii, USA (25 May 1971), Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, RSA: The "Reciprocating States Agreement" 74 Trinity Place, NYC, NY, USA 10006. (Provisional Understanding Regarding Deep Seabed Matters), signed among the governments of the Kaufman et al., 1985: R. Kaufman. J. Latimer, D. USA, UK, Canada, Belgium, Italy, France, Japan Tolefson, S. Senni, "The Test And Operation Of A and the Netherlands on 3 August 1984. Pacific Ocean Deep-Ocean Mining Test Ship: R/V Deepsea Miner,II"; Proceedings of the 17th Annual Spiess et al., 1987: F. Spiess, R. Hessler, G. Offshore Technology Conference, Houston Texas, Wilson, M. Weydert, "Environmental Effects Of USA (6 May 1985). Deep Sea Dredging"; (unpublished) NOAA Contract No. 83-SAC-00659, NTIS Accession No. PB KCON: The Kennecott Consortium, a US seabed 87-138319/AS (1987). mining consortium. SRA: Stable Reference Area, a new concept to NOAA Federal Register Notices, 1988: National serve as a tool for resource management and Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Deep environmental protection. Seabed Mining; Approval Of Revisions To Mine Site 760 SSA: The Supplementary Settlement Agreement, a private overlap settlement signed among OMA, ONI, OMCO, KCON, AFERNOD, AMR and DORD on 15 December 1983. UNCLOS: The Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, opened for signature at Montego Bay, Jamaica on 10 December 1982, UN Publication Sales No. E.83.V.5. YUZHMORGEOLOGIYA: The USSR deep seabed mining entity. 761 REGIONAL GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE NORPHLET FORMATION OF THE ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA, AND FLORIDA AREA By Robert M. Minkl, Bennett L. Bearden2, and Ernest A. Mancini3 ABSTRACT Numerous hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in the Norphlet Formation in the onshore and offshore Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida area. Petroleum traps are salt anticlines, SERIES ROCK UNIT faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with halokinetics. Reservoirs include eolian dune, interdune, wadi and marine sandstones. Source rocks for the Norphlet hydrocarbons are Smackover carbonate mudstones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate, and natural gas. Evaluation of the geologic Cotton information along with the hydrocarbon data from the Valley Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida area indicates that three Group Norphlet hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas-condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Alabama and Florida state waters and Mobile, Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola U Areas in the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial H&Vnesville Formation reserves of natural gas are present in Alabama state waters and the northern portion of the Mobile Area. Significant D _Buck_ner7nh-ydri_te Cc Member accumulations of oil and gas-condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola Areas. Smackover Formation Norphl t INTRODUCTION Formation pine Hill The first ,discovery of hydrocarbons in the Upper Jurassic Anhycl@rlle N11-bl. Norphlet (fig. 1) was in 1967 at Pelahatchie field in Mississippi Louenn (fig. 2). In 1979, natural gas was discovered offshore in Mobile U Salt Bay in the Jurassic Norphlet Formation. These discoveries led to active leasing and drilling programs in the onshore Mississippi, cc Alabama, and Florida areas and in adjacent offshore areas. To Warner date, 35 Norphlet fields have been discovered in the onshore and Formation offshore tri-state area with production established from eolian dune, interclune, wadi, and marine reservoir facies. The more 2 Triassic recent offshore discoveries in the Norphlet have emphasized the UNDER- Eagle Mills Formation importance of understanding the regional Norphlet geologic LYING framework of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent BEDS Paleozoic Rocks federal waters area. Identification of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, structural and stratigraphic trends in the onshore tri-state area Figure I-Generalized Jurassic stratigraphy of the study area. of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida is critical to the projection of these Norphlet petroleum trends into the Eastern and parts of the Central Gulf of Mexico regions. 'State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama. 2Geological Survey of Alabama- 3LIniversity of Alabama and Geological Survey of Alabama CH2585-8/88ioooo- 762 $1 Q1988 IEEE MISSISSIPPI ALABAMA Unnamed Biheament Ridge J Jackson Dome Manila Embym.nt V-1 kt. Co'ecuh Mis i West ln:..S.pp Ridge frio, Bond Salt Fault Basin Mobile System Con-h 0 G,.b.n 61 Embayment 00 Decatur Arch 00 Pollard 0 Fo6hee Fault Fault Wiggins Arch System Sy ... m Pan c d R7 Hanc:k Unnamed LEGEND Rid Basement FLORIDA Apalachicola Approximate Updip Limit of Ridge Embym.nt Norphlet Formation so Al Arch, Ridge or Anticline Fault--hachures on SCALE clownthrown side 0 1 20 30 40 Mississippi Alabama 0 Norphlet Field Shelf Miles 07. 1. n A . It 1. @.. (location is approximate) OeSoto Canyon Sal Basin West Florida Shelf Figure 2. --Regional trend map of Norphlet fields. STRUCTURE southwestern Alabama, which roughly border the edge of the The northern Gulf basin extends from DeSoto Canyon to Mississippi interior salt basin; (2) the Pollard-Foshee systems of northern Mexico and is composed of a broad wedge of Mesozoic southern Alabama and panhandle Florida; and (3) related faults and Cenozoic strata that accumulated almost continuously from in the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola Areas (fig. 2). A Jurassic time to present. 15 The northern Gulf basin is that part of similar but unrelated fault group, the Mobile Bay fault trend is the Gulf region that is roughly outlined by the updip limits of present in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama.3 Jurassic sediments and ranges in extent from east Texas to The present day Mississippi-Alabama shelf lies in offshore northwest Florida. 18, 2, 19 Along the inner regions of this basin Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and western Florida and, from Alabama to southwestern Texas, updip members of according to Martin,15 is separated from the Texas-Louisiana Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata rest unconformably on complexly shelf by the Mississippi Delta and adjoins the West Florida shelf faulted and folded Paleozoic rocks of the Ouachita-Appalachian along an arbitrary boundary that extends from the system.The most common structural styles in the northern Gulf southeastward bend of the shelf break to the shoreline near region are normal faults, extensional faults associated with salt Pensacola, Florida. The Mississippi-Alabama shelf is movement, salt diapirs and syndepositional growth faults. characterized by pronounced relict, topography and a gentle Normal faults in the region typically exhibit down-to-the-basin gradient. 15 displacement and in the Jurassic strata may have angles of 45' to 70*.2 Large paleohighs are found in the northern Gulf region of The most pronounced structural system of the northern Gulf Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, including the Wiggins arch region is a group of related faults, typically referred to as the and Conecuh ridge systems in southeastern Mississippi and regional peripheral fault trend, 15 which rims the Gulf basin and southwestern Alabama, and the Pensacola ridge in northwestern corresponds approximately to the updip limit of Louann Salt Florida (fig. 203, 5, 9 In addition, the Appalachian structural deposition in the region. In Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida the trend had a significant influence on the distribution of Jurassic faults that comprise this trend include: (1) the Pickens- sediments and served as a major source area for Jurassic clastic Gilbertown-West Bend systems of eastern Mississippi and sediments.31 ackson 00 ._Me y 0 00 0 .0 763 The widespread Louann S .alt created a complex network of environments. The shale lithofacies is representative of lagoonal structures in the northern Gulf region. These salt-related or mudflat deposition related to a Louann sea. The quartzose structures include salt pillows and diapirs, growth faults, sandstone has been interpreted as inland and/or coastal eolian extensional fault systems related to salt flowage, and graben dune deposits.1, 32, 23, 12, 13 The uppermost sandstone beds systems caused by salt movement adjacent to a stable basement. represent marine beach-shoreface deposits.28 The updip regional peripheral fault trend that rims the northern The area in and around the study area contains southward Gulf basin is the result of salt flowage. Grabens similar to the projections of features of the Appalachian ridges. Features Mobile graben of southwestern Alabama (fig. 2) are associated associated with Norphlet deposition include the Wiggins arch, with this fault trend. Numerous anticlines and faulted anticlines the Conecuh ridge and the Pensacola ridge. These paleohighs related to the movement of thick salt are located downdip of these were probably of importance during Norphlet time in that they extensional fault systems. The structural fabric of most of the provided local sediment sources and influenced Norphlet northern Gulf margin is largely the result of salt flowage. 15 deposition and sedimentation. 28,32,27 In the offshore panhandle Florida region, the most pronounced The sequence of deposition of the Norphlet and associated facies structural elements are the Destin anticline and the DeSoto would include accumulation of intertidal shale in isolated Canyon salt basin (fig. 2). The Destin anticline is thought to be lagoons or bays along an emerging shoreline, followed by related to a deep-seated salt feature.26 The DeSoto Canyon salt Norphlet sandstone accumulation initiated with the uplift and basin ties on the western edge of the West Florida Slope. This salt erosion of the Appalachian system. Conglomeratic sandstones basin is characterized by numerous salt piercements. were deposited in alluvial fans while red beds accumulated in Based on analyses of selected seismic lines, the authors interpret alluvial fan and plain and wadis. Sand from these environments a major fault system north and northeast of the Destin anticline was transported toward the coast across a desert plain. in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola Areas. This Subsequent reworking of this sand led to the Norphlet dune and fault system is interpreted to be an extension of the regional interdune facies. A marine transgression initiated in Late peripheral fault trend that occurs along the approximate updip Norphlet time resulted in the reworking of underlying sediments. edge of deposition of Jurassic strata in the northern Gulf rim. The marine transgression continued into Smackover time. STRATIGRAPHY Excellent ancient analogs for the mode of deposition of the Norphlet Formation are the Permian sandstones of the North The Jurassic stratigraphic section in the study area consists of Sea7,8 and of Scotland.6 over 4,000 feet of elastics, carbonates and evaporites.29 One group and five formations comprise the Jurassic section and are, in PETROLEUM GEOLOGY descending order, the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation, Norphlet Formation, Louarm Norphlet petroleum traps in the onshore and offshore tri-state Salt and Werner Formation (fig. 1). Basal Jurassic sediments area of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida are principally unconformably overlie either elastics of the Triassic Eagle Mills structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, Formation or igneous/metamorphic Paleozoic basement rocks. and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement along Eagle Mills sediments fill Late Triassic grabens in the northern the regional peripheral fault trend17. Stratigraphy plays an Gulf rim. These grabens are probably related to the continental integral part in the formation of Norphlet petroleum traps, as is rifting of the Gulf of Mexico.24,26 Jurassic formations in the evidenced by the existing fields and recent Norphlet discoveries. study area are known only from the subsurface. These formations Thirty-five Norphlet fields have been established and since 1967 range in age from Callovian (Middle Jurassic) to Tithonian (Late have produced more than 54 million barrels of oil and condensate Jurassic) according to Imlay. 10 and 317 billion cubic feet of gas. The Norphlet productive trends The Norphlet Formation of Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) age10 (fig. 2) occur along the rim of the regional peripheral fault trend unconformably overlies the Louann Salt, the Werner Formation, in the central Mississippi interior salt basin,11 along the Mobile Eagle Mills Formation (Triassic) or undifferentiated basement graben, and in the offshore Alabama area. The most important rocks of probable Paleozoic age. The Norphlet in the study area petroleum exploration play in the Norphlet is the prolific deep ranges in thickness from 0 (updip limit) to possibly as much as gas trend of Alabama state waters and adjacent federal waters. In 1,000 feet in the Mississippi interior salt basin. The Norphlet is 1979, Mobil discovered the Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann field overlain by the Smackover Formation. The Norphlet Formation with the drilling of the Block 76 No. 1 well (fig. 3), which tested has a gradational or abrupt contact with the overlying 12.2 million cubic feet of gas per day from the Norphlet. Since the Smackover Formation.14 In some areas the Pine Hill Anhydrite discovery of this field, 11 other Norphlet fields have been Member of the Louann Salt underlies the Norphlet Formation.21, established in Alabama state waters and in adjacent federal 22,14 waters. Recoverable reserve estimates for Alabama state waters alone range from 4.93 to 8.12 trillion cubic feet of gas. 17 The large Badon,14 Wilkerson,32 Pepper,23 and Mancini and others14 natural gas fields in the offshore Alabama region are similar to recognize four lithofacies within the Norphlet Formation, and the Viking gas field in the United Kingdom portion of the North these are a discontinuous and localized basal shale, an updip Sea, as described by Gage.7 conglomeratic sandstone, red beds, and an upper quartzose Along the regional peripheral fault trend several fields have been sandstone (Denkman Sandstone Member of Tyrre]130). The basal established including the Flomaton, Sizemore Creek, and shale has a discontinuous distribution in the study area. The Chavers Creek fields. The petroleum trapping mechanism at conglomeratic sandstone occurs along the updip margins of the Chavers Creek field is an elongate, faulted salt anticline region. The red beds extend downdip into the inner margins of associated with the Pollard-Foshee fault system. The Flomaton the salt basin and embayments of the region and the quartzose field consists of a low-relief, faulted salt anticline downthrown to sandstone lithofacies occurs in the downdip and central parts of the same extensional fault system. the salt basin and embayments in the study area. In the Mississippi interior salt basin, the Copeland field is an The Norphlet was deposited in several distinct environments, excellent example of a salt anticline in the Norphlet Formation. which include alluvial fan and plain, wadi, eolian, intertidal, and Along the Mobile graben, the Hatter's Pond field in Mobile beach to shoreface. 1, 28, 32, 23, 14 The conglomeratic and red bed County is representative of prospective traps involving salt lithofacies were deposited in alluvial fan and plain and wadi movement along the west side of the graben system. 764 A A' SOUTH NORTH 4- 4 1.6-KM 4- i 4-@-41:- 2; T 'F 77 M E LOWER MOBI LOWER LE BAY FAULT -0 CRETACEOUS 1- . . . . . . ..... . MARKER N NORPHLE C M RKER 0 N ON SECO D PiNr 14111 n"ANN S MOBILE BAY BAY FIELD .1 ELD MA _RYJANLN f --tZIR@_4 I R# I Mff! 7_3 '5 Figure 3-Typical seismic profile for offshore Alabama. Interpretation by Bennett Bearden (line courtesy of Geophysical Service, Inc. (GSI) - reprinted with permission). The primary Norphlet reservoir in the study area is the this study suggest that the amount of reserves is possibly Denkman Sandstone Member, with principally eolian, marine insufficient to justify offshore development. and wadi lithofacies being productive. Porosity in the wadi and Substantial Norphlet production has occurred from fields in the dune sandstones is principally intergranular porosity. Porosity in oil and gas-condensate trend. This trend is located downdip of the the Norphlet averages approximately 10 percent, while regional peripheral fault trend and most, if not all, of the permeability ranges from 0.5 to over 100 millidarcies. The productive structures are related to salt movement. Oil, Norphlet marine sandstones typically have lower porosity condensate, and natural gas are all produced from Jurassic fields preserved because of the presence of high percentages of calcite in this trend. The projection of this trend into federal waters (fig. and silica cements. 4) would be into the central part of the Pensacola Area and the Smackover algal carbonate mudstones are the source rocks for northwest quarter of the Destin Dome Area. The potential the Norphlet hydrocarbons.4, 14,20 Geothermal anomalies may appears to be high for significant Jurassic hydrocarbon affect the maturity of the source rocks.34 accumulations in the federal waters area included in the oil and gas-condensate trend. NORPHLET HYDROCARBON TRENDS The Norphlet deep natural gas trend appears to be concentrated Three Norphlet hydrocarbon trends can be identified in the study in the Alabama state waters area and the northeast and north- area. An oil trend and oil and gas-condensate trend are defined by central portions of the Mobile Area. The Lower Mobile Bay-Mary existing onshore Norphlet fields in the tri-state area. A deep Ann and other deep Norphlet gas fields have been established in natural gas trend is defined by the Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann this trend. The deep natural gas trend appears to have the field and other deep gas fields in Alabama state waters and the highest potential in the Norphlet Formation in Alabama state adjacent federal waters area. waters and the northern portion of the Mobile Area. The oil trend is located updip from the regional peripheral fault SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS trend. Salt-related structures are the trapping mechanisms found in this trend. Norphlet fields have been established in the trend Study of the available stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon with oil being the principal hydrocarbon produced. The projection data for onshore and offshore Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida of this trend into federal waters (fig. 4) extends into the eastern areas demonstrates that these data can be used to establish a portion of the Pensacola Area, the extreme northeastern corner of regional geologic framework for the Norphlet Formation for the the Destin Dome Area, and the northwestern corner of the onshore tri-state area and for the state coastal waters and Apalachicola Area. Although the potential for Norphlet adjacent federal waters areas. Establishment of a regional hydrocarbon accumulations in the federal waters portion of the Norphlet geologic framework along with interpretation of the oil trend appears to be relatively high, onshore data evaluated for hydrocarbon data for the tri-state area indicates that at least 765 X 014 ,?,- NORPHLET OILANDGAS-CONDENSATE TREND LEGEND ORP Approximate Updip Limit of DFs-- Norphlet Formation P NATURAL Arch, Ridge or Anticline Q.., Dome :.-. 04-1 Fault--hachureson downthrown side oo- Trend boundary (dashed where inferred) SCALE 0 10 20 30 40 M11. Figure 4-Norphlet hydrocarbon trends. three Norphlet hydrocarbon trends are present in the region. An 3. Bearden, B. L., 1987, Seismic expression of structural style oil trend is located onshore north of the regional peripheral fault and hydrocarbon traps in the Norphlet Formation offshore trend and extends into the offshore area north of the Destin Alabama: State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama Oil and Gas anticline. An oil and gas-condensate trend has been delineated Report 14, 28 p. onshore between the regional peripheral fault trend and the 4. Benson, D. J., and Mancini, E. A., 1982, Petrology and Wiggins arch and extends into the offshore area of the Destin reservoir characteristics of the Smackover Formation, anticline and north of the DeSoto Canyon salt basin. A deep Hatter's Pond Field: implications for Smackover exploration natural gas trend occurs in the Mobile Bay area and extends into in southwestern Alabama: Gulf Coast Association of the offshore area in the Mobile Area. The oil and gas-condensate Geological Societies Transactions, v. 32, p. 67-75. - and deep natural gas trends appear to be prospective for Jurassic 5. Cagle, J. W., and Khan, M. A., 1983, Smackover-Norphlet hydrocarbons in state coastal waters and federal waters areas of stratigraphy, South Wiggins arch, Mississippi and Alabama: portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, natural gas reserves are present in the Alabama state waters v. 33, p. 23-29. area and the northern portion of the Mobile Area, and significant 6. Clernmensen, L. B., and Abrahamsen, K., 1983, Aeolian accumulations of oil and gas-condensate may be encountered in stratification and facies association in desert sediments, the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola Areas. Arran basin (Permian), Scotland: Sedimentology, v. 30, p. 311-339. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 7. Gage, Michael, 1980, A review of the Viking Gas Field, in Halbouty, M. T., ed., Giant oil and gas fields of the decade Thanks are extended to Don DuBose of Geophysical Service, Inc., 1968-1979: American Association of Petroleum Geologists New Orleans, Louisiana, for providing seismic data contained in Memoir 30, p. 39-57. this paper. 8. Glennie, K. W., and Buller, A. T., 1983, The Permian Weissleigend of NW Europe: the partial deformation of REFERENCES CITED aeolian dune sands caused by the Zechstein transgression: Sedimentary Geology, v. 35, p. 43-81. 1. Badon, C. L., 1975, Stratigraphy and petrology of Jurassic 9. Halverson, J. R., 1988, The seismic expression of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation, Clarke County, Mississippi: American Norphlet pinchout, Wiggins arch, southwest Alabama, Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 59, p. 377-392. U.S.A.: Proceedings of Oceans Technology Conference, p. 2. Beall, Robert, 1973, Plate tectonics and the origin of the Gulf 301-306. Coast basin: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 23, p. 109-114. 766 10. Imlay, R. W,, 1980, Jurassic paleobiogeography of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, conterminous United States in its continental setting: U.S. v. 32, p. 17-22. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1062, 125 p. 24. Pilger, R. H., Jr., 1981, The opening of the Gulf of Mexico: 11. Jackson, J. B., and Harris, P. M., 1982, Jurassic petroleum implications for the tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf geology of southwestern Clarke County, Mississippi: Gulf Coast: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 32, Transactions, v. 31, p. 377-381. p. 45-57. 25. Pontigo, F. A., Jr., 1982, Pre-Haynesville stratigraphy and 12. Levy, J. B., 1985, Major discoveries in eolian sandstone: structural geology of the Apalachicola Embayment: Facies distribution and stratigraphy of Jurassic Norphlet Petrology and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the sandstone, Mobile Bay, Alabama [abs.]: American Smackover Formation: Florida State University, Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, no. 2, p. unpublished Master's thesis, 307 p. 278. 26. Salvador, A., 1987, Lower Triassic-Jurassic paleogeography 13. Mancini, E. A., Mink, R. M., Bearden, B. L., 1985, Upper and origin of'the Gulf of Mexico: American Association of Jurassic Norphlet eolian dune, wadi, and marine petroleum Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, no. 4, p. 419-45 1. reservoirs, central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions [abs.]: 27. Scott, G. W., 1986, A petrologic study of the Norphlet American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. Formation (Jurassic), Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Okaloosa 69, no. 2, p. 282-283. Counties, Florida: Northeast Louisiana University, 14. Mancini, E. A., Mink, R. M., Bearden, B. L., and Wilkerson, unpublished Master's thesis, 144 p. R. P., 1985, Norphlet Formation (Upper Jurassic) of 28. Sigsby, R. J., 1976, Paleoenvironmental analysis of the Big southwestern and offshore Alabama: Environments of Escambia Creek-Jay-Blackjack Creek field area: Gulf Coast deposition and petroleum geology: American Association of Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 26, p. Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 69, p. 881-898. 258-278. 15. Martin, R. G., 1978, Northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico 29. Tolson, J. S., Copeland, C. W., and Bearden, B. L., 1983, continental margin: stratigraphic and structural framework, Stratigraphic profiles of Jurassic strata in the western part of in Bouma, A. H., Moore, G. T., and Coleman, J. M., eds., the Alabama Coastal Plain: Alabama Geological Survey Framework, facies, and oil-trapping characteristics of the Bulletin 122,425 p. upper continental margin: American Association of 30. Tyrrell, W. W., Jr., 1972, Denkman Sandstone Member--an Petroleum Geologists, Studies in Geology no. 7, p. 21-42. important Jurassic reservoir in Mississippi, Alabama, and 16. Mink, R. M., Hamilton, R. P., Bearden, B. L., and Mancini, E. Florida (abs.]: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies A., 1987, Determination of recoverable natural gas reserves Transactions, v. 22, p. 32. for the Alabama coastal waters area: State Oil and Gas Board 31. Walls, 1. A., 1985, Provenance of the Jurassic Norphlet of Alabama Oil and Gas Report 13, 74 p. Formation in southwest Alabama: University of Alabama 17. Mink, R. M., Bearden, B. L., and Mancini, E. A., 1985, unpublished Master's thesis, 143 p. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal 32. Wilkerson, R. P., 1981, Environments of deposition of the waters area and adjacent Federal waters area: State Oil and Norphlet Formation (Jurassic) in south Alabama: University Gas Board of Alabama Oil and Gas Report 12, 58 p. of Alabama, unpublished Master's thesis, 141 p. 18. Murray, G. E., 1961, Geology of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal 33. Wilson, G. V., 1975, Early differential subsidence and Province of North America: Harper and Brothers, New York, configuration of the northern Gulf Coast basin in southwest 692 p. Alabama and northwest Florida: Gulf Coast Association of 19. Murray, G. E., Rahman, A. U., and Yarborough, Hunter, Geological Societies Transactions, v. 25, p. 196-206. 1985, Introduction to the habitat of petroleum, Northern Gulf 34. Wilson, G. V., and Tew, B. H., 1985, Geothermal data for (of Mexico) Coastal Province, in Perkins, B. F., and Martin, southwest Alabama: correlations to geology and potential G. B., eds., Habitat of oil and gas in the Gulf Coast: uses: State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama Oil and Gas Report Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Research Conference, Gulf 10, 125 p. Coast Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation, p. 1-24. 20. Oehler, J. H., 1984, Carbonate source rocks in the Jurassic Smackover trend of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, in Petroleum geochemistry and source rock potential of carbonate rocks: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Studies in Geology, no. 18, p. 63-69. 21. Oxley, M. L., Minihan, Edward, and Ridgway, J. M., 1967, A study of the Jurassic sediments in portions of Mississippi and Alabama: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 17, p. 24-28. 22. Oxley, M. L., and Minihan, E. D., 1969, Alabama exploration underway: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 67, no. 4 (January 27), p. 207-212. 23. Pepper, Fred, 1982, Depositional environments of the Norphlet Formation Qur@assic) for southwestern Alabama: 767 AVAILABILITY OF MINERALS OFFSHORE VIRGINIA T. John Rowland Minerals Management Service Office of Strategic & International Minerals Vienna, Virginia ABSTRACT commercial ventures. A number of cooperative State-Federal task forces Offshore Virginia, linear shoals have been organized to evaluate represent potential supplies of sand resource potential, economic and possibly placer minerals. If feasibility, and environmental additional exploration proves the impacts. deposits favorable, their Several studies have been published availability will be determined by while others are underway. At MMS' various factors: geological setting, request, the U.S. Bureau of Mines mining systems, the environment, conducted two reconnaissance studies multiple uses, and market economics, in 1987 relating to EEZ minerals each with the potential to affect potential -- one focused on sand and development. Based on available gravel, the other on heavy minerals. information, the area has favorable A comprehensive report by the mineral potential. Mining systems Congressional office of Technology capable of developing the deposits Assessment (1986) examined the status exist; system selection would be of knowledge of the mineral resources based on deposit characteristics and within the EEZ, assessed the the environment. Multiple-use technology, and identified pertinent factors including fisheries and issues. marine sanctuaries, military, In view of this interest, the recreation and commercial shipping linear shoals offshore Virginia will present issues but could be should be considered as potential accommodated by agreements between sources of sand and possibly other the concerned parties. The cost of minerals. Reconnaissance has bringing the minerals to market and indicated significant concentrations the price the market (local for sand, of heavy mineral placers associated international for placer minerals) with the sand. Availability, will support are critical factors in however, will be determined by determining overall feasibility. factors pertinent to development, including geology, mining systems, the environment, multiple uses and INTRODUCTION market economics. Consideration of these factors will be necessary on Since the establishment of the the site, local and regional scale. U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1983, a variety of efforts and DISCUSSION studies have been initiated that reflect the increased interest in Geological Setting offshore mineral resources. Within the Federal sector the Minerals Sand and placer minerals located Management Service (MMS) has created offshore Virginia are part of the the Office of Strategic and International Minerals to assure a linear shoal field extending along focused and coordinated marine the shallower portions of the minerals program within the EEZ. We continental shelf seaward from the have aggressively pursued a coast to about 75*30' W. and from CUStMiZed regulatory regime under about 37000' to 37030' N. The shoals the OCS Lands Act in order to are part of,a sand terrace dominating facilitate State involvement and the bottom topography and forming an extensive topographic high on the 768 United States Government work not protected by copyright shelf -Williams (1986) indicated bodies contained heavy minerals of that the shoals associated with possible economic value. Offshore prominent capes, regions of abundant sediment samples have shown higher sand, show potential for exploration. concentrations of heavy minerals than One such prominent shoal area is the areas to the south and only located approximately 9 miles off slightly less than the richer onshore Cape Charles, Virginia. Regionally, areas of South Carolina. Additional the topography is low relief with evaluations will be required, but water depths increasing seaward to a preliminary indications merit further maximum of 60 feet. Petrographic exploration. Potentially economic analysis of sediment samples from concentrations of minerals have been over 675 square miles of continental located in the shoal field off Smith shelf indicated that the mean grain Island, Virginia, by Grosz and size range from fine (0.125-0.25 Escowitz (1983) and Berquist and millimeters) to very fine sand Hobbs (1985). (0.062-0.125 millimeters) with an Atlantic shelf shoals commonly average mean grain size corresponding contain millions of cubic yards of to fine sand. Analysis of sand, much of which appears suitable sedimentological parameters as borrow sources. Resource characterized the sediments as well estimates for specific shoals can sorted and relatively homogeneous vary significantly based on the (Rowland, 1977). assumptions, sampling, and Shoals can be divided into two methodogy (Williams, 1986). Thus, classes: shoreface-connected and specific resource isolated. Shoreface-connected shoals estimates are premature; however, the are topographically related to the potential appears favorable based on shoreface and are generally shoreward the available data and geological of the 30-foot isobath. These shoals analogies show favorable potential. are part of the shelf-shoreface sedimentary system. Mining operations Isolated shoals show no apparent connection to the shoreface but are Mining operations would be responsive to the modern hydraulic similar to others conducted for beach regime. If located below the wave- nourishment and those conducted for base, as is common, isolated shoals offshore mining in other countries, are relict geomorphic features. As including Japan and the United such, relict shoals may have Kingdom. Offshore mining in Japan potential for development with produces 60-70 million tons of sand minimal impact to the shoreface and gravel per year, 20 percent of sedimentary system. This is a the total production (McKelvey, critical consideration for any 1986). The United Kingdom produced proposal pertinent to mining of the about 15 percent of its domestic continental shelf. Supply of sand and gravel from the Interest in the shoals focuses on offshore in 1980 (Tinsley, 1983). their potential as sources of sand mining systems would employ and minerals, such as ilmenite, either of two basic dredging color epidote, staurolite, garnet, types: mechanical or hydraulic. magnetite, and zircon. As early as Mechanical dredging excavates and 1972, reconnaissance offshore lifts the material to a ship by Virginia north of the Chesapeake Bay buckets or in a clam-shell type (Fig.1) indicated that extensive sand device. Bucket ladder dredges are 769 efficient for operations containing boulders, clays, and debris; however, characteristics of the estuaries and such operations can generate wetlands (Leatherman, 1982). For substantial turbulence can be example, intense coastal urbanization generated during operations.@ Bucket in the vicinity of Ocean City, ladder dredges have been used for Maryland and Fenwick Island, offshore mining of gold and tin Delaware, has had documented impacts (Cruickshank, 1987). Hydraulic on the coastal and shoreface dredges lift material as a sediment- sedimentary systems (Dolan and water slurry to the ship. others, 1980). In selecting shoals Development of cutterheads and as candidates for mining, an analysis submersible pumps has significantly of the particular shoal to the extended both operating capability shoreface sedimentary system is and depth range. Cutterhead suction necessary (Rowland, 1984). impacts dredges excavate compact, granular as a result of dredging could result materials from water depths of less from: (1) changes in the wave-base by than 100 feet. Suction hopper seabed alteration, (2) changes in the dredges have been used in water composition of the bottom sediments, depths of up to 120 feet, and newer and (3) increases in water turbidity. models have depth ranges of up to 150 Research by the U.S. Army Corps feet (Cruickshank, 1987). Dredging of Engineers, the British government, technology exists for operations in and coastal scientists is beinl@' at least 300 feet of water. Water conducted into the effects of depths offshore Virginia are well dredging in shallow water. Based on within the capabilities of the British experience, dredging has operational dredges. not instigated significant changes in In recent years, antiturbidity water depths of greater than half a overflow systems have been developed wave length, or more than one-fifth in Japan. Such engineering systems the length of extreme waves. In the can significantly reduce the amount United Kingdom, dredging in waters of water column turbidity generated over 60 feet generally receives from dredging operations. Thus, routine approval. Between 30 and 60 using such a system could reduce feet, a detailed study and site- environmental concerns associated specific information are required, with operations. but for operations proposed for water depths of less than 30 feet substantial studies are required (Drinnan and Bliss, 1986). Sediment resuspension near bottom Environment can also occur as the mining operation traverses the deposit. Environmental considerations Lifting sediment to the surface encompass a range of interrelated discharges sediments throughout the factors. The Eastern shore of water column. Increased turbidity Virginia is part of an extensive could result not only at the site but barrier island and wetland system. possibly throughout the area. Barrier islands are dynamic Coastal and continental shelf geomorphic features constituting an dredging resulted in sediment plumes important segment of the coastal zone that have been visible often up to 3 system. Changes in the coastal zone miles and up to 12 miles in extreme will alter the associated natural cases (DOI, 1974). A major impact of processes, and subsequently, the 770 a sediment plume is modification of Beach constitute the home port for the depth of light penetration into the U.S. Navy's Atlantic and the water column. Suspension of the Mediterranean fleets. Norfolk Naval fine-grained sediments can affect.the Air Station has extensive air gills and ability of indigenous fish operations in the area with to navigate. Dispersion by surface approximately 116,000 flights currents and currents in the water annually. Other large naval column can affect the larvae and installations in the area--Oceana juvenile stages of shell and finfish. Naval Air Station and the Little Migration routes of sea turtles, Creek Amphibious Base--conduct porpoises, and finfish can be exercises outside the Chesapeake Bay. affected by increased water turbidity Also, nautical charts identify places if turbidity remains for an extended of undetonated explosives in the period of time. Over the larger area. Four such places are apparent areas, turbidity may be more on navigation charts, two of which significant than the disturbances at are situated in what is considered the activity site. Life cycles are the shoal area. affected by the texture, composition Onshore, the Wallops Island and stability of the substrate. Many missile testing range serves as a benthic fauna have restricted base for launching weather balloons ecological niches; local communities and rockets. The Wallops Island-NASA cannot survive in a severely Warning Area extends offshore for disturbed area. nearly 80 miles across the Seabed sediment texture and continental shelf. Military and composition are vital as variability commercial "precautionary areas" and caused by erosion or additional navigation "traffic separation zones" accumulation of fine-grained sediment are indicated on U.S. Coast Guard can impact the total local navigation charts and in the Notice population. But, disturbances in the to Mariners, a weekly publication of bottom characteristics may not the Defense Mapping Agency necessarily be permanent. Dredges Hydrographic Center. leave undisturbed areas of sea floor Marine sanctuaries are between tracks that may serve as designated around distinctive marine source areas of repopulation. In a resources whose protection and use channel near Le Harve, France, requires comprehensive, recolonization occurred rapidly after geographically oriented planning and dredging (McKelvey, 1986). management. A number of marine Additional research is necessary to sanctuaries exist along the barrier focus on the aspects of dredging I islands of Virginia including some in including studies of the succession proximity to the linear shoals. For patterns of various benthic species. instance, at Cape Charles, the Fisherman's Island beach area is Multiple Uses designated as a sea turtle nesting area. Habitats of endangered species Potential multiple-use conflicts and the potential impacts to those exist between local military sites would necessarily be addressed operations and offshore mining. before offshore mining begins. Langley Air Force Recreation on the continental Base conducts a variety of missions shelf and the adjacent coastal areas off Virginia. At the mouth of the is important to the public and to Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk and Virginia local and State revenues. Coastal 771 States, including Virginia, commit sources are (1) local market large expenditures to such activities conditions, (2) exploration costs, as boating and fishing. Coastal (3) mining and processing costs, and waters--those within 3 miles of the (4) transportation costs. A detailed shoreline--comprise one of the most economic feasibility study would be intensively used areas for outdoor required before development of the recreation. In 1982, Atlantic deposits. For instance, often marine coastal counties invested heavily in exploration and initial capital outdoor recreation; $48.7 per capita, investment costs would be expected to nearly $27,000 per square mile, was be higher compared with similar spent by public agencies along the onshore costs, but the efficiencies Atlantic coast (NOAA, 1986). Coastal associated with dredging operations recreation as a component of the and the low costs associated with American lifestyle has been to an barge transport could offset those extent studied by the NOAA, Offshore costs (Economic Associates, 1986). Assessment Division. However, more The potential market of the regional and specific assessments offshore sand exists as Tidewater, will be required to provide Virginia, a metropolitan area information for strategies on using incorporating Norfolk, Virginia the near shore, especially the impact Beach, Chesapeake, Portsmouth, from mining operations. Hampton, and Newport News. The Chesapeake Bay entrance and Significant urban and industrial approaches are among the most heavily growth in this area over the last traveled in the world providing decade has resulted in a population access for commercial shipping to in excess of a million, a viable Hampton Roads. Shipping lanes are multifaceted local industrial base, indicated on the NOAA bathymetric and an increasing demand for sand. charts and are updated periodically Pending specific market feasibility in the Notice to Mariners. studies, information indicates possible economical viability for the Market Economics offshore deposits based on market proximity and relatively inexpensive Market economics is a and efficient barge transportation. consideration influencing and Additionally, the potential may influenced by the other development exist for the development of the factors. A deposit must be associated heavy mineral placers as a determined to be economically co-product. If the placers are found attractive in order for development to occur in sufficient quantitites to occur either onshore or offshore. and are developed as a co-product of Sand is a relatively low-value, high- the sand for national or volume commodity. Thus historically, international markets, the economic deposits have been located and development potential would be developed in close proximity to the greatly enhanced for the shoal field. market. Generally, the market is established first, creating a need ASSESSMENT for discovery and development of a local sand supply. In the absence of Preliminary information indicates a local supply, transportation costs a strong geological potential for the become prohibitively high. linear shoals as sources of sand and Economic factors pertinent to possibly placer minerals. However, comparison of offshore with onshore resource estimates for individual 772 shoals or for the resource area are premature. .1ldditional exploration resources in the late 1980's. and resource evaluation are needed to Historically, most offshore assess the mineral resource environmental studies have focused on potential. oil and gas leasing activities and Assuming traditional exploration ocean dumping. Despite the great methods indicate the linear shoals as amount of environmental data, certain viable targets, other geological of the data may not be directly factors will require consideration pertinent to offshore mining including: (1) geomorphic and activity. Differences in data oceanographic changes resulting from collected for offshore oil and gas excavation and (2) sediment texture and that required for marine mining alterations resulting from settling result from differences in the of suspended material. Information minerals and between the types of pertinent to those considerations operations. Variances also exist could be obtained by site-specific among the individual minerals and studies using existing geological and between their associated geological oceanographic information and by the and physical environments. For development of a geological, mineral, example, the polymetallic sulfide and engineering data base. deposits of the Gorda Ridge and the Existing mining systems can sand deposits off Virginia illustrate operate in the water depths and under the often radical differences between the physical conditions of offshore offshore mineral deposits and Virginia. Existence of the settings. technology is not the question, but If economic feasibility and rather, there is a choice of systems commercial interest exist, to be employed. Selection of a comprehensive study of the system would be an engineering environmental effects of offshore decision based on factors such as mining would be beneficial on a sediment characteristics and mineral-and site-specific basis. environment. Environmental analysis Such a study could be analogous to should examine processing and Project NOMES, which examined material handling and whether the potential environmental impacts material will be processed at sea or associated with offshore sand mining onshore and if the sand and heavy in the nearshore continental shelf. minerals will be mined as co- Project NOMES examined the impacts ,products. from hydraulic dredging at a sand and Various studies have examined gravel site in Massachusetts Bay offshore processes and potential (Padan, 1977). impacts associated with offshore Nearly two-thirds of the activities. The Department of the Atlantic commercial fish and Interior in 1974 prepared a draft shellfish are estimated to be environmental impact-statement on estuarine dependent during some stage Outer Continental Shelf mining. In of their development (Department of 1979, the Department of the Interior the Interior, 1988). The area is also prepared a program feasibility within the nation's largest document examining a variety of commercial fisheries (blue crabs, issues and site-specific marine menhaden, oysters and bluefish) and mining possibilities. Although is in proximity to the habitats of valuable contributions, these efforts certain endangered species (the Sea were not of the scope required before Turtle, Bald Eagle, and Delmarva development of offshore mineral Fox). Issues pertinent to the 773 interaction between fisheries, sea level, visibility is 12 miles; sanctuaries and mining operations thus, it would be reasonable to include: (1) the impact of noise and assume that mining operations would (2) interference between the fishing not be visible or be barely visible and mining activities and with from the Virginia shoreline. biological resources. The magnitude Anticipated heights of the mining of such issues remains to be vessel would be approximately 30 feet determined, but experience developed above the water surface. from the offshore oil and gas and Offshore recreation would be commercial fisheries could form the affected by mining operations to a basis for mitigation. For example, limited extent. However, to the since May 1, 1988, North Carolina degree possible, mining operations shrimp trawlers 25 feet or more in could accommodate such activity by length are required to use approved posted warning and restricted areas. turtle exclusion devices (TED's) on An educational shrimp nets. Costing about $100 and public information program on each, TED's provide an escape path offshore mining would be necessary to for sea turtles captured in the minimize the potential conflicts with shrimp nets. This demonstrates the recreational activities (Cruickshank, level of interaction possible and 1988). sometimes required by multiple-use Potential sites are outside the interests. commercial shipping lanes; as a Because of the deposit result, mining operations would not locations, mining operations would be be expected to require alteration of expected to minimally impact military shipping lanes. Marine mining surface ship operations. Military activities would slightly increase ship traffic areas are identified on the volume of traffic into Hampton the navigation charts and Published Roads; however, the increase would be in the Notice to Mariners., In the expected to be small relative to the vicinity of the Potential mining total ship traffic. The nature of sites, conflict between the military the increase would be a function of ships and the mining operations could the type of mining systems employed, be expected to be small and that is, the number and type of resolvable. Previous cooperation dredges and barges. between the military and the Department of the Interior with the CONCLUSION offshore oil and gas activities would form the basis for resolution, possibly by prelease and Postlease Deposits of sand, possibly with stipulations. valuable placer minerals, exist off Recreation activities in the the coast of Virginia as linear vicinity constitute a Potential shoals. Development potential MUltiPle-use conflict with offshore appears favorable, pending further mining. Coastal activities are economic feasibility assessment and generally in the category of surf resource evaluation. The minerals fishing and beachcombing. Related associated with the sand include are the aesthetic or scenic values concentrations of ilmentite and associated with this area. The zircon. If present in sufficient impact to recreation in the immediate quantities, they could be considered vicinity would depend on the scale of the proposed mining operation. At 774 by-products from mining the sand. Exclusive Economic Zone, open File Current dredging technology could be Report 3-87, 113 p. employed for the marine mining, assuming favorable mineral evaluation Bureau of Mines, 1987, An Economic and environmental analysis. Reconnaissance of Selected Heavy Prior to development, however, Mineral Placer Deposits in the U.S. additional investigations are needed Exclusive Economic Zone, Open File on the following geological topics: Report 4-87, 112 p. (1) impacts to the'shoreface sedimentary systems, (2) impacts of Cruickshank, M. and others., 1987, dredging on local geomorphology, and Marine Mining on the Outer (3) reclamation. Environmental Continental Shelf, Minerals issues related to the effects of Management Service, OCS Report 87- mining would include: (1) impacts 0035, Reston, VA, 66p. from increased and sustained turbidity, (2) the potential for Cruickshank, M., 1988, Personal recolonization including ecological Communication. successions, and (3) impacts on the biota of altered sediment texture. Department of the Interior, 1974, Offshore and coastal regions of Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Virginia are areas of varied multiple-use activities: marine Proposed Outer Continental Shelf hard sanctuaries, commercial fisheries, mineral mining operating and leasing military operations, recreation and regulations- Department of the commercial shipping. Conflicts may Interior, Washington, DC, 362 p. be anticipated but should be resolvable. The extent of specific Department of the Interior, 1988, measures necessary for resolution Draft Environmental Impact Statement- remains to be determined. However, North Atlantic Oil and Gas Lease Sale at this time, multiple-use activities 96, Minerals Management Service, . do not appear to be exclusionary to Atlantic Region, OCS EIS/EA MMS 88- mining. Experience of the Department 0001. of the Interior with offshore oil and gas programs and with commercial Dolan,@ R., H. Lins and J. Stewart, fisheries in other areas could be 1980, Geographical Analysis of expected to provide the foundation Fenwick Island, Maryland, A Middle for resolution. Atlantic Coast Barrier Island, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper REFERENCES 1177-A, Reston, VA, 24p. Berquist, Drinnan, R.W. and D.G. Bliss, 1986, C.R. and C.H. Hobbs, 1985, The United Kingdom experience on the Assessment of Economic Heavy Minerals effects of offshore sand and gravel of the Virginia Inner Continental extraction on coastal erosion and the Shelf, Virginia Division of Mineral fishing industry. Nova Scotia Resources open-File Report 86-1., Department of Mines and Energy, Open Virginia Institute of Marine Science File Report 86-054, 77 pp. Contribution No. 1287, 17p. Bureau of Mines, 1987, An Economic Economic Associates, Inc., 1968, The Reconnaissance of Selected Sand and Economic Potential of Mineral and Gravel Deposits in the U.S. 775 Botanical Resources of the U.S. Williams, S.J., 1986, Sand and Gravel Continental Shelf and Slope. Chp. deposits Within the United States VIII-E, Aggregates, p. 328-381. Exclusive Economic Zone: Resource Grosz, A.E. and Escowitz, E.C, 1983, Assessment and Uses. Offshore Economic heavy minerals of the U.S. Technology Conference, 18th Annual Atlantic continental shelf, in OTC Conference, OTC 5197, Houston, Tanner, W.F. (ed), Proceedings of the TX, P. 377-386. sixth symposium on coastal U.S. Congress, 1987, Marine Minerals: sedimentology: Florida State Exploring Our New Ocean Frontier., University, Tallahassee, FL, p. 231- 242. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Leatherman, S.P., 1982, Barrier OTA-0-342., p.347. Island Handbook, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 109p. 7S' McKelvey, V.E., 1986, Subsea Mineral Resources, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1689, Mineral and Petroleum Resources of the Ocean, 106p. Padan, J., 1977, New England Offshore Arz,4@rjc Mining Environmental Study (Project NOMES), NOAA Special Report, Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Research AAEA OF POTEN T!AL Laboratories, Boulder, CO, 139p. ................................ Rowland, T.J., 1977, An Analysis of _17! the Distribution of Feldspars on the Inner Continental Shelf of Virginia, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, unpublished, 43p. N Rowland, T.J., 1984, Sand Ridges of the Middle Atlantic Continental Shelf, Minerals Management Service, Atlantic Region, 26p. 2,0 -f-I NOAA, NOS, 1986, Public Expenditures on Outdoor recreation in the Coastal Areas of the USA, March 1986, Oceans Assessments Division, National Ocean Service, Rockville, MD, 18p. Tinsley, D., 1983, The Trade in Sea- Dredged Aggregate to the Thames, 1st Figure 1. Area of Potential Off Virginia ed.: Port of London, p.29-33. 776 OCEAN MINING: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP Clifford E. McLain President, Oregon Resource Exploration, Inc. Ocean hard mineral mining has represented an area of time, these same potential developments are viewed potential economic interest and development for the by many as a risk to other ocean uses and to the U.S. over the past 30 years. Its successful regional coastal environment. The resolution of these development within the U.S. EEZ will require the issues must inevitably involve the effective conciliation of potentially conflicting ocean uses: cooperation of both public and private sector parties. economic development on the one hand, and the protection of existing ocean uses and the environment This paper reviews these ocean hard mineral on the other. A public-private partnership structure opportunities, and suggests that the formation of is suggested as a vehicle for the successful public-private partnerships may constitute the most resolution of these issues. appropriate and effective path to their development within the U.S.. The views expressed are entirely those of the author, and result from his work, and Introduction that of his associates, in their work to establish practical ocean mining operations. Ocean hard mineral mining has been an area of developmental interest within the U.S. over the past Status of Ocean Mining in the U.S. 30 years. With the discovery of manganese nodules on the deep ocean f I oor, and the subsequent formation of There are currently six active or potential ocean several consortia for the exploration and development mining areas of interest to the U.S. economy at the of these mineral deposits in the 1960's and early present time: 70's, interest in the practical economic potential of ocean minerals assets has remained in a prominent o Sand and Gra,,.,el position in the ocean policy of the U.S.. Under the o Metal ore bearing placers Carter Administration, this interest among others o Phosphates motivated the U.S. to work closely with the Law of o Cobalt rich crusts the Sea Treaty organization. Under the Reagan o Polymetallic sulfides ( hydrothermal Administration, this same interest was one of the key o Manganese Nodules reasons cited by the U.S. in refraining from signing the Treaty and for the later declaration by the U.S. of The first three in the list are essentially shallow its own Exclusive Economic Zone, in March of 1984. water coastal deposits and, as might be expected, these are the areas in which there are current The idea of.seabed mineral mining still excites the practical operations. The last three areas are still ocean community, but the reality is that few either in the exploration phase, or are awaiting a practical immediate opportunities appear to exist at more suitable economic environment, or both. This this time. The number of opportunities is not zero, situation is brief Ig. summarized in Figure 1( Wenzel 1). however. In several cases, potential hard mineral Referring to Figure 1, it is sug @gested that in the case assets lie within the U.S. EEZ. The development of of the three shallow water mineral areas, the these potential assets could be an important factor 'in exploration of known deposits is within the strengthening coastal region economies. At the some capabilities of technology, and is either completed or CH2585-8/88/oooo. 777 $1 @1988 IEEE Fig. I Ocean Hard Minerals Development & Policy even in todays rather weak market. Referring again to n -0 :1 Table 1, the manganese nodules have themselves been a :1 rather thoroughly explored and characterized as a CY On 2 0 deposit. The technology for their recovery is Q cl reasonably in hand. Demonstration mining units have co C, @c M 2 been build and tested. Interestingly enough, under the U.S. Deep Seabed Hard Minerals Act, the exploration Business Factor preference rights have been well established for this Exploration particular mineral deposit in U.S. law. Policy and ........... .............. ............ ........... .... ............ rules for the most part tend to favor development and ... .............. ............ .......... Technology a reasonably cooperative policy and viewpoint exists ............... .............. ....... markets for the development of this resource within the U.S.. ............... .............. Economics Unfortunately, the current world market is such as to preclude any practical i6vestment in the development Policy Factor 2 .............. of the nodules .............. Preference Rights .............. .. Po)icy/Rules The cobalt rich crusts, which have been of great Coop Environment ............... interest in the Pacific, and which are well 111iiIiiii represented within the U.S. EEZ areas of the Central Attractive/Existing and Northern Pacific ( around Hawaii, for example ), Partial/Problems V777777ZZJ have recently received a significant amount of major Prob./Unknown exploration and are moderately well characterized. defineable for deposits suspected but not yet The technology for their efficient extraction has not yet been developed, although the general techniques characterized. The technology for recovery for these 3 for their recoverg and processing are understood minerals areas is well in hand. Markets for these minerals are in most cases practical end in some World markets for the principal metals, and the cases attractive. The placer minerals of ilmenite, economics of their recovery, even for the valuable chromite, precious metals, and gemstones, all have a cobalt content, do not now appear to be such as to encourage private investment in extensive reasonable economic value, as do most sand and characterization and development. In additio n, no gravel deposits and some phosphates, depending upon suitable basis for establishing preference or claim transportation costs and local markets. rights for these deposits under the exploration phase Most of these shallow water minerals are supported has yet been developed by the U.S- by a working set of development regulation and policy The relativelp recent discovery of polymetallic within the U.S. and State waters ( in the U.S. sulfide deep ocean hqdrothermal deposits has 1 4 jurisdiction, the States contro the seacoast waters - attracted attention in part because of their high the Territorial Sea - out to three miles from land ). concentrations of metals such as copper, tin, silver, Development lease agreements can be established and zinc. Only the first stages of exploration have with the appropriate State or Federal jurisdiction. As been completed. New technology is required for the an example of new policy, the State of Oregon has complete characterization of these deposits, as well recently developed provisions for granting right of as for any potential recovery operations. The preference at the State level during the exploration economic practicality of these deposits is as yet phase. The establishment of such leases does pose largely unassessed. The recovery costs have not get problems, both environmental and in policy, and is been determined, nor can they be until these deposits most successfully undertaken under the situation of a are more fully characterized. Again, there is at the .. cooperative environment" between the developing moment no basis for an assertion of claim during interests and the public sector. exploration within U.S. law. In the deep ocean area, there are more problems., and In summary, in the area of deep ocean deposits, there much less likelihood of near term economic development, even though some of these resources may be expected to be a continuation of research and exploration within the U.S. EEZ areas , but no near (nay be vast in extent and may hold valuable minerals 778 term economic development and little privatlg funded process and its prospect is often a very effective characterization. The picture in the shallow, coastal deterrent to project initiation. waters, is quite different. There are, and have been, Profitable commercial enterprises operating on these The primary incentive for private sector participation types of minerals, and this type of development will and development remains that of potential financial continue, but increasingly under a more careful and reward commensurate with the risk of development. often more demanding level of control by State and In the case of ocean hard mineral development, and U.S. Federal agencies. The shallow water deposits are especially in the area of exploration and found in both State and Federal waters and these characterization so necessary for undertaking any jurisdictions are often overlapping. Therefore, the developmental investment, the resolution of these establishment of an effective interitice between real and perceived high risk areas will be an essential State and Federal jurisdictions represents one of the element in the development of sufficient incentives more difficult and pressing problems for commercial to encourage effective private sector investment. development. New methods are needed by which these high risks might be reasonably reduced or resolved. Incentives for Coastal Ocean Hard Mineral Development The Public-Private Partnership Concept Within the U.S., there has been a continuing search by Many U.S. coastal States and local governments are the ocean hard minerals community for an appropriate now entering into the development of comprehensive way to encourage private sector participation in the planning for the well thought out and integrated use exploration and development of promising mineral of coastal ocean assets which, under State and resources on the ocean floor. The current and Federal jurisdiction, belong to all. The Pacific coast seemingly chronic U.S. trade deficit argues for the States are now all engaged in such planning efforts. development of more exportable resources. In These activities were pioneered by the Gorda Ridge addition, with a tightening Federal budget, the Task, Force, formed in 1965 at the request of the individual States are feeling the pinch in terms of concerned States at the behest of the U.S. Department fewer Federal dollars to support State and local of the Interior. The latest and most comprehensive needs. Since most of the shallow water ocean activity of this type has been the establishement by mineral assets of the U.S. lie at. least partially within the Oregon State Legislature4 of an Ocean Resources State territorial waters, the coastal States might Management Task Force for the creation of an look upon the development of these assets as a integrated Ocean Resources Management Plan, valuable additional source of income. Finally, many initiated by Governor Goldschmidt in late 1907. coastal regions around the U.S. have only a narrow Although in many cases in the past such planning economic 'basis, and would benefit from the efforts have been established as a reaction against development of an additional industry. untoward development, the more recent efforts, including the Oregon project, are toward the Against these incentives, however, lie a set of intelligent management of these coastal assets to problems which appear to be common to all coastal realize their maximum benefit for all coastal ocean developments. These are the perceived risks of such user interests through a balancing of ri sk, development to the environment and what might be investment., and economic value. termed the "lifestyle" of the coastal community. In This approach suggests the concept of a partnership many coastal areas of the U.S., any development at all between the State, local, and (where appropriate) is often seen as an encroachment on the current environment. In many cases, this has led to a Federal governments, the private sector development confrontation of interests which is often resolved in interests, and the ocean user communities. This concept, which has been encouraged under the policies the courts, at least temporarily, in the form of an injunction against continuation of the project, until of the current U.S. administration and the U.S. studies can be made and the claims and concerns of Department of Commerce5, is suggested in Figure 2. other ocean users resolved in the context of the judicial system. This very risky and expensive 779 Figure 2: The Public-Private Partnership Concept agencies, and interested technical and environmental State ZLocai Goyfs research organizations. Coastal Et all Rvfs The "bottom line" point of the partnership approach to Mgm't P11 :::Iurn3 coastal project development is that of recognizing Other Ocean Users Leases, Taxes the complex nature of the public and private Fishing I ownership and use of coastal assets, and the need to T he Coastal i Now provide an effective means of incorporating the Tourism Development Coastal perceived interests and needs of this ownership as an Project Asset integral part of the developmental project. In a very Wildlife real sense, from the private sector standpoint, this approach is needed to assure the existence of a cooperative environment in which the investment in the new asset is to be made. This is a highly In Ban k3, I nVe3t0r3 It important factor in the reduction of perceived risk to If t-ril the private investment community. Increased Support The Oregon Black Sand Placer Project as an As suggested by Figure 2, under a comprehensive Example Partnership coastal management plan, and the interested support of industry, investors, and the banking community, a Development of placers along the Pacific coast of the coastal development project is formulated, with the U.S. has so far been limited to gold and platinum group overall State and local government social and metal ( PGM ) placers, primarily in Alaska. Coastal economic development objectives in view. The other placer tracts in the Nome area, for example, are ocean users are coupled into the project through such currently being worked by chain bucket dredges, with means as advisory councils, inf ormal planning some economic success. The presence of gold in the sessions, and as actual participants in the project black sands associated with the northernmost itself. It is important that delegates of these other California coast, and the southern third of the Oregon ocean users will have participated in the writing of coast has been known for a long time. Gold Beach, the ocean asset management plan itself. Oregon got its name from the early gold placer operations in the late 1,500's there. These sands also This team then works together to develop and execute contain important amounts of chromite and ilmenite the coastal development project. If the private titanium ). During World War 11, the deposits on land sector provides the funding, the project must beach placers now above sea level due to coastal necessarily be designed to provide an adequate return uplifting ) were mined successfully for chromite. on investment to justify the risk undertaken by the This mining continued until the early 1950's when the private sector investors. Joint funding, or sometimes U.S. strategic stockpile purchases were terminated. sole funding, may also be provided by the Sate, local ' The limited extent of the land deposit, and the lower and Federal governments. Wherever possible, it is price of chromite ore on the world rnarket did not highly desirable to involve the State and local support continuation. colleges and universities. These can be sources of needed technical support and also provide a highly These black sands have been the subject of extensive trustworthy source of balanced risk/benefit analysis, surface ( halo ) exploration by the Oregon State which will be an important element in assuring the University ( OS'U ) School of Oceanography and by r1ther ocean users that their interests will not be others over the post 25 years. A body of knowledge undulq put at risk through the new project. The has been built up which now permits the definition of special studies of environmental impact on the a detailed plan to explore and fully characterize the affected region can often tie most convincingly done deposits6. Working with the State of Oregon over the by these acadernic institutions, and by such State past six years, the writer and his associates have agencies as the fish and wildlife service, the been developing a plan ( Figure 3 ) for the cooperative environmental protection and land conservation establishment of a project to fully explore and t The C tal evelopment D Project 780 Figure 3: Oregon Black Sands Deve lopment sublicense the development to a mining operator, or sell the development lease, as a means of achieving LO :1 an early return for its exploration investors. Upon U) C commencement of the actual mining operation, the CL M State receives royalties ( as well as taxes ) upon its ---r- operations. Assistance to the programs of other Subcontracts ocean users affected by or partners with the project Investors can also be derived from the mining returns. All of Development Explor. State of these factors, of course, have to be considered in Oregon determining the overall economic feasibility of Company Lease opening and operating the mine, once a suitable deposit has been located and characterized. This is Data the principal objective of the exploration program. Develop. Exploration EIS Investors Develop. At this time, the joint venture has been established, the appropriate authorities have been identified and Jevelopment _J' Lease established by the State of Oregon, and a Royalties comprehensive coastal resources management plan is under development by the Ocean ResourcPs characterize these deposits which w .ould merit Management Task Force, with a schedule for private sector investment and support. completion which provides that this plan will be in place in time to be used as a reference in any exploration or developmental lease entered into by Referring to Figure 3, a development company has the State. So far, the process has been working well, been established, wnich is proposed as a vehicle for and excellent open relationships have been private sector investment. This joint venture would established between the project and other concerned subcontract the bulk of its work, initially exploration ocean user groups. The writer and his associates and associated studies. The plan includes work by a believe that this approach will be an increasingly major State university ( OSU ), to perform many of important one for all major coastal development the exploration activities needed to characterize and projects, of which the Oregon black sands exploration understand the deposits as potential mine sites. The and development is but one example. development company expects to respond to a competitive colicitation b y the State for a cooperative exploration lease, which, under a new and unique Oregon law7, provides for a right of preference in converting the exploration lease to a developmental lease. In return, as a partner, the State receives data in the public domain from the exploration upon which to base its development decision and the preparation of a development environmental impact statement. Upon the determination that an economic deposit in fact exists, under the terms of the exploration lease the joint venture and its owners have. rights of preference for development ( akin to staking a mining claim ). Upon the further determination by the State that the plans and techniques for such development will not have an undue impact upon other coastal ocean users, the State is empowered to grant a development license to the Joint venture. In turn, the joint venture, under the terms of the development lease, could proceed with the development itself, J 781 References: I . J. Wenzel, "Ocean Mining Industries", Marine Development Associates, Saratoga CA, March 15, 1988 2. J. D. Nyhart, "A Pioneer Deep Ocean Mining Venture", Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant Program Report MITSG 83- 14, June 1963 3. "Mining Development Scenario for Cobalt-Rich Crusts in the Exclusive Economic Zones of the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Island" Dept. of Planning and Economic Development, State of Hawaii and U.S. Dept of The Interior, Mineral Management Service, January 1987 4. State of Oregon, Senate Bill 630, 64th Oregon Legislative Assembly, 1967 Regular Session 5. C. McLain, "A Strategy for the Creation of Pubiic-Private Partnerships for Candidate NOAA Projects" System Planning Corp. Report No. 1083, May 1985 6. LaVern D. Kulm, "Potential Heavy Mineral and Metal Placers on the Southern Oregon Continental Shelf ", College of Oceanography, Oregon State University, paper for publication in Marine Mining, 10 Feb. 1988 7. State of Oregon, Senate Bill 606, 64th Oregon Legislative Assembly, 1987 Regular Session 782 RECENT NONENERGY MINERAL ACTIVITY IN THE ATLANTIC OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Roger V. Amato Minerals Management Service Atlantic OCS Region Vienna, Virginia 22180 X 109 tonnes offshore North Carolina3 and ABSTRACT at least that much offshore Georgia and South Carolina. manganese occurs both as Large deposits of sand and gravel, nodules and thin crusts in the Blake phosphate, titanium-rich heavy minerals, Plateau, and estimates range from 186 x 106 and manganese in the Atlantic Outer to 628 x 106 tonnes of ore.4 Continental Shelf (OCS) are available as future alternatives to onshore mining and MINERALS EXPLORATION ACTIVITY importing. Several new developments concerning nonenergy minerals have taken Two mining companies, DuPont and Associated place on the OCS during the last 2 years. Minerals, explored for heavy mineral These include seabed prospecting by deposits offshore Georgia in 1986. This industry, establishment of two involved gathering geophysical data and Federal-State Task Forces to assess the obtaining and analyzing core samples likelihood of offshore mining, and release primarily for titanium-bearing minerals of studies on the economic feasibility of such as ilmenite, rutile, and leucoxene. mining offshore North Carolina and Georgia. In addition, there has been continuing Although there are currently no commercial low-level exploration and research on mining operations on the Atlantic OCS, sand Atlantic OCS minerals by the U.S. is being commercially extracted from Geological Survey (USGS), several channels in New York Harbor, and it is universities, and a few State geological dredged in State waters periodically for surveys. Recently, several cores obtained beach nourishment projects. by the U.S. Navy for platform sites offshore of Georgia were analyzed for mineral content by the USGS and State of Georgia. These cores showed that the INTRODUCTION Middle Miocene phosphate-bearing sediments were richer and more widespread than The Atlantic OCS has large deposits of a previously thought.5 Such efforts are number of mineral resources including sand resulting in the establishment of a and gravel, phosphate, manganese, calcium sizeable offshore minerals database that carbonate, ilmenite and other heavy will be of great importance in evaluating minerals (figure 1). Sand and gravel these deposits in the future. deposits are nearly ubiquitous in the Atlantic, but the higher quality, cleaner NORTH CAROLINA TASK FORCE deposits tend to occur north of New Jersey in glacial sediments. Inferred resources A joint North Carolina-Federal Task Force of 7.5 x 1011 cubic meters of sand have was established in March 1986 to examine been estimated for the U.S. Atlantic the likelihood of mining offshore phosphate continental shelf by Duane and deposits. The task force contracted a Stubblefield.' Heavy minerals occur in geologic, engineering, and economic study older beach and strandline deposits in of the North Carolina continental shelf which extensive reworking of the sand has area, which was completed in December 1987. concentrated the heavier sand grain The study3 addressed the potential size of constituents. These deposits are known to the phosphate resources, the technology exist in a number of places on the Atlantic needed to extract and process the OCS, but the most favorable sites are those resources, the present and future phosphate offshore New Jersey, Virginia, and Georgia. markets both in the United States and the Estimates of heavy minerals on the Atlantic rest of the world. It also made discounted OCS are about 1.3 x 109 cubic meters.2 cash-flow economic analyses for a Phosphate deposits are known to exist hypothetical mine site in onslow Bay, North offshore from North Carolina to Georgia and Carolina. The study estimated that as much possibly even to Florida. Phosphate re- as 99 billion tonnes of phosphate ore lie sources are estimated to be as high as 10 beneath the North Carolina continental 783 United States Government work not protected by copyright hypothetical, economically favorable 750 70' 650 mining operation in the late 1990's. The study determined that dredge mining would 450- be more economically attractive than borehole mining. However, by assuming much higher phosphate prices in the next century, the study claims that borehole mining could become economically feasible. Borehole mining is far less disturbing to 450 the ocean bottom than dredge mining. It provides a superior alternative for mine 100 waste disposal and would allow mining areas where the overburden is too thick to excavate by dredging. IA TASK FORCE GEORG 0 rganized in July 1986 by the State of orgia and the Minerals Management Service Ge 40' in response to the mineral exploration activity offshore Georgia, the Georgia- Federal Task Force directed a study by an 350 industry consultant of the geology, technology, and economics of mining phosphate and heavy minerals offshore. The study6 identified a hypothetical mine site for phosphate about 6 miles east of Savannah Harbor and a similar site for heavy minerals about 30 miles southeast of Savannah Harbor. Similar to the North Carolina report, the study concluded that phosphate prices must rise from the current 30* $22-$30/tonne to $35-$42/tonne for offshore mining to be profitable. Heavy mineral prices would have to rise from an average price (for five different mineral commodities) of $127/tonne to at least CP $152/tonne to economically mine these minerals offshore. Phosphate mining is considerably more capital intensive than EXPLANATION heavy mineral mining both in processing and SAND AND GRAVEL 2@' disposing of waste materials. F@_M@ HEAVY MINERALS @250 = PHOSPHATE NORTH ATLANTIC SAND AND GRAVEL Ffffffl MANGANESE Near future offshore mining activity for sand and gravel is most likely to take place in the North Atlantic. This 2 OPO commodity is already being shipped great 800 750 distances by land into the major northeastern metropolitan areas and serious consideration is being given to importing it from Canada and Europe. Large Figure 1. Location of major marine quantities of sand and gravel occur less mineral deposits in the Atlantic OCS. than 30 miles offshore of New York, Boston, and Norfolk. the only offshore commercial sand and gravel mining operation on the shelf, of which there are probably over lo Atlantic coast is in New York Harbor. billion tonnes of recoverable concentrate Here, a company is dredging the ship averaging 7.3 percent PJ050 However, these channel and processing the material for estimates were based on y n shallow construction aggregate. Also, a number of drilling and ocean bottom sampling; deeper coastal communities dredge sand from State drilling will be needed to prove that these waters for beach restoration or deposits contain reserves. Optimistically nourishment. higher world phosphate prices and relatively low operating costs could result, according to the study, in a 784 SUMMARY 6. Zellars-Williams Company, 1988, Resource Assessment Study for Georgia Offshore Other areas of future potential for Minerals: prepared for the Atlantic offshore mining are Virginia Environmental Protection Division of (heavy minerals), New Jersey (sand and the Department of Natural Resources, gravel and heavy minerals), and Florida State,of Georgia, Atlanta, GA, 238 p. (sand and gravel, carbonate sand, and heavy minerals). As onshore reserves are depleted and land-use pressures halt development of new mine sites, the offshore deposits will become increasingly important in maintaining domestic production of these minerals. REFERENCES CITED 1. Duane, D.B., and Stubblefield, W.L., 1988, Sand and Gravel Resources: U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf: in Sheridan, R.E. and Grow, J.A., eds., The Geology of North America, vol. 1-2, The Atlantic Continental Margin, U.S., Geological Society of America, p. 481-500. 2. Grosz, A.E. and Escowitz, E.C., 1983, Economic Heavy Minerals of the United States Atlantic Continental Shelf: in Nearshore Sedimentology, Tanner, W.F., ed., Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Coastal Sedimentology, Florida State University, p. 231-242. 3. DPRA, Inc., 1987, The Economic Feasibility of Mining Phosphorite Deposits of the Continental Shelf Adjacent to North Carolina: prepared for the office of Planning and Assessment, North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Raleigh, NC, 192 p. .4. Manheim, F.T., Popenoe, P., Siapno, W.D. and Lane, C.M., 1982, Manganese- phosphorite deposits of the Blake Plateau (Western North Atlantic Ocean), in Halbach, P., and Winter, P., eds., marine Mineral Deposits; New Research Results and Economic Prospects: Essen, Verlag Glueckauf, v. 6, p. 9-14. 5. Manheim, F.7., Popenoe, P., Huddlestun, P.F., Henry, J.V., Commeau, J.A., Da Silva, J.L., and Herring, J.H., 1988, Phosphorite Potential in the Georgia EEZ: Results of the TACTS Core Studies: Preliminary Report compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and submitted to the Georgia Hard Minerals Task Force, 80 p. 785 EVENTS OF THE SUMMER OF t87 Dr. John B. Pearce DOC/NOAA/NMYS Northeast Fisheries Center Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 ABSTRACT disease in such animals. Although routine monitoring of the New York Bight has been done by In the summer of 1987 the shorelines of New state, local, and federal agencies, in recent Jersey were beset by a number of unusual years shortages of personnel and funds for envirormiental events. These included .the monitoring studies have resulted in a relatively beaching of dead and dying dolphin s, unusually low level of monitoring activity. consequently, large amounts of debris washing ashore, and sources and fates of pathogens and toxic perceptions that the coastal zone was polluted substances, and their effects, are still poorly and unsafe for swimming. A Blue Ribbon Panel was known in the overall New York Bight. cammissioned to study the events; its conclusions and recommendations are given. In late 1987 the Commissioner of the New Jersey DEP, in response to the events of the summer of 1987, decided to commission an independent Blue Ribbon Panel which would review what had trans- INTRODUCTION pired the past summer, evaluate the relative importance of the various events, and provide During the summer of 1987 the New Jersey shore advice to the State as to what had happened and was visited by numerous events that had untoward what could be done in the future to ameliorate consequences. large numbers of marine mammals, such events and their effects. especially bottlenose porpoises, were washed onto the beach; more often than not these large animals were dead or dying. At the same time THE FINDINGS OF TBE BLUE RIBBON PANEL many beaches were found littered with debris of unknown origin. The floating and beached wastes The Panel, consisting of over a dozen scientists, consisted of garbage, wooden debris, petroleum managers, and citizens from various agencies and contaminants, and various hospital wastes. backgrounds, met early in January 1988 to develop Finally, measurements were made which the thrust of the studies to be done. It was occasionally indicated that bacterial decided early-on that the Panel would review to contaminants existed in coastal waters and hence the degree possible all information related to there was concern about the safety of swimming. the events of the summer of 1987, look at various generic studies that might relate to such events, These various events were reported widely in the commission certain independent investigations and local and national newspapers as well. as on local analyses, and, based on these, develop syntheses and regional radio and television.' Merchants, which would allow conclusions to be reached and resort owners, marina operators, and commercial reccmuendations, to be made. and recreational fishermen were particularly vocal about the reported events. The New Jersey During the second meeting of the Panel, public Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) hearings were held in Asbury Park and Atlantic frequently cam under fire for not being able to City so that the concerned citizenry, political evaluate fully the situation, or for not doing entities, scientists and managers, and local sameth business leaders could bring to the attention of the Panel their various views on the events. In most instances, there was relatively little several hundred individuals participated in these that could be done immediately. Like many marine hearings. Following the hearings, and between scientists, the personnel of the New Jersey DEP major meetings, the Panel continued to work on an understood fully that the debris could have come intersessional basis. studies and reviews were from literally hundreds of sources, including done in regard to water and contaminant movement many from out-of-state. Wile marine mammals, as they might be related to wind direction and including porpoises and whales, are, quite large strength. Public health officials considered the and fairly commonly sighted, and continue to be matter of debris on the beaches and its possible of interest to the public, relatively little is relationship to contagious diseases. The general known about their biology, and very little is matter of water quality and its relation to local known about their diseases or the causes of surface drains and industrial and domestic 786 United States Government work not protected by copyright outfalls were reviewed. Full consideration was o Floatables: Floatables were deemed highly given to the relevance of the events of the visible and unacceptable. Reports of "garbage summer of 1987 and effects on living marine slicks," plastic floatables, and tar balls are resources. riot unique to New Jersey and are a worldwide problem. A review of research papers and reports The four subsequent meetings and numerous ad hoc indicated that floatables and beach litter have gatherings provided an opportunity for tl@orcZ;Ti multiple sources, including: refuse resulting discussions of the issues and for the interroga- from beach use; combined sewage outfalls; poorly tion of State officials who had been or continued managed landfills; materials jettisoned from to be involved in matters relating to the sumTer small and large vessels; and oily substances of 1987. which originate from industrial sites, roadways, and airports, as well as railways and vessels. From the meetings and associated studies and The Panel concluded that far higher volumes of seminars, the Panel reached specific conclusions, floatables existed in the New York Bight and developed a series of recommendations to be coastal waters than in many other coastal areas. considered by C=Ttissioner Dewling, Governor The way to reduce floatables is to control them Kean, other state officials, and the public, and at their source. incorporated these in a Reportl. The conclusions in the Report are as follows: 0 Ocean Diffl?ggai of Contaminated Materials: Feasible alternatives to present o Stranding and Deaths of marine Ymmals: The disposal practices of contaminated dredged hypothesis that the deaths of the bottlenose materials include: borrow pit disposal, capping, dolphins could be attributed to pollution in the use of dredged materials for sanitary landfill New York Bight or New Jersey coastal waters cover, and contairment islands. The Panel during the stmmer of 1987, was not supported by concluded that implementation of alternative evidence presented to the Panel. methods for the disposal of contaminated dredge materials will have great bearing on the o Water Qual The Panel concurred with the improvement of coastal water quality. public and the DEP that problem with coastal water quality are of the utmost importance and 0 Industrial Waste Pretreatment: The Panel must continue to receive the attention of local, concluded that a technologically sound, ccEprx-- state, and federal agencies. Closures of hensive, and strictly enforced pretreatment shellfish beds for harvest, occurrence of fish program is absolutely essential for short- and diseases such as finrot, and the accumulation of long-term improvement of water quality along the chemicals such as PCBs and dioxins in fish and coast of New Jersey. It is important that the shellfish are indicators of persistent water wastes reclaimed by pretreatment be reused, quality problem in the New York Bight, recycled, or disposed of in an erivirormentally especially the nearshore waters. safe manner. 0 Waste DigpMa : The Panel realized the o Variability in Natural Processes: The Panel importance of this issue and concluded that there concluded that acts of nature played a major role are many sources and many ways of reducing the in the events of 1987. Wind patterns during the amount of wastes deposited into the marine summer of 1987, were different from the patterns envirormmt. The evidence suggested a need for cienerall observed from 1948-1986. These enforcement of existing regulations and for far patterns intensified the garbage and other waste more concern by local gaverrmwants, and the washup problems on beaches during 1987., citizenry in regard to beach management. 0 ion of Seafood: The Panel 0 Hospital Wastes: Hospital-type wastes recognized that persistent water quality problems including syringes, IN. bags, and gauze affect the perceived wholesomeness and quality of dressings were reported to be part of the beach some fish and shellfish. There is no evidence to litter during the summer of 1987; the Panel, with suggest that the events of 1987 contributed to appropriate public health input, concluded that these problems. The DEP has comprehensive it is virtually impossible for a person to monitoring programs in place; the Panel made contract AIDS or other diseases through any form recommendations aired at improving these programs of beach litter subjected to ocean conditions for and improving the quality and abundance of several days. fishery resources in New Jersey. 0 ocean pgMiM of Sewage Sludge: Ocean o Enforcement: The Panel concluded that the dumping occurred in coastal waters for aver a present enforcement of exist conservation and half century at the 1112-mile site" within the New environmental laws and regulations is inadequate york Bight Apex. There continues to be great to ensure protection of public health, as well as concern about ocean disposal of sewage sludge at that of marine and coastal resources. the 11106-mile site" beginning in 1987. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated o Education: One of the elements missing from the 106-mile site for disposal of sewage sludge the New Jersey DEP's existing programs is a for a period of 5 years, ending in 1991. The EPA coordinated, highly visible effort to educate may redesignate the site provided that the citizens about coastal issues and to increase effects of such dumping are deemed acceptable. public participation in the regulatory process. 787 This program should include informa tion on problems caused by outfalls that combine sewer development, pollution, and resources as well as and storm water runoff, i.e., combined sewer potential solutions to major problems in this outfalls. important zone. o The DEP must consider the development of 0 Devel The Panel regarded the rate alternatives to ocean durnping and make appro- and type of construction and coastal land use as priate recommendations to communities and the most critical issues facing New Jersey. The agencies which use dumping. density of development and the intensity of land and water use along the islands, bays, and o Me Panel highly recommends that the State estuaries of New Jersey place exceptional address the problems of continued release of pressures on aquatic ecosystems and the living toxic chemicals into the coastal environment by resources. The issues often revolved around inpraving research, monitoring, permitting', and waters and their uses but the solutions mist be enforcement components of its existing industrial found on land. waste pretreatment program. o DEP Coordination: The Panel believed that 0 The Port Authority of New York and New the DEP should more carefully coordinate its Jersey must take a vigorous leadership role in several activities related to coastal issues. the planning of future dredged material disposal facilities and sites. 0 Coastal Commission: Although the Panel was not asked to review specific proposals,. for a o Consideration should be given to expanding coastal commission, it recognized that some of the number of variables rmitored and to the recommendations that follow can be addressed developing a more statistically sound sampling by the proposed coastal commission. program. o Research: The Panel recognized that there 0 Data management systems for monitoring mmt be a coherent, state or interagency should include adequate quality assurance/quality supported ocean research and monitoring program controls. to achieve an understanding of complex ocean and estuarine system. Such an understanding is o The state and Federal agencies must develop essential to a future multiple-use management monitoring criteria for unreasonable degradation strategy. that are agreed to, published, periodically The recommendations developed in relation to the reviewed and updated, and enforced. conclusions of the Panel touched on aspects of o The DEP must continue to improve its moni- development, water quality, coastal ocean public toring programs for toxic chemicals in marine health issues, control of litter and hence organism and for microorganisms in shellfish and floatables, enhancements of fisheries resources habitats. and their habitats, increased enforcement of regulations, increased education at all levels of 0 It mist be required that sanitation society, and coordination of activities to (toilet) facilities be located at beaches in improve the wellbeing and usefulness of the sufficient mubers to handle all beach users. coastal zone. , Page limitations prevent listing the recommendations in detail. The following o The DEP in coordination with the counties are, however, some of the more important and Department of Health as well as the U.S. EPA highlights of the Panel's recommendations: should continue beach monitoring efforts at cravxl?d beaches, for bacteria and other indicator o The density of development on the coast organisms. should be lowered. Future development mist be limited to areas presently providing adequate o Lifeguards, beach administrators, and beach infrastructure, utilities, and services. New cleaning personnel should be educated by State growth should not occur in undeveloped, officials (DEP and DOH) prior to the bathing environmentally sensitive areas. season in regard to issues concerning public o Local zoning ordinances must be sensitive health and water quality issues. to environmental values and strictly enforced to o The DEP mist require an increase in the control urban sprawl. number of vessel sanitary pumpout stations in the 0 Direct runoff of contaminant and debris backbays and estuaries. laden waters into coastal waters should be o The DEP must work with the legislators and prohibited and prevented. sewerage authorities to improve operation and o The DEP should work toward improving public maintenance of all sewage treatment plants. systems designed and implemented to control 0 The DEP must continue to develop and pollution caused by land development. enforce statewide standards for municipal public works activities such as drain cleaning and 0 The DEP mist work with the appropriate street sweeping; storm drains must have trash agencies and industry to reduce or eliminate the collectors. 788 0 The DEP and tile Attorney General must continue to work with the State of New York and habitats on the land mass. New York City to improve solid waste handluxj Practices at transfer points within N.Y.C. Without limits on development and without proper management of terrestrial habitats it will be o The DEP and the Attorney General must work impossible to prevent continued degradation of riverine, estuarine, and coastal habitats and the toward increasing penalties, and strengthening many amenities associated with them. and enforcing the littering laws. o The DEP or local agencies should provide REF P.ENCES sufficient litter containers and trash 1. The New Jersey Blue Ribbon Panel on ocean receptacles, and litter control grants (under Incidents - 1987. 1988. The State of the ocean strict regulations and guidelines) should be made - The Report by the Blue Ribbon Panel on ocean available to municipalities. Incidents. New Jersey Department of o Manufacturers of packaging, and especially Envirormiental Protection, Office of Science and floatable products, should be encouraged to Research, Trenton, New Jersey. May, 1988. develop alternatives. Thirty-three pages. 0 The DEP should continue to support an aggressive recycling program for glass, cans, and plastics. 0 The majority of the Panel believed that having a container deposit bill will reduce the amount of litter on the beaches. o The DEP mist commit sufficient financial resources for research in shellfish contamination to determine the most effective strategy for preventing both potential public health risks and resource degradation. 0 The Panel recommended that a thorough review of all State of New Jersey environmental and conservation laws be undertaken and provisions made for more stringent interpretation, stiffer penalties, and timely judicial processing. o Building upon the Environmental Education Act of 1971, the DEP should initiate a program with the Department of Education to educate all citizens about ocean issues. o The DEP should institute a position in the Ccmmissioner's Office for a Coastal Activities Coordinator and an Advocate. 0 The Coordinator would be responsible for preparing an annual agenda for ocean research which would assist the DEP to achieve its mission. The reader can see that the Panel stressed the importance of enforcement, education of the general citizenry, future monitoring and research, and the necessity somehow to manage development in the future so that it will have minimal effects on coastal resources and other uses of the coastal zone. Of special note is the recamendation to regulate or license develcpTent so that it occurs in areas al developed and serviced with proper infrastructure, including roads, high levels of sewage treatment, and mass transport system. The Panel recognized that while the issues develop in aquatic habitats and involve fish and people, solutions can only be found in limiting developTient and managing 789 IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE SUMMER OF 1987, NEW JERSEY FLOATABLE INCIDENTS Lawrence Schmidt, Director Planning Group office of the Commissioner New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection ABSTRACT The New Jersey coastal area Initially, the public response was suffered from a number of cascading to seek out and prosecute the pollution incidents during the Summer of individuals responsible for this 1987. The various incidents are despicable act. When a "smoking gun" described and observations are made on could not be identified, it became more the resultant public policy initiatives, apparent that the region's waste the implication for the shore economy, disposal practices, or lack thereof, and the need to focus on long term were largely responsible for the solutions. hospital-like waste in the coastal ocean. The floatable incidents of 1987 mark a turning point in our resolve to improve the health of the ocean. But is it possible to eliminate or reduce ocean pollution without first solving the myriad of problems associated with The events along the New Jersey management of waste streams on land? coastline during the Summer of 1987 have The New York Bight directly or set the stage to bring ocean pollution indirectly receives pollution resulting to the forefront as one of the from the day-to-day activities of over preeminent environmental issues facing 20 million people. the Nation. The coastal waters of the New York Bight have long been plagued During the summers of 1987 and with anthropogenic inputs such as 1988, veteran beachgoers in New Jersey floatables, nutrient enrichment, and and on Long Island have noted that the contaminated water in the surf zone. water in the surf zone has never been so Prior to 1987, coastal pollution was of filthy. A valid question is why now, local concern and lacked national why not f ive, ten, or twenty years ago? significance. However, on August 13, The States of New York and New Jersey 1987 a 75 mile long slick of refuse, and the federal government have recently timbers, and hospital waste washed taken a number of actions designed to ashore on New Jersey's premier beach improve water quality in the Bight and communities. The insult of syringes, in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. For hypodermic needles, blood bags, and example: bandages was repugnant to the beachgoers, public officials and the - New York City has eliminated the community at large. This event, in discharge of 225 mgd of raw sewage combination with the concurrent dolphin by placing two new sewage treatment deaths and beach closings attributed to plants on line. bacterial contamination, galvanized the public's disgust with ocean pollution - All of New Jersey's coastal and catapulted the issue into the sewage treatment plants are now national limelight. operating at a secondary level of treatment. CH25ss_8/88/oo00_ 790 $1 @1988 IEEE - Sewage sludge disposal has been 1987. Over one hundred bills and relocated from the Bight Apex resolutions were quickly introduced into (12-mile Site) to a new site off of the New Jersey legislature. Governor the Continental Shelf (106-mile Thomas H. Kean proposed a 14-point Site). Action Plan to Preserve New Jersey's Ocean and Beaches. Hearings were held - The cyclical nature of dredging and bills introduced in Congress. The has resulted in a significant New Jersey Department of Environmental downturn in the volume of dredged Protection and the New Jersey Attorney material being disposed of in the General's Office took steps to learn ocean over the past several years. about the nature of the floatables problem and take corrective actions to - All but one industrial permittee minimize similar ocean incidents in the has phased-out ocean disposal of future. Some of the legislative waste materials. proposals were farsighted and necessary, others sought a "quick fix" based on an other factors have not changed oversimplification of the problem. substantially in recent years. The region's storm drains, combined sewers, and overland drainage have not been radically altered. As a society we On balance, the legislative process continue to produce solid waste, litter seems to be working well by providing at will, and use fertilizers and the regulatory agencies with the tools pesticides without hesitation. necessary to address a complex set of Non-point sources of water pollution are issues. Existing regulatory and now being recognized as a major resource management programs as well as contributor to coastal and Pstuarine the initiation of lawsuits have also water quality degradation. But these been utilized to protect the coastal factors in themselves don't explain why ocean from further degradation. The our beaches have suddenly turned filthy. f ollowing is a list of significant actions which have been taken since the Probably the best explanation of Summer of 1987: the current state of affairs is the variability in natural processes. Dr. - The Commissioner of the NJ Lawrence Swanson will shortly present a Department of Environmental paper on the meteorological conditions Protection formed a Blue Ribbon which lead up to the garbage and medical Panel to report on the ocean waste washups on the New Jersey Shore incidents of 1987. In May of 1988, during the Summer of 1987. In previous the Panel issued a report, State of work he concluded that ... "During summer the Ocean. The Report provided an months prevailing winds have a independent scientific viewpoint on pronounced effect on the qistribution the incidents and made many far and fate of floatables" It is ranging recommendations. Dr. Jack interesting to note that during the Pierce served as the Panel's Summer of 1988, New Jersey's beaches chairman (Dr. Larry Swanson also have been relatively free of floatable served as a panel member). incidents while New York City, Long Island, and even New England beaches - In November 1987, New York City have taken a beating from washups of entered into a consent agreement medical wastes. with the State of New Jersey to improve its management practices Wind patterns and other with respect to solid waste which meteorological conditions cannot be could end up in a waterway. legislated. However, there has been heightened political interest in - State legislation was enacted to responding to the coastal incidents of beef-up New Jersey's Marine Police. 791 The emphasis of the legislation is - legislation by the State of New to establish a presence in the Port Jersey to expend $125 million to of New York/New Jersey for the upgrade stormwater management purpose of surveillance and systems in coastal areas and enforcement against marine correct combined sewer overflows in polluters. urban communities within the Hudson Raritan Estuary. - State legislation was enacted to make intentional dumping of The ocean incidents of 1987 have materials in coastal waters a had a devastating effect on the State of criminal offense in New Jersey. New Jersey. Coastal tourism and recreational activities along the coast - State legislation was enacted to contribute between $7-8 billion to the prohibit New Jersey communities State's economy each year. Tourism has from the disposal of sewage sludge become the State's number one industry. in the ocean after March 17, 1991. There is no absolute method to estimate the economic losses attributable to - The United States Senate ratified pollution, beach closings, or the MARPOL Annex V which will prohibit current negative image of the Shore. In overboard disposal of plastics from 1988, merchants and businessmen estimate ships in international waters and that business is off by as much as 30%. strictly regulate other forms of Although the downturn in the shore solid waste disposal by ocean going economy is primarily the result of vessels. continued coastal incidents and media "hype", many other factors can influence - Federal legislation was enacted a person's decision to spend a day or a to implement MARPOL Annex V, week at the shore. The high cost of require EPA to study methods to summer rentals, traffic congestion, reduce plastic pollution, and have crowds, or poor weather are but a few EPA prepare a New York Bight factors that are taken into Restoration Plan. consideration. - The EPA Administor selected the The events of 1987 could have New York - New Jersey Harbor f or easily been forgotten in the public's inclusion into the National Estuary mind if it were not for the medical Program. A Management Conference waste and the resulta L fear that will be convened to develop a swimming could lead to illness or Comprehensive Conservation and disease. Medical waste has tarnished Management Plan. the image of the Shore, and more importantly, the image of the entire In addition to the above, there are State. The citizens of New Jersey take a number of pending State and Federal great pride in the beautiful beaches of legislative initiatives designed to the New Jersey Shore. The State has reduce ocean pollution, especially worked hard to reverse a once negative floatables. These include: image. Now, those relatively few incidents, many of which have been - legislative proposals to track overexaggerated, have done untold damage medical waste so as to ensure by violating the State's greatest proper disposal natural resource. - federal prohibition of ocean Unfortunately, the prospect of disposal of sewage sludge after economic recovery for the Shore in 1989 1992. and the following years rests more with the variability of natural processes 792 than by the legislative juggernauts in Trenton, Albany, and Washington, DC. Tracking medical waste through a manifest system or imposing criminal sanctions for improper disposal does not get to the heart of the problem. Very simply the New York Metropolitan area has run out of adequate facilities within reasonable distances to dispose of or recycle all types of solid waste. What will New York City do when the Fresh Kills Landfill runs out of space? Virtually all of the solid waste produced in Northern New Jersey is trucked to out of State landfills. The likelihood for new facilities being sited and on-line is not encouraging at this time. Community resistance and the not-in-my-backyard syndrome have delayed much needed resource recovery plants on both sides of the Hudson. The prospect of siting incinerators for infectious medical wastes and municipal sewage sludge is equally dim. The floatables that washup on our beaches are simply the artifacts of a society that has not come to grips with the management of all types of wastes. The ocean will become free of pollution only when the people of the region finally accept the risk of having facilities in their backyards and are willing to pay the price for decades of neglect. 1. The Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Incidents - 1987; THE STATE OF THE OCEAN; May, 1988; Appendix I - Floatables, by R L Swanson; New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 793 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS LEADING TO THE 1987 WASHUP OF FLOATABLE WASTES ON NEW JERSEY BEACHES AND COMPARISON OF THESE CONDITIONS WITH THE HISTORICAL RECORD R. L. Swanson @ Robert Zimmer', and Charles A. Parker 2 iWaste Management Institute, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000, 2 NOAA/OAD During the summer of 1987, the New York Bight and the larger Mid-Atlantic Bight once again experienced a series of There were a few unusual sources of incidences whereby waterborne floatable materials that contributed to the 1976 waste materials and debris were stranded incident (i.e. , a sewage sludge tank along beaches from New Jersey to Virginia. of particular concern were the explosion in Hempstead Bay and pier fires stranded. carcasses of dolphin and in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary); it has hospital wastes. Examinations of the been established that there were unusual local climatological data help to explain the process by which floatable material incidents in 1987 as well. Specifically, was transported shoreward. Concern this past summer there were several cases however exists that, short of eliminating of illegally disposed municipal and the sources, the events of 1987 portend beach conditions of the future. hospital wastes. However, the bulk of noxious materials continue to reach Bight The climatology of the summer of waters and beaches from the same sources 1987 is compared with that of 1976 when similar strandings of floatable wastes in 1987 as in 1976. These include occurred on the south shore of Long combined sewer outfalls (CSO) from the Island. The summer wind record of these New York-New Jersey metropolitan area and two years is also compared with the historical wind record 1949-1987. These poor solid waste handling practices at analyses indicate the unusual nature of transfer points as well as during conditions that prevailed in both 1976 transport in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and 1987 and how they differed from each other While major washups of floatable and at the Fresh Kills Landfill. other waste; are unusual we now know under what contributors include commercial and conditions they are likely to occur. recreational boats, and outflow from bays Emphasis must be placed on alleviating the problem at the sources. and estuaries. The larger floatables typically do not occur in quantity in sewage sludge as they are effectively screened. With In the summer of 1987, the New regard to finding floatable wastes York Bight and the larger Middle Atlantic (particularly tampon applicators) Bight once again experienced a series of associated with sewage sludge dumping, it incidences whereby waterborne floatable should be pointed out that previous waste materials and debris were stranded investigations have led to negative along beaches from New Jersey to results. That is, essentially none have Virginia. Of particular concern were the been recovered when using neuston nets to stranded carcasses of dolphin and skim the surface waters behind sludge hospital wastes. These events rekindled dumping vessels. In the 1976 the overall attentiveness to the issue of investigation, with the use of marketing water quality in our marine waters and statistics, estimates of potential how we might relieve the stress placed inefficiencies in the sewage treatment upon them. system, and knowledge of oceanic transport processes, it was estimated During the summer of 1976, the wash- that only 7% of the tampon applicators up of floatables was so extensive along recovered on the beaches were, the south shore of Long Island that the theoretically attributable to ocean Governor of New York declared Nassau and dumping. Suffolk counties disaster areas. The President assigned the Job Corps, under The Hudson-Raritan estuary serves the supervision of the U.S. Coast Guard, as the greatest source of floatable waste to clean the beaches. to the Bight since the bulk of the individual sources tend to be located around the periphery of the estuary. CH2585-8/88/0000. 794 $1 @1988 IEEE Floatables are effectively flushed from in current flow in bottom waters and the estuary during the time of the spring transported a subsurface bloom of freshet, typically from March to May in phytoplanktons acros the shelf which the upper Hudson. The impact of the converged on the New Jersey coast. freshet on the Bight lags this by about Oxygen replenishment was inhibited in one month so that large quantities of bottom waters and the massive bloom floatables can be expected to be flushed created an excessive oxygen demand. The into coastal waters at or near the time floatable load was heavy because of of the commencement of the summer beach extremely large river runoff in may. season. Other than at the time of the spring freshet, the floatable load at any In 1987, the New Jersey Department one time in the estuarine plume is of Environmental Protection has indicated largely a consequence of the relatively that the wash-up of floatable material recent rainfall history. A heavy rain was prevalent during the periods of 27-29 following an extended dry period will May, 13-16 August. Also during the most likely produce the heaviest volume periods 3,4 and 9,10 September, heavy of floatable material; streets will be concentrations of floatable material was cleansed, sewage treatment plants observed off the coast of New Jersey. bypassed, and the transfer points and landfills flushed by runoff and perhaps The May incident was prece .eded by higher storm high waters. it takes a the flushing action of the spring freshet rainfall intensity of only a few of the Hudson River. Based on river hundreths of an inch per hour for an hour stage data at Green island, the peak flow or more in the metropolitan area for is estimated to have reached the Bight in sewage treatment plants to be bypassed. early May. Easterly to southeasterly winds occurred over, much of 18-27 May Once floatable materials are (Figure 1), driving the recently flushed flushed into the Bight, they are subject floatable material back toward the New to the physical oceanographic and Jersey coast. meteorological processes operating on Bight waters. Most frequently they will Easterly to southeasterly winds be carried, preferentially with the dominated the period of 5-14 August Hudson-Raritan estuarine plume along the (Figure 2). Further, between 3-10 New Jersey coast. This is why the August, there was rainfall in excess of beaches at Sandy Hook are so often two inches in the metropolitan area which cluttered with undesirable materials. undoubtedly thoroughly flushed the streets, combined sewers, and other major The general flow of surface waters sources of floatables. Thus there were over the continental shelf is from the meteorological conditions that led to northeast to the southwest parallel to heavy concentrations of floatables along the trend of the coast. Floatable the New Jersey coast this past summer. materials in the surface layers are Streaks of floatable material were transported with these currents but also observed on two occasions just off the influenced by wind driven transport. coast in early September but in neither instance did the material wash ashore in During summer months prevailing appreciable quantities. On 31 August and winds have a pronounced effect on the I September a total rainfall of 0.6 in. distribution and fate of floatables. was recorded at J. F.Kennedy (JFK) Typically the prevailing wind is from the Airport. Over the period 6 - 8 September south or southwest. These winds tend to another 0. 8 in. of rain was recorded. transport the floatables to the north and Easterly winds blew much of the time east. Thus floatable materials will tend between 4 - 8 September (Figure 3). Thus to be well disbursed - some lost at sea, there was the potential to wash materials others creating the general clutter that into the Bight and then ashore during the we have objected to on both New Jersey period of concern. For comparison see the and Long Island beaches. progressive vector diagrams for the months of June and July 1987 (Figures 4 In 1976, the prevailing summer wind and 5). The winds were by and large to field intensified and was extremely the north and offshore. Floatables were persistent for a period of two weeks (9- not reported as a problem during June and 25 June), driving the floatable material July. northward and eastward and eventually ashore on Long Island. This wind condition was an important aspect Review of the 1987 summer contributing to the large-scale oxygen climatological information suggests that depletion in Bight bottom waters later in the normal southerly to southwesterly the summer. The winds created a reversal wind field was less persistent and less 795 energetic than normal. Throughout the however, if floatable material was in the summer the normal wind field was surface waters of the Bight, there was a interrupted with winds from the east and good possibility that it would be washed northeast. As a consequence of the less ashore. This would also include energetic winds, the northeasterly to carcasses of 'bottle nose dolphins that southwesterly flow of surface waters was may have died of natural or other causes., intensified. The Hudson-Raritan River Table I. a. Wind constancy for the plume stayed closer to the New Jersey months of June, July and August for 1976 coast than is typical of these months. and 1987 compared with the 25-year normr Currents and their loads of floatables 1949-73. veered shoreward in response to the winds b. wind energy for 1976 and from the east and northeast. 1987 expressed as a percentage of the Review of the wind records norm, 1949-73. relative to the historical record (1949 - 87) and the reference period (1949 - 73) Constancy indicates that the 1987 winds were on an average considerably different. For Month Norm 1976 1987 example, see Figures 6 and 7 that display the progressive vector diagram of the June 31.9 55.3 26.2 monthly resultant winds for the period May through September and June through July 39.1 38.8 28.7 August. The resultant vector for both the five month and three month cases are August 28.1 23.3 13.1 considerably shorter and slightly west of the 25-year mean resultant vector. b. Energy Statistically the lengths of the resultant vectors for the two periods are June 100 104 84 significantly different from the mean of the two series (historical record and July 100 104 67 reference period). The direction, however, is not. These conditions are August 100 129 94 indicative of the winds, having blown from easterly and northerly quadrants A major fact is that floatable more than usual. wastes are ubiquitous in the New York Bight. The sources of floatable waste in Meteorologists use a measure called the New York Bight are primarily from "constancy" as an indicator of the combined sewer outfalls, poor solid waste persistence of the wind blowing f rom a disposal practices, commercial and given direction. The higher the value, recreational boats, and outflows from the more persistent the wind; a steady bays and estuaries. Occasionally wind would have a constancy of 100. The accidental spills, illegal discharges, 25-year norms for June, July and August etc. , will add to the normal heavy at JFK Airport are tabulated. in Table I floatable load. Source reduction and more along with the corresponding values for intensive beach clean-up endeavors are 1976 and 1987. The lower values of the the only solutions to the problem as constancy in 1987 suggest that the wind meteorological and oceanographic was more variable about the mean conditions will often tend to intensify direction and that the wind did not just the quantity of floatables on the blow from the same southerly to beaches. ocean disposal of sewage sludge southwesterly direction, but with less at the 106 nautical mile site is not a intensity. These data indicate two significant contributor to the floatable unusual but totally different wind problem. fields. Thus stranded floatable material would be expected to be greater than Certain technological improvements normal f or each of the years but in one should be explored to reduce the case, on Long Island, on south shore quantities of floatable waste reaching beaches and in the other on New Jersey marine waters: beaches. - Improve operation and maintenance Interestingly, the meteorological of sewage treatment plants, conditions of 1987 contributed to relatively high dissolved oxygen levels - Strive to reduce or eliminate in nearshore bottom waters in the Bight. combined sewer overflows,(CSO), Thus while aggrevating the floatable situation in New Jersey, the summertime - Explore more thoroughly,alternatives climate also improved the health of for isolating material released to the bottom waters in 1987. Essentially, marine environment by combined sewer overflow, 796 - Continue to improve the process of removing litter and floatable debris from streets and other paved areas Figure 2 served by combined sewer systems, PROGRESSIVE VECTOR DIAGRAM - Improve solid waste handling DAILY WINDS SUMMER 1987 practices aimed toward recycling and 2 the use of wastes as an energy source,. 1.8 - AUGUST - Improve the process of transferring 1.6 - materials to landfills and reduce the 1.4 - 20 volume of material escaping to 1.2 - estuarine,and marine water from land- 1 fills, and 0.8 - 1 10 25 - Intensify removal of floatable L(Lni 0.6 - 3 materials from area beaches to reduce _j in 0' 0.4 - J__ !D 0.2 -0 Figure 1 z START PROGRESSIVE VECTOR DIAGRAM 0 AUGUST 1 DAILY WINDS - SUMMER 1987 -0.2 2 -0.4 1.8 -0.6 WASH-UP 1.6 MAY -0.8 EVENT 1.4 -1 1.2 6.6'-6.2 0'2 0'6 1' 1'4 1.'8 1 (Thousands) 0.8 f'n I` ,j 0 0.6 _j in 0.4 0 START z 0.2 MAY I 0 -0.2 51 H 10 -0.4 Figure 3 -0.6 WASH-UP -0.8 PROGRESSIVE VECTOR DIAGRAM 1 2 DAILY WINDS - SUMMER 1987 -1 -0.6 -0.2 0.2 0.6 1 1.4 1.8 MILES 1.8 SEPTEMBER (Thousands) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 c@ 0.8 V) 'j 0 0.6 _j U) ;i Z' 0.4 0 F- 0.2 0 START z 0 SFPT j - 30 -0.2 - -0.4 - OFFSHORE -0.6 - EICONCENTRATIONS -0.8 - -1 1 T I -1 -6.6'-6.2 0.2 0.6 i 1.'4 1.'8 (Thousands) 10 21 @3 @TART Y@ 797 Figure 4 Figure 6 PROGRESSIVE VECTOR DIAGRAM ANNUAL P.V.D. OF MAY - SEPTEMBER 2 - DAlLY WINDS - SUMMER, 1987 13 - AIR MASSES, 1949 TO 1987 1.8 - 12 - 1.6 - JUNE 11 - 1.4 - 10 - 2 1.2 - 9 - 1 8 q 0.8 7 0.6 25 6 LLJ a 0.4 T 5 0 F- 20 E :3 cl@ 0 0.2 0 4 0 z 57-V START 13 JUNE 1 -0.2 10 15 2 -0.4 1 -0.6 0 -0.8 1 -2 -6.6 -6.2 0'2 0'6 1' 1'4 1.8 -3 (Thousands) -3 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 (Thousands) miles Figure 7 Figure 5 ANNUAL P.V.D. OF JUNE- AUGUST PROGRESSIVE VECTOR DIAGRAM AIR MASSES, 1949 TO 1987 2 DAILY WINDS -SUMMER,1987 12 1.8 JULY 3 1.6 10 1.4 15 25 1.2 1 2 8 U) En 0.8 6 10 0 c 0.6 U) Uj a E D -j (0 0 D 0 0.4 4 0.2 0 15 z 0 START JULY 1 2 -0.2 -0.4 0 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -2 0 8, 110 .1 112 -1 -6.6 -6.2 0'2 0'6 1.4 1.8 ('Thousa'nds) (Thousands) miles References Swanson, et al. 1978. June 1976 Pollution of Long Island Ocean Beaches. of the Environmental Engine Journal ering @2 @25 Division. ASCE, Vol. 104, No. EE6. pp1067-1085. 798 UNUSUAL INTENSIFICATION OF CHESAPEAKE BAY OYSTER DISEASES DURING RECENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS Eugene M. Burreson and Jay D. Andrews Virginia Institute of Marine Science School of Marine Science College of William and Mary Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062 ABSTRACT hardest hit were the private planters who had been producing about 85% of the annual harvest. MSX Two protozoan parasites of oysters, Haplosporidium causes about 50% annual mortality in the endemic nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus. have severely area (4) , and this rate is intolerable for limited the harvest of oysters in lower Chesapeake transplanted seed stocks that require two or three Bay during the past 30 years. The distribution and years to mature to marketable size. All of the abundance of both parasites appears to be regulated traditional private growing areas in the lower by salinity and the three consecutive drought years James River and Mobjack Bay have been abandoned from 1985-1987 have resulted in a dramatic increase since the early 1960's because of the continued in mortality from these diseases in Chesapeake Bay. presence of MSX. Oyster mortality from MSX in monitoring trays at VIMS was 77% and 78% for 1986 and 1987 The distribution and abundance of both diseases respectively. the highest values ever recorded in appear to be controlled by salinity. In years with 28 years of continuous monitoring. In addition. normal rainfall, MSX is restricted to the lower Bay Perkinsus was at record high levels and. for the and the lower portions of tributaries south of the first time in history. both diseases invaded and Rappahannock River (4). During periods of drought, caused serious mortality in the upper James River MSX may spread throughout upper Virginia and many seed-oyster area. The increased salinity resulting Maryland tributaries into populations of highly from low runoff over the watershed allowed both susceptible oysters, but it recedes as rapidly when diseases to spread deep into the Maryland portion salinity returns to normal. MSX requires about 15 of the Bay in 1987 and cause serious mortality. ppt salinity to infect oysters and usually does not Bay-wide oyster stocks are now severely depressed cause serious moralities unless summer salinity and prospects for rapid recovery are poor. reaches 18 to 20 ppt (4, 5) . However, these limitations are coupled with seasonal fluctuations in salinity that allow expulsion of the parasite in spring if salinity drops below 10 ppt for ten days INTRODUCTION or more (6, 7). Two protozoan parasites of oysters. Haplosporidium Perkinsus marinus requires only about 12 to 15 ppt nelsoni. popularly called MSX, and Perkinsus salinity to infect oysters and cause mortality marinus, popularly, but improperly. called Dermo. (3, 8). Therefore. it has a far wider endemic area cause serious annual oyster mortality along the than MSX and persists in nearly all Virginia Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. MSX tributaries and also in the lower portions of causes oyster mortality from Massachusetts to Maryland. Furthermore. Perkinsus is suppressed but Chesapeake Bay (1). and an organism similar to MSX not easily exterminated by low salinities. It can has been reported as far south as Florida (2). persist several years at low seasonal salinity Perkinsus causes mortality throughout Chesapeake without causing appreciable mortality. Nearly all Bay. south along the Atlantic coast, and in the oyster growing areas reach 12 to 15 ppt salinity Gulf of Mexico (3). during average summers. which allows some multiplication of Perkinsus. MSX first appeared in Delaware Bay in 1957 and spread to the lower Chesapeake Bay in 1959. METHODS Perkinsus has probably always been endemic in high salinity portions of the Bay and has caused The annual abundance of MSX in the endemic area is significant. but tolerable. mortality. However. determined by placing susceptible oysters from the within a few years of the appearance of MSX the upper James River seed area into trays in the lower annual Virginia oyster harvest decreased from an York River. Replicate trays of 500 oysters each average of about 3.5 million bushels to less than I are established on May lst each year. Counts of million bushels (Figure 1) . The industry in live and dead oysters are made semi-monthly Virginia has never recovered. During the 1960s through December. Dead oysters are removed. mortality was high on public oyster grounds. but Samples for histological diagnosis of MSX CH2585-8/88/0000- 799 $1 @1988 IEEE prevalence are removed in August. September and streamflow since 1985 has not been particularly low October. All gapers (recently dead oysters) are (Table 1). there has been greatly reduced winter processed for histological diagnosis. First season and spring streamflow which has allowed salinities (May - December) mortality is determined from the to increase far above normal. and the typical number of live oysters remaining in each tray after spring expulsion of MSX has not occurred in many adjusting for those removed for diagnosis. areas. MSX again invaded deep into the Maryland Abundance of Perkinsus is not adequately assessed portion of the Bay in 1987. Both MSX and Perkinsus in tray samples because this parasite spreads are presently at record high levels of intensity slowly into imported oysters. and have invaded farther into Virginia and Maryland tributaries than ever before. During 1986 and 1987 The annual distribution of MSX and Perkinsus. and the first season mortality from MSX in monitoring the intensity of Perkinsus. are determined by trays at VIMS was 77% and 78% respectively. the analyzing samples of native oysters from most highest values ever recorded in 28 years of growing areas in Virginia. Perkinsus is diagnosed continuous monitoring (Table 1). The prevalence of by the thioglycollate culture method (9). Perkinsus was greater than 90% in important growing areas such as Pocomoke Sound and the lower EFFECT OF DROUGHT CONDITIONS ON Rappahannock River and mortality was high. During DISEASE DISTRIBUTION AND INTENSITY 1987 there were only two locations in Maryland that did not have one of the two diseases (C. Austin There have been three prolonged droughts in Farley, Oxford Cooperative Laboratory. Oxford. MD. Chesapeake Bay during the period 1960 to 1987. personal communication) and in Virginia, for the During each multi-year drought, 1963-66, 1980-82, first time in history both diseases invaded and and 1985-87 (Table 1). MSX invaded upper Virginia caused serious mortality in the upper James River and many Maryland tributaries and caused extensive seed area, a region usually protected by low mortalities. MSX invaded deep into the Maryland salinity (Table 2). portion of the Bay in 1982 after a very dry 1981 (Table 1) . Only the years 1983 and 1984 brought Although Perkinsus was overshadowed by the high some relief from drought. These two years mortality caused by MSX during the 1960s and eliminated MSX in most areas above its endemic 1970s. it is presently the most serious threat to zone. but they did not stop Perkinsus which has oyster populations in the Bay. The spread of been steadily advancing up the Bay and increasing Perkinsus into areas with dense populations of in intensity during the 1980s. Even though annual susceptible oysters and favorable salinities has allowed a rapid intensification of infections and unusually rapid transmission from bed to bed rather, Table 1. First season (May-December) mortality than the more typical situation of confinement to a from MSX in monitoring trays and mean annual total single bed with slow transmission from oyster to streamflow in Chesapeake Bay (X 1000 CFS) oyster. Streamflow data from USGS. The intensification of Perkinsus and a comparison Year Mortality (%) Streamflow of the different responses of MSX and Perkinsus to low salinity is illustrated in Table 2. Neither 1960 30 77.3 disease was present at Wreck Shoal in June. 1987, 1961 33 78.0 but both MSX and Perkinsus became abundant during 1962 35 69.8 late summer and fall with a high proportion of 1963 42 52.4 heavy and moderate infections. During winter of 1964 44 61.9 1988. prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus 1965 56 49.0 1966 56 53.3 1967 62 77.2 Table 2. Prevalence and intensity of Haplospor 1968 44 60.1 idium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus at Wreck 1969 48 54.9 Shoal in the James River, Virginia seed area. 1970 42 77.2 1971 41 79.0 MSX Perkinsus 1972 7 131.8 DATE INF./EXAM.-% H-M-L* INF./EXAM.-% H-M-L 1973 20 95.2 1974 59 76.9 6-15-87 0/25 - 0 0/25 - 0 1975 51 103.1 8-20-87 12/25 - 48 1-1-10 14/25 - 56 0-0-14 1976 56 84.4 9-23-87 6/25 - 24 1-0-5 25/25 -100 3-6-16 1977 51 80.1 11-4-87 10/25 - 40 2-1-7 23/25 - 92 5-3-15 1978 42 91.3 1-7-88 10/25 - 40 4-1-5 20/25 - 80 1-1-18 1979 49 113.8 2-4-88 13/25 - 52 2-1-10 17/25 - 68 0-1-16 1980 56 64.0 3-2-88 14/25 - 56 2-0-12 17/25 - 68 1-2-14 1981 48 54.2 4-6-88 14/25 - 56 1-0-13 12/25 - 48 0-0-12 1982 38 73.0 4-27-88 13/25 - 52 1-0-12 4/25- 16 0-0-4 1983 30 88.2 6-6-88 9/25 - 36 3-2-4 14/25 - 56 3-3-8 1984 13 99.7 7-6-88 3/25 - 12 0-0-3 21/25 - 84 2-6-13 1985 42 68.4 7-27-88 3/25 - 12 0-0-3 22/25 - 88 10-3-9 1986 77 69.4 1987 78 74.0 *H=heavy infection, M--moderate. L=light 800 gradually declined, but MSX persisted through The increase in Virginia landings since 1985 is April. May. 1988 was very wet and by early misleading. Estimated overall mortality for public June salinity at Wreck Shoal was near 10 ppt. beds in Virginia during 1986 and 1987 was between Although there was some development of MSX in early 70 and 90% as a result of the combined effects of June as water temperature increased. it appears both MSX and Perkinsus. Because of the scarcity of that the low salinity greatly reduced the market oysters on most public beds in 1986. small prevalence and intensity of MSX (Table 2). seed oysters from the James River were harvested However. the prevalence of Perkinsus was not as market oysters for the first time in history. affected by the low salinity; it rapidly Prior to 1986, these small oysters were always intensified as temperature increased in early transplanted to private beds for additional growth. summer and heavy infections developed much earlier During the 1986/87 season. 68.4% of the market than in 1987. oysters harvested from public beds came from the James River seed area, and during the 1987/88 EFFECT OF DISEASES ON CHESAPEAKE BAY OYSTER HARVEST season. 91.0% of the oysters came from the James River seed area (VMRC, unpublished data). Thus. The drought conditions and resulting increase in the impact of diseases has caused a change in oyster disease intensity and distribution has been market oyster production in Virginia from the catastrophic for oyster populations. Total annual traditional harvest areas to the James River seed Chesapeake Bay oyster landings declined area. This change has resulted in a slightly dramatically in the early 1960s. primarily because increased harvest, but has effectively denied of the impact of MSX on Virginia Landings (Figure private planters an economical source of seed 1). A second major decrease in landings occurred oysters. and has concentrated the fishery in a very in the early 1980s as a result of the spread of MSX small area with risk of overfishing. With into Maryland and intensification of the disease in broodstocks already seriously depleted rapid Virginia. Harvest increased slightly as a result recovery of the industry is unlikely. of the wet years 1983 and 1984. but harvest in Maryland was depressed again in 1987, as a result of both diseases. 7.0- TOTAL LAND146S 6.0- VRr2N1A LANDINGS .......... MARYLAND LANDNGS C1 _J) 5.0- W 3: 4.0- co U- 0 3.0- Vo C13 z 0 2.0- 1.0- 0.0 m e Figure 1. Annual Chesapeake Bay oyster production.. Virginia data courtesy of the Virginia Marine Resources Commission; Maryland data courtesy of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. vor, 801 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 5. Haskin. H. H. and S. E. Ford. 1982. Haplosporidium nelsoni on Delaware Bay seed We thank Juanita Walker for expert diagnostic oyster beds: a host-parasite relationship along assistance for both MSX and Perkinsus. Kenny a salinity gradient. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 40: Walker. Beth Robinson and Judy Meyers assisted in 388-405. the field. Virginia Institute of Marine Science contribution no. 1477. 6. Andrews, J. D. 1983. Minchinia nelsoni (MSX) infections in the James River seed-oyster area REFERENCES and their expulsion in spring. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 16: 225-269. 1. Andrews, J. D. 1988. Haplosporidium nelsoni disease of oysters. Pgs. 291-295 In: 7. Ford, S. E. and H. H. Haskin. 1988. Sindermann, C. J. and D. V. Lightner (Eds.), Comparison of in vitro salinity tolerance of Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American the oyster parasite, Haplosporidium nelsoni Marine Aquaculture. 2nd Ed. Elsevier. (MSX) and hemocytes from the host. Crassostrea virginica. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 90A(l): 2. Hillman. R. E., P. D. Boehm and S. V. Freitas. 183-187. 1988. A pathology potpourri from the NOAA mussel watch program. J. Shellfish Res. 7(l): .8. Mackin, J. G. 1956. Dermocystidium marinum 216-217. and salinity. Proc. Nat. Sbellfisheries Assoc. 46: 116-1128. 3. Andrews, J. D. and W. G. Hewatt. 1957. Oyster mortality studies in Virginia. II. The fungus 9. Ray. S. M. 1952. A culture technique for disease caused by Dermocystidium marinum in diagnosis of infection with Dermocystidium oysters of Chesapeake Bay. Ecol. Monogr. 27: marinum Mackin. Owen, and Collier in oysters. 1-26. Science 116: 360. 4. Andrews. J. D. 1984. Epizootiology of diseases of oysters (Crassostrea virginica). and parasites of associated organisms in eastern North America. Helgolander Meeresunters. 37: 149-166. 802 DISTURBANCES IN CORAL REEFS: LESSONS FROM DIADEMA MASS MORTALITY AND CORAL BLEACHING Christopher F. D'Elia and Phillip R. Taylor Biological Oceanography Program, Division of Ocean Sciences National Science Foundation Washington, DC 20550 ABSTRACT programs, and we speculate where the best opportu- nities will arise for basic research to make funda- Population fluctuations are common features of ma- mental advances in understanding these population rine ecosystems. In western tropical Atlantic coral fluctuations. Finally, we argue that future scientific reefs, the sudden mass mortality of the sea urchin, credibility and success will depend in large part on Diadema antillarum. in 1983-84, and the widespread the ability of scientists to educate the public about the bleaching of corals, in 1987, were well publicized practical value of basic research and on the willing- events. Unfortunately, the causes are unknown. ness, in turn, of the public to support such research. Episodic perturbations like these frustrate a scientific 2. BACKGROUND Fommunity that is hard pressed to explain them to an impatient public. The typical a posteriori analysis Figure 1 illustrates a simple point that is perhaps employed seems ineffective to us in establishing cau- more simply made by the old aphorism that it does sality in such cases; instead, robust basic research little good to lock the barn after the horse has escaped. programs, undertaken by skilled observers and ex- One cannot easily deduce the cause of a population ex- perimentalists, offer more promise. We propose that plosion or mass mortality after it occurs: yet the hue periodic ecological disturbances in tropical benthic and cry is to investigate the direct effects on the sub- communities should be construed as natural experi- ject population, when the clues are sparse as to the Inents and opportunities to make observations lead- nature of the causative agent(s). In any case, if a ing to substantial insight into other aspects of ecologi- chain of causative events is suspected, distinguishing, cal function and population ecology. To support this, from proximate and ultimate causality is often impos- we compare ecological effects of Acanthaster out- sible after the fact. However, the great opporunity to breaks in the Pacific, Diadema mortality in the west- assess indirect effects on populations dependent on ern tropical Atlantic, and coral bleaching events in the subject population is not often appreciated. both places. Disturbances occur in virtually all ecosystems-rain forests to chaparral, coral reefs to the deep sea. The term "disturbance" as it pertains to ecological sys- 1. INTRODUCTION tems has been used wit@ ambiguity in the literature (see Pickett and White 2 for review); here we use it Population densities of marine organisms typically sensu Taylor and Littler to include all factors that di- vary widely with time. Such variations go mostly un- rectly or indirectly cause the removal of organisms noticed because the species in question is not a struc- and the freeing up of substratum. These factors could turally visible component of an ecosystem, because it include physical influences (storms, fire, ice scour- is economically unimportant, or because adequate ing, predators, active interference by competitors) and census information for it is unavailable. Occasional- physiological stresses (toxins, pathogens, pollutants, ly, scientists note radical changes in population den- extreme temperatures or salinities, etc.) which can sitV. Sometimes the public becomes aware of the affect morbidity, and in severe cases, mortality. scientific observations or alerts scientists to specific events. Only rarely can scientists provide adequate The spatial extent to which disturbances affect a com- cause-and- effect information to explain such phe- munity can vary tremendously. While most distur- pomena. Yet public impatience is growing with the bances have localized effects, such as individual pre- inability of scientists to provide adequate and timely dation events, a pulse of pollutants from a point answers, and scientists are recognizing the need to source, wide ranging effects seem more likely to re- address this disaffection. late to meso- or macroscale climate events, and in some cases, pathogens. Here we consider disturbanc- In this paper, we consider variations in the popula- es that act over very extensive areas, but it is impor- tion densities of several marine organisms that have tant to recognize that these are composed of the sum captured widespread public attention. We speculate of effects on local populations. about the causes of these events, which we term "idio- pathic," borrowing the term medical science applies Below we provide case study examples of region-wide to diseases arising from an obscure or unknown perturbations for coral reefs for which cause-and- cause. We use these examples to show that our best effect relationships are poorly defined. We will not re- clues to causes and effects of idiopathic population strict ourselves to Atlantic and Caribbean examples, fluctuations have come from strong basic research but will consider coral reefs world-wide. 803 United States Government work not protected by copyright Causative $ublect llh@ Indirectly Agent Population PF Affected Populations -pathogen Where Effects Are Where Effects Are -predator 'Competitor First Observed, Where Often Ignored,- -physical disturbance Efforts Are Typically Where More Effort -physiological stress Focused Should Be Focused Figure L A diagram relating typical agents of population disturbances to their proximate and ultimate effects. siderable loss of competent larvae by off-reef trans- 3. CASE STUDIES port). Crown-of-Thorns Population Explosions The lesson of Acanthaster is clear: clues to outbreaks rest not only in isolated studies of individual popula- The major effects in tropical Indo-Pacific reefs related tions, but in the development of a more synthetic un- to the well-known, but heretofore inscrutable out- derstanding of the ecosystems in which the species is breaks of Acanthaster planci. can be viewed from two found. We have gained little in trying to piece the very different foci-the causes and the consequences. puzzle together after the fact. However, the changes Viewed from either perspective, there is more hope that Acanthaster has wrought on coral reef commu- for understanding these population explosions if t e nities illustrate the key roles of the species most sus- entire system of predators, community associates, ceptible to it. and abiotic influences are not viewed simplistically from the perspective of isolated populations, but rath- Diadema er from the perspective of the entire ecosystem. The dramatic die-off in 1983 of Diadema antillarum in The effects of these population explosions of Acan- the western tropical Atlantic Ocean MA) remains a thaster are similar to those of the other examples giv- mystery with regard to its etiology", although in- @n below, i.e., coral bleaching and sea urchin die-offs formed guesses about the whats and why.1,can be in over-fished regions, in that reefs are suddenly left made. The speed and trajectory of the die-off ' impli- with vast amounts of "bare" substratum open to the cates water-born pathogens as potential causes. The processes of colonization and succession. initial observation at Galeta, Panama, at the Atlantic mouth of the Panama Canal hints at some trans- Understanding the cause of these population explo- canal introduction. With our very limited understand- sions results from understanding the population dy- ing of the role of marine pathogens in controlling flor- namics of Acanthaster, its reproductive life history, al and faunal populations, and our poor success at and contril-ling factors (chemical, physical and bio- isolation, identification, and culture of pathogens, dis- logical) in larval, juvenile, and adult stages. This is ease as a cause, will be difficult to pursue. not an easy pursuit, but is one in which attention to ecological complexity is paying off. Early, simplistic The consequences of the loss of this sea urchin from hypotheses related to pollution, loss of predators, and the entire WTA region, however, placed in context of adult behavior (see Potts' for review) have not been ro- basic research on herbivore-plant relationships, are bust enough to account for the occurrence of out- not surprising. This predictability rests on our knowl- breaks in geographically and ecologically different edge of the general role of such regularly encountered reef systems where levels of pollution, terrestrial in- urchins in shallow-water ecosystems of tropical and fluences, ambient nutrients for primary producers, temperate seas: (1) the intqrTelationships with prey, anthropogenic impacts and "normal" population den- competitors and predators"; (2) their reproductive sities of Acanthaster vary widely. Even Birkeland's4 ecology; (3) our understanding of the variation of ur- more mechanistic view of the importance of terrestri- chin densities in space; (4) qiq appreciation of the al runoff and plant nutrients does not appear to apply consequences of perturbations" to associated species to outbreaks in regions that are constantly oligotroph- populations of the commu 'nity/system, and ic and far from terrigenous influence. ous occurrences of abrupt population declinesh),YTv'_ Approaches directed at larval phases gV@.Jecjnulti- This knowledge derives from basic research in popu- ple processes affecting recruitment . . . . offer lation and community ecology of marine grazer spe- much potential for understanding why population cies or systems in which grazers are common; it also densities can vary so widely. The abilities of larvae to clearly points to the need to consider such an "event" develop normally with V low phytoplankton densi- in the context of the system when we ask questions ties typical of coral reefs , the morphology and behav- about effects and causes. To understand the conse- ior of pre-settling larvae, the relationiNp between the quences of the demise of Diadema in the WTA, we occurrence of outbreaks and currents , a @he bathy- must also look at what has caused it to flourish in q@ have I much of this region. This is because the consequences metric patterns of observed recruitment ed Olson to predict (pers. comm.) that outbreaks occur are very much dependent upon antecedent conditions. stochastically following the unusual retention of large larval cohorts on reefs (the usual situation being con- Coastal harvesting of reef-associated fish stocks is in- 804 tense in many regions of the WTA (e.g., Haiti, Jamai- to confirm on a broader level what we know from ca, the Virgin Islands); it is relatively low-level in oth- more restrictive experimental manipulations. er regions (e.g., Belize, Honduras, some of the Baha- mas). The harvest is primarily by way of artisanal Coral Bleachin fisheries with a preponderance of use of gill nets and fish traps which can decimate fish populations. In Considerable attention was paid in the world press to heavily fished regions, primary competitors (parrot- observations in the fall, 1987, of widespread "bleach fish, surgeonfish, chubs) and predators (triggerfish, ing" of corals and other zooxanthellae-bearing cm- hogfish) of sea urchins are part of the acceptable darians throughout the Caribbean and Bahamas. The catch, with the result that urchins are released eco- term bleaching refers to the loss of algal endosymbi- I ically from major controlling elements in the natu- onts (i.e. zooxanthellae) from their host invertebrates, 'o rafreef arena. While not shown experimentally, there and it has been a well recognized phenoignon physi- existed in the VVTA prior to the 1983 die-off, a very ologically since the observations Yonge- , who was strong correlation between fishing pressure, reef fish among the first to observe it experimentally. Because stocks and the abundance of Diadema. This relation- bleaching typically occurs when hosts are exposed to ship was seen on regional as well as local geographic stresses such as oxygen deprivation, lowered salinity, scales. For example, in the U.S. Virgin Islands, local or elevated temperature, it is generally regarded as a areas protected from fishing pressure (U.S. National response to a pbysical perturbation, with the latter Parks and territorial reserves) exhibited rich reef fish usually associated with its ecological manifestation- populations and consequently much reduced urchin although there is no evidence to preclude a disease- densities inirgmpanson to nearby areas,without fish- based etiology. Public speculation as to the causes of ing controls". the event were essentially the same as those proposed for Dhaddema mortality several years before: pollution, On the basis of experiiiWital studip _% from before the disease, climate change, etc. die-off, Hay and Taylor and Hay"' contended that ov9rfishing on reefs encourages the success of sea ur- In fact, sporadic reports of transitory coral bleaching chins, particularly Diadema, via reduced population events in the WTA have been reE?JV . 2ftseein to re- controls of competition and predation. Once well esta- late well to temperature stress I , . However, blished, the urchins themselves can depress herbivor- we are not aware of any published scientific reports ous fish (competitor) populations by exploitation of re- documenting the previous widespread occurrence of sources and faci4tate their own success. From this, the phenomenon in the WTA, as was reported in the Hay and Taylor" predicted that in overfished areas, popular press for 1987. While there is no doubt that the loss of urchins will have a greater effect than in widespread observations of severe bleaching oc- non- fished areas because: curred, several problems have arisen in interpreting the seven't of the event: (1) many of the observations 1. Compensatory shifts in grazing pressure were anecYotal, not systematic, owing to the relatively' are hampered. Both functional and numerical limited presence of trained observers and researchers (recruitment and population increases) re- in the Caribbean; (2) no unifying causative agent sponses by the herbivorous fish guild to the could be identified after the fact; and (3) follow-up loss of urchins are needed in overfished re- studies have been limited owing to fiscal limitations gions, rather than the predominantly func- on research budget-, of nations in the Caribbean ba- tional responses (greater resource consump- sin. Moreover, the sensational nature of press reports tion per individual) in areas of lower fish has rendered it difficult to place the dimensions of the harvesting. problem in perspective. 2. The population density of urchins will be In contrast to the recent bleaching events in the WTA, larger due to the decreased abundance/impact there have been widespread observations of persistent of key urchin controls (predators). coral bleachings in the tropical Pacific that have beg well documented in the scientific literature. Glynn Intra-region comparisons of heavily fished and pro- provided convincing evidence that the widespread in- tected waters around St. Thomas following the 1983 cidence of this disturbance in the eastern Pacific was die-off support these general predictions, as do much associated with high temperature anomalies relating broader geogra p@ic comparisons, i.e., Belize vs. the to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1983- Virgin Islands . The effect of a >95% reduction in one that has been regarded as a 100-year event. urchin densities in Belize (it remains at better than 90% reduced to date) was essentially disguised by the The recovery of bleached hosts and the resultant long- rich and compensating fish assemblages of the barri- term ramifications of bleaching appear to relate to the er reef system. Community composition, algal pri- length of the stress event more than the size of the mary productivity and the abundance of algal assem- temperature anomaly, Corals that bleach as a result blages have remained within the realm of normal of short-term, acute temperature stress (up to about variation. The importance of ecological context is un- 40C over maximum thermal tolerance level) often ap- fortupt3tely not frequently recognized and consid- peq, ii? and repopulate with zooxanthel- ereq@ 2 r, 8.,9 Reports on the results of th g-off to lae n contrast, long-term, chronic tem- date , have focused only on what someTA , would perature stress (approximately 20C over maximum consider to be anomalous states of reef systems in thermal tolerance level) may cause massive mortality which fish populations are uncharacteristically low. to susceptible sn nd can lead tn. substantial eco- logical alterations "7 found that lipid W@9 Glynn et al.- The lesson from Diadema is straightforward: natural depletion in corals accompanied the loss of zooxan- experiments" (i.e. mass mortalities) have enabled us thellae and increased morbidity and mortality; they 805 suggested that a long-term influence on coral recov- cause medical science has a more constrainted focus ery to chronic temperature stress relates to the loss of and is more mature scientifically, but the comparison nutritional benefit of the zooxanthellae. Although dis- is nonetheless instructive. While medical science has ease does not appear to be the primary causative developed strong support for both a research compo- aWt of bleaching and mortality in the eastern Pacif- nent and a healing component that communicate ic", as a secondary effect, stressed corals ypear to with each other well, in the environmental sciences, be more susceptible to disease complications the diagnostic and "healing" component (i.e. environ- mental engineering) is poorly developed and commu- When chronic stresses occur, and when bleaching nicates poorly with the research component. There is and high mortality among susceptible species causes no equivalent of the M.D.-Ph.D. in the environmental shifts in community structure, populations depen- science s-someone trained equally to diagnose, to dent on corals as a nutritional source or habitat ex- treat, and to conduct research. In the environmental hibit effects comparable to those described above sciences, we rely on brute force engineering technolo- Acanthaster or Diadema For example, Glynn gy to diagnose and cure our ecological ills. While in found that the relative effect of corallivore predation medical science it would be preposterous to make nu- by Acanthaster and Arothron meleagris (a tetrodon- merical modeling the basis for diagnosis and cure, in tid pufferfish) increased after the 1983 bleaching and environmental science it is de rigueur. While medical coral mortality occurred. Not only were surviving science devotes massive resources to the study of pa- populations of bleaching- susceptible species more thology, in the environmental sciences there is no strongly affected by Acanthaster predation, but also equivalent interest in what might be termed ecopa- were populations of species that although insuscepti- thology, the study of the course of anomalous ecologi- ble to bleaching were more susceptible to Acanthaste cal events. While in medical science handbooks such predation and were often protected from corallivore as the Merck Manual offer physicians an orderly and predation by being surrounded by bleaching- codified guide to the etiology, pathology, diagnosis, susceptible species, but Acanthaster-insu8ceytible prognosis, and treatment of human disease, we have species-the loss of perimeter "defense" appeare to be not even a first approximation of that for environmen- an important factor in the declines of these species. tal science. Clearly, the lesson from the bleaching of corals, like In short, we in environmental science have done a that of other major reef disturbances has not been in poor job of summarizing, codifying and understand- what it has taught us about corals, but instead what it ing what ecosystems have and have not in common. has taught us about indirect ecological effects that Until we do better at this, our ability to diagnose or their population changes have had on other species. correct environmental ills will be extremely limited. We will not be able to do this without adequate basic 4. DISCUSSION research. Although it may never be practical or fully desirable to pattern "ecological medicine" on the mod- Prediction of the effects of idiopathic events on com- el of human medicine, it is probably worthwhile to plex communities is not easy, but in many systems draw eclectically from it. we have enough knowledge based on experimental and correlative studies to help us make educated 5. CONCLUSIONS guesses. If we can infer some generalities in the structuring elements of similar communities from a. Episodic, large-scale fluctuations in populations of geographically separate regions, with different spe- Caribbean marine organisms have received consider- cies components, then predictions may be readily able public notice, but ultimate cause-and-effect rela- achievable. These may derive from basic experimen- tionships are largely unknown. tal investigations, comparative observations, or local- ized perturbations that have affected the same species b*By focusing on proximate effects, i.e., population or related species or associates. Our existing under- fluctuations of a single species, we lose information standing of the habitat requirements, reproductive on ultimate causes. However, opportunities for natu- modes, life histories, trophic interactions, etc., should ral experiments exist infollowing the relations be- give us considerable insight into how communities tween affected species and species that it in turn af- will respond to species losses providing we are able to fects; such experiments have yielded useful generalize from this information. information in the past and offer promise in the fu- ture. Public impatience with science's lack of answers to anomalous events relates, in part, to poor public un- c. Failure of the public and public officials to under- derstanding of how science is conducted. It is axio- stand scientific limitations and to act accordingly can matic that science education and scientific communi- result in public loss of confidence in science and sci- cation to the public must be improved. However, as entists. We must improve science education and pub- environmental scientists, we must ask ourselves lic awareness of the strengths and limitations of what else we must do, and how we can become more science. predictive and better able to ascribe mechanisms to phenomena we observe. d. Continuing support of basic research provides the best opportunities for understanding ultimate cause- Some interesting comparisons can be made between and-effect relationships in idiopathic population de- medical science, which is clearly successful at diag- clines and outbursts. nosing and predicting the course of anomalous events (i.e. disease) and environmental science, which is e. The role of marine pathogens in the etiology of epi- clearly not. The comparison is somewhat unfair, be- sodic populations events is largely unstudied. 806 (14) Scheibling, R.E. and R.L. Stephenson 1984. Mass f. Anecdotal or press-related reports of episodic events mortality of Stronaylocentrotus droebachiensis cannot be relied upon as adequate documentation; we (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) off Nova Scotia, Cana- must rely on the peer-reviewed scientific literature for da. Mar. Biol. 78:153-164. that purpose. (15) Pearse, J.S. and A.H. Hines. 1979. Expansion of a g. A better understanding of "ecopathology" may re- central California kelp forest following the mass mor- sult if we do a better job of comparing ecosystems and tality of sea urchins. Mar. Biol. 51:83-91. codifying and summarizing their characteristics. (16) Hay, M.E. 1984. Patterns of fish and urchin graz- 6. REFERENCES ing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typ- ical? Ecology 65:446-454. (1) Pickett, S.T.A. and P.S. White. 1985. The ecology of natural distubance and patch dynamics. Academic (17) Taylor, P.R., unpubl. Press, N.Y. (18) Carpenter, R.C. 1988. Mass mortality of a Caribb- (2) Taylor, P.R. and M.M. Littler. 1982. The roles of ean sea urchin: immediate effects on community compensatory mortality, physical disturbance, and metabolism and other herbivores. Proc. Nat. Acad. substrate retention in the development and organiza- Sci. 85: 511-514. tion of a sand-influenced, rocky-intertidal communi- ty. Ecology 63:135-146. (19) Hughes, T.P., D.C. Reed, and M.-J. Boyle. In press. Herbivory on coral reefs: community structure (3) Potts, D. 1981. Crown-of-thorn starfish-man- following mass mortalities of sea urchins. J. Exp. induced or natural phenomenon?, pp. 55-86. In: The Mar. Biol. Ecol. Ecology of Pests, R.L. Kitching and R.E. Jones, eds. Melbourne Press. (20) Yonge, C. M. 1931. Studies on the physiology of co- rals, pp. 83-91. Great Barrier Reef Exped. 1928-29, (4) Birkeland, C. 1982. Terrestrial runoff as a cause of Vol. 1, Brit. Mus. outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: As- teroidea). Mar. Biol. 69:175-185. (21) Shinn, E. A. 1966. Coral growth-rate, an environ- mental indicator. J. Paleontol. 40:233-240. (5) Olson, R.R. 1985 In situ culturing of larvae of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. Mar. (22) Jaap, W.C. 1979. Observations on zooxanthellae Ecol. Prog. Ser. 25:207-210. expulsion at middle Sambo Reef, Florida Keys. Bull. Mar. Sci. 29:414-422. (6) Olson, R.R. 1987. In situ culturing as a test of the larval starvation hypothesis for the crown-of-thorns (23) Jaap, W. C. 1985. An epidemic zooxanthellae ex- starfish, Acanthaster planci. Limnol. Oceanogr. pulsion during 1983 in the lower Florida Keys coral 32:895-904. reefs: hyperthermic etiology. Proc. Fifth Int. Coral Reef Congr. 6:143-148. (7) Williams, D. McB., E. Wolanski, and J.C. An- drews. 1984. Transport mechanisms and the potential (24) Hudson, J.H, 1981. Response of Montastrea annu- movement of planktonic larvae in the central section !Uia to environmental change in the Florida Keys. of the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 3:229-236. Proc. Fourth Int. Coral Reef Symp. 2:233-240. (8) Yamaguchi, M. 1977. Larval behavior and geo- (25) Glynn, P.W. 1984. Widespread coral mortality graphic distribution of coral reef asteroids in the and the 1982-83 El Nino warming event. Environ. Indo-West Pacific. Micronesica 13:283-296. Conserv. 11:133-145. (9) Yamaguchi, M. 1986. Acanthaster planci infesta- (26) Glynn, P.W. 1985. El Nino-associated distur- tions of reefs and coral assemblages in Japan: a retro- bance to coral reefs and post disturbance mortality by spective analysis of control efforts. Coral Reefs 5:23-30. Acanthaster planci. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26:295-300. (27) Glynn, P.W., M. Perez, and S.L. Gilchrist. 1985. (10) Moran, P. 1987. The Acanthaster phenomenon. Lipid decline in stressed corals and their crustacean Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 24:379-480. symbionts. Biol. Bull. 168:276-284. (11) Lessios, H.A., P.W. Glynn, and D.R. Robertson. (28) Glynn, P.W., E.C. Peters, and L. Muscatine. 1984. Mass mortalities of coral reef organisms. 1985. Coral tissue microstructure and necrosis: rela- Science 222:715. tion to catastrophic coral mortality in Panama. Dis. Aquat. Org. 1:29-37. (12) Lessios, H.A., D.R. Robertson, and J.D. Cubit. 1984. Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the (29) Antonius, A. 1985. Black band disease infection Caribbean. Science 226:335-337. experiments on hexacorals and octocorals. Proc. Fifth Int. Coral Reef Congr. 6:155-160. (13) Hay, M.E. and P.R. Taylor. 1985. Competition be- tween herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs. Oecologia 65:591-598. 807 RED TIDE, THE FIRST OCCURRENCE IN NORTH CAROLINA WATERS: AN OVERVIEW Patricia A.'Tester, Richard P. Stumpf 1, and Patricia K. Fowler 2 National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Southeast Fisheries Center, Beaufort Laboratory, Beaufort, NC 28516 National 2Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service, NOAA, Washington, DC 20235 North Carolina Department of Human Resources, Division of Health Services, Shellfish Sanitation Program, Morehead City, NC 28557 ABSTRACT On August 24, 1987, 68 days prior to the first reports of a red tide on the North Carolina On 2 November 1987, the toxic "red tide" dino- beaches, 6 P. brevis bloom was reported off flagellate, Ptychodiscus brevis, was identified Naples, FL. Satellite imagery (AVHRR) of sea from nearshore waters of North Carolina. This surface temperatures (SST) and thermal frontal massive and persistent red tide was a major bio- analyses of the position of the Gulf Stream geographic event and extended the range of P. showed a strong shoreward intrusion of the Gulf brevis by 800-900 km. Before the end of tt@ls Stream onto the continental shelf in Raleigh bloom some 3.5 months later, there were 48 Bay on 19 October, 19874. This warm filament cases of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning repor- continued to move shoreward and by 22 October ted in humans and over 1,480 km2 of shellfish was within 7 kin of the shore east of Cape harvesting waters were closed. This affected Lookout (Fig. 1). This parcel of water re- approximately 50% of the waters normally used mained intact for at least 17 days and in- for commercial harvest of oysters and 95-98% of shore waters of both Onslow and Raleigh Bays those areas used for commercial harvest of warmed from less than 210C to 22-240C in clams. The economic loss to the coastal com- about 6 days. Dinoflagellate blooms develop munity was conservatively estimated at $25 mil- in a defined water mass and the sustained lion. The following is a summary of this event. integrity of this water mass determines the duration and extent of a bloom 5. The original parcel of warm water remained intact until 1. OCCURRENCE AND TRANSPORT OF THE BLOOM mid to late November. Satellite imagery of SSTs on 14 December 1987 indicated that On the weekend of 31 October-1 November 1987, another parcel of Gulf Stream water had entered there were reports from people on or near the Raleigh Bay, keeping nearshore water tempera- beach (Emerald Isle on Bogue Banks, NC 34038'N tures warm enough to maintain the P. brevis 77006'W) of water discoloration and eye and bloom6. respiratory distress and skin irritation. These symptoms are frequently recorded during 2. CELL CONCENTRATIONS AND SHELLFISH Florida red tides where waters are closed to HARVESTING BAN shellfishing when P brevis concentrations reach 5,000 cells/_11.@ Normally this species Since P. brevis cells are both motile and is present in the Gulf of Mexico in low con- positively phototactic7, they can concentrate centrations (<1,000 cells/1) but blooms on the surface during the day and physical fac- (>5,000 cells/1) can develop offshore and tors such as percent cloud cover, winds, cur- about 25% of these reach rxearshore areas along rents, and tides affect their distribution. The the west coast of Florida2. There have only highest and most persistent concentrations of been three documented cases of P. brevis cells P. brevis cells were immediately adjacent to the cnthe Atlantic coast of Florida and each of parcel of Gulf Stream water. The highest cell these occurrences was preceded by a bloom on concentrations of this bloom (2,000,000 the west coast. Murphy et al.3 documented cells/1) were within 18 km of Cape Lookout on the transport of cells @Tot'h_e Atlantic coast 4 November, 1987. P. brevis cell concentra- of Florida via the Florida Current-Gulf Stream tions were generall7y @;1_001000 cells/l from System. Each of these three "transported" Cape Lookout Bight to 100 km southwest into blooms occurred in October and none lasted Onslow Bay from 3 November 1987 to late Decem- much more than a week. ber 19874. Based on recommendations of the FDA8 and procedures followed by the Florida Department of Natural Resourcesi, shellfish The U. S. Government has the right to retain waters were closed to harvesting when P. a nonexclusive, royalty-free license in and brevis cells exceeded 5,000 cells/l. to any copyright covering this paper. CH2585-8/88/0000- 808 $1 @1988 IEEE October 22, 1987 Scale 360 00' 0 50 km Cape Hatteras a, 35000, Cape T-t@ Lookout No 2 0 34" 00' 770 00' 760 100' 1330 00' Figure 1. strong shoreward intrusion of the Gulf Stream onto the continental shelf in Raleigh Bay, 22 October 1987. Center of water parcel from the Gulf Stream is 280 C (solid). Drawings based on satellite imagery of sea surface temperatures from S. Baig, National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, FL, J. Clark, National Ocean Service, Camp Springs, MD, T. Lemming, National Marine Fisheries Service, NSTL, MS and R. Stumpf, National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service, Washington, DC. 809 As cells were moved into different areas along P. brevis. We consider it more likely that the coast, sampling efforts were extended and any future red tide bloom in North Carolina additional closures of shellfish beds resulted. waters will result from the transport of The initial closure of 375 km2 was on 2 November organisms by a sequence of physical oceano- and was followed by 5 more closures to include graphic events similar to those which caused more than 400 km of coastline (1,480 km2 of this bloom. Any future efforts to predict shellfish harvesting area). these blooms should consider factors affecting the variability of the Florida Current-Gulf 3. TOXICITY TESTS AND REOPENING OF SHELLFISH Stream System and Continental -9helf transport AREAS mechanisms. P. brevis produces several neurotoxins which 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS can accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish causing mild to severe nausea, vomiting, We would like to thank R.L. Ferguson and P.J. diarrhea, chills, dizziness, numbness and Hanson who collected the samples on 2 November tingling of face, hands or feed within 3 to from which the initial observations and identi- 4 hours after consumption of contaminated fication were made, G.H. Gilbert, D.L. Mason, shellfish. P. brevis toxin can be detected S.W. Mobley, D.P. Clawson, J.P. Lewis, J. King, in shellfisl;-me@a_tsby a standardized mouse bio- L. Brooks, T.D. Willis, L. Settle and T. Stiles assay8 and all openings of shellfish harvest- for sampling and/or counting assistance and ing ar'eas were based on bioassay test results. J. Overton and his staff for their technical The first reopening of a shellfish harvesting assistance. K.A. Steidinger, C. Tomas, and area was on 19 February 1988, some 3.5 months B.S. Roberts we re particularly helpful during after the bloom first occurred. All re- this bloom. Travel funds were provided by the openings prior to 31 March 1988 were for Southeastern Massachusetts University Research clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) only. Oysters Committee for J.T. Turner and his help and support (Crassostrea virginica) apparently depurated made our work far easier. We had an unusual the brevitoxins more slowly. On 31 March level of cooperation, understanding and facili- about 21 km2 of oyster harvesting area was tation from our colleagues and we would espec- reopened but the 80 km reach extending south- ially like to acknowledge F.A. Cross, D.E. Hoss, west of Cape Lookout remained closed until W. Hogarth, and R. Benton for their support. 6 May 1988. This was the area of highest P. brevis cell concentrations as well as 7. REFERENCES the highest toxicity according to the bioassay results9. 1. Florida-Department of Natural Resources, Contingency.plan for control of shellfish 4. NEUROTOXIC SHELLFISH POISONING potentially contaminated by marine bio- toxins. Bureau of Marine Research, St. The epidemiological investigation of cases of Petersburg, FL (1985). neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) revealed that 48 persons were confirmed to have become 2. Steidinger, K.A., Basic factors influencing ill from consumption of shellfish that were red tides. In Proceedings of the First affected by the P. brevis toxin". The ill- International Conference on Toxic Dino- ness was generally mild and of short duration flagellate Blooms (ed. V.R. LoCicero) 153- (mean = 17 hours). Thirty-five of 48 cases 162, Massachusetts Science and Technology (73%) occurred before the first ban on shell- Foundation, Wakefield, MA (1975). fish harvesting was instituted on 2 November and the majority of illness occurred between 3. Murphy, E.B., K.A. Steidinger, B.S. Roberts, 27 October and 5 November 1987. An illness J. Williams and J.W. Jolley, Jr., An that occurred in December was from shellfish explanation for the Florida east coast harvested on 31 October and frozen. Most of Gymnodiniurn breve red tide of November, the people affected by NSP lived along the 1972. Limnology and Oceanography 20:481- North Carolina coast from Cape Lookout to 486 (1975). 75 km southwest. 4. Tester, P.A., J.T. Turner and P.K. Fowler, 5. EPILOGUE Gulf stream transport of the toxic dino- flagellate Ptychodiscus brevis. Submitted Whether this red tide bloom represents true (1988). dispersal of the species or is simply a "transported bloom" of expatriate organisms 5. Steidinger, K.A. and K. Haddad, Biological is not yet known. Some toxic dinoflagel- and hydrological aspects of red tides. lates produce encysted zygotes that remains BioScience 31:814-819 (1981). dormant in sediment as part of a sexual life cycle". In such cases, cysts may seed near- 6. Stumpf, R.P., National Environmental Satel- shore waters for future red tide blooms. A lite Data and Information Service, NOAA, true dormant (zygotic) cyst is not known for Washington, D.C., unpublished data. 810 7. Steidinger, K.A. and R.M. Ingle, Observations on the 1971 summer red tide in Tampa Bay, Florida. Environmental Letters 3:271-278 (1972). 8. National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, Part 1. Sanitation of shellfish growing areas, U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, FDA, Shellfish Sanitation Branch, Washington, DC (1986). 9. Tester, P.A. and P.K. Fowler, Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate (Ptychodiscus brevis) on the contamination, toxicity and depuration of Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria. In preparation. 10. Morris, P., Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, North Carolina, 1987. Department of Public Health, Epidemiology Branch, Raleigh, NC, unpublished report. 11. Walker, L.M., Evidence for a sexual cycle in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Ptychodiscus brevis (=Gymnodinium breve). .-j'f- Transactions the American Microscopical Society 101:287-293 (1982). 811 PATHOLOGY OF THE DISEASED DOLPHINS Delmar R. Cassidy, Arthur J. Davis, Allen L. Jenny, and Dennis A. Saari National Veterinary Services Laboratories Ames, Iowa 50010 Tissue to be examined by transmission electron Introduction microscopy were stained with a five,percen- taqueous solution of uranyl acetatek/) and the During the Summer and Fall of 1987, approximately Venable-Cogsill method for Lead Citrate.(5) Tis- 750 Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) died sues to be examined for the presence and location along the eastern and gulf coasts of the United of lipid deposits were stained with one percent States. Mortality of such magnitude affecting osmium tetroxide(7). Examinations of the tissues animals of all ages, both sexes and in different were.conducted by diagnostic veterinary nutritional states has not been previously pathologists and an electron microscopist. reported. A response team of scientists focused Results on the problem in an attempt to study and, if possible, determine the cause of the deaths. The pathology studies involved the necropsy of This paper presents the results of the pathology dead animals and collection, fixation, process- portion of the study. Standard methods .of. ing, staining, and examination of approximately examination including necropsy, light microscopy, and electron microscopy were utilized. ,Our 400 tissues. Fifteen of the tissues were results indicate that death of the dolphins, in examined by electron microscopy. most cases, came as a result'of an overwhelming Among the more frequently observed gross bacterial infection. Whether this occurred due lesions were the following: to increased virulence of bacteria with which the dolphin has co-existed for many years, or whether 1. Sloughing of large areas of skin to the level some as yet unidentified mechanisms caused a of the subcutaneous tissue. Many of the skin reduction in nonspecific disease resistance and/ lesions, according to Dr. Joseph Geraci, or immunosuppression of the dolphins was not resembled burns from phenol and hydrochloric acid determined by this study. which he had observed in dolphins earlier in his Materials and Methods career. Dolphin tissues were collected .during the 2. Ulcers on the palate, gingiva, lips, tongue, postmortem examination at the Dolphin Study Cen- and skin. ter at Virginia Beach and the Brigantine Strand- 3. Large volumes of port wine-colored fluid in ing Center, Brigantine, New Jersey. The majority the abdominal and thoracic body cavities. of dolphins necropsied were found along the beach. after being washed ashore. In many cases, the 1 4. Spleens enlarged two to three times normal putrefactive, postmortem changes were so advanced size. that the carcasses were useless for laboratory studies and had to be discarded. 5. Yellow discoloration and emphysema of the Tissues collected during necropsy and considered pancreas. suitable for microscopic examination were placed 6. Urinary bladder filled with coffee-colored in 10 percent phosphate-buffered formalin solu- urine. tion. Tissues selected for electron microscopy were cut into I mm cubes and placed in 2.5 per- 7. Pulmonary congestion, hemorrhagic infarction, cent sodium cacodylate-buffered glutaraldehyde and/or bronchopneumonia. solution. Processing and staining of the tissues were by previously published standard methods.1,2 8. Liver abnormalities ranging from severe fatty All tissues for light microscopic examination change to extensive cirrhosis (fibrosis). were stained by the Harris Method for Hematoxylin 9. Brain hemorrhages. and Eosin.2 Where indicated, selected tissues were stained with Gomori's Methenamine Silver, Examination by light microscopy disclosed a wide the Periodic Acid Schiff Reaction method, and Brown and Brenn's tissue Gram stain.(2) variety of pathomorphic tissue alterations attributable to septicemia. The tissue sections 812 United States Government work not protected by copyright microscopy, a consistent finding was the presence contained areas of infarction and numerous of septic thrombi blocking the underlying vas- thrombi in the blood vessels. Myriads of culature. The lack of oxygen and nutrients bacteria were present in many of the thrombi and resulted in the death of the tissue. Many of the appeared to have invaded the walls of blood ves- morphologic manifestations of shock, specifically sels and passed through them into the adjacent of septic shock, which we observe in domesticated tissues. Electron microscopy also demonstrated land animals, were present in varying extent and this change. In many cases, inflammatory cells number frequency in these cetaceans. Some of had surrounded and engulfed the bacteria. In these changes include acute renal tubular several lungs, changes typical of a bacterial necrosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation pneumonia were observed along with a concurrent (widespread clotting within blood vessels) ', mycotic pneumonia. The ulcers and other areas ok sludging or slowing of the blood circulation, and degeneration in the skin were with few exceptions visceral pooling of bood. The manifestations of associated with septic thromboemboli within blood septic shock.when compared with the observations vessels supplying the area. Within the kidneys, made during the necropsy of the dolphins appear changes of acute tubular necrosis were present to be compatible in many respects. Bacteria are along with thromboembolism of the blood vessels. the most likely etiogenic agent of these lesions A fibrinopurulent necrotizing myositis with in view of there frequent occurrence within his- severe diffuse necrotizing vasculitis was present tologic lesion and the large number of isolations in many of the skeletal muscle sections. In the made from the tissues. heart sections, bacterial emboli were detected within the blood vessels'and in some cases, bac- The changes observed microscopically suggest that teria had invaded the blood vessel walls. In an overwhelming Gram-negative, bacterial infec- both lymph nodes and spleens, the most remarkable tion with resulting endotoxemia was the primary changes were the paucity of lymphocytes, areas of cause of septic shock and the death of the necrosis, and bacterial emboli within the vas- dolphins. culature. In the other tissues examined, lesions identical or closely resembling the lesions If the above inferences are correct, what factors described above were seen. The presence of colo-'; are responsible? Two possibilities with the most nies of bacteria in normal appearing tissues were proponents are 1) that the animals became also observed. In many instances, the bacteria immunosuppressed or had increased susceptibility were large Gram positive bacilli. These changes to various organisms or, 2) the virulence of the are recognized as postmortem events occurring causative bacteria became increased by some, as after the death of the animal being examined. yet, undeterm ined mechanism. Discussion While there are several procedures capable of evaluating humoral and cell-mediated immunity as During the die-off of.Bottlenose Dolphins well as macrophage functions, they were not (Tursiops truncatus) along the eastern and gulf applicable to this situation. This was due to coasts of the United States in the Summer and the nature and quality of the specimens and the Fall of 1987, reporting agencies estimated that logistical difficulties previously mentioned. at least 750 Bottlenose Dolphins died. Due to Some observations made during the course of this environmental conditions which enhanced the auto- study support the hypothesis that immunosuppres- lytic and putrefactive decomposition of the dol- sion of the dolphin immune system could have- phin carcasses, less than five percent of played a role in the death of the animals, e.g., thesespecimens were suitable for comprehensive lymphocyte depletion in the spleen and lymph laboratory examination, i.e., bacteriology, nodes and mycotic pneumonia in several of the virology, toxicology, parasitology, and pathology animals. Tissue levels of several potentially immunosuppressive agents are being studied by the studies. The frequent delays in transporting the Pathobiology Laboratory of the National Veteri- specimens from Brigantine, New Jersey, and nary Services Laboratories, however, no defini- Virginia Beach, Virginia, study centers to Ames, tive data was available at the time this Iowa, was due to less than ideal air carrier I presentation was in preparation. scheduling compounded the loss of specimens from decomposition. Increased virulence of the bacteria interfacing To conduct a meaningful examination of tissue by with dolphins in the affected pods is another light or electron microscopy, the specimens must possibility currently being studied by two groups be removed from the carcass and placed in fixa- of scientists in Maryland. tive as soon as feasible. This enhances fixation of the tissue cells thereby retaining the Bibliograph greatest possible degree of structural detail necessary for an accurate diagnosis. The 1. Thompson, R.G. 1984. General Veterinary inability to achieve this accounts for the small Pathology. 2nd Ed. W. B. Saunders Company, number of specimens examined at the laboratory. pp. 431-433. The pathomorphic changes present in the epidermis 2. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1960. of these dolphins appeared during gross examinA- Manual of Histologic and Special Staining Tech- tion to be the niques. 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, result of caustic or corrosive New York. p. 32. chemicals. However, when examined bv light 813 3. LaVia, F. and Hill, R.B. 1972. Principles of Pathobiology. oxford University Press, New York. pp. 149-152. 4. Muneer, M.A., Farah, 1.0., Neuman, J.0., and Goyal, S.M. 1988. Immunosuppression in Animals. British Veterinary Journal 144. p. 288. 5. Venable, H. and Coggeshall, R. 1965. A Simplified Lead Citrate Stain For Use in Electron Microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology 25. pp. 407-408. 6. Glauert, A.M. 1974. Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy. Part I: Fixation, Dehydra- tion and Embedding of Biological Specimens. American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc, New York. p. 60. 7. Hayat, M.A. 1970. Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy. Vol. I. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. pp 264-274, 283-285. 814 STATISTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 1987 BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN DIE-OFF IN VIRGINIA. James G. Mead, Charles W. Potter and William A. McLellan National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC ABSTRACT The mortality affected all age classes (Figure 1)..and is important as it is the A sample of 153 bottlenose dolphins only sample of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) that died during 1987 population that can be considered random. was examined. The age and sex composition That led us to treat it as a separate led us to believe that the factor that sample instead of merging it with our increased the mortality was random with long-term data base. This sample should respect to those parameters. There were 3 valuable in trying to deduce the causes of lactating and 3 pregnant as well as non the mortality. reproductively active females in the sample. The sex ratio was 69 females to MATERIALS AND METHODS 66 males, 16 sex unknown. There were 19 sexually mature females, 20 sexually The Marine Mammal Program of the mature males and 11 dependent calves in Smithsonian Institution examined 153 the sample. The ratio of dependent calves (Figure 1) specimens of dead bottlenose to lactating females (3.6:1) indicates dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that were greater mortality in calves than in mature found on the coasts of Virginia during the animals. months of June through October 1787. Skulls, gonads, stomach contents, vertebral epiphyses, and external INTRODUCTION morphometrics were collected. The summer of 19e7 was unusually warm, providing a In July of 1987 we began to notice handicap in dealing with carcasses. The increased mortality in the bottlenose study lost important data from some dolphin, Tursiops truncatus in Virginia. animals due to decomposition. We had been monitoring cetacean mortality for more than ten years and the historic One tooth was longitudinally sectioned and data (1977-86) provided an average ground to about 150 microns. The section mortality for Virginia in July of was stored in water and examined under a 0.9/year. After 10 animals had been stereo dissecting microscope which was reported in July of 1987 we felt that we equipped with a set of simple photographic were dealing with an unusual situation. polarizing filters. Age estimates were We reported our findings to the Marine made by counting the growth layer groups Mammal Commission and the National Marine following the procedures outlined in Fisheries Service and they rapidly Perrin and Myrick (1980). convened the Dolphin Response Team under the direction of Dr. Joseph Geraci. Mammary glands were examined visually for presence of milk. Ovaries and a sample of Although mortality had been reported from the mammary gland were preserved in 10% North Carolina to New Jersey, we felt that formaldehyde. The ovaries were examined it was best to concentrate our efforts in for the presence of corpora albicantia and what seemed to be the most active center corpora lutea. Presence of either of of mortality, the Norfolk - Virginia Beach those bodies indicated sexual maturity. area. When the morality tapered off in Virginia at the end of October, there had Samples of testes was sectioned and been 233 reported carcasses, 166 of which stained with Berg's stain (Berg 1963). were examined by biologists. In normal Testes samples were then examined under a years (1777-B6) the average for those compound microscope and were scored as months is 4.9. The causative agent immature (no visible sperm or spermat,ids)v responsible for this mortality has not maturing (trace of sperm or spermatids) or been defined as of the end of July 1988. mature (abundant sperm or spermatids). 815 United States Government work not protected by copyright RESULTS towards representation of calves in the sample bya factor of almost 4. Looking Reproduction - females at the ratio of males/females above age 6 (Figure 1), we find 28 males to 18 Of 83 females in the sample, 11 proved females, a ratio of 1.6:1. or, to put it sexually mature and 13 sexually immature. another way, there were 45% more males The longest sexually immature female was than females in this sample. If we assume 230 cm in total length, the shortest that the sex ratio should be 1/1 then some mature female was 236 cm. Using 236 cm as factor led to a decreased abundance of the point at which females become sexually sexually mature females in our sample. mature, all 19 females in the sample with Even if we increase the adult female total lengths exceeding 236 cm were portion of the sample by 45%, we obtain classified as sexually mature. between 4 and 5 lactating females, which Unfortunately we were unable to examine still leaves a 2:1 calf/female ratio. the gonads on 8 of those. The females reached sexual maturity at between 2.2 and It is logical to expect that the normal 6.0 growth layer groups. The oldest natural mortality should be highest in immature female had 5 growth layer groups. calves and that any factor that leads to an increased mortality rate will have a Of the 11 mature females, 3 were pregnant disproportionate effect on the calf And 3 were lactating. Two fetuses were population. Other than that factor there near-term (93 and 110 cm total length) and is nothing in the age or sex structure of one was mid-term (22 cm total length). this sample that leads us to believe it is non-random. Reproductian - males ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Of 55 males in the sample, we were able to confirm 7 sexually mature and 12 sexually We would like to thank the many people immature males, based on presence of whose help made this study possible. Dr. abundant sperm in the testes. The maximum Joseph Geraci, who headed the Dolphin testis length of a sexually immature male Response Team, (University of Guelph), Dr. was 12.3 cm, of maturing males, 12.7 cm. Robert Hofman and John Twiss (Marine The minimum length of a mature testis was Mammal Commission), Dr. Gerald Scottv Fred 13 cm; therefore we can say that males George and Thomas McIntyre (National reach sexual maturity at a testis length Marine Fisheries Service), Gregory Early of 12.7 - 15 cm. The longest sexually (New England Aquarium), Susan Barco and immature male was 242 cm in total length, Mark Swingle (Virginia Marine Science the shortest sexually mature male was Museum) and Wayne Creef (Virginia Beach 248cm. The youngest sexually mature male Beautification Department). Mary Bagladi had 8 growth layer groups in its teeth and prepared the tooth sections on contract. the oldest sexually immature male had 9. This was investigation was aided by an Using 248 cm as the point at which males Interagency Agreement (No. 47-0000-16-MMC- become sexually mature, there were 20 01) from the Marine Mammal Commission and mature males in the sample and 39 immature a grant from the Research Opportunities males. Fund of the Smithsonian Institution. Reproduction - calves LITERATURE CITED Mead and Potter (in press) considered 150 Berg, J. W. 1963 Differential staining cm in total length to be the mean length of spermatozoa in sections of testis. at weaning. There were 11 animals with American Journal of Clinical lengths shorter than 150 cm in this Pathology, 23:513-515., sample. Extrapolating from the growth curve presented by Mead and Potter, there Mead, J. q. and Potter, C. W. (in press) were 22 animals less than a year old (less Natural History of bottlenose than 170 cm in total length) and 14 do'lphins along the central Atlantic yearlings (between 1 and 2 years old; coast of the United States in total lengths between 170 and 200 cm). Leatherwood, J. S. and Reeves, R. R. This was confirmed by the tooth sections (ed).The Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops for this sample. spp.,, @cademic Press. Sample Biases Perrin, W. F. and Myrick, A. C. (eds) 1980 Age, determination of toothed whales In an unbiased sample there should be a and sirenians. International Whaling 1:1 ratio of calves to lactating females. Commission, Special Issue 3, viii + The ratio of calves to lactating females 229 P.P. (3.6:1) indicates that there is a bias 816 Virginia Tursiops Mortality 1967 - use/box commposition 30- Z4 - Z2 - zo - 18- 16- 14- 12- INN z 0 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 0-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-20 21+ P-71 A B C I) CKM E AGE CLASS Figure 1. Age/sex distribution of the 1987 Tursiops mortality in Virginia. Age classes are in growth layer groups. A = sexually immature females, B = sexually immature males, C = sexually mature females, D sexually mature males, E sex unknown. 817 RESULTS OF THE DOLPHIN EPIDEMIC INVESTIGATION AS THE DISEASE WAS PRESENTED IN NEW JERSEY SPECIMENS OF B07MENOSE DOLPHINS IN 1987 William Medway, Ph.D., DVM University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine Philadelphia, PA 19104 Dolphins examined from New Jersey waters demonstrated pox inclusion particles in several tissues. Pox-like lesions were .found around the lips and snout and in soft tissue of the mouth. Histopathologic studies showed pox inclusion bodies which were confirmed by electron microscopy. The significance of the pox virus findings in the overall disease presentation is discussed. CH25054/8810000- 818 $1 @1988 IEEE THE DOLPHIN DIEOFF: LONG-TERM EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF THE POPUI-ATION Gerald P. Scott, Douglas M. Burn and Larry J. Hansen NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Center, Miami Laboratory 75 Virginia Beach Drive Miami, Florida 33149 ABSTRACT information on the biology and status of the affected bottlenose dolphin population is presented in six sections: spatial and temporal distribution, The 1987-88 mortality of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the stock differentiation, change in population levels, estimates of human-in- U.S. Atlantic coast was an order of magnitude greater than the prior three duced mortality, OSP, and estimates of recovery. year average primarily due to an apparent disease epidemic. Although both coastal and offshore stocks of dolphins are believed to inhabit the waters 2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION off the east coast, population surveys and biological samples from stranded and live-captured animals suggests that the observed mortality was prin- Bottlenose dolphins are distributed throughout U.S. Gulf of Mexico and cipally from a mid-Atlantic coastal, migratory stock of dolphins. Available U.S. Atlantic waters. In the U.S. Atlantic, this species is distributed along data suggest a decline of at least 53% in the stock abundance may have oc- the coast from Long Island, NY to the Florida Keys (1,2). North of Cape curred. If this degree of reduction has occurred and this stock proves to be Hatteras, NC, this species demonstrates a disjunct distribution, with con- reproductively isolated, then the stock is likely below its optimum sus- tainable population (OSP) level, and thus a depleted stock. Population trajectories from a 53% reduction level were simulated using a range of vital a b rate and other demographic parameter values. Under the parameter as- sumptions used for calculations, no combinations resulted in trajectories toward extinction. The resulting distributions of recovery time to the lower limit of OSP were strongly skewed. In the absence of human-induced mor- tality, the median time to recovery was 32.5 yr (range, 14-90 yr). Under the SUMMER assumption of a constant human-induced mortality rate equal to estimates of pre-event rates, the time to recovery estimates ranged from 18 to 100 + yr with, a median time to recovery of 50.5 yr. In more than 20% of the cases simulated with human-induced mortality, recovery was not achieved within 100 yrs. WINTER 1. INTRODUCTION In the United States, marine mammal populations are managed under the legislative authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) of Figure 1. a) Distributional range of bottlenose dolphins along the U.S. Atlan- 1972 (as amended). The management goal defined in the MMPA is op- tic coast. b) Areas of major concentrations of coastal migratory stock of timum sustainable population (OSP) level, which has been defined to be bottlenose dolphins during summer and winter. population levels at or greater than those that produce maximum net productivity (MNP) to the ecosystem carrying capacity. Population stocks outside of OSP (below MNP) are defined as depleted. Removal of animals centrations of animals near-shore (in embayments and within several (incidental bycatch, live-capture, etc.) can be legally authorized from non- kilometers of the coast) and offshore, near the continental shelf margin, depleted stocks. from 60 to 200 km from the coast. South of Cape Hatteras, the near- shore/offshore distribution pattern is less distinct and there appear to be Although there is considerably more information on bottlenose dolphins latitudinal clusters of animal concentration rather than the longitudinally than most other cetacean species, for the most part, information necessary discrete concentration areas found north of Cape Hatteras (Fig. 1a). for determination of stock status relative to OSP levels is inadequate. Generally, Iong, consistent indices of population production and abun- Seasonal density distribution patterns have been described for waters north dance are necessary to determine OSP. However, there are cases where of Cape Hatteras (1) and for U.S. waters south of Cape Hatteras (2). During catastrophic changes in populations can occur, thereby allowing assessment summer in the U.S. Atlantic, bottlenose dolphins are distributed along the of the degree of change and status relative to OSP. The recent massive die- coast, usually as far north as Long Island, NY, and offshore as far north as off of bottlenose dolphins along the east coast may be such a case. Nova Scotia, Canada. The main concentrations of bottlenose dolpins during the summer are along the coast from North Carolina north to New Jersey During the summer and fail of 1987 and the winter of 1988, an apparent dis- (Fig. 1b.). During autumn, density distribution patterns suggest near-shore ease epidemic resulted in the death and stranding of an unusually large animals migrate south along the coast to Florida. During winter, animals in number of Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the U.S. the Atlantic are distributed from south of Cape Hatteras to the northern east coast from New Jersey to central Florida. In response to this anomaly, and central Florida coast, but are concentrated at the southern end of this a multi-agency team was formed to investigate the causes and effects of the range (Fig. 1b.). Although bottlenose dolphins occur along the southeastern mortality event. This paper is directed at the second component of the in- Florida coast, in winter they are only about VIO'h as abundant as along the vestigation: assessment of the effects of the mortality event. The available central and northeastern Florida coasts (2). During spring, the animal con- 819 United States Government work not protected by copyright both the near-shore and offshore groups (1). The best available informa- tion suggests that in recent times, coastal North Carolina and Virginia sup- JUL ported 1,200 or more dolphins during pad of the spring and summer (12). N This number may have represented a substantial portion of the mid-Atlan- AUG tic coastal migratory stock prior to the disease epdemic. SEP IOCT MAR Population survey data from several independent sources suggest that there INOV was a greater abundance of dolphins near-shore in 1987 and early 1988 than DEC in recent prior years (13,14). Offshore, the abundance of dolphins may have been slightly lower in August, 1987, than in the summers of 1980-81 (15). JAN The apparent increase in near-shore abundance might have been caused FEB by immigration from the offshore stock, a real increase in the coastal stock, I concentration of animals from wide geographical range, a change in the sightability coefficient for animals surveyed, or some combination of these factors. It is not clear if both the coastal and offshore stocks were affected by the I I mortality event. The size and coloration of some of the stranded animals Figure 2. Interquarrile latitude range of bottlenose dolphin strandings along examined suggested that both of the groups were involved (12). In addition, the U.S. Atlantic coast; June 1987 - March 1988. reports received from fishermen and recreational boaters of floating car- casses in the offshore mid-Atlantic region, although not verified, further centrations shift northward along the coast to complete the hypothesized suggested involvement of the offshore group. Recently, Duffield (16) migratory cycle. It is unclear if the offshore portion of the population fol- analyzed 36 blood samples from different stranded and live-caught bot- lows a similar north-south pattern or what the actual extent offshore dis- tlenose dolphins sampled from Virginia and Florida during the mortality tribution might be since sampling has been generally limited to areas within event. All but one of the samples analyzed exhibited the coastal hemoglobin 200 km of the coast. characteristics (17). The single different sample exhibited hybrid coas- tal/offshore characteristics. This result does not necessarily imply that the 3. STOCK DIFFERENTIATION offshore stock was unaffected since the likelihood of an animal dying off- shore and then being cast ashore is expected to be considerably less than There appear to be both near-shore and offshore forms (stocks) of bot- that for an animal dying near the coast. There were no known animals from tlenose dolphin along the U.S. Atlantic coast and in other ocean areas (3,4). resident, local dolphin stocks, such as the Indian and Banana River, FL Burn (5) found the pattern of strandings to correlate with the hypothesized stock, found stranded with symptoms of the disease epidemic. At present, coastal migratory pattern based on density distribution patterns along the the best information suggests that the observed mortality may have primari- U.S. east coast (Fig. 2). The stranding data collected during 1987 and 1988 ly affected the coastal, migratory stock of animals that ranges between and the observed density distribution patterns along the U.S. Atlantic coast, Florida and New Jersey. support the hypothesis of a single coastal migratory stock of animals that ranges seasonally as far.north as Long Island, NY and as far south as central The most direct means of assessing the impact of the mortality on the dol- Florida. It has been observed that many geographically localized popula- phin population is by comparison of consistent pre- and post-event popula- tions of dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic waters show seasonal- tion indices. Assessment of impact on the basis of the number of dolphins ly cyclical patterns in abundance, suggesting emigration from and stranded relative to the population at large is dependent on assumptions immigration into embayments (6, 7, 8). It has been well documented that about the accuracy of abundance estimates and the relationship between there are both resident and transient animals that utilize localized, near- the stranded carcass count and the true total mortality (15). The number of shore environments over numerous years (9). The working hypothesis for animals observed washing ashore is likely a fraction of the total mortality. bottlenose dolphin stock structuring in southeastern U.S. waters is that the There is also some chance that the reporting rate of stranded carcasses dif- near-shore bottlenose dolphin population is structured such that there are fered between the years prior to the stranding anomaly due to increased local, resident stocks in certain embayments and that transient stocks public awareness in 1987-88. In addition, the accuracy of absolute abun- migrate into and out of these embayments on a seasonal basis (3, 9). dance estimates maybe questionable since the estimates are usually of sur- 4. POPULATION LEVELS AND INDICES OF CHANGE face abundance, unless there has been an effort to correct for animals submerged at the time of the sample. At present there is no comprehensive estimate of the size of the stocks of bottlenose dolphins in U.S. jurisdictional waters. The abundance of bot- For the offshore stock in the mid-Atlantic region, a comparison of a pre- denose dolphins in certain "priority" regions has been estimated. Scott, event (1980-81) average population index and an index based on a sample Hansen and Burn (10) summarized these estimates and proposed that the taken in August 1987 was used to assess the likely range of the impact of number of bottlenose dolphins comprising the numerous stocks throughout the mortality on the stock (15). The 1987 sample indicated that the impact both the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic waters prior to 1983 may through August was most likely small (< 10%) relative to the 1980-81 sum- have ranged to at least 23,000 individuals. Extrapolation of this estimate to mer abundance level. Because the mortality event was not complete at the existing abundance, however, assumes that the stocks have been stable over time of the August, 1987, sample, and due to the uncertainty about the a period of 15 or more years and that no net migration occurred during the population trajectory since 1981, this result needs further testing. different sampling periods of the studies summarized. The abundance of the stock(s) affected by the apparent disease epidemic was certainly less For the coastal stock of dolphins, there are no consistent pre- and post- than the total number of U.S. Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic bottlenose event population survey indices yet available with which to assess potential dolphins. impact. The pre-event patterns observed in areas such as the Chesapeake Bay mouth (13) and Nassau County, FL (14), may be confounded by the Historically, about 15,000 animals are thought to have lived in mid-Atlan- apparent increase in abundance in 1987 and 1988. Thus, the potential im- tic near-shore waters based on North Carolina shore-based fishery catch pact on the coastal stock was estimated by comparison of the die-off period records from the turn of the century (11). In 1979-81, the estimated average to prior year average stranding rates. Inherent in this estimation is the as- mid-Atlantic summer abundance of bottlenose dolphins is believed to have sumption that stranding rate is a consistent index of the stock mortality rate. ranged from 4,300 to 12,900 animals (95% confidence region), including 820 As of June, 1988, 742 stranded bottlenose dolphins from New Jersey to ongoing stranding anomaly. For the range of the disease-affected coastal Florida's east coast were reported to the Smithsonian Institution's marine stock of dolphins, Table I lists the bottlenose dolphin strandings. by state mammal stranding events program for the 11 month period from June, 1987 and type of purported human-induced mortality. through April, 1988 (12). In the prior 3 years, for the same geographical range and months, an average of 73.33 dolphins were reported to the strand-m Assuming the classification scheme of Burn and Scott (20) to be accurate, ing network. Thus, the 1987-88 anomaly represents an order of magnitude and that the stranding data indexes human-induced mortality rate in increase (10.11 times) in reported strandings relative to the most recent proportion to the natural mortality rate, then estimates of human-induced three year historical level. Natural mortality rates on the order 7 to 14% per mortality rates can be derived from these data. Using the range of natural year are believed to ecompass the most likely range for bottlenose dolphin mortality rates (m = 7 to 14%), the additional mortality rate due to hunian- populations (18). Assuming the stock natural mortality rate (m) to be at the related activities Q) can be estimated by these proportions (f =m((1-p)*1 lower end of the reported range (7% per year, 6.42% per 11 months), that - 1)). Estimates off by state and for the coastal migratory stock range are the observed mortalitywholly affected the near-shore stock, and further as- presented in Table 1. These data indicate that added mortality due to suming that the reported stranding rate is proportional to m and consistent human activities may range from 0.7 to 1.4% per year for the coastal between years, then the observed mortality represents an 11 month m of migratory stock of dolphins. 64.9%. Anannual m would be slightly larger than this value if only the long- term average risk of death was applied to the final 1 month period. 6. OSP The OSP is defined as the range of population size from the level resulting The annual rate of change in the dolphin stock abundance is the difference in maximum net productivity to the ecosystem carrying capacity (K). Under between the annual mortality rate, annual birth rate, and annual net im- the terms of the MMPA, population stocks outside the OSP range are migration rate. For the coastal mid-Atlantic stock of dolphins affected by defined as depleted. By analogy with other large mammal species, the the disease epidemic, Blaylock (19) observed up to 11.5% of the popula- population level expected to result in MNP for bottlenose dolphins is tion sampled were calves, implying an annual birth rate (b) on that order. greater than 50% of K (21, 22). Data collected from stranded animals suggest that calving for this stock oc- curs in the spring and is not generally protracted over the year. Thus, a Management of bottlenose dolphin stocks has been based not on explicit potential decline for this stock since early 1987 is estimated as > 50% (b - determination of stock status relative to OSP, but rather on the estimated rn = -53.4%). MNP for the stocks of interest. The basic assumption upon which this 5. ESTIMATES OF HUMAN-INDUCED MORTALITY management method was developed was that annual MNP for cetacean stocks generally ranged from 2 to 6% of stock abundance. This range has The present take of bottlenose dolphins in U.S. waters comes from the live- been demonstrated to be biologically achievable, depending on combina- capture fishery for public display, incidental catch in other fisheries, and by tions of calf and non-calf mortality rates and upon the age of first calving other direct human actions (9). Live-capture removals for public display and calving intervals (23). are not authorized for the coastal migratory stock of dolphins affected by the disease epidemic. The magnitude of annual removals from this stock Under this management scheme, if 2% represents the true MNP, then a due to incidental catch and other directed human causes is not well docu- long-term average removal rate of 2%, in addition to natural mortality and mented. with no net migration effect, is expected to result in an equilibrium stock abundance level -at the lower end of the OSP range for stocks with initial Marine mammal stranding data provide information useful for estimating abundance within the OSP range. For stocks with initial abundance outside an index of human-induced mortality of cetaceans in the U.S. Gulf of of OSP, an average long-term removal equal to MNP is expected to result Mexico and along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Many of the cetaceans that strand in an equilibrium stock level below OSP. Stocks outside of OSP can be are examined for causes of mortality. Burn and Scott (20) examined the recovered to OSP while sustaining removals as long as the long-term stranding data provided by the Smithsonian Institution (12) for evidence of average removal rate is less than MNP. human-induced mortality in bottlenose dolphins. A total of 386 bottlenosed dolphins stranded from central Florida north along the Atlantic coast were 7. ESTIMATES OF RECOVERY reported from 1982 through May 1987. of these, the percent of strandings The dynamics of the mid-Atlantic coastal migratory stock of bottlenose dol- showing some evidence of human-induced mortality (p) was 9.3%. Data phins were modeled as a difference equation with density dependence as from June 1987 to present were not examined in this context because of the described by the Pella-Tomlinson model standardly applied to whale stocks Table 1. Summary ofcoastal U.S. Atlantic bottlenose dolphin strandingsfrom by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (24, 1982 to May, 1987, classifled by interaction type. Dataprovided by Sm ith - 25). The model takes the form: sonian Institution Marine Mammal Events Program. Pt+l = (Pt -Ht)S + Rt+l Fishing Parts Gun Prop Broken State All Gear Missing Shot Wound Bones Other p1 f, where P represents the population size, H, human-induced removals, R, MA 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 33.0 3.5-6.9 recruitment, and S, survival over time index t (taken as I year). Human-in- RI 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 duced removals were taken as: NY 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NJ 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 25.0 2.3-4.7 Ht = Pt-le"2(I-e-) DE 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 MD 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 where f is the human-induced mortality rate estimate, conditioned on VA 70 8 5 0 0 1 0 20.0 1.8-3.5 natural mortality rate, m. The annual survial rate, S, is taken as e-'. The NC 122 3 3 0 0 0 1 5.7 0.4-0.8 number of recruits, R, is defined as: Sc 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 GA 38 1 4 1 0 0 0 15.8 1.3-2.6 Rt + 1 = (1-S)Ptx(l +A (I-(Pt_x/K)z) FL2 129 4 3 0 0 0 0 5.4 0.4-0.8 Total 386 17 is 1 1 1 1 9.3 0.7-1.4 where x is the median age at maturity (Table 2),A the resilience term, K p, percent of total strandings resulting from human actions; f, expressed as per- the carrying capacity; and z the compensation term. Given a range of the cent, represents the estimated annual human-induced mortality rate using p and relative lower limit of OSP (i.e. MNPL) and independent ranges of MNP the range of natural mortality rates 7-14% per year. and m assumptions (see Table 2 for values used), the corresponding 2 D ata for Florida represent central Atlantic and northeastern coastal regions only. parameter value for A was found as in Holt (26): 821 Frequency A = MNP1m(l-MNPLZ) 10 with the value ofz found by solution of. 20 30 MNPL = (I/(_z+2))"(z+') 40 The time to recovery was taken as the number of years required for the y 50 simulated stock size to reach MNPL after an overall reduction of 53% from 60 the assumed equilibrium population level in existence just prior to the dis- 70 ease epidemic. Holt (26) argues that A > V(z + 1) results in a super com- so pensation effect in the stock-recruitment relationship whereby the absolute number of recruits increases at declining population sizes relative to that 90 a CKI > 0 ET number at X However, constraining A < 1/@ + I)implies that the fall range @100 of assumed MNP cannot be realized given the range of assumedMNPL. As 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Table 2. Parameter values used in simulations of the dynamics of the coastal I I migratory stock of bottlenose dolphins. Figure 4. Frequency distribution ofsimulated bottlenose dolphin population Symbol Values recoveiy times in years Mfor the cases off = 0 (no human -induced mor- Natural Mortality Rate m 0.07,014 tality ) andf > 0 (constant human-induced mortality rate). Human-Induced Mortality Rate f 0.0,0.007 m=0.07 tions from K and thus may reasonably reflect expectations for reductions 0.0,0.014 m=0.14 > 53%. In contrast, if the true reduction was less than the specified level Maximum Net Productivity Rate MNP 0.02, then the recovery time distributions are non-conservative. 0.04,0.06 Maximum Net Productivity Level MNPL 0.6,0.8 Consistent and long-term population monitoring of the affected stock will Median Age at Sexual Maturity x 8,11,14 be necessary to reduce the uncertainty associated with the estimates of recovery. Assumptions about the magnitude of depletion, the degree of literature suggests that the MNP and MNPL ranges are biologically human-induced mortality, and the degree of involvement of other bot- reasonable (21, 22, 23), the unconstrained A values were used. tlenose dolphin stocks need testing via direct experimentation and monitor- ing. As no consistent pre- and post-event indices are yet available, Population trajectories resulting from the range of parameter values used development of such indices through continued and new population sam- are shown in Fig. 3 for MNPL values of 0.6 and 0.8. The distribution of pling surveys and studies of biological samples from stranded animals Will recovery times over the first be needed to test the assumptions. parameter range is shown in 1. Fig. 4 for the the cases of no 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS human-induced mortality versus constant human-in- Drs. James G. Mead of the Smithsonian Institution and Daniel K Odell of duced mortality rate@s. he P SeaWorld, Florida, kindly provided stranding data used in this paper. Drs. T Joseph E. Powers and Bradford E. Brown reviewed the manuscript and Ms. recovery time distributions .4 Lynn Pulos provided editorial advice. This paper is Miami Laboratory, are heavily skewed. In the 0.2 - Coastal Resources Division Contribution No. CRD-87/88-28 dated August cases of no human-induced 1, 1988. This paper was prepared for the Unusual Environmental Events mortality, the median ex- IW17.9.... 2 .0.3....... 2,6,2.3... 2@43 2@63 243 Symposium held at the Oceans '88 Conference, October 31 - November 2, pected recovery time from a YEAR 1988, Baltimore, MD. The National Marine Fisheries Service does not ap- reduction of the specified prove, recommend, or endorse any proprietary product or proprietary magnitude was 32.5 yr with a material mentioned in the publication. range of 14 - 90 yr. In the cases where there is an as- .6 9. REFERENCES sumed constant rate of human-induced mortality 0.6 1. CETAP. A characterization of marine mammal and turtles in the mid- equal to estimates ofthe pre- P and North Atlantic areas of the U.S. outer continental shelf. Final report epidemic rate, the distribu- of the Cetacean and Turtle assessment program. Bureau of Land Manage- tion of expected recovery ment Contract No. AA551-CT8-48. U.S. Department of Interior, time is shifted to longer Washington, DC. 1982.450pp. periods, with a median value 13....... ,2.3... 41 ..1 20 ..3 of5O.5 yr and a range offrom YEAR 2. Burn, D.M., Scott, G.P., Owen, R.E., and Hansen, L.J. Bottlenose dol- 18 to > 100 yr. For the cases phin (Tursiops truncatus) distribution patterns in the southeastern United including human-induced States. Poster presentation at the Seventh Biennial Conference on the Biol- mortality, 22% of the Figure 3. Simulatedpopulation levels relative ogy of Marine Mammals. Miami, Florida, USA. December 5-9,1987. simulations resulted in no to carrying capacity (P) over the range of recovery within a 100 yr time modelparameter values used. Upperplate 3. Hersh, S.L. Stock structure of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) in interval. None of trajectories hatching represents OSP range with MNPL the southeastern U.S.: a review and management considerations. Final simulated resulted in extinc- 0. 6, lowerplate MNPL 0.8. report to NOAA/NMFS/SEFC, Contract 40GENF700715.1987.35pp. tion. 4. Hersh, S.L. Characterization and differentiation of bottlenose dolphin As the recovery standard used in these calculations was the lower limit of populations (genus Tursiops) in the southeastern U.S. based on mortality can be considered conservative. Uncer- OSP, the recovery time estimates patterns and morphometrics. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Miami tainty in the degree of reduction was not explicitly treated in the simulations Coral Gables, FL. 1987.213pp. run. However, the parameter ranges used result in a large range of reduc- 822 5. Burn, D.M. NOAA/Smithsonian cooperative mid-Atlantic bottlenose 21. Fowler, C.W. Density dependence as related to life history strategy. dolphin aerial survey program: final report. NOAA/NMFS1SEFC/Miami Ecology. 1981. pp6O2-610. Laboratory, Coastal Resources Division Contribution MI-CRD-87/88-22. 1988.17pp- 22. Fowler, C.W. Comparative population dynamics in large mammals. In: Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. C.W. Fowler and T.D. Smith 6. Shane, S.H. Occurrence, movements, and distribution of bottlenose dol- (eds.). Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. 1981. phins, Tursiops truncatus, in the Aransas Pass area of Texas. National Tech- pp437-451. nical Information Services, DB-283 393. U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA. 1980. 130pp 23. Reilly, S.B. and Barlow, J. Rates of increase in dolphin population size. Fish. Bull. 1986. pp.527-534. 7. Gruber, J. A. Ecology of theAtlantic Bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops oun- calus) in the Pass Cavallo area of Matagorda Bay, Texas. M.S. Thesis. 24. Allen, KR. A more flexible model for baleen whale populations. Rep. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 1981. Int. Whal. Comm. 1976. pp.247-263. 8. Shane, S.H., Wells, R.S. and Wfirsig, B. Ecology, behavior, and social or- 25. de la Mare, W.K. The sensitivity of MSY to the parameters of the baleen ganization of the bottlenos dolphin: a review. Marine Mammal Science. whale model. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 1986. pp.425-427. 1986. pp34-63. 26. Holt, S.J. The classification of whale stocks and the determination of 9. Scott, G.P. Management oriented research on Tursiops truncatus at the catch limits under the new management procedure with limited informa- Southeast Fisheries Center. In: Selected papers on bottlenose dolphins. S. tion. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 1985. pp.487-494. Leatherwood and R. Reeves (eds.). Academic Press. San Diego, CA. In Press. 10. Scott, G.P., Hansen, L.J. and Burn, D.M. Preliminary report on status of the bottlenose in stocks, US Gulf of Mexico and US Atlantic Ocean. NMFS/SEFC, Miami Laboratory, Coastal Resources Division Contribu- tion MI-CRD-87188-23.1988. 11pp. 11. Mead, J.G. Preliminary report on the former net fisheries for Tursiops Ouncatus in the western north Atlantic. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 1975. pp.1155-1162. 12. Mead, J.G. Personal Communication. National Museum of Natural His- tory, Smithsonian Instistution, Washington, D.C. 20560 1988. 13. Keinath, J.A. and Musick, J.A. Population trends of the bottlenose dol- phin (Tursiops truncatus) in Virginia, 1980-1987. Final Report to NOAA/NMFS/SEFC/Miami Laboratory, PO# 40GENF800564. 1988. 36pp- 14. Valade, J.A. Personal Communication. Consultant Biologist, Jackson- villc, FL 32239. 1988. 15. Scott, G.P. and Burn, D.M.. The potential impact of the 1987 mass mor- tality mid-Atlantic off-shore stock of bottlenose dolphins. NOAA/NMF'S/SEFC/Miami Laboratory, Coastal Fisheries Resources Division Contribution CRD-87/88-10.1987. 11pp. 16. Duffield, DA. Personal Communication. Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201.1988. 17. Duffield, D.A., Ridgway, S.H. and Cornell, L.H. Hematology distin- guishes coastal and offshore forms of dolphins (Tursiops). Can. J. Zool. 1983. pp.930-933. 18. Hersh, S.L. Mortality, natality, migration, and organismic growth rates of bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops): a review and management con- siderations. Final Report to NOAA/NMFS/SEFC, Contract 40GENF-700715.1987.27pp. 19. Blaylock, R.A. The distribution and abundance of the bottlenose dol- phin, Tursiops truncalus, in Virginia. M.S. Thesis. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 1984. 56pp. 20. Burn, D.M. and Scott, G.P. Synopsis of available information on marine mammal-fisheries interactions in the southeastern United States: prelimi- nary report. NOAA/NMFS/SEFC/Miami Laboratory, Coastal Fisheries Resources Division Contribution CRD-87/88-26.1988. 823 HISTORIC SHIPWRECKS: RESOURCES WORTH PROTECTING John D. Broadwater Senior Undervater'Archaeologist Virginia Division of Historic Landmarks Department of Conservation and Historic Resources Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 ABSTRACT ships fished and traded throughout most of the world's seas. We know very little about the Historic shipwrecks are classified by ships that the early explorers and colonists archaeologists as Itcultural. resources" to sailed, since the first accurate plans of indicate that shipwrecks are a significant ships were not produced until the late 1700s. facet of America's resources--as much so as Although plans and models of European warships her natural resources. Like coal and oil, survive from that period, very little is known cultural resources are non-renewable: once about the merchant ships and small craft built destroyed, they are lost to us forever. How in America until the mid-1800s. Even such do we determine which are historically famous warships as the Civil War USS Monitor significant? Fortunately, there is already in are known only by early plans and an effect a valid and pragmatic evaluation occasional faded photograph. America has system: criteria for the National Register of enjoyed an exciting and important maritime Historic Places. The Register applies strict heritage, and our knowledge of this legacy can standards for the determination of be enhanced and enriched through the study of significance. only a small fraction of all historic shipwrecks. sunken ships lying in U. S. waters would meet Historic shipwrecks are classified as these criteria. Currently, no state or "cultural resources" by archaeologists and federal law prohibits diving on shipwrecks. preservationists to indicate that shipwrecks, Hopefully, divers and archaeologists will join along with other types of archaeological forces to protect these historically sites, are a significant part of America's significant sites. vast resources,_ as much so as her natural resources. Like coal and oil, cultural resources are non-ienewable and, once INTRODUCTION destroyed, are lost forever. Nost ships lying in the waters of the United States never During the past few years, controversy carried important passengers, fought famous raged over proposed federal legislation to battles nor set speed records; however, many protect historic shipwrecks. Such of these ships could provide important legislation, some said, would result in loss archaeological data which would shed new light of business for dive shops, instructors, on our past * if interpreted through charter boat services and salvage companies publications, museum exhibits and films. and, in addition, - create cumbersome and Archaeology is much more than the recovery of arbitrary federal and state regulations, artifacts; it is the interpretation of the punitive enforcement and, eventually, loss of artifacts, within the context of the entire all wreck diving privileges. In 1988, the shipwreck and its historical background, which Abandoned Shipwrecks Act became law. gives meaning and significance to the site. Guidelines are being prepared to assist states in conforming to the new federal legislation. Let's put concerns over the law aside for a PROTECTION OF HISTORIC SHIPWRECKS moment and take a look at the source of the controversy--America's historic shipwrecks. With so many shipwrecks out there (estimates -range in the thousands), is it really necessary to protect them? The general THE NATURE OF HISTORIC VESSELS public, including the sport diving community, has for many years actively supported the The first European settlements in America conservation of natural resources, recognizing were established along the coast where small that these resources should be preserved for boats soon sailed the bays and rivers which future generations because of their beauty and were the highways of the seventeenth century. intrinsic value. Cultural resources, too, America continued to have a strong maritime require protection if they are to offer value orientation, and by the nineteenth century our to those that come after us. Although there CH2585-8/8s/oooo. 824 $1 @1988 IEEE are indeed many shipwrecks yet to be protected for many years and several federal discovered, only certain ones are capable of laws dictate protection of submerged sites in providing the archaeological information that cases where federal funding or federal permits we seek. It is those shipwrecks that should are involved. The main benefits of the new be protected for long-term preservation and federal legislation should be the future study. clarification and coordination of current Contrary to the information being laws, separation of admiralty and salvage distributed by some groups, a shipwreck does claims from those involving historic not have to be located and salvaged in order shipwrecks and better protection of those for it to have historic value. In fact, wrecks which have been determined to be historic shipwrecks lying undetected in deep significant. silt are like untapped oil reserves: they lie Determination of significance has been in a stable state of equilibrium with their the subject of much unnecessary concern. Some environment, deteriorating at an impressively fear that all shipwrecks will capriciously be slow rate, waiting for the time when adequate classified as significant and sport and funding and personnel are available to commercial wreck diving will be virtually excavate them properly and to recover from eliminated. No such action has been them their precious glimpse into our past. contemplated and almost all existing state ocean engineers and sport divers seem to shipwreck legislation permits some type of be among the most appropriate advocates for public access to shipwrecks, including the protection of shipwrecks, since those historic wrecks. In fact, there is already groups are generally more aware than the in effect a valid and pragmatic evaluation general population of the importance of the system: the criteria for the National Sea and are more sensitive to maritime Register of Historic Places. In order for a matters. Few ocean scientists or sport divers shipwreck to be declared eligible for the loot historic shipwrecks, and so they may not National Register, it must meet a series of be aware of the amount of destruction taking tests for significance. The criteria are place. specific and are designed to recognize those I have seen many offshore wrecks badly archaeological resources which are most damaged--not by sport divers, but by salvage representative of our past. Already, the companies looking for a few dollars' worth of National Park Service has issued a special copper or brass. My dive buddies and I have publication which describes the criteria for returned from dives saddened by the nominating a historic shipwreck to the irreversible destruction of our favorite dive National Register. Dozens of U. S. shipwrecks sites. In other cases, historic shipwrecks have been placed on the National Register of were damaged by small groups of divers, who Historic Places after a careful review at both often left recovered artifacts to rust away state and federal levels, while many have been under back porches or in garages. Countless found ineligible for the Register. other wrecks were destroyed in previous years through construction and dredging projects where proper archaeological surveys were not NEW OPPORTUNITIES conducted in advance. Some serious,damage to shipwrecks is inadvertent. Wrecks are often New laws do not have to adversely affect damaged by commercial fishing activities, the recreational activities of most divers. especially trawling and dredging, by boat and In fact, divers have already discovered that ship anchors, and by the forces of nature. participation in scholarly shipwreck research These forces and activities often result in can be rewarding and exciting. All over the loss of important archaeological sites, which world, groups of sport divers are teaming up deprives all of us of the opportunity to learn with professional archaeologists Iand ocean from and enjoy the information which the site surveyors and engineers to locate and might have offered. investigate shipwrecks: It is interesting to note that many preservation efforts in England, Europe, PROTECTIVE LEGISLATION Canada and elsewhere are actually organized and carried out primarily by sport divers. In If we accept the fact that there are Ontario, for instance, divers concerned about numerous historic shipwrecks in American their historic shipwrecks have formed waters and that some, if not many, of these organizations such as "Save Ontario's are currently threatened with damage or Shipwrecks" (SOS) to take an active role in destruction, let us turn to the idea of the preservation process. In this country, protective legislation. Should there be laws sport divers have already worked alongside to protect historic shipwrecks? What archaeologists on shipwreck excavations in applicable laws currently exist? Florida, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, At the present time nearly all U. S. South Carolina, Virginia, Vermont and coastal states have laws protecting historic elsewhere. shipwrecks from improper salvage. Although National 'certifying organizations have the federal shipwreck protection law is new, begun to develop training programs in archaeological sites on land have been underwater archaeological methodology. In 825 1979, a National Scuba Workshop in Florida produced a resolution asking all national certifying agencies to include in their basic training programs a brief statement on the importance of preserving cultural as well as natural resources. Efforts are underway to create more such programs. Many universities now offer courses in underwater archaeology, either for college credit or for continuing education credits. Many sport divers are interested in history and archaeology, and quite a few are skilled researchers. As federal and state underwater archaeological programs begin to develop and grow, so will opportunities for sport divers to become involved in sponsored research projects such as archival research, shipwreck surveys and excavation, conservation and museum exhibit preparation. Instead of prohibiting diving, the new federal legislation may well foster a whole new age of cooperation between professional and amateurs interested in our maritime past. 826 THE ABANDONED SHIPWRECK ACT: A CONTEXT Anne G. Giesecke Consultant 1001 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22209 ABSTRACT jurisdictional conflict between the authority of state governments and the The Abandoned Shipwreck Act became law in Federal court to control the excavation 1988. As author of the act, and as a of state land for the purpose of resource manager,,the author discusses recovering shipwrecks. In response to the act. this situation I drafted federal legislation resolving the conflict in favor of the state governments. The discussion includes, the purpose of the act, the potential effects of the The purpose of this article is to explain Act, and the current status of state law. the need for and the purpose of The To understand the act one must understand Abandoned Shipwreck Act. This article the relationship of shipwrecks and will briefly present the state historic shipwrecks, in particular, to perspective, the most relevant federal broad based social, economic and court decisions on this issue, and the environmental s 'ystems. The magic lure of purpose of the bill. gold and the evolution of state laws in the face of conflicting social values has INTEREST IN SHIPWRECKS left a ten year legacy of confusion. The act and the paper should contribute to Since the 1950's, rapid advances in the sorting out the confusion. technology of diving and remote sensing equipment have for the first time made shipwrecks accessible to many people. Three groups have a special interest in abandoned shipwrecks: the sport diving INTRODUCTION community, members of the archaeological and historic preservation communities, "In the early morning hours of July 31st, and.professional treasure salvors. the wind suddenly shifted to the east- northeast, and the hurricane struck with Although most shipwrecks have been all its fury. The ships, gripped in the located by.fishermen. Recently many incredible force of the crashing waves wrecks have been located by sport divers. and mighty winds of nature's most awesome Most shipwreck sites are destroyed by phenomena, were lifted like match9ticks dredging and port development, but on mountainous crests to be plummeted in recently many wrecks have been damaged by the next instant into deep troughs of the treasure salvors and some by sport ocean. Tons of seawater crashed over the divers. A few shipwrecks have been railings of the galleons and, with the protected by the designation of shriek of the wind, drowned out the underwater parks and a few have been screams of the seamen washed overboard to excavated by archaeologists. their death." (Cobb Coin, Inc. v. The Unidentified Wrecked and Abandoned The state as a multiple-use manager of Sailing Vessel, 525 F. Supp. 186 [S.D. its resources must consider these three Fla. 19811). So begins U.S. District groups. Each group has a different use Judge J-ames Lawrence King's decision for the resource. For the sport diver, concerning the fate of the artifacts the wrecks are an important focus for recovered from the shipwrecks of the 1715 recreational diving; some divers like Spanish Plate fleet off the coast of marked underwater trails explaining the Florida. A decision which challenged wrecks, some like wrecks undisturbed by state laws. modern man, and others like to collect artifacts from wrecks. The diver's In 1981 and 1982 decisions resulting from desire for unrestricted access to the Cobb Coin case in the Southern shipwrecks may conflict with the treasure District of Florida created a salvor's desire for exclusive use of a CH2585-8/88/oood- 827, si @1988 IEEE wreck, and the diver's random collecting in the 1960's are: Georgia, Maine, North of artifacts from wrecks may conflict Carolina, and Texas. Since 1970, 25 with the archaeologist's concern for additional states have passed laws ordered collection. specifically addressing shipwrecks. States without specific legislation for To the archaeologist, shipwrecks are an shipwrecks treat them under their general integral part of the total material historic preservation legislation. cultural resource base. Certain social, economic and technological systems of the Although the laws developed in different past are reflected in the patterned legal and resource contexts over a 25- pieces of ship and cargo spread across year period, the laws in Eastern and the ocean floor. The treasure salvor's Western states are remarkably similar. goal is primarily economic; he wants to It is notable that no state prohibits minimize the cost of recovering gold, sport diving on historic shipwrecks. silver or artifacts that have a maximum Indeed 15 out of the 30 laws provide commercial value. state compensation to private parties for recovery activities. STATE LAWS Each state defines the area of state States have generally managed shipwreck jurisdiction to be compatible with the resources in the context of the water or state law implementing the federal law coastal management priorities of the which affirmed title to the land, the state. The first state ("state" will Submerged Lands Act (43 USC 1301-1315) continue to be used to refer to and generally includes rivers, lakes and jurisdictions of the United States coastal waters out to three miles. including states, territories, STATE MANAGEMENT possessions, and the District of Columbia) to pass legislation which The state's ability to issue or deny specifically addressed abandoned and permits for activities on state lands is historic shipwrecks was Colorado in 1963. essential to good management. An "after the environmental damage has been done" Colorado is typical of many Western case-by-case Federal Court approach to states, that is those west of the 98th each archaeological site would be meridian (about the Mississippi River). burdensome to those states attempting to Colorado is short of water and follows a manage intensively used areas such as principle of prior appropriation of ports and state parks. water: first come,first served. The laws regarding water and the lands beneath.the Over the years, states have worked water are carefully drawn to protect closely with the groups interested in individual and state rights to use and to shipwrecks, the archaeologists, sport allocate a scarce resource. The divers, and salvors. States have definition of the state's area of recognized that sport divers are jurisdiction, the state's claim to title discovering and studying,historic to the shipwrecks, and the state's permit shipwre-cks and are also major process reflect the priority concern for contributors to many local economies. At the protection of water resources. This least 80% of the known shipwrecks have strong concern for water management been discovered by sport divers, 15% by explains the existence of laws , state projects and fisherman, and 5% by specifically addressing shipwrecks in treasure hun.ters. states where few, if any, shipwrecks have been located-. Under the Act, states are expected to continue tc; protect historic shipwrecks In contrast to the Western water rights and encourage sport diving on wrecks. system is the Eastern system of riparian States such as Michigan, Vermont, South rights. Where water is more plentiful, a Carolina, and Florida have encouraged system of use, return, and reuse of water sport diving by producing publications, by those adjacent to the water source is creating underwater parks, placing feasible and has become customary. Laws moorings near wrecks, and sinking ships concerning shipwrecks in the Eastern as dive sites. states tend to have been developed in response to comprehensive historic Based on current figures, only about 5% preservation legislation and to the of the 12,000 or so known,wrecks will be location of particular shipwreck sites defined as historic. The historic rather than as part of water resource shipwrecks are mostly prehistoric canoes, systems. In Florida, for example, canal boats, and steamboats with mundane legislation developed between 1965 and cargoes such as cloth and shovels. 1967 in response to the discovery of Archaeological excavation of these sites artifacts from the 1715 Spanish Plate is being accomplished by sport divers-and fleet. The other states to develop laws college students. Every year more than 828 25 groups sponsor, through participant expended by the salvor. In case of funding, over 50 projects to map and abandoned property, the salvor may recover shipwrecks. However, most of the receive the property or the proceeds from fishing boats, barges, ferries, and work the sale of the property. boats that are lying on the bottom are not of interest to the treasure hunter or Three important features of the court the archaeologist, but are a major source system are time, cost, and a case-by-case of recreational interest to a minority of approach based on judge-made law. First, sport divers. time is a critical consideration in an understanding of court responsibilities Since the 1950's, states have managed and procedures. There are a limited historic shipwreck archaeological sites number of courts and judges and in each as part of their historic preservation case all parties have full rights programs and, since 1966, have applied according to procedure. Currently, there minimum national standards to their may be a delay of as much as two years in management efforts. The National many courts before a case is heard and Historic Preservation Act standards then the appeal process may postpone a define what is historic and set forth decision for as many as ten years. management procedures that incorporate: 1) public participation on decision- Second, cost is important to individuals .making boards, and 2) public hearing and filing a claim for an award with the appeals processes. Historic shipwreck court because the complex procedures projects are eligible for grants and, in usually require the services of a lawyer addition, 15 states, provide monetary and if there are counterclaims by other compensation to private sector profit parties, states, or the Federal groups. There have been problems in the government, legal fees and court costs past involving state permits and may escalate rapidly. Often, too, for contracts, yet these conflicts have been highly specialized cases such as for judiciously resolved by state courts, and historic shipwrecks, the court may citizens have always had an impartial request the services of a special master, forum for conflict resolution. a-specialist, and this cost is then added to the court costs. States manage many offshore resources including major sectors of the economy Third, the court takes a case-by-case such as fishing, oil and gas, and. approach. Each judge in each district tourism. The disposition of artifacts makes an independent decision based on recovered from shipwrecks has not been a precedent after a case is brought to major administrative burden or economic court. In the realm of marine affairs, benefit. States may be expected to where there is little statutory law, continue to accession and deaccession there is much room for interpretation by their cultural resources for parks and the judges. Also critical is the concern museums for the public benefit. that a wreck must be located and efforts made to recover Drovertv before there is THE FEDERAL COURT a claim to file with the court for an award. The public interest-of--the Federal Unfortunately, the conflict of use Admiralty Court, to return goods to commerce, has its roots in English concerning the submerged land often comes history during a time when commerce and during attempts to locate buried piracy had reached points of significant shipwrecks, since the excavation of a economic impact and the admiral of a ship particular site might conflict with was the law of the sea. The admiralty excavation for some other purpose, such system developed in the courts, rather as mining, that is. not part of the than through legislation, during a time court's tradition. when there was a need for the ordered recovery of goods. only about a dozen cases in the history of the Admiralty Court have dealt with The Federal Court sitting in admiralty abandoned property. Of these cases only makes a salvage award considering three half have concerned shipwrecks with some historic value. As mentioned earlier, criteria based on rules established in states have claimed historic shipwrecks The Blackwall (77 U.S.(10 Wall) 1, in state waters. T1869)) opinion: (1) marine peril; (2) voluntary service, Conflict between the authority of the and (3) success in recovering the vessel Federal Court and that of state or cargo. Further, the court will government was created when the Federal consider the degree of danger present in Court for the Southern District of the rescue, the value of the property Florida determined that contrary to state recovered, and the time and labor claims they had jurisdiction over a 829 shipwr6ck in state waters. The decision, the action for lack of jurisdiction at quoted at the beginning of this article the request of the State of referred to here as Cobb Coin, placed the Massachusetts. Maritime Underwater state of Florida and potentially other Surveys, Inc., v. the Unidentified states in a conflict relationship Wrecked and Abandoned Sailing Vessel, her situation with the Federal court over the Tackle Etc., 717 F.2d.6(lst Cir. 1983). resource represented by buried shipwrecks. The conflict situation The U.S. District Court for the District increased in complexity with a later of Maryland reached a similar decision in contradictory court opinion in Subaqueous Exploration and Archeology, Massachusetts where the Federal court Ltd., and Atlantic Ship Historical determined that it did not have Society, Inc.,v. The Unidentified Wrecked jurisdiction. and Abandoned Vessel, 577 F. Supp. 686(D.MD.1983), finding the state's claim To date, seven conflicting federal court' to the vessel colorable, the action being actions have thrown into doubt the legal in effect an action against the state, regulations that govern abandoned and the Eleventh Amendment a bar to the shipwrecks within state waters. In the action. first case, Cobb Coin Co.,Inc. v. The Unidentified Wrecked and Abandoned In a complex set of actions the Fifth Sailing Vessel, 549 F. Supp. 540 (S.D. Circuit, certain salvors obtained title Fla. 1982) the U.S. District Court for to items recovered from a buried wreck the Southern District of Florida held within submerged lands of the State of that the Federal admiralty 1-aw of salvage Texas after having obtained from the applied to abandoned shipwrecks lying Texas legislature a waiver of the within Florida's submerged lands. The sovereign immunity of the state. An court found that the Submerged Lands Act earlier unreported District Court of 1953 transferred title to the lands decision, that was not appealed, found and natural resources of the lands that the State of Texas owned the beneath navigable waters to the states, artifacts recovered from the wrecks and but that title to abandoned wreck sites that the Eleventh Amendment barred suit was not included in the transfer. The against the state. Platoro, court found that the traditional Ltd.,Inc.,v.Unidentified Remains Etc. No. principles of salvage govern activities 81-1257,695 F.2d.893 (5th Cir.,January associated with these shipwrecks. The 20, 1983). court determined that the Florida statute In one of the opinions in the litigation, purporting to govern shipwrecks within the District Court for the Western .state waters was, in some ways, District of Texas, specifically declined inconsistent with and was superseded by to hold the salvors to the standards of salvage principles, and the Cobb Coin expertise required of marine Co.,Inc., was entitled to exclusive archaeologists, as the state had urged. salvage rights over the wreck and cargo. The court also suggested that Federal In an 11th Circuit decision, the U.S. admiralty principles, as applied to the District Court for the Southern District salvage of historic shipwrecks, could be of Georgia upheld the state's claim that fashioned to safeguard the artifacts and the wreck was embedded on state property invaluable archaeological information. and that consequently title to the vessel associated with the shipwreck, and that rests with the state. In addition, the the public's interest in the shipwrecks court found that under the Eleventh could be accommodated through a proper Amendment, and alternatively due to the award of a portion of the artifacts to salvors' failure to assert a valid the State of Florida. As a result, the salvage claim, the claim for award was court currently is the overseer of five denied. Frank Chance, Paul Chancer and state-permitted wreck sites in Florida's David Topper v. Certain Artifacts Found waters. and Salvaged From the NASHVILLE a/k/a The RATTLESNAKE, Her Engines, Boilers, In contrast, the U.S. District Court for Tackler etc. 606 F.Supp. 801 (S.Ga.); the District of Massachusetts found that affirmed, 775 F.2nd 302 (11th Cir.1985). the State of Massachusetts had a plausible, that is a colorablej claim to Another 11th Circuit decision indirectly an abandoned shipwreck located within affirmed state authority. Joan M. Klein state waters. This meant that any action v. Unidentified Wrecked and Abandoned against the vessel was in effect a claim Sailing Vessel, etc., 758 F.2d. 1511 against the state. But the Eleventh Ulth Cir. 1985). In that case the court Amendment of the United States determined that a shipwreck embedded in Constitution barred an action against the the submerged lands of Biscayne National state without its consent. When a salvor Park owned fee simple by the U.S. filed a claim in Federal court seeking government was as a consequence of being title to the vessel, the court dismissed embedded, the property of the U.S. 830 government. The U.S. government had unnecessary litigation. State authority received the land and the shipwreck from has been challenged in Federal Court on the previous fee simple owner, the State six occasions. In one case, Cobb Coin, of Florida. the Court assumed jurisdiction over the excavation of state land for the purpose In October 1987, The U.S. District Court of recovering shipwrecks, without regard for the Eastern District of North for environmental or'redreational Carolina upheld the state's assertion concerns. Many cases are still pending. that the Eleventh Amendment bars an Now, no future litigation on this action by a salvor when that state jurisdictional question will add to the asserts title to a shipwreck located in estimated $20 million that the state its waters. Alan Richard Riebe v. The taxpayers have spent. Moreover, the Act Unidentified, Wrecked and Abandoned 18th will not cost the Federal government any Century Shipwreck, etc.- unpublished, money and will not expand the Federal decided October 6, 1987, W. Earl bureaucracy. Britt,J.,U.S. District Court. In reference to proposals for a strong In sum,,_the Federal court has, but once, Federal role, for either the executive or upheld state authority. the judiciarYr in the management of shipwreck resources, it seems redundant THE ABANDONED SHIPWRECK ACT and'expensive. The bill was introduced in 1983 and As an alternative to the Act, passed the House of Representatives,in conditioning the state's authority to own 1984 but was stopped in the Senate by shipwrecks would require the development Senator Paula Hawkins of Florida. The of a costly Federal bureaucracy. If the bill has been reintroduced in each state's authority is conditioned, in any Congress. In December 1987, the bill, S. manner, an administrator such as the 858, passed the Senate and was sent to State Governor,,the Secretary of the the House. S. 858 passed the House on Interior or of Commerce must determine April 13, 1988 and was signed into law that the state law meets the conditions April 28, 1988 as the Abandoned Shipwreck of the Federal law. If the state law did Act. not meet the conditions, then there would be the need to establish a Federal The primary purpose of the Act is to bureaucracy to administer shipwrecks., recognize each state's authority to Such expensive and drastic measures seem control the excavation of state lands for unnecessary when 1) the states are the purpose of recovering embedded and managing these resources, and 2) the historic shipwrecks. The Act Secretary of the Interior already accomplishes this purpose by declaring controls much of the state's historic that the state has title to shipwrecks preservation activities through the which are either embedded in submerged National Register of Historic Places and lands, or coralline formations, or are money from the Historic Preservation Fund eligible for the National Reaister of for state plans. Historic Places. Because states already administer The Act is needed for two reasons. shipwreck archaeological sites, there is First, there is a clear need for no need to substantively distort the management. Environmental conflicts Federal Court system, which applies to often occur when treasure hunters are ships and cargoes that are in imminent looking for shipwrecks. Dynamiting of danger, to administer archaeological coral reefs, dredging of endangered sites. The establishment of a complex turtle nesting habitat, excavation of court filing system will require shellfish beds, and disruption of increased tax support for the Federal recreational swimming and diving are Court and increased state taxes to examples of the activities that the support state participation. Sport states need to control. The Act meets divers, in particular, are understandably this need by clearly stating that the adverse to paying higher taxes for the state has title to the land and all that purpose of being excluded from dive is embedded in the land. The Act sites. There are probably only two addresses the state's right to permit the commercial operators working in the excavation of state land, and the state's United States who might benefit from this right to spend money on the creation of salvor subsidy on mining old wet wrecks. underwater parks, on the conservation of There are more than 3 million sport recovered artifacts, on public education, divers. However, the majority of sport and on displays about shipwreck sites. divers will not be affected by this Act. Even the majority of wreck divers will The second reason the Act is needed is to not be affected because they prefer decrease the costs to the state caused by wrecks which are not legally abandoned 831 and that"they can see, not wrecks embedded and covered with earth. CONCLUSION In summary, this article has presented the three groups interested in shipwrecks, the sport divers, the archaeologists and the treasure salvors. A brief review of existing state law and some multiple-use management concerns have been Presented. Federal Court challenges to the existing system of state law have been identified. Finally, the purpose of the Abandoned Shipwreck Act to affirm the existing system has been stated. In conclusion, continuation of the assignment of title to abandoned historic shipwrecks'to the states is the simplest, clearest management system. With title, the expenditure of state funds for administration of permit systems, the conservation of materials for public benefit and the transfer of title to certain artifacts would be most clear. Any international claims to historic shipwrecks in state waters would be foreclosed. The sport divers and other interested groups who know their own interests and their own resources should be allowed to continue to evolve appropriate systems to manage their state's shipwrecks. The management system for a prehistoric canoe in North Dakota need not be the same as the system for a Spanish galleon in Florida or a World War II fleet in Truk Lagoon. 832 REBURIAL OF A 16th CENTURY GALLEON Peter J.A. Waddell Marine Archaeology Unit The Canadian Parks Service Environment Canada Ottawa, Ontario KlA OR3 For eight years (1978 - 85) the Marine Archaeor, logy Unit of Environment Canada was involved in C the excavation of Spanish Basque whaling vessels in Labrador. During excavation, one of the -@1-11 galleons was completely disassembled. Upon completion of excavation and structural re- cording, the timbers were systematically reburied on the seabed using a method intended to preserve the timbers. Provision has been made to ensure ongoing monitoring of timber degradation. The rationale behind the proce- d'ure, the procedure and the results to date are discussed. RED BAY Labrador HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Quebec Following Cabot's voyage to Newfoundland at the Newfoundland close of the 15th century, Portuguese, English, French and Basque commercial interests ventured into the northern New World. These Europeans were drawn by the rich stocks of protein in the form of codfish and train oil of the bowhead and right whales. Clearly at the forefront of New Brunswick these commercial ventures were the Basques who had a monopoly on the lucrative whale oil trade CP in Grand Baya (the general area of the Strait of Bell Isle). The whaling traditions of the Basques predate the Middle Ages and their ship", 0 320 building abilities in the 16th century produced vessels capable of continuous transatlantic krn duty. The fact that the Basques were world Figure 1 leaders both in the realm of whaling technology and shipbuilding combined to give them a virtual monopoly on early New World whaling. In peak years, from approximately 1540 until into the This excavation was concurrent with and compli- late 16th century, up to 2000 Basques in as mentary to the excavation of the Red Bay whaling many as 30 vessels journeyed to Labrador in station by James Tuck and the Memorial University pursuit of whales. The vessels spent four to of Newfoundland (Tuck & Grenier, 1985). six months per year harvesting whales from a series of whaling stations along the north shore INTRODUCTION of the Strait of Belle Isle. This heavy marine traffic in new waters and often threatening ice Over the course of six excavation years, the conditions resulted in its share of shipwrecks, Canadian Parks Service completed the structural several of which have been reported by Selma disassembly of the Basque Galleon thought to be Barkham (Barkham, 1978: 8-19). The Canadian the -San J!Ian (Waddell, 1986). By 1985 the wreck Parks Service's Marine Archaeology Unit, under had been completely disassembled. Over 3000 the direction of RobertGrenier, has been con- timbers had been raised to the surface, recorded ducting an excavation on one of these shipwrecks, and placed in temporary, underwater reburial pits. a 16th-century galleon at Red Bay Labrador, The -major task of the 1985 field season was to (Fig. I). permanently rebury the entire complement of ship's CH2585-8/88/0000- 833 $1 @1988 IEEE timbers. This paper will provide a general out- This permitted the stacking of timbers in three line of that undertaking. Systematic reburial distinct layers with 20 cm of sand above each of such a large number of timbers had never layer. The profile of the reburial area was kept previously been attempted. The Conservation as low as possible in order to minimize any ice- Division of the Canadian Parks Service was as2ed berg contact,.which is unavoidable in the area. to develop guidelines for the work. After litera- The seabed depression created by excavation of the ture searches, several consultation meetings and San Juan was the obvious area to locate the pit, some experimentation, a reburial plan was for- thereby reducing overall profile and avoiding mulated (Murdock and Stewart, 1985). The essence disturbance of the surrounding artifact-bearing of the plan was to cost-effectively create a unexcavated seabed. sealed and anaerobic environment in which to store the timbers. The reburial would attempt To contain timbers and sand, a sandbag dyke was to duplicate the pre-excavation environment of built using approximately 1200 plastic salt bags, the wreck timbers in terms of light, temperature containing somq 36 metric tonnes of sand (Fig. 2). and gas exposure. The dyke walls, built in stages, were supported by timbers and sand on the inside and by rock fill on REBURIAL the outside. Emphasis was o .n the use of readily available materials (rock, sand, salt bags) to An estimate of the timber volume was done in create a stable tapered wall. In addition, it was order to determine the space requirements of felt that a tapered rock wall was essential in the reburial area. It was calculated that an minimizing disturbance by scouring icebergs that area 14 m by 16 m by 1 m high would be required. could severely damage any vertical sandbag wall. C _"C-r1q916 WOOP X7, MAI 20H ED CD KS) CD -ED W." 11IRM196- WhfCR 51WRI116 7/"Am @O r"W -rA.- Figure 2 8.34 The area of the wreck slopes slightly downward I @ '71 @j from southwest to northeast. The deeper portion "O'A"e" of the pit, the northern side, was used for lar, ger timbers that passed through more than a W X"t j single reburial layer. This included the 14- -metre keel, keelson and several other great and compass timbers. Generally the timbers were buried in three distinct layers. The first layer was laid within the dyke on sterile, previously excavated seabed. Timbers were fitted or "nested" to maximize the total wood volume in each layer (Fig. 3). Upon completion of a layer, the area was mapped to show the location of each timber. Following the verification of the layer map, the sand-covering operation began. Sand was lowered into position over the site in a speci-- 1-0 ally designed dump bucket, carrying approximately two metric tonnes of sand (Fig. 4). This was manoeuvered into position and released into the reburial pit. Gaps between timbers were filled and then 20 cm of sand was used to cover the entire level. The following two timber layers were built up similarly, producing an overall height of approximately one metre. Ninety-six metric tonnes of sand were put over the first timber layer, followed by 93-metric tonnes for the second layer and 126 metric tonnes for the final layer, totalling 315 metric tonnes. Figure 4. Sand being dumped onto reburial pit (Photo by D. Pag6) 7* Figure 3. Timbers fitted into northern half of reburial layer 3. (Photo by P. Waddell) The reburial pit required a covering to prevent erosion of the sand and to minimize gas transfer. The covering used was a 36-mil hypalon tarp, which is a synthetic elastomer rubber with a re- inforcing weave. To simplify handling, the cover was made in two pieces, which were laced together underwater (Figs. 2 and 5). The 16-m-byl8-m dimensions permitted coverage outside the walls of the reburial pit by one metre on each side. To hold the cover down, 60 concrete-filled tires, Figure 5. Tr;c@l jo@ni'ng of rebur@al tarp on totalling nine metric tonnes, were dispersed over surface. its surface. (Photo by R. Chan) 835 Reburial of the timbers at Red Bay was the largest These results are very promising in terms of undertaking of its kind aimed at maintaining ship- achieving an anaerobic state within the sand wreck timbers in an optimum state. To help at the buried timber level. This is essential determine the effectiveness of the methodology, to reduce wood degradation. The first wood a testing procedure has been established incorpo- samples will be pulled for comparative analysis rating wood samples placed at three different with the frozen control samples in 1990. This depth levels through the reburial site. The test and continuing comparisons will, over the samples were strung on ropes that can be pulled years, determine the long-range effectiveness of from the pit without disturbing the other timbers this preservation technique. The results will (Fig. 2). Over time these timbers can be re- provide essential information for those charged covered for comparison with frozen control wood or concerned with long-range preservation of samples from which they were cut. Some timbers cultural resources from the sea. were reburied outside the reburial pit and these could also be used in assessing the effective- ness of the reburial methodology. Current plans REFERENCES call for the initial recovery of wood samples after five years (1990) and at several more Barkham S., 1978, "The Basques: filling a gap in intervals over the next 50 years. The effec- in our histo-jZy,,between Jaques Cartier and tiveness of sealing will also be gauged by Champlain""--Ganadian Geographic, Feb/Mar: 8-19. taking water samples from within the pit itself. Plastic tubing was modified and reburied with Genier, Robert, and James Tuck, 1985, "16th the timbers. These vertical tubes (Fig. 2) Century Basque Whalers in America", National provide access to water at the bottom of the Geographic, July: 40-71. pit. Syringes can be fitted to sampling tubes incorporated into the protruding vertical tubes. Murdock, L., and J. Stewart, 1985,"Recommendations This permits the drawing of water samples with.- for Reburial of Ship's Timbers". Unpublished out opening and.thereby contaminating the pit. report, Conservation Division, Environment There was an opportunity to take an initial Canada - Parks. water sample from the pit after one year (1986). Analysis of the sample was done and compared to Waddell, P., 1986, "The Disassembly of a 16th- the sea water immediately above the reburial Century Galleon". The International Journal area. Results were as follows: of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Expl ration, 15.2: 137-148. Ambient Reburial Sea.Water Pit Water Measured Test Name SLaUle SERle Units Sulfide 0.05 0.04 mg/L S Dissolved oxygen 9.82 0.20 mg/L 0 Alkalinity 100.00, 101.00 mg/L CaC03 PH 7.83 7.09 units, Nitrate 0.002 0.008 mg/L N Nitrite 0.002 0.008 mg/L N Ammonia 0.01 1.1 mg/L N@ Orthophosphate 0.013 0.076 mg/L P04 Total phosphorus 0.034 0.309 mg/L P04 Silicate 0.10 0.75 mg/L Si Iron 0.09 9.9. mg/L Fe Kjeldahl nitrogen 0.13 1.6 mg/L N 836 SUPPORTING UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY WITH OCEAN TECHNOLOGY I John D. Broadwater Senior Underwater Archaeologist Virginia Division of Historic Landmarks Department of Conservation and Historic Resources ABSTRACT Division of Historic Landmarks, Department of Conservation and Historic Resources) The Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological coordinated a series of technological and Project has employed ocean technology for the archaeological studies. In 1976 and 1977, location, assessment and excavation of ship- with support from the Magnetics Branch of the wrecks from the Battle of Yorktown, 1781. A David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and total of nine shipwrecks was located, using Development Center, Annapolis, Maryland, and remote-sensing surveys. The best-preserved of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, the shipwrecks was excavated using a unique Gloucester Point, Virginia, two magnetometers method: a steel enclosure, or cofferdam, was were utilized for locating additional constructed around the shipwreck, and fil- shipwrecks at Yorktown. Shallow areas were tration systems were used to clarify the en- surveyed with a Schonstedt high-balance closed water, thus alleviating strong currents gradiometer, while deep-water areas (as deep and near-zero visibility which hampered pre- as 90 feet, or 27 meters) were searched with vious research. During the excavation, re- an AN/ASQ 81 magnetometer. Almost 300 cording was accomplished using a three- magnetic anomalies were recorded and plotted dimensional measurement system. Final hull on a large-scale map. measurements were recorded with a device which In 1978, the Landmarks Commission utilizes high-frequency sonic signals to pro- received a one-year survey grant from the vide precise measurements. A computer-aided National Endowment for the Humanities, thus. design and drafting (CADD) system provided formally establishing the Yorktown Shipwreck analysis and report-quality drawings. Archaeological Project. The first project activity was to survey the same areas near Yorktown with a Klein Associates Hydroscan 530 INTRODUCTION sonar, which has both side-scanning and bottom- penetrating capabilities. Sixteen primary and In the fall of 1975, a small group of 35 secondary sites were identified, many of archaeological volunteers, with assistance which correlated closely with previous from state archaeologists, began a study in magnetometer data. the York River which eventually became a full- All remote-sensing data were correlated scale research project for the Commonwealth of and primary zones were established for diver Virginia. Those archaeologists located and investigations. The follow-on surveys by reported on the remains of a large wooden ship underwater archaeologists resulted in the believed to have been lost during the Battle verification of nine British shipwrecks from of Yorktown, 1781. At least 26 British the Battle of Yorktown: six were parallel to vessels were sunk during that famous battle, the Yorktown shoreline, two lay in shallow which proved to be the last major battle of water on the opposite shore, near Gloucester the American Revolution. Unfortunately, Point, and the ninth was in the deep water of however, strong currents, near-zero visibility the main channel. In 1980, with the and persistent stinging jellyfish hampered assistance of an archaeological team from diving activities, thus limiting the Texas A&M University, one of the Gloucester effectiveness of the archaeological team. Point sites was positively identified as the During the years that followed, numerous remains of the largest British warship, HMS applications of ocean technology were utilized CHARON. in a coordinated effort to locate, evaluate and excavate ships from the sunken fleet at THE COFFERDAM EXCAVATION Yorktown. One of the shipwrecks, referred to by its archaeological site designation, 44YO88, was LOCATING AND EVALUATING THE SHIPWRECKS found to be in an excellent state of preservation. The state archaeological team Beginning in 1976, the Virginia Historic felt that complete excavation of the ship Landmarks Commission (now the Virginia would yield new information on 18th century CH2585-B188/0000- 837 $1 @1988 IEEE ship construction and warfare; however, they visibility occasionally reached as much as 30 felt that it would be very difficult to feet (9.1 m.), permitting excellent conduct the excavation in the adverse photographic recording of the site. environment of the York River. As a result of the cofferdam's success, The same problem had plagued earlier the project was reported in the June, 1988 archaeological diving. In 1976, the state issue of National Geographic magazine, and contracted with archaeologist Dr. George F. also featured in the BBC-TV documentary Bass, Texas AkM University, to conduct a "Discoveries Underwater." survey of one of the Yorktown shipwrecks. In Each year since 1982, research has been an attempt to offset the poor diving conducted at the site in cooperation with the conditions, Bass and his team constructed a Program in Maritime History and Underwater floating cofferdam designed to isolate a Research at East Carolina University, portion of the wreck and filter the enclosed Greenville, North Carolina. This cooperative water. The system, which had to be research has helped refine excavation and constructed hurriedly and on a small budget, recording methodologies and has provided an was not successful, but the concept appealed excellent training opportunity for students to the state team when they began long-range pursuing an advanced degree with a specialty planning in 1979. in underwater archaeology. Within the A new proposal was prepared, this one protective confines of the cofferdam, students calling for the construction of a rigid steel do not have to contend with the hostile cofferdam to surround 44YO88 and for the environment posed by most coastal or riverine installation of a filtration system to clarify sites; instead, they can concentrate on the enclosed water. The project was archaeological methodology. The cofferdam is constructed in 1982 with funds from the U. S. an ideal training situation. Department of the Interior, the National Silt was removed from the site by Endowment for the Humanities, the Commonwealth airlifts, often referred to as "underwater of Virginia, the National Geographic Society vacuum cleaners." These devices use and numerous other corporate and private compressed air to create a suction in a rigid sources. Such a cofferdam had been proposed hose or pipe. The suction is used to remove before but never built; cofferdams had been Silt and clay from the wreck site. As used on several occasions for shipwreck artifacts were exposed, they were recorded excavations in Europe, but all had been using a variety of techniques. The main constructed in shallow water, with the recording system utilizes a three-dimensional enclosed water being removed for a dry-land- measurement and calculation scheme devised by style excavation. The Yorktown cofferdam was Charles Mazel. Three surveyor's tapes are the first to create a ..swimming-pool" pulled from known reference points to an environment in a silty, algae-rich river. object being located; these direct tape The Yorktown cofferdam is constructed of readings are then converted to rectilinear interlocking sheet steel pilings to form an coordinates using a simple computer program. enclosure 97 feet (27.4 m) long by 45 feet This same measurement job can now be done (13.6 m) wide. It should be noted that since electronically using the Sonic High-Accuracy the ship would have been built using the Ranging and Positioning System (SHARPS). This English system of measurement, that same device, developed by Applied Sonics Corp. and system was used throughout the Yorktown distributed by Marine Telepresence Inc., project. With a water depth at the site of Poquasset, Massachusetts, utilizes sonic approximately 20 feet (6.1 m.), the cofferdam signals and associated computer hardware and encloses approximately one-half million software to locate objects quickly and with a gallons (1,892,500 1.) of water, which is very high degree of accuracy. The system was being filtered by commercial swimming pool given its first field test at the Yorktown filters donated by the Purex Corporation. Two cofferdam in 1985, then used in 1987 to record separate filtration systems are employed, each in detail the hull shape of 44YO88. using an electric pump to circulate water Following data collection, SHARPS data through a bank of sand filters. were transferred by phone link to a Prime mini- Initially, the system did not work as computer at the Virginia Beach facilities of expected. River water was freely exchanged Advanced Marine Enterprises, where a computer- with cofferdam water through seams in the aided design and drafting (CADD) system helped walls and through the porous silt and clay in generate detailed drawings of the hull and the river bottom. Introduction of river water other key features. This combination of brought new silt and algae to be removed and electronic data-gathering and computer limited the effectiveness of the filters. processing provides a rapid and efficient flow Then, in 1985, the Ecolochem Corporation of of data from field to final drawings. Norfolk, Virginia, offered long-term assistance with the problem Ecolochem, the largest mobile filtration company in the THE SHIPWRECK, 44Y088 world, conducted a series of tests and monitored the filters around the clock. From The technology discussed above has late 1985 to the close of the project in 1988, produced a wealth of data on Yorktown average visibility was better than ten feet, shipwreck 44YO88. The vessel was a merchant compared to near-zero in the open river;, ship which had been leased by the British Navy 838 for use as a supply ship during the Revolutionary War. From its boxy shape and heavy construction, the ship is believed to have been built in England as a collier, or coal-carrier. It was a brig, a two-masted ship with square sails, rated at approximately 170 tons. A hole found in the ship's starboard side verifies that it was one of a group of ships purposely scuttled to produce a barricade against an amphibious landing on the Yorktown beach. The ship's structure contains several unusual features, especially in the construction of bow and stern, which include horizontal timbers in place of cant frames. Objects found within the hull indicate that the captain had a well-appointed cabin, with fashionable furniture, panelling with raised molding, and a unique china cabinet. Dozens of intact barrels carry markings indicating a variety of contents including beef, pork, grains and other supplies. CONCLUSIONS Ocean technology made numerous significant contributions to the Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological Project. From the remote-sensing surveys which helped locate the shipwrecks, to the cofferdam technology and, later, the recording techniques utilized at the site, ocean technology was involved in every phase of the research. It is hoped that in the future there will be even more interchange of ideas, methods and skills between underwater archaeologists and marine engineers, which will enhance even'further the efficiency and accuracy of underwater excavation. In turn, underwater archaeologists will produce further evidence of America's rich maritime heritage. 839 ARTISTS ON OCEANOGRAPHIC EXPEDITIONS, A NEGLECTED PARTNERSHIP Harris B. Stewart, Jr. Oceanography Department Old Dominion University Norfolk, Virginia 23508 ABSTRACT The partnership between artist and marine scientist The 34 paintings show the ship off Gibraltar, off has too long been neglected and needs to be brought many of the islands in the Atlantic Ocean and the to the attention of both artists and oceanographers. southern Indian Ocean, at Halifax, St. Croix, The work of two ard ts nearly one hundered years Capetown, and six paintings of the ship among the apart Is presented with examples of their art at sea. iceburgs near the Antarctic Circle. Shephard's depiction of the ship in every painting is Benjamin Shephard on H.M.S. Challenger during its accurate and very detailed. Other than for the 1872-1876 global expedition painted a series of charm- paintings themselves, Shephard had a delightful ing sketches of the Challenger between her departure disregard for accuracy. For example, the vessel and her arrival. in Australia. A century later, the U.S. towed by the Challenger into St. Thomas in the marine artist, Jack Coggins, aboard the NOAA Ship Virgin Islands on March 23, 1873, was named Varuna. Discoverer painted oils, watercolors, and sketches of Shephard has a good painting of the ship in tow, but work aboard. his title lists her as the Baruner, missed the actual date by four days, and even misspelled the name of the island to which the abandoned vessel was being INTRODUCTION towed. Another titled "H.M.S. Challenger in a gale In the Gulf of Florida, May 2f-t-h; 1873" shows the Oceanographic ships and the work of marine scientists ship under reduced sail heeled way over amidst at sea could provide exciting subjects for the marine monstrous seas under black @15uds. In truth the artist, yet few have risen to accept the challenge. official log of the expedition mentions no storm With a conference theme of "Partnership of Marine in May of '73. The ship was enroute from Halifax to Interests", the artist/marine scientist partnership, one Bermuda, a-ad there Is no Gulf of Florida between long neglected, seemed a natural to bring to the these two ports, or anywhere else, for that matter. attention of both artists and oceanographers. A But these are the comments of an incurable nineteenth century sailor who filled a sketchbook with nitpicker. Shephard's water colors are magnificantly paintings of his research ship and a twentieth century done and well preserved. They provide to today's professional artist as a member of the scientific party oceanographers and maritime and scientific aboard an oceanographic ship exemplify this unique historians a new dimension to our knowledge and partnership. understanding of what is still regarded as the greatest marine science expedition of all time. SHEPHARD ABOARD H.M.S. CHALLENGER Shephard's original sketchbook now resides In the J. Welles Henderson is the "guru", the "godfathee', of Philadelphia Maritime Museum. The sketches have the Philadelphia Maritime Museum. A number of years been reproduced In the original sketchbook format, ago on a visit to Boston, he was pursuing his favorite and an accompanying text for each painting has pastime- snooping second-hand and antique bookstores borrowed extensively and shamelessly from two for Illustrated log books of 19th century ships to add contemporffy yeSscffll journals kept by expedition to his museum's collection. It was there that he found members (4) In - Copies of the Challenge a sketchbook of really delightful sketches of a british Sketchbook are available from the Philadelphia ship on what appeared to be a long voyage. He bought Maritime Museum, 321 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, the sketchbook. On his return to Philadelphia, he P A. 19106. studied the sketchbook more carefully and felt that the vessel might have been engaged in some sort of COGGINS ABOARD NOAA SHIP DISCOVERER marine scientific, oceanographic endeavors. lie called me at the NO A A lab in Miami and asked if I had ever In 1968, at the invitation of the Expedition Chief heard of a british ship named H.M.S. Challenge Scientist aboard the NOAA Ship Discov the Indeed I had, and I questioned him at length about his well-known American maritime artist, Jack CogginB, discovery. It proved to be an exciting find - an joined the expedition at Barbados. The ship w as original book full of sketches of the Challenger at sea carrying out studies of the Interactions between the and at various ports of call. Each full-page sketch sea and the atmosphere as precursors to the was tided and dated. The artist was one B. Shephard. multi-ship B 0 M E X Expedition. 0 perations included CH2585-8/88/0000- 840 $1 @1988 IEEE CTD lowerings, meteorological, and tethered balloon REFERENCES observations, and the anchoring of instrumented vertical towers that obtain meteorological data at (1). Thomson, Wyville and John Murray, "Report several heights above the sea and oceanographic data of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of ' at several depths as well as wave data at the sea H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-T surface. Professor Michael Garstang and his students H.M. Stationer y Office, London 1885, Vol. 1. at Florida State University had designed and built these towers and were proud that the ballasting (2). Spry, W.J.J., "The Cruise of Her Majesty's system maintained the towers in the true vertical -an Ship 'Challenger'," Harper and.Brothers, New essential characteristic for their measurements. York, 1877. Coggins did a large oil painting of one of these (3). Campbell, George C., "Log-Le%ters of the towers with a Boston whaler in the foreground and 'Challenger', MacMillan & Company, New the Discoverer in the background. Like Shephard a York, 1877. hundred years earlier, Coggins also injected an element of artistic license. When he painted the (4). Stewart, Harris B., Jr. and J. Welles instrumented tower as floating absolutely in the Henderson, "Challenger Sketchbook", vertical, it looked to him like a bridge abutment rising Philadelphia MaFitime Museum, Philadelphia, from the sea floor. To impart the feeling of its being Pa. 1972. a floating tower, he painted it as leaning aboul 20 degrees in a choppy sea. The painting is magnificent, but Professor Garstang was furious when this painting was reproduced as a NOAA Christmas card and widely distributed throughout the oceanographic community. The othe 'r three large oils depict a nighttime CTD lowering, interior view of night operations on the ship's bridge, and one of the ship underway. Water colors show a meteorological balloon release, the instrumented inflated kite (Kytoon), putting Mansen bottles on the wire and a series of sepia sketches of work aboard. These paintings are skillfully done with great attention to accuracy and detail, the hallmark of all of Coggins' work. These paintings hung for a number of years on the walls of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory in Miami and are now in the possession of the person who commissioned and paid for them. Some 25 color slides of the artistry of Shephard and Coggins constitute the major portion of the paper presented at Oceans '88. They are, however, too numerous and too expensive to reproduce in color for this proceedings volume. CONCLUSION With the availability of good cameras and good photogaphers, artists are no longer required to document our work at sea. But in the tradition of the Roux (pere et fis) in Marseille, Fritz Hugh Lane in Gloucester, Coggins, Barber, and Goertmiller today, ships and their work at sea still provide a challenge to the capable artist. Today's oceanographic expeditions should provide a berth for an artist. It is a long neglected but very appealing partnership of marine interests. 841 A VERIFIED MODEL FOR OIL SPILL MOVEMENT, BEAUFORT SEA, ALASKA Ivan M. Lissauer U.S. Coast Guard R&D Center Avery Point Groton, CT 06340-6096 ABSTRACT model designed f or Arctic areas. The model using the vector addition The discovery of oil and gas along the technique will be the fundamental source North Alaskan coast led to development for oil transport information until the and exploration on shore; offshore National Oceanographic and Atmospheric drilling on the continental shelf has Administration (NOAA) Scientific Support already begun. The Coast Guard has Coordinator (SSC) can be activated to responsibility for insuring effective prepare detailed oil spill movement oil spill response in these waters which data. may be ice-infested during all or part The oil spill model that has been of the year. To increase the Coast developed is easily accessible and, most Guard's expertise, methods were devel- important, easy to implement. it is oped to detect and monitor oil spills in designed so that on being notified of a the Arctic. A key element was develop- spill the OSC can turn the computer on, ment of a comprehensive model to predict enter a small amount of easily obtained the short-term movement of oil spills. data and then let the computer run while To verify the model, a drift experiment the. OSC is preparing to depart for the was conducted at Prudhoe Bay. Tracks of scene of the spill. When ready to several drifters were compared to the depart, the OSC will return to the model's output, indicating that it had computer and gather the printed output. the ability to successfully simulate Thus, for the OSC, a forecasting system direction of movement and speed of has been developed which will: advance of an oil spill. 1. INTRODUCTION a. Predict the movement of the oil spill with sufficient accuracy to permit The U.S. Coast Guard's Arctic Spill the OSC to make proper decisions about Response project was designed to insure the deployment of his resources. that the On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) had b. Consider all factors affecting the background information and technical the movement of the oil slick including: expertise to monitor the progress of an spreading, size and time of original Arctic oil spill and its cleanup discharge, size and time of any operation. Initially, it may be crucial additional discharges, winds, surface for the OSC to determine pertinent facts currents, and site-specific geography. about a particular discharge of oil particularly the probable direction and c. Require as inputs only that speed of advance of the oil. This would information which is readily available provide the OSC with information to make to the OSC such as: time and size of judgements concerning the areas where spill, location of spill and local the environment will be affected, and weather conditions. the resources and priorities for protecting them. Should a spill occur d. Be capable of providing updated today, the best method for forecasting projections as additional information during the early stage of the spill becomes available or conditions change. would be similar to the basic vector addition technique used by the National e. Be capable of real-time operation Response Center for many past spills. to give timely results. This technique is excellent for immediate forecasts of the oil slick's f. Present its output in a format directional movement and outer that can be easily used and understood. boundaries. The vector technique has been incorporated into a simple computer 842 United States Government work not protected by copyright 2. COMPUTER MODEL which the model was developed is that portion landward of the 40 meter In this model the movement of a isobath. Current measurements in this waterborne conservative property such as area are sparse due to the difficulty of an oil slick is assumed to be described setting and maintaining current meter by a diffusion-advection equation. The moorings in the presence of sea ice. equation describes the Eulerian concept However, drifter data, from Matthews of concentration changes with time at (1981), and current meter measurements fixed locations as the oil is advected made by Aagaard (1981) provide some and diffused over a region. The information about the surface water diffusion equation was tested in zero movement. Generally these studies current fields. Coefficients were indicate that the water movement on the determined f or this equation which shelf tends to be in the longshelf allowed for a circular spread rate direction (generally east and west). comparable to those rates determined However, there is an occasional cross- from actual spills (Murray, et al., shelf flow (north and south) of a highly 1970) and theory (Fay, et al., 1970). variable nature. It has been generally agreed that the predominant mechanism A real-time spill trajectory model for water movement on the inner shelf consists of two parts. The f irst and and within the barrier islands is the most important part is the data base wind. This hypothesis is supported by which provides the surface currents. several different researchers including The second part is the trajectory model Lissauer and Matthews (1982), Matthews is an algorithm which uses the data base (1981), Mungall and Whitaker (1979) and to.move the oil. Barnes and Reimnitz (1977). Lissauer and Matthews (1982) studied the movement A shortcoming of many models occurs not of surface drifters placed under the in the development stage of the shorefast ice just prior to summer algorithms but in the validation of break-up of ice and in leads in the pack those models to real-world events that ice on the inner shelf. Results of the they are trying to predict. Because drifter returns f rom two years of this model was developed for response to releases show 74% were found to the west oil spills, it was considered essential of their release points indicating a that the short-term predictive model be predominant westerly flow. This tested to determine its ability to westerly flow is in agreement with the provide the basic parameters of oil dominance of easterly winds in the area slick directional movement and outer of the drifter releases documented by boundaries. Therefore, a detailed Hufford, et al., (1976). Barnes and discussion of the mechanics of the model Reimnitz (1977) has reported good will not be presented; instead the focus correlations between near surface will be on the experiments conducted to currents and local winds off of Prudhoe test the model. Bay, Alaska. 3. BEAUFORT SEA OCEANOGRAPHY A key ingredient to the successful implementation of the model was the the movement of oil will be affected by development of the current data base for winds, tides, surface currents, river input to the model. In 1979 the Coast runoff and waves. For the North Slope Guard R&D Center conducted an experiment of Alaska the primary mechanisms for to observe the dynamics of ice movement movement are the winds and surface during break-up of the ice in the currents. Surface winds play an Prudhoe Bay area (Lissauer and Tebeau, important role in the transport of oil 1980). on the water. The wind drift of an oil slick can be described by a wind factor: During surveys conducted with ice i.e., oil slick drift rate is a concentrations of less than 50%, floe percentage of wind speed. speed varied between 6.0% and 11.7% of the wind speed for, one survey and 5.5% Actual observations of oil slick and 12.4% for the second survey. These movement at sea indicate that the drift values are significant because they rates are between 3.0 and 4.5 percent of greatly exceeded expected values even the wind speed. The difference between considering the leeway caused by the the value of wind drift current and oil "superstructure" of the ice. This slick drift is called leeway. In the initial indication that the current data model presented the wind drift factor base might require additional input led has been set at 3.5% of the wind speed. to other studies. The direction of movement of the oil spill is downwind. Lissauer, et al., 1984, examined the circulation on the Beaufort Sea Shelf in The area of the Beaufort Sea shelf for "Atlas of the Beaufort Sea." As noted 843 before it was determined that this motion. This may be due to light winds circulation is dominated by a longshore only moving the top f ew inches of the transport caused by large-scale water; while in 'rough sea, turbulence meteorological conditions. smoothes out the vertical gradient of current for the upper few feet. Persistent winds from the northeast or Therefore, the effect of the surface strong northwest winds cause patterns of current on an oil spill may be somewhat mean current conditions. in order to different than the effect on the drift- determine the transport of oil it was ers in light winds. However, because of found that 3.5% of the local wind speed errors caused by estimations of winds had to be added to the mean currents. and their variability, this difference Thus for a local northeast wind of ten will not cause a significant problem for knots in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay, the fundamental use of the model. oil would be transported by the mean currents and an additional 3.5% factor All position information for the for the local wind. Thus oil transport drifters was processed and recorded by a could be approximately 6.5% if the mean desktop computer. Approximately 40 currents and the local wind transport hours of drift was required to were in the same direction. The adequately verify the model. A total of validation experiment proved that using 54.28 hours of drift was obtained. the mean current patterns plus a wind factor provides accurate oil spill In addition to the drift data, wind movement patterns. speed and direction were measured on Cross Island (approximately ten miles 4. VALIDATION EXPERIMENT offshore) and on the Arcat vessel which was used as the command center for In order to test the validity of the releasing the drifters. Also, current model a field trip to Prudhoe Bay, measurements were taken from the deck of Alaska, was conducted during the period the Arcat. 1-14 August 1985. Experiments were conducted to study the coastal 5. SURFACE DRIFT circulation inside the barrier islands, in order to test the short-term model. Comparisons were made between the wind A microwave tracking system system (MTS) speed and current speed, as well as the was set up at Prudhoe Bay. The NTS wind speed versus the drifter speeds. system can track transponders at line- As noted before, we expected the of-sight distances. The R&D Center has currents and the drifter movement to be developed surface drifters with in excess of the 3.5% value used to transponders imbedded in them. The estimate the effect of the wind on an drifters consist of a waterproof box oil spill. our hypothesis that currents floated by polystyrene foam sandwiched along the North Slope were not solely a between two pieces of plexiglass. An function of the local winds appears to MTS transponder and batteries are be correct. Figures I and 2 show both contained in the waterproof box and are current speed and drifter speeds exceed connected by flexible wave guides to the the 3.51% leeway drift speed in all but antenna on a 4-foot pole. The drifters three cases. Based on this information, float with the upper surface awash, thus the model was developed with a the leeway of the drifter is expected to background current data set, upon which be small to negligible. The structure a wind drift data set is imposed. of the drifter is such that it marks the movement of the upper 2 to 3 feet of I -T water, which is deeper than the layer that will affect an oil spill. The MTS, drifters were tested for their ability 0.4 to describe surface movement by . ... ... deploying one or more drift cards next 0.3 - to them. The drift cards were brightly painted 4 feet by 4 feet sheets of 1/2- inch plywood whose positions were marked 0.2 periodically by a monitor boat. Although the absolute motion of the MTS 0.1 - drifters and the drift cards was very similar, some relative motion was observed. In light winds, calm 0 - conditions, the drift cards had a 0.1 0.2 0.'3 O@4 d.5 d.6 0.7 greater motion downwind than the C,,,e,t Sp@ (K-ts) drifter. In 14-20 knot winds, there was Figure 1. Comparison of Current Speeds no appreciable difference in their with 3.5% Values of the Wind Speed - Z' 844 32 31 30 29 to n W 2e oil 27 26 0 LMMdH) 25 0 Im'r 24 OL ;?.".,L 23 :9!NS LLL 22 21 a 20 0on= 1.0 1 it 114 slas ona 0.9 41=0 a ON I N0:14% 0 11 0119na Sol 154 4 a 11 It N'%' 0 9 N a 4 K Sig N S, Vn a n 0.7 . ... ... 3 gsgs@ 2 lagg 0.6 2109a n a On a4 as s 9 s4aaa"nsof a as NN a 9N99 "n No NN, n""Nn %a 0.4 6 N 7 5 "Ng"n1l9l lt "ttOg N9%49@@ In nau%V 4 2NN9012:ng �N%SS 69:S0 nn"9'@'g z @@4 11t 4N11Jn6 N onn - tg""Usnnn S n at 2 lgglfill ON e I t N --CZ so "S . J4 1 1 -4 1 DoNg"S la a to Nan a MrInn TIME <HR) 9*00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 BELT 3600 I)ELX 141276 WDIR 219 ASP 494 Drift9f SPOON (Knots) SPILL PT:26,18 Figure 2. Comparison of Drifter Speeds Figure 3. Verification of Model with 3.5% Values of the Wind Speed, Using Drifter Tracks A total of just under 53 hours of drift The first drift period on 4 August 1985 data was obtained. Table 1 below gives lasted for just under seven hours. The the date and time period of the drifts comparison of the drift track to the that were recorded, as well as the model output is in good agreement. The average wind speed and direction for the core of the oil spill simulation for the drift period. model output appears to be slightly to the south of the drift track, and the drift track exceeded the model output distance by approximately one grid square (1413 meters). However, for the objective of the model to provide the general direction of movement and approximate rate of advance of the oil, the results exceeded our expectations of the forecasting ability of the model. The other drift track/model output comparisons also fortified the predictive capability of the model. The remaining model outputs for the various drifts were in excellent agreement with the drift tracks. These drift data 6. MODEL VERIFICATION indicate the ability of the model to successfully simulate the direction of In order to verify the predictive movement and speed of advance of an oil capability of the model, the drift spill in the Arctic. It will provide tracks were overlaid on model outputs. the OSC with an adequate prediction Although there were some discrepancies technique for the short-term period of between the model output and the drift 24 hours. In addition it can be used to tracks, the overall results verify that verify predictions of oil movement which the model will provide useful are provided to the OSC by other information to the OSC for the first 24 sources. hours of drift of an oil spill in the 7. REFERENCES Beaufort Sea. Figure 3 shows the model output and drift track for 4 August. The model displays letters (H, M, L) 1. Aagaard, K., 1981. Current which correspond to oil concentrations Measurements in Possible Dispersal of High, Medium or Low. The path of the Regions of the Beaufort Sea. In: drifter is shown by an arrow with the Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan starting point of the drift marked by a Continental Shelf. Volume 3: Physical circle. The shoreline and barrier Sciences Studies. USDC Office of Marine islands are represented by the dotted Pollution Assessment. Washington, DC, figures. pp 56-100. 845 2. Barnes, P.W. and E. Reimnitz, 1979. 11.Murray, S.P., W.G. Smith and Charles Marine Environmental Problems in the J. Sonu, 1970. Oceanographic Ice-Covered Beaufort Sea Shelf and Observations and Theoretical Analysis of Coastal Regions. In: Environmental Oil Slicks During the Chevron Spill, Assessment of the Ali-skan Coastal Shelf, March 1970. U.S. Coast Guard R&D Report Annual Reports, 9: 164-267. CG-03592-A. Available from National Technical Information Service, 3. Crowley, W.P., 1968. Numerical Springfield, Virginia. 714104/A/006-2. Advection Experiment. Monthly Weather Review. 96:1. 4. Fay, J.A., and D.P. Hoult, 1971. Physical Processes in the Spread of Oil on the Water Surface. U.S. Coast Guard R&D Report 714107/A/001. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. ADA714107. 5. Hufford, G.L., I.M. Lissauer and J P. Welsh, 1976. Movement of Spilled Oil Over the Beaufort Sea Shelf - A Forecast. U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Report CG-D-101-76. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. AD-A033-580, 87 p. 6. Lissauer, I.M. and P.A. Tebeau, 1980. Investigations to Determine the Transport of oil in Arctic Waters. Coastal Zone 80, Hollywood,' Florida, pp 2797-2813. 7. Lissauer, I.M. and J.B. Matthews, 1982. Surface Drifter Study - Beaufort Sea, Alaska. U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center Report CG-D-33- 82. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. AD-A126-350, 10 p. 8. Lissauer, I.M., L.E. Hachmeister and B.J. Morson, 1984. Atlas of the Beaufort Sea. U.S. Coast Guard R&D Report CG-D-33-84. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. ADA-149-545. 9. Matthews, J.B., 1981. observations of Surface and Bottom Currents in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research. Volume 86, No. C7, pp 6653-6660. 10.Mungall, J.C.H., R.E. Whitaker and S.F. Pace, 1979. Oceanographic Processes in a Beaufort Sea Barrier Island-Lagoon System. Numerical Modeling and Current Measurements. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alai-kan Continental Shelf, Annual Reports. National oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 8: 182-287. 846 Hindcast of the Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill Mark Reedl and Erich R. Cundlach2 lApplied Science Associates, Inc. 2E-Tech, Inc. 70 Dean Knauss Drive 70 Dean Knauss Drive Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 ABSTRACT watering) is allowed to occur for oil which is on the foreshore or backshore. A coastal zone oil spill model developed for the U.S. Department of Interior, Minerals Management Oil coming ashore may be deposited on the Service, was used to hindcast the fate of oil foreshore or the backshore, or carried into from the Amocb Cadiz tanker accident. Hindcasts coastal lagoons, ponds, or fjords. Oil on the were performed on two spatial scales, one small, foreshore penetrates into the underlying to provide higher resolution of the coastline sediments at a rate dependent on sediment grain details within a few tens of kilometers of the size and oil viscosity. Oil may also be carried wreck, the second extending several hundreds of into the beach groundwater system by wave kilometers along the coast. The mass balance overwash. Reflotation of surface oil occurs and physical distribution of oil agreed during rising tides. These mass transfer reasonably well with area-wide observations for pathways are shown schematically in Figure 1. both large and small tests. Agreement at the larger scale deteriorated somewhat with respect LONGSHORE AND OFFSHORE to detailed spatial distributions. The small EVAPORATION TRANSPORT EVAPORATION scale hindcast appeared to retain too much oil early in the simulation, although mass balances DEPOSITION after 30 days agreed well with observations. REFLOATION WAVE OVERWASH BA S=RE 1. INTRODUCTION (SURF ZONE SURFACEI FORESHORE SURFACE E Oil spill trajectory and fates models typically ENTRAINMENT EROSION PENETRATION follow a surface slick until it contacts a coastline, at which time the simulation ceases. SURF ZO FORESHORE The coastal zone oil spill (COZOIL) model NE SURFACE SEDIMENT described here is designed to simulate oil spill WATER COLUMN fates both before and after a coastal contact. The model has been designed to include explicit PENETRATION representations of as many of the known active I processes as possible. Multiple discrete BEACH GROU WATER SYST batches of oil, or spillets, are used to FLUS ING E.: represent the surface slick. Spillets are circular while offshore but become elliptical LONGShORE AND OFFSHORE upon contact with the shoreline. The amount of TRANSPORT onshore-offshore foreshortening is governed by a balance between wind stress and gravity spreading forces, and results in alongshore Figure 1. Schematic of processes included in the spreading of the spillet. Evaporated COZOIL model. hydrocarbons are given no spatial representation, but are simply accumulated from The most severe test of any model is a hindcast all sources during the simulation. Entrained of a real event having a strong observational oil offshore is represented by discrete data base. The Amoco Cadiz spill offers the particles which are advected by the local most complete data set of any coastal oil spill currents. Inside the surf zone, entrained oil to date and, therefore, was selected to test takes on a continuous representation, COZOIL. Principal summary references on the discretized by alongshore grid cell. Transport spill are Hess (1978), CNEXO (1981), and REF'O W-V A N5 D AT'. O_' r '-E IWA 1AM @Fl. @.,N@ in the surf zone is governed by a classical NOAA/CNEXO (1982) Primary references radiation stress formulation. Incorporation of concerning development of the COZOIL model are water into surface oil (emulsification) is Gundlach and Reed (1986), Kana (1986), and Reed simulated offshore. De -emulsification (de- et al (1986, 1988). CH2585-8/88/0000- 847 $1 @1988 IEEE- The sequence of events to be hindcast began at Table 1. COZOIL input parameters for 06:00 on 17 March 1978 when the supertanker deterministic simulation and values used for the began to break apart 2.4 km off the Brittany Amoco Cadiz hindcasts. (France) coastline after grounding during storm conditions (Hess, 1978). A location map of the Input Parameters Value Comments site is provided in Figure 2. The ship's cargo consisted of about 220,000 mtons of light Middle oil type Hurban crude Primarily light Arabian ,r"d,, Ille-1978) Eastern crude oil and a small amount of bunker Spill size 220,000 tons 1.61 ".00 b"i 1978) oil, all of which was lost over the next two Number of pLIl.t. 144 conforms to H.- sc al (1978) weeks (Hess, 1978). The oil rapidly emulsified Interval between I every 2 bra conforms to Hann at al in the high waves around the vessel, sequantial releases (1978) Coastal reach parameter. Read at al, 1988 some field measurements incorporating up to 90% water (Hann et al, Air temperature 7.5*C Brest airport 1978). After initial oil transport to the Wind time ..rise Brost airport Tidal period 12.4 hour SHOM (1973. 1978) south, strong winds spread the oil towards the Range 6.5 a SHOM (1973. 1978) east for the first ten days. A shif t in wind Tidal current amplitude 1.46 m/sec SHOM (1973, 1978) Time after mean low 6 hr SHOM (1978) direction to the northeast then carried oil tide for simulation start offshore, with a reversal toward the southwest after six days (Hess, 1978). Oil was ultimately .spread over more than 300 km of coastline and a bedrock-dominated shores, mixed sand and gravel large area of offshore waters (Fig. 2). beaches, sand beaches backed by dunes or riprap, and estuaries with large mud flats. Because of the large tidal range, sand flats extending up to several kilometers from shore are exposed at low tide. Shoreline classification is based on Berne (1982), modified to conform with shoreline types def ined by the COZOIL model. Shoreline slopes -7 are based on the measurement of topographic profiles across sand, coarse sand with f ine gravel, and gravel beaches in Brittany at the time of the spill. Values for adjacent beaches were estimated using these measurements as a basis and from repeated observations of the L shoreline by the second author. The foreshore slope, as defined by model requirements, is the slope of a straight line between the berm or high-water mark and the low-tide line. The backshore is the area above the berm or high- Figure 2. Study area map for the Amoco Cadiz water mark. The position of this dividing line hindcast showing coastal areas impacted by oil can vary substantially in Brittany depending on and borders of the small-scale and large-scale the tidal phase. A value of 20 m is used as test cases. representative of the narrow backshores common in Brittany. 2. MODEL INPUT DATA The 'resulting coastlines for the two hindcasts are shown in Figure 3. In the small-scale case, The inputs to COZOIL used for the Amoco Cadiz lengths of individual shoreline segments or test cases are presented in Table 1. other reaches vary from about 1.7 to 5 km, At this inputs, such as simulation duration and time scale, the model is capable of resolving intervals between subsequent output to the individual estuaries and embayments along the monitor or data files are also required, but do coast. For example, the Abers Benoit and Vrach not materially affect the computations. (Fig. 3 top) are clearly represented. For the large-scale test case (Fig. 3 lower), the reach The COZOIL model contains a library with seven lengths range from 20 to 46 km, a much coarser crude oils and petroleum products. Of these, representation in which 11 reaches cover over Murban Abu Dhabi appears to closely approximate 600 km of actual coastline. the oil carried by the Amoco Cadiz (Anonymous, 1973; NOAA/CNEXO, 1982). 3. SUMMARY OF OIL DISTRIBUTION DATA Hindcasts of the fate of the spilled oil were performed on small and large scales (Fig. 2) to The distribution and quantity of oil along the reflect localized oiling within the convoluted shoreline during the Amoco Cadiz.spill was based coastline adjacent to the grounding site and to on surveys conducted by a combined French- cover distribution over the entire spill- American field team. Measurements during the affected area. The Brittany shoreline being spill included oil thickness, surface coverage, represented in the COZOIL model is complex and burial, and alongshore distribution at twenty diverse, containing a closely spaced mixture of stations along the coast, augmented by 848 Small-Scale Test Case For this test case, shoreline reaches vary from 1.7 to 5 km in length adjacent to the wreck site. The offshore model boundary is located 15 km or less from the shoreline (Fig. 2). 0 km 5 ;7 Otfshore and onshore distribution 0 QDb SMAtt-SCALE TEST-CAS! The distribution of oil on the water surface and b P.-At A... 11-sie on the shoreline for the small-scale test case is presented for four time periods in Figure 4. SMALL-SCALE TEST CASE 0 km 20 LARGE-SCAtE TEST CASE 6d .0 0 G,.,d C." N..b.' 0 Sh-IiA. R ... It A.C- S_.Y (29781 Figure 3. Modeled coastline for both test cases. Grid cells and shoreline reaches are indicated f or each. The locations of field stations AMC-5, 11, and 12, are indicated in the top diagram. OFFSHORE SURFACE OIL ONSHORE OIL. L approximately 150 additional ground observation stations and an extensive set of oblique and Figure 4. Distribution of offshore surface oil vertical aerial photographs. Results, published and onshore oil (foreshore surface and in Gundlach and Hayes (1978), D'Ozouville et al backshore) for the small-scale test case. (1981), and Finkelstein and Gundlach (1981), Offshore, circles indicate computed areal indicate that approximately 62,000 mtons of oil coverage of thick oil. Onshore, circles are were onshore during the period of 17 March to 2 proportional to the oil mass associated with April, and that from 20-28 April slightly less each grid cell. The maximum value of the circle than 10,000 mtons was onshore. for each time plot is given. For these simulations, original data were analyzed and recalculated to determine more At 5 days, oil has already been distributed over exact dates with respect to onshore oiling, to the entire study area (onshore and offshore), differentiate between surface and buried oil, conforming well to that reported by study of and to calculate 95% confidence intervals for aerial photographs (CNEXO et al, 1978). This each time period. Stations within the small- rapid distribution is the result of strong tides scale shoreline section were most often surveyed and winds, plus longshore transport inside the and provide oil quantities for three time surf zone. At day 5, the model shows the periods, 8.5, 15 and 36 days after the beginning highest surface oil concentration in Aber of the spill. For the large scale test, Benoit, an area that was heavily impacted by the shoreline oil was calculated for 9 and 38.5 days spill and contained traces of oil at least until after the initial release of oil. In all cases, 1987. By day 10, oil quantity within Aber the extent of shoreline oiling (in km) was taken Benoit has decreased while oil in the nearshore from Finkelstein and Gundlach (1981) and area remains fairly evenly distributed DIOzouville at al (1978). Only oiling of the alongshore but with less occurring along the mainland was considered as offshore islands and eastern edge. Between days 10 and 20, most of rocks are not represented in these model test the oil on the water surface has been cases. transported out the northern model boundary due to strong offshore winds. A subsequent wind to the southwest, beginning about day 18, carries 4. RESULTS most of the remaining surface oil out the western model boundary. The overall sequence of The first simulation discussed is the small- oil distribution conforms very well to ill .R. @@..FAC. OIL scale test case, extending about 30 km from the observations except that the actual spill spill site. The second is an order of magnitude contained. no artificial boundaries so ... that.. re-_ more extensive spatially, representing over 600 oiling of the shoreline and offshore waters to km of actual coastline. the southwest occurred after transport offshore. 849 The onshore distribution of oil (Fig. 4) is the shoreline could be due in part to removal represented by circles proportional to the total rates which are too slow in the model and/or the mass of oil found on the foreshore surface of absence of storm surge events in the hindcast. the beach and the backshore of each grid cell. Two such events were recorded during the first On day five, shoreline oil is concentrated in two weeks following the start of the spill Portsall harbor adjacent to the wreck site, in (Hess, 1978) and resulted in the rapid removal Abers Benoit and Vrach, and on the two north- and transport of oil from several segments of trending headlands (Presqu'ile Ste. Marguerite the shoreline. The model, however, clearly and St. Cava) which form a barrier to the shows dynamic variability both from low to high easterly drifting oil. This conforms very well tide and from one tidal cycle to the next, which with observations made at the time of the spill is entirely consistent with the field (Gundlach and Hayes, 1978). observations (Gundlach and Hayes, 1978). At day 10, the model indicates substantial SMALL-SCALE TEST CASE oiling of the embayment at Guisseny as did occur; however, the model may over estimate BEACH SURFACE oiling at this location because of the lack of -Total on beach surface shoreline detail. In this case, a large spit Foreshore protecting the embayment is not adequately m_ @ FC-1 T represented (Fig. 3 top). At days 20 and 30, CY . .-...2.N.-: B.ckshont oil is found along most of the coast in L continually decreasing quantities. 44 .Ad, .7. 0 10 20 30 40 Dynamic mass balances The dynamic mass balance of oil for 40 days of 0 Total ashore COASTAL COMPONENTS simulation time is shown in Figure 5 for the U Z Foreshore surface small-scale study area. The bottom diagram shows the overall mass balance of oil divided X, Elackshore into five major spill components: ashore, water Ground water surface, atmosphere, water column, and outside Surf zone the simulation area. The curve labeled "Ashore" ......... .... corresponds to the curve labeled "Total Ashore" .0 0 10 20 A 4'0 of the middle diagram, which is composed of four -.1 subdivisions: foreshore, backshore, ground water, and surf zone. The top diagram of Figure Total 5 represents the total oil on the beach, OVERALL MASS BALANCE composed of surface and backshore oil but excluding oil in the ground water. This represents the quantity of oil that would be Outside measured on the beaches at the time of the - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - spill. Estimated amounts of oil along this .............. ......... ... section of shoreline during the spill, compiled --- ---------- - ----------------- for 8. 5, 15 and 36 days after the spill, are Atrnesph- r water surface superimposed on this plot. Ashore -PAP Figure 5 illustrates that the proximity of the 0 5 io 15 20 25 30 35 10 release point to shore, combined with onshore Time (doys) winds result in a steadily increasing amount of oil deposited onshore during the first 10 days. Figure 5. Dynamic mass balances (overall, The removal and deposition of oil in conjunction coastal components, and beach surface) for oil with the rising and falling of the tide is associated with the small-scale test case. clearly reflected in the interchange of oil Observed values of oil quantity on the shoreline between the ashore and water surface components. and 95% confidence intervals are indicated in From days 10 to 15, the abrupt increase in oil the top diagram. mass leaving the study area, shown by the curve labeled "outside", is due to strong offshore Large-Scale Test Case winds. Note the simultaneous decrease in oil on the water surface (Fig. 5 bottom). This case encompasses the entire northwestern Brittany region and contains only 11 coastal In comparing the observed versus simu 'lated total segments ranging in length from 20 to 46 km in quantity of oil ashore (Fig. 5 top), simulation contrast to the previous case having a maximum values exceed observed'values on both days 8.5 length of 5 km (see Fig. 3). At this scale only and 15, but compare well with those from day 36. coastline trends and very large embayments, as Observations in the field were always made at Brest, can be differentiated. within low- to mid-tide levels, which conform to the higher values of total oil on the beach Offshore and onshore distribution surface. The high oil quantities simulated on Results of the large-scale simulation of the 850 distribution of the oil is indicated in Figure (Fig. 6), perhaps due to under estimation of 6. The distribution of offshore surface oil tidal currents for this portion of the study after 5 days compares extremely well with that area. observed after 4.5 days using vertical aerial photographs taken by the French government Dynamic mass balances (CNEXO, et al, 1978) during the spill (Fig. 6, The various mass balances for the large-scale top left) . The, onshore distribution at this hindcast are shown in Figure 7. The effect of time also conforms very well that reported. the extended boundary is immediately apparent Note the oiling at St. Michel, the site of a when comparing this overall mass balance to that large kill of intertidal organisms (Hess, 1978). from the small-scale analysis (Fig. 5). The The consistent distribution for both the onshore total lost,dut the model boundaries reduces from and offshore cases continues through 10 days. 30% after 15 days in the small-scale study to Note particularly the oil along the shoreline about 15% after 30 days in the large-scale test. from St. Michel to Ile Grande. Ile Grande was oil is transported north during the southerly the site of extremely heavy concentrations wind event from days 10 to 15, but remains within a marsh environment (Hess, 1978). within the model boundaries. When the wind shifts back towards the southwest between days 16 and 21, some of the surface oil which was transported offshore comes ashore between days 22 and 29. Note the increase in the oil ashore e, particularly in plots of the at this tim coastal components and beach surface. The total oil ashore is approximately the same 7 (62,000-64,000 mtons) for the large- and small- LARGE-SCALE TEST CASE .1 an beach ..,face BEACH SURFACE Z_ r ac a are C.I. Fares ... 10 20 30 40 o yl@ ,,Total ashore OFFSH.. SURFACE OIL ONSHORE OIL COASTAL COMPONENTS LARGE-SCALE TEST CASE -0 Fore,hore surface /@Surfzone 7 3 Ground water Figure 6. Distribution of offshore surface oil and onshore oil (foreshore surface and backshore) for the large-scale test case. 0 10 20 30 40 offshore, circles indicate computed areal coverage of thick oil. Onshore, circles are proportional to the oil mass associated with Total OVERALL MASS BALANCE. each grid cell. The maximum value of the circle for each time plot is given. --------------------------------- -------- column Between days 10 and 20, much of the onshore and nearshore oil is transported offshore because of Atmosphere ---- All. ----------------- the wind shift, and at day 20 the oil is L j I-___ Water Surface share '@Outside returning from its northern excursion and poised ------- ........... to come onshore again. At day 30, this oil is 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 transported to the southwest, oiling the Time (doys) shoreline south of the wreck site. This sequence of offshore transport with very late oiling of the shoreline to the south of the Figure 7. Dynamic mass balances (overall, wreck site was well documented at the time of coastal components, and beach surface) for oil the spill (Gundlach and Hayes, 1978). The associated with the large-scale test case. A southernmost extent of shoreline oiling is second heavy oiling of the shoreline, reflected essentially correct, ending at Pointe de St. in the observations but not in the small-scale Mathieu, although the model does have one impact test results,'is visible between days 23 and 28. near Pointe de Pen Hir which is not documented. observed values of oil quantity on the shoreline The model, however, inadequately depicts the and 95% ,confidence intervals are indicated in eastward transport of oil to Sillon de Talbert the top diagram. 851 CNEXO, IFP, and IGN, 1978, Amoco Cadiz, Tdldd6ction des scale test cases for the first 20 days. This is Pollutions par Hydrocarbures, Rapport Pr6liminaire, because the wind is almost continuously onshore Centre National pour 1'Exploitation des Oc6ans, for the first 10 days, then offshore for 5 days, Paris, 9 maps. and onshore again. The amount of oil on the D'Ozouville, L., E.R. Gundlach and H.O. Hayes, 1978. beach surface, however, now agrees reasonably Effect of Coastal Processes on the Distribution and well with the field values after 9 days and 38.5 Persistence of Oil Spilled by the Amoco Cadiz - days. Preliminary Conclusions: Actes de Colloques, No. 6, COB-CNEXO, Brest, p. 69-96. Finkelstein, K, and E.R. Gundlach, 1981. Method of 5. CONCLUSIONS Estimating Spilled Oil Quantity on the Shoreline.. Environ. Sci & Technol. Vol. 15, p.545-549. Two tests cases of the COZOIL model against the Ford, R.C. , 1983. Oil Slick Sizes and Length of Amoco Cadiz data set have been performed. In Coastline Affected: A Literature Survey and general, the model effectively reproduced the Statistical Analysis. Final rept. to U.S. Dept. Interior, MMS Contract No. 14-12-0001-30226. 34 p. offshore and onshore distribution of the Amoco Galt, J., 1978. Investigations of Physical Processes. Cadiz oilspill. Mass balance distributions were In Hess (ed). p. 7-20. also simulated realistically, considered from a Gundlach, E. and M. Hayes, 1978. Investigations of variety of viewpoints. The lifting of oil off Beach Processes. In Hess (ed), p. 85-196. the intertidal beach surface and its Gundlach, E., P. Boehm, M. Marchand, R. Atlas, D. Ward, redeposition. on a falling tide under appropriate D. Wolfe, 1983. The Fate of Amoco Cadiz Oil. wind conditions show clearly in the mass balance Science. Vol. 221, p. 122-129. time series plots. Gundlach, E. and M. Reed, 1986. Quantification of Oil Deposition and Removal Rates for a Shoreline/Oil Spill Interaction Model. Proe. Ninth Arctic Marine The small-scale test case, with relatively Oil Spill Conf., Edmonton, Alberta. p. 65-76. detailed resolution of the coastline adjacent to Gundlach, E. 1987. Oil-Holding Capacities and Removal the site appropriately reproduced onshore and Coefficients for Different Shoreline Types. Proc. offshore surface oil distributions, but 1987 Oil Spill Conf., Baltimore, Md. p. 451-457. generally placed too much oil onshore, perhaps Hann, R., L. Rice, M. Trujillo, H. Young, 1978. Oil due to a too slow removal rate and the lack of Spill Cleanup Activities. In Hess (ed), the Amoco correct hydrodynamics (i.e. including storm Cadiz Oil Spill. p. 229-276. surge). The limited boundaries also inhibited Hess, W. (ed), 1978. The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill. the model from effectively reproducing the NOAA/EPA Special Report. U.S. Government Printing subsequent redeposition of oil after being Office, Wash. D.C. 281 p. + 66 figures. Kana, T. (proj. dir.), 1986. Development of a Coastal transported offshore.by winds. On a very fine Spill Smear Model; Phase I, Analysis of Available scale of 0.5 km, the model reproduced the and Proposed Models. Rept. to Minerals Management general variance noted in the Amoco Cadiz spill Service, Anchorage, AK. 121 p. incident, and came close to observed values at NOAA/CNEXO, 1982. Ecological Study of the Amoco Cadiz three particular stations. -Variations in oil Oil Spill, Part 1. E. Gundlach, Ed. Report of the quantities onshore within specific grid cells NOAA/CNEX0 Joint Scientific Commission. U.S. Dept. can be lessened by grouping together oil within Commerce. 478 p. the grid cells composing the same shoreline O'Sullivan, A. J., 1978. The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill. reach. Mar. Poll. Bulletin. Vol. 9, p. 123-128 Reed, M., M. Spaulding, E. Gundlach, T. Kana, 1986. Formulation of a Shoreline/Oil Spill Interaction The large-scale test case, using only 11 Model. Proc. Ninth Arctic Marine Oil Spill Conf., shoreline segments over the entire area, Edmonton, Alberta. p. 77-100. portrayed the overall distribution of offshore Reed, M., E. Gundlach, and T. Kana, 1988. Development and onshore oil quite well, but fell about 30 km and Testing of a Coastal Zone Oil Spill Model. short in the eastern migration of the oil, Final Report to U. S. Dept. Interior, Minerals perhaps due again to inaccurate hydrodynamics. Management Service, Alaska Regional Office, The mass balance of onshore oil quite Anchorage. Contract No. 14-12-0001-30130 (in realistically depicts the actual spill case and review). Seip, K.L., K.A. Brekke, K. Kveseth, and H. lbrekk, compares well with observations. 1986. Models for Calculating Oil Spill Damages to Shores. Oil and Chemical Pollution. Vol. 3, p. 69-81. 6. REFEREkES SHOM, 1973. Courante de Marde de Dunkerque A Brest. Service Hydrographique et Oedanographique de la Anonymous, 1973. Evaluation of the World's Important Marine, Brest, France. 20 p. Crudes. The Petroleum Publishing Company, Tulsa, SHOM, 1978. Marde de Brest. Service Hydrographique et OK. 77 p. Ocdanographique de la Marine, Brest, France. 6 p. Berne, S, 1982. Vielle Ecologique Vulnerabilit6 Morpho-sedimentaire du Littoral aux Pollutions par Hydrocarbures de la Pointe Saint-Mathieu au Sillon du Talbert. 47 p. Calder, J., J. Lake, J. -Laseter, 1978. Chemical Composition of Selected Environmental and Petroleum Samples from the Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill. In Hess (ed), The Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill. p. 21-84. CNEXO, 1-981. Amoco Cadiz, Fates and Effects of the Oil Spill. Centre National pour llExploitation des Oc6ans. Brest, France. 881 p. 852 THE 1987 NEWFOUNDLAND OIL SPILL EXPERIMENT An Overview E.J. Tennyson and H. Whittaker Minerals Management Service; and Environment Canada Ottawa, Ontario ABSTRACT wind velocities and air and water temperatures. A joint Canadian-United States exercise involving A wave rider was deployed at the test site but the intentional spilling of 18,000 gallons of failed to function during the exercise. Conse- specially treated crude oil was conducted off quently, sea conditions were estimated, with Newfoundland in September 1987 to evaluate the reasonable agreement, by various trained observers. containment and recovery capabilities of three state-of-the-art booms and skimmers. As part of The test plan called for the deployment of three the exercise, data were collected on a specially booms as follows: A 250 meter length of the instrumented oil spill boom in an attempt to specially instrumented Oil and Hazardous Material verify a proposed performance test procedure for Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) boom open-ocean oil spill booms. A visco-elastic would be deployed in normal catenary. Approxi- chemical additive was used after the equipment mately 18,000 gallons of treated Brent Crude evaluation was completed to enhance recovery would be spilled by the command/recovery ship operations. Additional observations were made on "Terra Nova Sea" into the catenary. The oil the persistence of spilled oil slicks in advanced would be held in the boom for approximately 1 hour sea states. The containment and recovery effort while freeboard and draft data and visual observa- was one of the most successful on record and was tions of oil retention were recorded. During this conducted in winds and sea states commonly thought period, 200 meters of the Canadian Coast Guard's to be beyond existing capabilities. RO-BOOM would be deployed behind the OHMSETT boom. The tow speed would be increased to significant INTRODUCTION loss speed (0.5-1.0 knot). One end of the boom would then be released and the oil discharged into An intentional oil spill of 18,000 U.S. gallons the RO-BOOM. Oil would be held in the RO-BOOM was conducted on September 24, 1987, offshore of for approximately 1 hour while the oil retention St. John's Newfoundland to evaluate the contain- capabilities were observed. The St. John's Coast ment and recovery capability of three booms and Guard Vikoma Ocean Pack boom (400 meters) would be skimmers. The spill also provided an opportunity deployed behind the RO-BOOM during the observation to verify a nonpolluting performance evaluation period. The last procedure involving lost tow procedure for offshore oil containment booms. speeds would be repeated with the RO-BOOM, and the The spill was conducted approximately 25 nautical oil would be released intoo the Vikoma. miles east of St. John's. Ocean dumping permit requirements included south southwest currents Oil would be retained in the Vikoma for approxi- and westerly winds to minimize chance of shoreline mately 1 hour. The "Terra Nova Sea" would then contact; water depths of at least 100 meters; the commence skimmer evaluations. Two skimmers, the site had to be at least 25 nautical miles from Framo ACW400 and an innovative Coast Guard Heavy shore; and the area had to be within 2 to 3 hours Oil Skimmer (HOS), would be evaluated for 20 steaming from St. John's. The center of the area minutes each, and the remaining contained oil selected was 47 degrees, 40 minutes North and would be recovered by the skimmer with the better 52 degrees, 03 minutes West. performance (Ross, 1987b). A crude similar to the typical high wax Grand The intent of the OHMSETT boom deployment would Banks crude was unavailable. Brent crude from be to verify the hypothesis that a boom's ability the North Sea was treated by adding 1 percent slack to contain oil is correlated with its ability to wax by volume to yield an oil of similar physical sea keep or comply with wave-induced surface properties to the Grand Banks crudes. The modified motion. If this hypothesis could be verified and oil was to have a density of 839.8 kg/m3 and a quantified, future performance evaluations of viscosity of 20 m Pas at 12 degrees C (Ross, 1987a). offshore containment booms could be restricted to measuring seakeeping capabilities in a range of Mereorological conditions were recorded on the sea states. No further spills of the 20,000 gallon Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) Cutter "Grenfell" at size of light and heavy oils would be required, 15 minute intervals. These included corrected in a range sea states, to evaluate each type of 853 United States Government work not protected by copyright boom. ocean dumping permits are difficult to Period Between the Dry Run and the Trial obtain and intentional oil spill exercises of this magnitude approach the million dollar funding Several meetings of the senior people involved in level. Intentional spills also constitute a risk the exercise occurred between September 21 and of potential damage to the imTkediate environment. September 23, 1987. It was decided to remove COG Clearly a cost-effective and nonpolluting evaluation "Cutter 20611 from the exercise. The Boston Whaler procedure for offshore equipment is necessary to was able to tow and hold the boom in sea state 1, develop a predictive capability for the performance but it was recognized that this would be difficult, of offshore response equipment. Wind conditions with oil, in the desired weather. The Newfoundland desired were sea state 2 to 4, and winds from 10 Fisheries department had provided a vessel, the to 20 knots. "Bernier," and it was decided to use her and a second chartered offshore supply vessel (OSV) to tow the RO-BOOM. Practice Run - September 21, 1987 concern was registered that the weather might, The ships and smaller vessels sailed at 6:00 a.m. surprisingly, be too calm on September 24, the and proceeded to a location 5.5 miles off Torbay day which looked best for the actual trial. It Point. The COG "Grenfell" then deployed the was, therefore, decided to interchange the OBMSEIT OBMEM boom and passed one end to the COG "Cutter and RO-BOOKs to take advantage of the higher winds 21211 which took the boom in tow. The COG "Cutter and waves expected later in the day. 20611 then attempted to pick up the trailing end of the boom, a job which took 45 minutes. As soon The long tire required to deploy the RO-BOOM from as the 206 had the end of the boom secured, the the "Sir Humphmy Gilbert" led to the decision to two cutters attempted to tow the boom, in a 11U11 deploy that boom from the second OSV, the "Triunph configuration, into a position astern of the Sea." Repairs were carried out on the OHMS= boom ,,Terra Nova sea.,, This resulted in the OBMSMT instrumented cabling, and the boom with instrumen- boom immediately beginning to twist on itself, tation was functional by 5:00 p.m. on September 23. and 1 hour hour was lost in straightening the boom. Eventually the boom was positioned relative Since the "Terra Nova Sea" had oil recovery tanks to the nerra Nova sea,, and simulated discharge on board, it was decided to dispense with the of the oil was carried out. Data collection, dumb barge and to release the oil directly from without oil, for almost 1 hour followed. that OSV. While the OBMSM boom was being deployed and positioned, the RO-BOOM was deployed from the CCG Trial with Oil on September 24f 1987 "Sir Hunphrey Gilbert" and passed to COG "Cutter 214.11 This procedure took almost 2 hoursf and the The "Tritmph Seat' and the "Bernier" sailed at Ra-Boom was rapidly positioned with respect to 3:00 a.m. All other vessels sailed at 4:00 a.m., the oHmsm boom because both the "Cutter 21411 and everyone was on station by 6:45 a.m. The and a Boston Whaler were able to tow the boom at "TriuTph Sea" cmnenced deployment of the RO-BOOM speeds of 5 knots. enroutef and by 7:30 a.m. the boom was ready to receive oil. once the OHMS= boom was deployed, with the RO-BOOM in position, the COG "Catters at 8:15 a.m., the oil was purq3ed into the RO-BOOM 212 and 20611 cormvxiced to maneuver, presumably to with supervision from the helicopter and a small form a 11J.11 The COG "Cutter 20611 then snagged boat. the OHmErr cable in her screws and cut it, disabling herself. This resulted in delay in the All oil was in the boom by 9:00 a.m. exercise while the cable was freed, and because COG "Cutter 21411 and the Boston Whaler were now It was decided to give the news media a chance to approaching closely, the "Catter 212" took the view the test from the air and this was done from boom and "Cutter 20611 in tow and cleared the area 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. During this period, the so as not to impede the exercise. COG "Cutters 212 and 21411 attempted to pull the OHM= boom into proper position astern of the During the period in which the RO-BOOM was being RO-BOOM and keep it there. Every attempt to move deployed, the COG "Grenfell" deployed the Vikoma the boom, in a catenary, in the 15 knot winds boom. once the simulated oil release was over, blowing at the time resulted in the boom twisting. the "Terra Nova Sea" took the other end of the As a result the oBMM boom fell progressively boom and the vessels formed a catenary. After further astern of the RO-BOOM. holding position relative to the RO-BOOM for a period, the ships formed a "J" with the boom and At 10:30 a.m. the oil in the end of the pocket of practiced deploying the skirmers. the RD-BOCM was 30 cm thick, the wind was 15 knots, and some splash-over and significant drainage All ships returned to harbour by 5:00 p.m. under the boom were occurring. The vessels, therefore, formed a "J" and released one end of the boom to allow the oil to flow into the OBMSETT boom. The OBMSM boom was approximately 1 km 854 astern, and the vessels were having trouble towing both skinners being frequently suhnerged so that the boan in a catenary without the boom twisting. oil and water were washed into the sump of the It was, therefore, decided to direct the cutters skimier. with the OBMSFIT boom, to the oil, by helicopter, keeping the boom in a straight tow. After 20 The second skimmer the Framo ACK-400 was deployed. minutes, the cutters were adjacent to the thick The overall rate of oil recovery of the Frano was' oil, and, after a further 20 minutes, approximately 60 gallons per minute with unknown amounts of the 80 percent of the thick oil was in the OBMSETT recovery resulting from.frequent partial submer- boom. The remaining 20 percent was contained in gence- the Vikama boom. Data collection on the OHMEIT boom started as soon as the oil was captured and At this point, it was decided by the on-scene continued for 56 minutes. The COG cutters then Connander that the skimmer evaluation was complete. stopped across the path of the vessels towing the Additional measures were needed to ensure recovery Vikoma boom and released one end of the boom. The of the remaining contained oil because the weather oil spilled into the Vikoma boom catenary, and one was deteriorating and night was approaching. CCG cutter trailed the OHMSETT boom at the throat Accordingly, approximtely 7 pounds of the visco- of the catenary allowing the waves to wash the elastic agent "Elastoll, were spread from an 8- oil into the Vikoma boom. ounce styrofoam coffee cup into the estimated 7,400 gallons of oil and oil water emulsion in The COG "Grenfell" and "Terra Nova Sea" towed the the contairnent boom. "Elastol" was added because oil filled Vikoma boom for approximately 1 hour. previous research funded by the Minerals Management During this time, the wind had freshened to 15 Service and Environment Canada had shown that the knots to 20 knots. The boom was moving at aver elastic and adhesive properties of the oil could 1.1 knots relative to the sea, and sorne oil was be increased by addition of the agent, thus making being lost (approximately 3 mm thick). The CCG the oil more readily capturable with these types "Grenfell" then atteupted to move ahead to form of skimmem. The Framo ACW-400 was retrieved from the "J" for the skimmrs. Not being very maneu- the slick as the "Elastol" was added and because verable, she quickly reached 3.4 knots and the of the operational constraints on the recovery oil was lost. operation, due to the weather and lateness of the With the oil now lost, the weather abated slightly. day, the skimmer was riot redeployed. The RO-BOOM was still streaming astern of the The weir-type skimmer, Pharos Marine GT-185, was "Triumph Sea" so it was decided that she and the deployed into the treated slick and recovered "Bernier" would form the boom into a catenary and near capacity rates of 85 gallons per minute of attempt to recover the oil downwind. The helicop- oil and oil emulsion with no free water. This ter had been lost to the exercise for approximately recovery rate was higher than anticipated and may 1 hour at this time. As soon as it returned, it have been even higher if the oil had been untreated. was refueled and deployed to assist. In the Treatment significantly increased the viscosity interim a small boat was used to guide the tow of the oil. The skinmr was removed from the vessels into the heaviest portions of the slick. slick, cleaned, and stored op board. when the helicopter was over the thick oil, it was apparent that the vessels with the RO-BOOM were The HOS skimnier was redeployed and failed to adjacent to some of the oil and unable to see it. function because of a piece of steel in the return They were, therefore, directed from the air and pump. The skimmter was recovered, the steel piece small boat, and managed to collect 80 to 90 percent removed, and the skimmer was redeployed. of the thick oil which was on the surface at the time. The HOS skimTex yielded a recovery rate of 50 gallons per minute with a portion of the oleophilic oil was successfully contained and recovery was fabric on one of its two drums damaged. ;Debris was attempted using the three skimmers on board the collected at this time in the ventury system used recovery-command vessel. The first skimmer, the to measure recovery fluid flow rates. The debris Heavy oil Skimneer (HOS), was deployed and no may have contributed to the subsequent failure of measurable recovery was observed. The oil used the HOS skimmer return hose. No flow-rate measure- was modified by adding petroleum wax so that it ments were taken before the failure. Visual would resemble a typical Grand Banks crude oil. observations on the amount of oil adhering to the This type of oil is uncharacteristic of most oleophilic fabric of the HOS skimTer indicated crudes in that it possesses law adhesive Proper- that recovery rates were significantly increased ties. Therefore, oleophilic skimners, which by the addition of "Elastol.11 depend upon the adhesive nature of the recovered oil, do not perform well with high parafin-based operations were suspended because of the advancing oils. This was again proven with the oleophilic sea states and increasing darkness. HoS skimTker. The skimmer was recovered after several trained observers were satisfied that the An overflight of the area, by helicopter, was Hos skimmer had had sufficient evaluation time in carried out during the skinning operation. This the contained slick. Problem with the ability of revealed a sheen approximately 2.5 by 0.5 nautical the support arms, used to suspend both the HOS miles with 3 patches of brown oil. It is estimated and Framo skimmers, to adjust to the roll of the that no more than 260 gallons of oil remained in vessel and short period wave action resulted in the thick patches. A further flight 18 houm later 855 showed that only small brown patches and sheen DISCLAIMER remained, and this was rapidly dispersing. :Mention of specific products in this paper does riot constitute or infer endorsement or acceptance I.essons learned or Relearned by the Minerals Management Service, the Conservation and Protection, or the authors. o Thorough proficiency with the recovery equipment to be used is essential. REFERENCES Routine practice is required. Ross, S. L., 1987a--offshore Testing of Booms S S. L. Ross, Environmental Research � Targe volumes of oil are necessary to Limited, Ottawa, Ontario. realistically evaluate performance of offshore response equipment. Ross, S. L., l9s7b-irest, Protocol for offshore Boom Trials, 3rd Draft, S. L. Ross, Environmental � The use of helicopters to direct the place- Research Limited, Ottawa, Ontario. ment of tow vessels and the use of small vessels to monitor and advise on boom con- ditions are essential to maximize the efficiency of conventional recovery operations. � Accurate measurements of the meteorological and sea conditions are necessary for acc ura te analysis of the evaluations. � The requirements for slow-speed towing and maneuvering of large containment boom necessitate the use of vessels with variable pitched propellers, thrusters, and good seamen in control. � It was not possible to form a recovery configuration with two vessels while towing upwind. The third vessel was necessary for recovery in normal catenary. � Upwind collection proved impossible when winds approached 15 knots. This is con- sistent.with many past observations for containment operations conducted upwind. � The upper meteorological and sea state 1 imi ts for downwind containment and recovery were not reached during this test. � steps should be taken to avoid loss of contained oil by shipboard discharges such as cooling water impinging upon the slick. � Tankage should be available for recovery of several times as much fluid as discharged to account for the oil and water emulsions and free water recovered. � Analysis of the correlation of the ability of a boom to seakeep with its ability to contain oil is continuing. � Recovery of high wax oils similar to Newfoundland crudes in 10 degrees C water is significantly enhanced by the use of "Elastol. if 856 SHIPBOARD NAVIGATIONAL RADAR AS AN OIL SPILL TRACKING TOOL A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT E.J. Tennyson Minerals Management Service ABSTRACT limited oil spill detection range of shipborne radar. However, evaluations during this cruise The utility of shipboard navigational radar as an indicate that clear depictions of slicks are oil spill tracking tool was evaluated in a wide possible at ranges of 12 nautical miles or more. range of sea states during an intentional oil spill exercise off Nova Scotia, in September One explanation of how the radar receives returns 1987. Specially tuned ship's navigational radar from the ocean surface is through back scattering. onboard the Canadian Coast Guard Cutter "Mary Microwave back scattering from the ocean surface Hitchens" was able to detect slicks of five may be due to Bragg scattering by the short barrels of spilled crude oil during periods of (approximately 5 cm) waves for x-band radar fog, rain, and darkness. Slicks were detectable causing a resonance in the microwave return to in winds ranging from less than 10 knots to over the antenna. This constructive interference is 30 knots. There appeared to be a correlation apparently necessary for discernable depiction of between slick thickness and the capability for differences in sea surface texture except when radar detection. breaking waves are present (Milgram, 1988). Bragg scattering is also a function of antenna viewing angle. INTRODUCTION this evaluation of shipboard radar was predicted The capabilities of two x-band shipboard navi- on the damping of short period waves by the slick gational radar units to detect oil slicks were and the ability of radar to detect and represent evaluated during a joint Environment Canada- differences in the short period wave field. Minerals Management Service cruise offshore of Nova Scotia, Canada, in September 1987. Two Field Experiment series of spills were conducted; each consisted of five releases of 5-imperial-barrels of The joint Environment Canada-Minerals Management Alberta Sweet Blend Mix (ASBM) crude and ASBM Service cruise to evaluate two oil spill chemical to which Bunker C had been added. The behavior additives was conducted from the Canadian Coast of these slicks was monitored until the slicks Guard Cutter "Mary Hitchens" on September 9-10, had visually dissipated. Radar was used to track 1987, offshore of Nova Scotia, Canada. Two ship- these slicks, and the radar images were compared board radar units were used coincidentally to with visual observations when conditions permitted. track and monitor each of the ten 5-imperial- winds ranged from less than 10 to over 30 knots barrel oil spills during this exercise. It should during the radar evaluation. Weather ranged from be noted that an unidentified freighter transited fog to rain to clear conditions. the restricted exercise area and discharged an oil slick approximately 50 meters wide from The application of airborne x-band and synthetic horizon to horizon. The results of the evaluation aperture radar for slick detection is a proven of the chemical additives are reported elsewhere technique with a number of worldwide operational in these proceedings. units routinely available. Previous evaluation of shipborne radar (Axelsson, 1974) indicated The two radars evaluated were the Sperry MK-340 that detection ranges for oil slicks were limited and the Decca 914 with a Bright Track repeater. to approximately 1 kilometer even though the The Sperry MK-340 is an x-band radar with a radar unit evaluated had a maximum nominal range horizontal beam width of 1.9 degrees and nominal of 75 nautical miles. Discussions of factors ranges of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 14, 24, influencing radar imagery conventionally describe 48, and 120 nautical miles. The radar is a 50 a critical viewing angle of at least 20 degrees kilowatt unit with its antenna approximately 50 for sufficient reflection to yield a discernable feet above the ocean surface. The Decca 914 is pattern of sea surface conditions (Simonett, also an x-band radar with nominal ranges of 0.25, 1983). One evaluation of optimal antenna viewing 0.5,0.75, 1.5,3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 nautical angles (C-Core, 1981) indicated that 30 to 45 miles. The horizontal beam width is 1.9 degrees. degrees from the vertical angle would be required. 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Jr:)(:n S WawbuueW STPxauTN 3PTTs 9qL - (9AT-4eTaa OOZ-OST) X00T0,0 L pa:poddns sem 4u9msassv AaPUT=Tead sTqL 0`4 9 MaJ 40'PJTl.TP 4sm 9q4 SMOLP t, 8a@Ta Y .4 -anbTutpa4 P4,,L, Y'- -aq4 lCjT-4uprdb seqe4s sTtp go sqTurFl o-4 paiTnbea s-u eas Pue sTTO 30 e IRTM U0T,4L2nTPA9 aatpanj - - - - - - - - - - - - .;@@IL 'P@ Ow AT9"Tq ea Pue IssaLoflep IIITP 7 -eT boj q4Tm peqvTooss-e s Tqpad uo-rqoe4ap eq4 go I m uem a4oxMTq ueo pup bxr-PP24 NOTTS P'Pdx9 UeD 9sn sr4T Pu2 's-Tatmoct-M, 4sm 04 TOC4 9TcCPTTPAla ATTPL-aa le ST auptd TleT4TUT eq4 EUOUI Otr4 UOT T4STWOS a14 -l'aOT14 ;DtU '4TrOTJJTP PL "4Tun 9t4 30 U0T-4L'3T'4sTtId0s 9tP tPTM A;WA Ulrtqaa Ms 92=4& 04 JWP-l ata buTura mi squauraiTrbau '9ST0aBX8 W4 bUTXM PeAXaSqO SaT T3o'[9A UUIHTUTui atp al-am .4. LPT14m 'sW'm IW4 OT-9 uT aTqe40e49P exam M(PTTS SPATIAL OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SMALL NUMBERS OF LAGRANGIAN DRIFTERS Arthur A. Allen and Clare B. Billing U.S. Coast Guard R&D Center Avery Point Groton CT 06340-6096 ABSTRACT accurate prediction of the drift of the survivors are therefore limited to one To analyze the irregularly spaced tracks or two points. The development of VHF of freely drifting surface buoys, Loran-C buoys (5), has demonstrated that objective analysis techniques were coded buoys reporting their Loran-C applied to produce optimal estimations positions every 30 minutes will deliver of forecast surface current fields on a far more positions, more accurately and regularly spaced grid. With the therefore more surface current data to interpolation of raw data to the grid the search planner. This provides the points, further analysis can be done search planner a clearer picture of the with other computer programs. A surface currents. The increased data computer program using this technique rate requires a more involved analysis has previously been successfully applied than do the data from the RDF-DMB's. to large oceanographic data sets of many This paper summarizes a first look at drifter tracks. The objective analysis the use of objective analysis for program has been converted for use on analyzing data from freely drifting Hewlett-Packard microcomputers and buoys and other sources of irregularly applied succesfully to much more limited spaced surface current data. A complete data sets of from one to six drifters. account of this work is found in (6). 1. INTRODUCTION The use of statistical models for the optimal estimation of oceanic fields The oceanography Branch has, as part of given limited measurements is known as the Improvement of Probability of objective analysis (7). The basic Detection in Search and Rescue Project, equations of objective analysis are an ongoing investigation into the drift described in (8). The technique used and leeway of survivors and survivor here is the same as that used by the crafts (1). Others, (2-4) have evalua- statistical component of the Harvard ted the Coast Guard's operational search Ocean Descriptive Predictive System (9). planning computer models. They 'have shown that model drift predictions for In this study, objective analysis was survivors and survivors' crafts, based used to nowcast/forecast the surface on either historical current files or currents using limited drift surface current values derived from measurements. Several types of freely large-scale winds from U.S. Navy Fleet drifting buoys that transmit their Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC), positions to a shore-based receiver have rarely predicted the actual drift as been used by the Oceanography Branch. A simulated by freely drifting buoys. At local positioning system using the present, a single radio-direction finder Microwave Tracking System (MTS) was used type datum marker buoy (RDF-DMB) is used with surface drifters in leeway studies. to measure surface currents during a Both polar-orbiting NOAA/TIROS series search. The initial position of the satellite and Loran-C positioning were buoy is established when the RDF-DMB is used with surface drogued buoys during dropped from an aircraft. However, to drift studies on the continental shelf. obtain a velocity datum, a second All of these studies (4,5,10) typically position, at a later time, must be contained data sets in the form of a determined for the RDF-DMB. This time series of buoy positions for one to requires the aircraft to break off the six drifters. A time series of a freely search for the survivors and search for drifting buoy's positions is called a the RDF-DMB, causing the loss of drift track. The purpose ofthis study valuable time and fuel. The important was to apply the technique of objective velocity measurements necessary for an analysis to one of our data sets. A 860 United States Government work not protected by copyright computer program using this technique alongshore velocity on t Ihe continental has been successfully applied to large shelf; the coherence is very long oceanographic data sets of drifter (-200km) in the alongshore (y) direction tracks (9). These large data sets, and short in the cross shelf (x) however, included many more drifter direction (-20km) and about two days in tracks than are typically used in our (t) time. These values could be used as studies. Therefore, the objective a first guess of the e-folding scales analysis program was converted for use for x, y and t. The appropriate values on Hewlett-Packard micro-computers and are based on the physical scales of the applied to a data set from an MTS leeway value used. study. 2. THE CORRELATION FUNCTION The covariance matrices required in the solution of the objective analysis are defined by correlation functions. The correlation function is the planar (x,y) O.B and temporal (t) distribution of the weighting factors for estimating an 0.6 unknown value from the surrounding observations. Essentially, closer ob@ 0. 4 servations are weighted more in 3 determining an unknown value than more 0.2 2 distance values. At sufficiently large distances and time lags the observations 0 ........ Y ............... -2 will have no appreciable influence on -2 0 the interpolated value. Thus, a limit X 2 3 over which the observations are not included in the interpolation is assumed. This greatly simplifies the Figure The defined- correlation computation. The correlation function function (equation 1) where xfold and can be determined directly from a data yfold = 1. The z axis is the value of set that is sufficiently large. the correlation function. The circle at However, when the data set is small, the z = 0.368 is the e-folding scale. mathematical form of the correlation function is artificially imposed. The 3. TEST RUNS correlation function used in this present study is: objective analysis has been successfully applied to large data sets of freely C (R) = e-R X 2 y 2 t 2 drifting oceanographic buoys. However, where R RA )+(A I +t A what occurs to the results when the data tTf-old/ X-yfold/ t -fold available to the objective analysis program is systematically reduced to the where delta_.@X, delta_y, and delta-t are limit of a single available point? Does the components of the difference from the technique fail catastrophically, or the data point to the interpolated do the results simply degrade with fewer point; and where xfold, yfold, and tfold data available for input? And i f the are the e-folding scales of the results just degrade, how do they correlation function. degrade? To answer these questions, a series of test runs of the scalar Equation (1) f or x and y is plotted in objective analysis (SOA) program were Figure 1, for values of xfold, and yfold done. The data set used to test the SOA equal 1. At x,y = 1,0 and x,y = 0,1 the was from the Fort Pierce, Florida, correlation (z) value is 0.368, this is March-April 1985 Leeway Experiment. called the e-folding scale. The e- During the afternoon of 1 April, six folding scale is shown in Figure 1 as surface drifters were deployed and were the circle at z = 0.368. As the tracked with the Microwave Tracking correlation function approaches zero System, (MTS) . Lieutenant Louis Nash, asymptotically the outer portion is cut USCG, provided the edited u and v off to increase computational velocity data in the X-Y state efficiency. The appropriate values for coordinate plane,.Figure 2. Thus we had the e-folding scales are the physical a data set which was large by our scales of the motions. This is the standards for investigating the SOA scale in time and space of the coherence program. To further simplify the of the dominant motions. The e-folding problem we only used velocities at a scale is symmetrical about its axis, but single point in time - 14:30. does not have to be equal about all axes. An example would be the During the test runs of the objective 861 4000 . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Drifters 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10 Spring 1905 Leeway Drift E,periment 7 Scalar Analysis 3000 10. 91 Forecast Field U - Eastern Speed L 9.98 3000 lu Analysis Date/Tile 01 Apr 1985 0 2500 14:30:00 X: Reference Point 2000 E2000 Y: 234500 U Y: 349000 C 12. 48 lu .0 41 1500 L Field Data Limits M- 9.0531 9.02 Ma. : 16.529 1000 Contour Setting, 1000 Min: 9 Me.: 17 500 't I:I 0 10 0 + 13. 28 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 X Distance (meters) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 X Distance (Meters) Figure 3. Objective Analysis Forecast of Figure 2. Position and u-component the u-component of velocity for Case 6. speeds at 14:30, 1 April 1985. The symbols 11+11 indicate the drifter the SOA program to produce a sensible location. The numerals above the "+" current field?" To start, all six denote the drifter ID; while the numbers drifters were used to fully determine below 11+11 denote the values of the xi- the current field (Figure 3). This component (cm/sec). The reference point provided the best estimate of the u- (0, 0) is located at x 234500 m and y current field against which the other 349000 m in the East zone of the Florida fields were compared. When drifters State Plane coordinate system. were removed one at a time from the data set the estimated fields changed. The fields generated by the reduced number analysis program we first tried to of drifters were then compared to the calculate the correlation function on results with the "best estimate" field all six drifters. However, six drifters determined by all six drifters. Two proved to be insufficient for the different schemes for removing drifters calculation of a sensible correlation were investigated. Case "All was to function. Therefore we used the remove the least useful drifters one at analytic form of an exponential decay a time leaving the "best" to be used to function as given by equation (1) , the estimate the U-field. Case "Bill was to correlation function. remove the most useful drifters one at a time leaving the "worst" to provide the Equation (1) was used as the basis for estimate of the U-field. Both schemes generating current field values on a are shown in Table I. grid of 15 by 15 regular spaced points TABLE I from the observed surface current data. DRIFTER CASES That grid has points between current data points and to a limited extent The Best (A) and the Worst (B) cases outside the region. Figure 2 shows the used for comparisons of subsets of eastward component of velocity (u) at drifters with the full set of six 14:30 from the six drifters. In Figure drifters. 3 the current field generated by the SOA scheme for the six drifters is shown. CASE-A DRIFTERS CASE-B DRIFTERS The currents near the drifters are (BEST) (USED) (WORST) (USED) reproduced faithfully enough, including 6 5,6,7,8,9,10 6 5,6,7,8,9,10 the region of currents less than 10 cm/s 5A 5,7,8,9,10 5B 5,6,7,9,10 in the upper central region and the 4A 7,8,9,10 4B 5,6,7,9 currents greater than 16 cm/s in the 3A 7,8,10 3B 6,8,9 southwest corner. 2A 8,10 2B 6,9 The question was then asked, "What is 1A 8 the minimum number of drifters needed by 862 The differences were calculated at each flow field is estimated, reading from 15 by 15 grid point between the top to bottom - Table II. An example of forecasted field derived from all six an application would be the placing of drifters and each 15 by 15 grid point of two buoys on either side of an oceanic the cases above. The differences from front. This scheme would estimate the all the 225 points produced the measured currents better than several buoys all error f ields. The square root of the on the same side of the front. A few sum of the squared differences is an well-placed buoys will provide better index of the cumulative measured error information than many poorly placed (CUME). The equation for cumulative buoys. Therefore, the search planner measured error index for case 5A is should use remote-sensing information shown below: (e.g., Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) derived sea surface roughness or Cumulative Measured Error Index (CUME) NOAA6 satellite Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived sea surface temperature imagery) to assist in the optimal placement of CUME (6 5A (2) buoys. The determination of the correlation where the subscripts 11ij" are the function from the statistics did fail elements of the 15 by 15 array. for the data set used here. The number Therefore, we have fields of the of buoys required to determine the forecasted U-velocity, an index of the correlations functions is greater than cumulative error for each case of the six. Therefore an analytical formula two schemes. The indexes of cumulative (Equation 1) was used instead. In this measure error are present in Table II. study neither the v-velocity (north - south) field nor the time dependent The cumulative measured error index for field were considered. Since there the two schemes are presented in Table should be a relationship between the u and v fields and between the spatial and temporal fields, correlations in time TABLE II could be used to infer correlations in CUMULATIVE MEASURED ERROR INDEX space. Thus, the buoys' track histories FOR SCHEME A AND SCHEME B could be used to determine the time correlation which then would provide a better estimate of the velocity field. Number of drifters used for Analysis Further work is being conducted on improving estimates of the current field from limited amounts of drifter data. 6 5 4 3 2 1 5. CONCLUSIONS Scheme A 0. 3. 6. 13. 15. 49. The search planner requires real-time Schemd B 0. 15. 19. 27. 24. surface current information to determine the most probable location of the This suggests that 112A11 did as good a survivors and survivor craft. The job at predicting the U-field as did displacement with time of the search 115B11. datum can be estimated from the track histories of freely drifting surface Scheme 111AII with just drifter #8 is the buoys. All types of freely drifting special case of the objective analysis buoys will generate data sets that taken to its limit. The forecast field consist of a time series of irregular- is uniform at the value of the drifter spaced positions. As a set of buoys (9.028 cm/s). freely drift in the ocean, (1) positions at any one time are not on a regular 4. RESULTS OF TEST RUNS grid, (2) the displacement from the previous positions of that buoy to the The main portion of the objective next position is uneven, and (3) the analysis technique did not fail relative displacement among all the catastrophically as input data was buoys is changing with time. removed. Instead, the quality of Additionally, some types of buoy (e.g., resulting velocity fields decreased TIROS satellite track buoy) positions relative to the original field, reading are reported intermittently. This from left to right - Table II. However, results is a "messy" data set. the more important point is that the placement of the buoys or drifters To take advantage of computer analysis relative to the flow field features will of the buoy tracks, the data set must greatly influence how well the total first be cleaned up. The essence of 863 objective analysis is that, given an (5) Allen, A.A., S.L. Eynon, and R.Q. irregular-spaced data set in time and Robe, 1987. Descriptions of HF and VHF space, a data set is interpolated and Loran-C Buoys and Evaluations as extrapolated to a regular (even and Potential Datum Marker Buoys. Report square) grid. From this many standard No. CG-D-02-88. U.S. Coast Guard, computer programs are available that can Office of Engineering and Dev