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Coastal 7@riwz, Information Center N-, "Ak IWO L, j Za '50 AA @AR w V 4 I. . . . ...... X APPEND GB 705 G73 G74 1976 appendix v.8 AT 1.4@kOES BASIN F jww (9 U @ SDEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NOAA COASTAL SERVICES CENTER 2234 SOUTH HOBSON AVENUE CHARLESTON ; SC 29405-2413 Great Lakes Basin Framework Study APPENDIX 8 FISH CEUM Property of CSC Library GREAT LAKES BASIN COMMISSION Prepared by the Fish Work Group Sponsored by Michigan Department of Natural Resources Published by the Public Information Office, Great Lakes Basin Commission, 3475 Plymouth, Road, P.O. Box 999, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. Printed in 1975. Cover photo by Kristine Moore Meves. This appendix to the Report of the Great Lakes Basin Framework Study was prepared at field level under the auspices of the Great Lakes Basin Commission to provide data for use in the conduct of the Study and preparation of the Report. The conclusions and recommendations herein are those of the group preparing the appendix and not necessarily those of the Basin Commission. The recommendations of the Great Lakes Basin Commission are included in the Report. Th%c" .'h thi' .yrig t,material reproduce in s volume of the Great Lakes Basin Framework Study was printed with the kind consent of the copyright holders. Section 8, title 17, United States Code, provides: The publication or republication by the Government, either separately or in a public document, of any material in which copyright is subsisting shall not be taken to cause any abridgement or annulment of the copyright or to authorize any use or appropriation of such copyright material without the consent of the copyright proprietor. The Great Lakes Basin Commission requests that no copyrighted material in this volume be republished or reprinted without the permission of the author. OUTLINE Report Appendix 1: Alternative Frameworks Appendix 2: Surface Water Hydrology Appendix 3: Geology and Ground Water Appendix 4: Limnology of Lakes and Embayments Appendix 5: Mineral Resources Appendix 6: Water Supply-Municipal, Industrial, and Rural Appendix 7: Water Quality Appendix 8: Fish Appendix C9: Commercial Navigation Appendix R9: Recreational Boating Appendix 10: Power Appendix 11: Levels and Flows Appendix 12: Shore Use and Erosion Appendix 13: Land Use and Management Appendix 14: Flood Plains Appendix 15: Irrigation Appendix 16: Drainage Appendix 17: Wildlife Appendix 18: Erosion and Sedimentation Appendix 19: Economic and Demographic Studies Appendix F20: Federal Laws, Policies, and Institutional Arrangements Appendix S20: State Laws, Policies, and Institutional Arrangements Appendix 21: Outdoor Recreation Appendix 22: Aesthetic and Cultural Resources Appendix 23: Health Aspects Environmental Impact Statement 4i SYNOPSIS This report provides information on the erations were made on the assumption that past, present, and future demand; analysis of fish weri@ the primary crop of all waters of the present and future capacity of the re- concern. Whenever possible, management source base to meet these demands; assess- measures took into account the jurisdictional ment of the problems involved; and general responsibilities of the participating agencies. approaches to achieve solutions that will con- While the inland basins of the Great Lakes tribute maximum public benefits. Region are included in this report, the major The information is presented according to emphasis is placed on the Great Lakes them- the planning subareas established for the selves beeause their sheer size and fishery. po- study as a whole. Because of the special na- tential will dominate the future sport and ture of the fishery resource, much of the in- commercial fishery of the Basin. The Great formation is presented on a lakewide basis. Lakes also require the highest degree of However, it can be analyzed on a State-by- cooperative management. State basis to facilitate administration of pro- grams. This report will discuss the rapidly changing In the preparation of this report, heavy re- conditions on the Great Lakes. During the last liance was placed on available data, inputs twenty years tremendous changes in fish from ongoing programs, and reasoned approx- populations, management practices, man- imations. Report preparation required a agement philosophy, and fish habitat have oc- minimum number of new basic investigations curred. Recent common fishery crises and and the judgment of experienced planners and management successes have promoted high administrators. degrees of cooperation at the international, Fishery management needs have been national, and State levels, and have created a analyzed and include the philosophy of man- public awareness of the potential value of the agement up to the present time. All consid- Great Lakes fishery resources. v FOREWORD This appendix was prepared by the Fish Jack D. Bails (Acting Chairman); Michigan Work Group under the chairmanship of Dr. Department of Natural Resources Wayne H. Tody, Michigan Department of Dr. Howard A. Tanner; Michigan State Uni- Natural Resources. The Fish Work Group in- versity cluded representatives from each of the Great J. H. Kuehn; Minnesota Department of Con- Lakes States and the United States Depart- servation ments of Agriculture, Army, and Interior. Robert Schueller, Michael Long, Frank The following individuals and the agencies Rose, and John L. Moore; National Marine they represented contributed to this appen- Fisheries Service dix. Dr. John A. Jones; State University of New David Riley, A. L. McClain, and Sumner York at Fredonia Dole; Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife William Pearce and William Bentley; New Gordon Atkins; Bureau of Outdoor Recrea- York State Department of Conservation tion Daniel Armbruster and Clarence Clark; Carl Brown and H. G. Hanson; U.S. Army Ohio Department of Natural Resources Russell Scholl; Lake Erie University Corps of Engineers Keen Buss, Roger Kenyon, and Arthur Bruce Muench; Illinois Department of Con- Bradford; Pennsylvania Fish Commission servation Charles Smith; Soil Conservation Service Robert Hollingsworth, Gene Bass, and Harold McReynolds; U.S. Forest Service Robert Koch; Indiana Department of Natural Ronald Poff and John Brasch; Wisconsin Resources Department of Natural Resources. Robert Saalfeld; Great Lakes Fishery Other members of the work group were Commission James Barry, Carl Parker, and Clayton Lakes. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page OUTLINE ..................................................................... ii SYNOPSIS ................... ................................................. v FOREWORD ................................................................. vi LIST OF TABLES ............................................................ xv LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................... xix INTRODUCTION ............................................................. xxiii Study Objectives ........................................................... xxiii Fish and Fisheries ........................................................ xxiii Methodology ............................................................... xxiii 1 DESCRIPTION OF BASIN ................................................ 1 1.1 Geology .............................................................. 1 1.2 Topography ......................................................... 1 1.3 Soils ................................................................. 3 1.4 Climate .............................................................. 3 1.5 Human Population Status and Trends ............................... 3 1.6 Transportation Facilities ............................................ 4 1.7 Agriculture .......................................................... 4 1.8 Industry ............................................................. 4 2 GREAT LAKES FISHERY RESOURCES ................................. 7 2.1 Habitat Base ........................................................ 7 2.1.1 General Problems, Needs, and Solutions ....................... 7 2.2 Biology of the Individual Species .................................... 14 2.2.1 Longevity ...................................................... 14 2.2.2 Sexual Maturity ............................................... 15 2.2.3 Year Class Structure .......................................... 15 2.2.4 Rate of Growth ................................................ 15 2.2.5 Spawning Requirements ...................................... 16 2.2.6 Behavioral Characteristics ... 16 ................. 2.2.7 Vulnerability to Changes in the 17 2.2.8 Concentration of Contaminants ............................... 17 2.3 Status of the Fisheries .............................................. 17 2.3.1 Commercial Fishery-Historical Background .................. 17 2.4 Economic Contribution ............................................... 21 2.4.1 Commercial Fishing Industry ................................. 21 2.4.2 Sport Fishing ................................................. 23 2.5 Projected Demands .......... 24 2.5.1 Supply-Demand Relations ips ................................. 24 Alewife ............................................... 25 vii viii Appendix 8 Page Carp ................................................ 25 Catfish .............................................. 26 Chubs ............................................... 27 Lake Herring ....................................... 27 Lake Trout ......................................... 28 Sheepshead ......................................... 28 Smelt ............................................... 29 Suckers ............................................. 29 Walleye ............................................. 30 White Bass ......................................... 30 Whitefish ........................................... 31 Yellow Perch .................... :'**--'***-**** 31 2.6 General Management Problems, Needs, and Solutions ............... 32 2.6.1 Applied Programs ............................................ 34 2.7 Economic Problems and Needs of the Commercial Fishery ........... 34 2.7.1 Economic Problems .......................................... 34 2.7.2 Economic Needs ............................ 37 2.8 Proposed Solutions to Institutional Problems and Needs ............ 37 2.8.1 Increasing Demand for Commercial Fishery Products ........ 37 2.8.2 Stabilizing Supply ............................................ 37 2.8.3 Reorganizing the Commercial Fishery ....................... 38 2.8.4 Subsidies and Import Restrictions ........................... 38 2.9 Institutional Problems and Needs ................................... 38 2.10 Proposed Solutions to Institutional Problems and Needs ............. 40 2.10.1 Interstate and International Cooperation and Coordination .. 40 2.10.2 Reorganization of the Industry .............................. 40 2.10.3 Reorganization of the Management Framework ............. 40 Abolition of the Commercial Fishery ................ 40 Establishment of a Limited Entry Commercial Fish- ery .................................................. 41 Establishment of Species Quotas .................... 41 Establishment of a Contract Fishery ............... 41 Mixed-Alternative Solution ......................... 43 2.11 Solutions to Some Noneconomic Institutional Problems of the Commer- cial Fishing Industry ................................................ 44 2.11.1 Harvesting Solutions ......................................... 44 2.11.2 Processing Solutions ......................................... 44 2.11.3 Marketing Solutions ......................................... 44 2.11.4 Other Solutions .............................................. 45 2.12 Contaminant Problems and Associated Needs ....................... 45 2.12.1 Mercury ..................................................... 45 2.12.2 Pesticides .................................................... 47 2.12.3 Other Contaminants ......................................... 48 2.13 Thermal Pollution and Associated Needs ............................ 49 2.14 Problems of Oil Spills and Associated Needs ......................... 51 2.15 Problems and Needs Associated with the Effects of Lake Level Control 52 2.15.1 Effects on the Fisheries ...................................... 52 2.15.2 Effects on the Fish Stocks ................................... 52 3 LAKE SUPERIOR BASIN, PLAN AREA 1.0 .............................. 55 3.1 Resources, Uses, and Management ................................... 55 3.1.1 Habitat Base ................................................... 55 3.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes ................ 55 Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem ...... 55 Contribution of Individual Species to the Commercial Fishery ................................................ 58 Table of Contents ix Page Contribution of Individual Species to the Sport Fishery 58 3.1.3 The Fisheries ............................................. ****' 58 Historical Background of the Lake Superior Commercial Fishery ................................................ 58 Historical Background of the Lake Superior Sport Fishery ................................................ 62 Economics ............................................. 62 3.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish Resources ............ 62 Effects of Chemical Changes ........................... 62 Effects of Physical Changes ............................ 64 Effects of Biological Changes .......................... 64 3.1.5 Fisheries Management ......................................... 64 Past and Present Management ......................... 64 Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs . 65 3.1.6 Projected Demands ............................................. 65 3.1.7 Problems and Needs ............................................ 66 Natural Resource Base ---***-****---* ... * * 66 Problems and Needs of the Total Fishery .............. 67 3.1.8 Probable Nature of Solutions ................................... 67 Natural Resource Base ................................ 67 3.2 Planning Subarea 1.1 ................................................. 67 3.2.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 67 3.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 69 3.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 69 3.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 71 3.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 71 3.2.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 71 3.3 Planning Subarea 1.2 .................................................. 74 3.3.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 74 3.3.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 74 3.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 74 3.3.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 74 3.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 74 3.3.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 76 3.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 78 3.3.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 78 4 LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN, PLAN AREA 2.0 .............................. 83 4.1 Resources, Uses, and Management ................................... 83 4.1.1 Habitat Base ................................................... 83 4.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes ................ 83 Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem ...... 83 Contribution of Individual Species to the Commercial Fishery ................................................ 85 Contribution of Individual Species to the Sport Fishery 88 4.1.3 The Fisheries .................................................. 90 Historical Background of the Lake Michigan Commercial Fishery ................................................ 90 Historical Background of the Lake Michigan Sport Fishery ................................................ 90 Economics ............................................. 90 4.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish Resources ............ 91 Effects of Chemical Changes ........................... 91 Effects of Physical Changes ............................ 92 x Appendix 8 Page Effects of Biological Changes .......................... 92 4.1.5 Fisheries Management ......................................... 92 Past and Present Management ......................... 92 Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs . 94 4.1.6 Projected Demands ............................................... 94 4.1.7 Problems and Needs ............................................ 94 Natural Resource Base ................................ 94 Problemsand Needs of the Total Fishery .............. 95 4.2 Planning Subarea 2.1 ................................................. 95 4.2.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 95 4.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 95 4.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 97 4.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 97 4.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 97 4.2.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 98 4.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 98 4.2.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 103 4.2.9 Michigan's Comments on Species Composition, Relative Impor- tance, and Status .............................................. 103 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ..................... 103 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Fish Species ......................................... 103 History of Sport Fishery ............................... 103 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs .... 103 Ongoing Programs ..................................... 104 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ........... 104 Fishery Development Plans ............................ 104 4.3 Planning Subarea 2.2 ................................................. 104 4.3.1 Illinois ..................................... 104 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and *6 u*r'r*e*n*t* 104 Ongoing Programs ..................................... 106 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ............ 106 Fishery Development Plans ............................ 108 4.3.2 Indiana ........................................................ 108 Species Composition of the Fishery ..................... 108 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Fish Species ......................................... 108 Ongoing Programs and Current Needs ................. 109 4.4 Planning Subarea 2.3 ................................................. 109 4.4.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 109 4.4.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 112 .4.4.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 112 4.4.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 115 4.4.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 115 4.4.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 115 4.4.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 115 4.4.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 116 4.4.9 Indiana's Comments ........................................... 119 4.5 Planning Subarea 2.4 ................................................. 121 4.5.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 121 4.5.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 121 4.5.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ............................................. 121 4.5.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 122 Table of Contents xi Page 4.5.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 122 4.5.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 125 4.5.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 127 4.5.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 127 5 LAKE HURON BASIN, PLAN AREA 3.0 ................................. 131 5.1 Resources, Uses, and Management ................................... 131 5.1.1 Habitat Base .................................................. 131 5.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes ............... 131 Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem ..... 133 Contribution of Individual Species to the Commercial Fishery ............................................... 134 Contribution of the Individual Species to the Sport Fishery ............................................... 137 5.1.3 The Fisheries ....................................... * * * * * * * ' * *138 Historical Background of the Lake Huron Commercial Fishery ............................................... 138 Historical Background of the Lake Huron Sport Fishery 139 5.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish Resources ........... 140 Effects of Chemical Changes .......................... '140 Effects of Physical Changes ................... 141 Effects of Biological Changes ................. 142 5.1.5 Competition between Fishing and Other Uses ................. 142 5.1.6 Fisheries Management ........................................ 142 Past and Present Management ........................ 142 Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs 143 5.1.7 Projected Demands ........................................... 144 5.1.8 Problems and Needs .......................................... 144 Fish Resource Problems and Needs ................... 145 Problems and Needs of Lake Huron Commercial Fishery 146 Problems and Needs of Lake Huron Sport Fishery .... 146 5.1.9 Probable Nature of Solutions, Natural Resource Base ......... 146 5.2 Planning Subarea 3.1 ................................................. 147 5.2.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 147 5.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ........... 147 5.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species .......................................... 149 5.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 149 5.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 151 5.2.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 151 5.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 151 5.2.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 154 5.3 Planning Subarea 3.2 ................................................. 154 5.3.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 154 5.3.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity .............. 154 5.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distri uti n of Im- portant Fish Species .......................................... 154 5.3.4 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 155 5.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 155 5.3.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 155 5.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 155 5.3.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 156 xii Appendix 8 Page 6 LAKE ERIE BASIN, PLAN AREA 4.0 .................................... 161 6.1 Resources, Uses, and Management ................................... 161 6.1.1 Habitat Base .................................................. 161 6.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes ............... 161 Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem ..... 163 6.1.3 The Fisheries ................................................. 163 Historical Background and Economic Contribution of the Commercial Fishery ............................... 163 Historical Background and Economic Contribution of the Sport Fishery ..................................... 168 6.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on Fish Resources ............... 169 Effects of Physicochemical Changes ................... 169 Effects of Biological Changes ......................... 174 Effects of Physical Changes ........................... 177 6.1.5 Fisheries Management ........................................ 179 Past and Present Management ........................ 179 Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs 181 6.1.6 Projected Demands .............. ............................ 182 Demand for Fishery Products ......................... 182 Demand for Sport Fishery ............................ 182 6.1.7 Problems and Needs .......................................... 182 Resource Base Problems and Needs ................... 182 Total Fishery Problems and Needs .................... 182 Problems and Needs of Commercial Fishery ........... 183 6.1.8 Probable Nature of Solutions .................................. 184 Natural Resource Base ............................... 184 Habitat Base .......................................... 184 6.1.9 Fish Resources and Their Uses ............................... 185 6.2 Planning Subarea 4.1 ................................................. 185 6.2.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 185 6.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................ 185 6.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species .......................................... 187 6.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 189 6.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 189 6.2.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 189 6.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 189 6.2.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 191 6.3 Planning Subarea 4.2 ................................................. 191 6.3.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 191 6.3.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................ 194 6.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species .......................................... 194 6.3.4 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 197 6.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 197 6.3.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 198 6.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 199 6.3.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 200 6.4 Planning Subarea 4.3 ................................................. 204 6.4.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 204 6.4.2 Limitations of Habitat Affecting Fish Production and Distribu- tion ........................................................... 206 6.4.3 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 208 6.4.4 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 208 6.4.5 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 208 Table of Contents xiii Page 6.4.6 Future Fishery Resources and Supply-Demand Relationships . 210 6.4.7 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 211 6.4.8 Endangered, Rare, and Non-Game Species .................... 213 6.5 Planning Subarea 4.4 ................................................. 213 6.5.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ........ 213 6.5.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................ 215 6.5.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species .......................................... 215 6.5.4 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 215 6.5.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ........... 215 6.5.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 219 6.5.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation ................... 219 6.5.8 Fishery Development Plans ................................... 221 6.5.9 Species Composition and Status-Pennsylvania ............... 221 6.5.10 Habitat Problems ............................................. 221 6.5.11 History of Sport Fishery ...................................... 223 6.5.12 Ongoing Programs ............................................ 223 6.5.13 Endangered, Rare, and Non-Game Species .................... 223 7 LAKE ONTARIO BASIN, PLAN AREA 5.0 ............................... 225 7.1 Resources, Uses, and Management ................................... 225 7.1.1 Habitat Base ................................................... 225 7.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes ................ 230 Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem ...... 230 7.1.3 The Fisheries .................................................. 235 Historical Background and Economic Contribution of the Lake Ontario Fishery .................................. 235 7.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on Fish Resources ................ 236 Effects of Chemical Changes ........................... 236 Effects of Physical Changes ............................ 237 Effects of Biological Changes ........................... 237 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fisheries .......... 237 7.1.5 Fisheries Management ......................................... 238 Past and Present Fish Management .................... 238 Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs 240 State Costs for Enforcement of Commercial and Sport Fisheries ............................................... 240 Fish Stocking Costs .................................... 240 Fish Research Costs .... * *........ 240 Marketing Promotion Costs ..... : 240 Gear Research and Technical Assistance 240 Sea Lamprey Control Costs ............................ 240 7.1.6 Projected Demands ............................................. 241 7.1.7 Problems and Needs ............................................ 241 Resource Base Problems and Needs .................... 241 Problems and Needs of the Total Fishery of Lake Ontario 241 7.1.8 Probable Nature of Solutions ................................... 242 7.2 Planning Subarea 5.1 ................................................. 242 7.2.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 242 7.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity .............................. 244 7.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 244 7.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 245 7.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 245 xiv Appendix 8 Page 7.2.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 245 7.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 245 7.2.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 248 7.3 Planning Subarea 5.2 ................................................. 248 7.3.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 248 7.3.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 252 7.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 252 7.3.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 253 7.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 255 7.3.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 255 7.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 257 7.3.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 260 7.4 Planning Subarea 5.3 ................................................. 260 7.4.1 Species Composition, Relative Importance, and Status ......... 260 7.4.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity ............................. 260 7.4.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production and Distribution of Im- portant Fish Species ........................................... 262 7.4.4 History of Sport Fishery ....................................... 263 7.4.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs ............ 263 7.4.6 Ongoing Programs ............................................. 264 7.4.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Participation .................... 265 7.4.8 Fishery Development Plans .................................... 265 SUMMARY ................................................................... 267 LIST OF REFERENCES ..................................................... 281 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................. 283 ADDENDUM: Historical Background of Similar Investigations ............... 287 Great Lakes Fishery Commission ......................................... 287 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries .......................................... 287 Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife ................................... 287 Department of Agriculture ............................................... 288 Michigan Department cof Natural Resources .............................. 288 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources ............................. 289 New York Conservation Department ..................................... 289 Ohio Department of Natural Resources ................................... 289 Minnesota Department of Conservation .................................. 290 Illinois Department of Conservation ...................................... 290 Pennsylvania Fish Commission ........................................... 290 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 8-1 Physical Data of Great Lakes System .................................. 8 8-2 Estimated Wholesale Value of Michigan-Produced Fish for 1966 ........ 23 8-3 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of Six Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior ............................................... 61 8-4 Average Value and Percent Contribution of Six Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior ............................................... 61 8-5 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior ................................................................ 63 8-6 Approximate 1972 Expenditures by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan .......................... 66 8-7 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 1.1 ................................................................ 72 8-8 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 1.2 ................................................................ 76 8-9 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 1.2 ............................................................ 78 8-10 1970 Salmon Stocking, Planning Subarea 1.2 ........................... 78 8-11 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, Planning Subarea 1.2 ................ 80 8-12 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 12 Major Species in Lake Michigan ............................................................... 86 8-13 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 12 Major Species in Lake Michigan ............................................................... 87 8-14 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in Lake Michigan ....... 91 8-15 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.1 ............................................................ 98 8-16 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 2.1 ................................................................ 101 8-17 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 2.2 ................................................................ 110 8-18 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 2.3 ................................................................ 113 xv xvi Appendix 8 Table Page 8-19 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.3 ............................................................ 116 8-20 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, Planning Subarea 2.3 ................ 119 8-21 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 2.4 ................................................................ 122 8-22 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.4 ............................................................ 125 8-23 1970 Salmon Stocking, Planning Subarea 2.4 ........................... 125 8-24 1980 Projected Capital and Operating Costs and Benefits, Planning Sub- area 2.4 ................................................................ 127 8-25 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, Planning Subarea 2.4 ................ 127 8-26 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 11 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron .................................................. 135 8-27 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 11 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron ................................................... 136 8-28 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron .................................................................. 140 8-29 Loadings to Lake Huron ............................................... 141 8-30 Annual Expenditures on Fisheries Programs, Lake Huron ............. 144 8-31 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 3.1 ................................................................ 149 8-32 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 3.1 ............................................................ 151 8-33 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 3.2 ................................................................ 155 8-34 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 3.2 ............................................................ 156 8-35 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie .................................................... 164 8-36 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie .................................................... 166 8-37 Commercial Operatixig Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie .................................................................... 169 8-38 Economic Value, Lake Erie Commercial Fishery ....................... 170 8-39 Estimated Anglers and Angler Days, U.S. Waters of Lake Erie ........ 171 List of Tables xvii Table Page 8-40 Estimated Sport Fish Harvest, U.S. Waters of Lake Erie ............... 171 8-41 Charter Boat Industry on Ohio Waters of Lake Erie ................... 171 8-42 Net Economic Value of Sport Fishery in Ohio Waters of Lake Erie ..... 172 8-43 Near Shore and Harbor Water Quality ................................. 174 8-44 Lake Erie Fish Management Costs, 1960-1970 Average ................ 183 8-45 Actual and Projected Sport Fishery Demand in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie .................................................................... 183 8-46 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 4.1 ................................................................ 187 8-47 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 4.1 ............................................................ 189 8-48 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, Planning Subarea 4.1 ................ 191 8-49 Summary of Base Year Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Sub- area 4.2 ................................................................ 198 8-50 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 4.2 ................................................................ 201 8-51 Land Acquisition and Capital Developments, Planning Subarea 4.2 .... 202 8-52 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 4.3 ............................................................ 209 8-53 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 4.3 ................................................................ 211 8-54 Capital Funds Allocated for Sport Fishery, 1965 to Base Year, Planning Subarea 4.3 ............................................................ 212 8-55 Present Angler Use of All Resources, Erie-Niagara Basin .............. 219 8-56 Present Angler Use of Principal Warmwater Streams, Erie-Niagara Basin .................................................................. 219 8-57 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 4.4 ................................................................ 220 8-58 Proposed Impoundments, Planning Subarea 4.4 ........................ 220 8-59 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Ontario ................................................. 233 8-60 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Ontario ................................................ 234 8-61 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake 0-ntario ................................................................. 238 xviii Appendix 8 Table Page 8-62 Estimated Costs of Cape Vincent Fisheries Station ..................... 241 8-63 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 5.1 ............................................................ 244 8-64 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 5.1 ................................................................ 248 8-65 Priority Stream Acquisition Needs, Planning Subarea 5.1 .............. 252 8-66 River and Stream Fisheries, Planning Subarea 5.2 ..................... 253 8-67 Effects of Water Level on Fish and Wildlife, Oswego Basin ............. 256 8-68 Morphometric Data, Planning Subarea 5.2 ............................. 256 8-69 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 5.2 ................................................................ 257 8-70 Present and Projected Angler Day Demand, Oswego Basin ............. 258 8-71 Present and Projected Fishery Resource Use, Oswego Basin ........... 258 8-72 Fishing Waters within Planning Subarea 5.3 ........................... 263 8-73 Wetlands at Mouths of Tributaries to the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario, Planning Subarea 5.3 .......................................... 263 8-74 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Sub- area 5.3 ................................................................ 264 8-75 Summary of Sport Fishing Demand .................................... 268 8-76 Expanded Fish Management Programs, 1980 ........................... 272 8-77 Expanded Fish Management Programs, 2000 ........................... 274 8-78 Expanded Fish Management Programs, 2020 ........................... 276 8-79 Summary of Supply and Demand Characteristics of Commercial Species 278 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 8-1 Lake Basins, Great Lakes Basin ........................................ 2 8-2 Great Lakes Profile .................................................... 8 8-3 Great Lakes Depth Area Curves, 0-100 feet ............................ 9 8-4 Great Lakes Depth Area Curves, 0-900 feet ............................ 10 8-5 Changes in Total Dissolved Solids of the Great Lakes .................. 11 8-6 Historical Calcium Concentration Trends in the Great Lakes ........... 12 8-7 Changes in Chloride Concentration in the Great Lakes ................. 12 8-8 Changes in Sodium and Potassium Concentration in the Great Lakes .. 13 8-9 Changes in Sulfate Concentration in the Great Lakes .................. 13 8-10 Total Average Annual Catch and Total Average Annual Value of the U.S. Great Lakes Commercial Fisheries ..................................... 18 8-11 Average Annual Percent Volume Contribution of High and Medium-Low Value Fish Species to the Total U.S. Great Lakes ...................... 19 8-12 Plan Area 1.0 ............................................................ 56 8-13 Lake Superior and Tributaries, Total Dissolved Solids .................. 57 8-14 Lake Superior and Tributaries, Chemical Changes ..................... 57 8-15 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Superior Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 59 8-16 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Superior Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 60 8-17 Planning Subarea 1.1 ................................................... 68 8-18 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 1.1 .......................... 70 8-19 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 1.1 ................. 73 8-20 Planning Subarea 1.2 ................................................... 75 8-21 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 1.2 .......................... 77 8-22 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 1.2 ................. 79 X-ix xx Appendix 8 Figure Page 8-23 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 1.2 ....................... 81 8-24 Plan Area 2.0 ........................................................... 84 8-25 Lake Michigan, Major Chemical Cations ............................... 85 8-26 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Michigan Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 88 8-27 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Michigan Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 89 8-28 Planning Subarea 2.1 ................................................... 96 8-29 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.1, Wisconsin Portion 99 8-30 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.1 .......................... 100 8-31 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.1 .................... 102 8-32 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.1, Michigan Portion 105 8-33 Planning Subarea 2.2 ................................................... 107 8-34 Planning Subarea 2.3 ................................................... ill 8-35 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.3 .......................... 114 8-36 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.3 ................. 117 8-37 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.3 .................... 118 8-38 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 2.3 ....................... 120 8-39 Planning Subarea 2.4 ................................................... 123 8-40 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.4 .......................... 124 8-41 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.4 ................. 126 8-42 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.4 .................... 128 8-43 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 2.4 ....................... 129 8-44 Plan Area 3.0 ........................................................... 132 8-45 Changes in the Chemical Characteristics of Lake Huron ............... 133 8-46 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Huron Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 137 8-47 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Huron Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 138 8-48 U.S. Lake Huron Commercial Fishery Production and Numbers of Fishermen ............................................................. 139 List of Figures xxi Figure Page 8-49 Planning Subarea 3.1 ................................................... 148 8-50 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 3.1 .......................... 150 8-51 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 3.1 ................. 152 8-52 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 3.1 .................... 153 8-53 Planning Subarea 3.2 ................................................... 157 8-54 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 3.2 .................... 158 8-55 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 3.2 .......................... 159 8-56 Plan Area 4.0 ........................................................... 162 8-57 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Erie Com- mercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 .......................... 165 8-58 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Erie Com- mercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 .......................... 167 8-59 Chemistry of Lake Erie Water in Western, Central, and Eastern Basins, Nutrients .............................................................. 175 8-60 Chemistry of Lake Erie Water in Western, Central, and Eastern Basins, Major Constituents ..................................................... 176 8-61 Lake Erie Turbidity Readings .......................................... 177 8-62 Changes in the Chemical Characteristics of Lake Erie Waters .......... 178 8-63 Changes in the Concentration of Total Dissolved Solids in Lake Erie ... 179 8-64 Planning Subarea 4.1 ................................................... 186 8-65 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 4.1 .......................... 188 8-66 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 4.1 ................. 190 8-67 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 4.1 ....................... 192 8-68 Planning Subarea 4.2 ................................................... 193 8-69 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 4.2 .......................... 195 8-70 Typical Upground Storage Reservoir ................................... 196 8-71 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 4.2 ................. 199 8-72 Stream Fishery Including Warmwater, Trout, and Anadromous, Planning Subarea 4.2 ............................................................ 200 8-73 Land Acquisition and Capital Developments, Planning Subarea 4.2 .... 203 8-74 Planning Subarea 4.3 ................................................... 205 xxii Appendix 8 Figure Page 8-75 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 4.3 .......................... 207 8-76 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 4.3 ................. 209 8-77 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 4.3 .................... 210 8-78 Capital Improvement Projects, Planning Subarea 4.3 ................... 212 8-79 Planning Subarea 4.4 ................................................... 214 8-80 Fish Habitat Base, Planning Subarea 4.4 ............................... 216 8-81 Fish Planning Projects, Planning Subarea 4.4 .......................... 217 8-82 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 4.4 .......................... 218 8-83 Fish Management Projects, Planning Subarea 4.4 ...................... 222 8-84 Plan Area 5.0 ........................................................... 226 8-85 Chemical Constituents of Lake Ontario Compared to Lake Erie, 1890-1970 229 8-86 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Ontario Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods-, 1935-1969 ..................... 231 8-87 Average Annual Production of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Ontario Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 ..................... 232 8-88 Planning Subarea 5.1 ................................................... 243 8-89 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 5.1 .......................... 246 8-90 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 5.1 ................. 247 8-91 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 5.1 .................... 249 8-92 Priority Stream Acquisition Areas, Planning Subarea 5.1 .............. 250 8-93 Planning Subarea 5.2 ................................................... 251 8-94 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 5.2 .......................... 254 8-95 Planning Subarea 5.3 ................................................... 259 8-96 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 5.3 .......................... 261 INTRODUCTION Study Objectives in the 1870s. Since the turn of the century, the Great Lakes States inland fishery resources Appendix 8, Fish, has changed continuously have been generally reserved for recreational throughout the study period to coincide with use by the public. the planning requirements of the Great Lakes In the last decade, many States have turned Basin Commission and the available man- to the Great Lakes to provide recreational power and money at the disposal of the Fish fishing. The development of selective sea lam- Work Group. However, the basic objectives prey control chemicals in the late 1950s laid have remained the same. the groundwork for the rehabilitation of the The objective of this report is to examine traditional fisheries and led to the introduc- long-range fishery development programs for tion of new species to fully utilize the tre- the waters of the Great Lakes Basin, predi- mendous potential of the Great Lakes to pro- cated on the historical development of the duce fish valuable both as food and as a source fishery, present status and problems, and pro- of high quality recreation. jections of future supply and demand. Alter- native approaches have been considered in re- This report details the investments neces- sponse to various physical, ecological, social, sary to fully develop the vast potential of the economic, and institutional conditions that public fishery resources of the Great Lakes are expected in future years. Basin. Fish and Fisheries Methodology The Great Lakes Basin contains a wide va- The methodology used for calculation of riety of fish. Most of the important families of fishing demand, as summarized at the end of North American freshwater fish are repre- each section, was relatively straightforward. sented in the Great Lakes Basin. More than Attempts were initially made to project de- 237 species and subspecies of fish are now mand using formulas developed in the Ohio present in the waters of the Basin. River Basin study by the Bureau of Sport While many species of fish have been pur- Fisheries and Wildlife. While input data for posefully or accidently introduced by man, this formula were available for the Great most are indigenous, having entered the Lakes Basin (i.e., population, habitat base, Great Lakes area during various glacial fishing license sales), the unusually high stages. Water migration routes once existed habitat base in the Great Lakes Basin and the from the Hudson Bay and upper Mississippi distribution of population in the Basin un- River in the northwest; the Ohio River and dermined the basic assumptions utilized to Mississippi on the south; and the St. Law- construct the formula. rence, Mohawk-Hudson, and Susquehanna Fishing trends were projected strictly on Rivers on the east. Each of these separate ba- the basis of population in this study. The as- sins now has certain species of fish in common sumption was made that fish managers should with the Great Lakes Basin. The temperate plan to maintain the same ratio of fishermen climate of the Great Lakes Region has pro- in the population in 1980, 2000, and 2020 as vided for the northern extension of the occurred during the base years 1966-67. natural range of several warmwater species Therefore, the projections represent the and the southern extension of the natural minimum demand. Where current observa- range of many coldwater species. tions or professional judgment indicated that Commercial fishing has been important for future fishing demand would be significantly over a century in the Great Lakes. The decline different than that projected, the narrative in of -certain important commercial food fish in the text suggests how and why the demand is the 1860s was in large part responsible for the different from that projected solely on popula- creation of the various State fish commissions tion trends. xx iii Section 1 DESCRIPTION OF BASIN 1.1 Geology hundreds of feet above present lake levels and overflowing into outlets across present wa- The Basin occupied by the Great Lakes tershed divides. As the ice border receded, the (Figure 8-1) was created by glaciation and its pattern and levels of those lakes were re- physical features and hydrology differ greatly peatedly changed by new lower outlets. The from those of regions not glaciated or only effect of these glacial lakes on present modified by glaciation. Its construction was shorelines is illustrated by the perched wave- only recently completed in terms of earth his- cut cliffs of Mackinac Island, the lake- tory. The five Great Lakes, with their outlets deposited clay flats of Chicago and Toledo, the and approximate Lake levels as they are to- variable stratified sands and silts constituting day, date back less than 5,000 years. The proc- or overlying the bluffs along the Ohio shore of esses of stream and shoreline erosion hardly Lake Erie, and the sand tracts of the dune changed the original topography. areas. Concurrent with the shrinking of the Prior to the Pleistocene age the Great Lakes ice mass, a differential uplift of the earth sur- were nonexistent and the area was traversed face occurred and the tilted positions of the by well-drained valleys and divides of several present shore features of the glacial lakes large rivers. When the continental ice cap de- were created. veloped to a thickness of several thousand feet The outlets of Lakes Superior and Erie are over all of what is now Canada, it spread controlled by bedrock uncovered by erosion at southward into this lower area, completely shallow depths under the glacial overburden covering the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin. at Sault Ste. Marie and the Niagara River Tremendous amounts of bedrock were eroded below Buffalo. Although bedrock occurs at and the debris was entrained in the ice mass. shallow depth in the Detroit River, the Lake As the ice sheet slowly melted and retreated Huron outlet control is still overburden for the progressively northward, it released the en- entire length of the St. Clair River. trained debris in the form of vast irregular The configuration of the Great Lakes has deposits of overburden. been only slightly altered since its glacial de- The Pleistocene topography was entirely velopment. However, shoreline overburden is changed. Parts of the major pre-glaeial valleys still vulnerable to erosion. were deepened by glacial scouring, while other parts that were filled by glacial deposits formed the basins of the five Great Lakes. The 1.2 Topography pre-glacial, well-drained divides also were scoured and buried under glacial deposits. The Great Lakes Basin ranges in elevation Present land areas have an irregular and var- from more than 4,500 feet in the Adirondack ied topography. They are characterized by de- Mountains to 152 feet above sea level at pressions occupied by small lakes or marshes, Cornwall, Ontario, near the International level or sloping local plains, and low rolling Boundary. The mean surface elevations of the hills or ridges. The varied overburden ranges Great Lakes during the past 100 years have from clays to sand or gravel. - been: Lake Superior, 602.20; Lakes Michigan- Temporary occurrences of large glacial Huron, 580.54; Lake Erie, 572.34; and Lake lakes contributed to development of topog- Ontario, 246.03. Maximum recorded depths of raphy and overburden conditions in areas the Great Lakes range from 1,333 feet in Lake bordering present shorelines. During the final Superior to 210 feet in Lake Erie. northward recession of the ice front there was In general the tributary topographic relief ponding of melt waters between the ice and varies slightly. Major stream profiles are rela- exposed glacial deposits. This resulted in a tively flat. Such tributaries as the Maumee gradually enlarging lake, rising in some cases and Grand have reversed their flows in recent 1 00 LEGFND ------- Great Lakes Basin 's AIN, ----------- Subbasins Subbasin number MINNESOTA M LAKE SUPERIOR I 1j, e+ I D IT STATUTE uperior ONTARIO @o @o MI H GAN-"" S1, M.,, R,,,, W-,.. 10 Afol", BAY .13 LAKE@URON WISCON N reen A ay B .......... IT HIGAN ONTARIO r --- @@N)@DA Cs IS UNITED STAT k@ City Satin ------ k Roche 0 Muskegon -1, 11 -- .1 ,, " , Bi- Milwaukee 4v, -------- Buffalo Fl,nt Grand Rapids S, CI.,, IT-, Raeine 0 T I 1@ ansing,, WISCONSIN K nos a NEW@' YORK L.k, OIS Jac 6ii-Arbor Detroit S,. 0." Kala-oo 0 Kwn NE R-1 @@Erie' Chicago ILLINOIS INDIANA,, _0H I Gary MICHIGAN ICH Be d led. ':,',land 4 C op :::OLrin/ Hannrnor@ o.th _,oAk,c'n 60 5, z Fort Wayni 0 1 I Li,,o I N D I A N A 0 H 1 0 z Description of Basin 3 geologic times as the outlets of the Great posits. In southern Michigan, Indiana, west- Lakes became lower. Although there are ern Ohio, and eastern Wisconsin soils occur in thousands of natural lakes in the Basin and rolling, calcareous glacial till and sandy out- hundreds of small power plant storage reser- wash materials. These include the Miami, voirs, there are few suitable reservoir sites for Hillsdale, Fox, Boyer, and Spinks soils. The surface storage available for water resource Brookston, Conover, Crosby, and Blout soils development. Of the few sites available, the are also found in this area, mainly in nearly Oswego and Genesee basins flowing into Lake level regions. The Wooster-Mahoning soils Ontario, the Cuyahoga and Sandusky basins occur in rolling, acid glacial till in eastern Ohio flowing into Lake Erie, and the Fox River and Pennsylvania. The Ontario and Lords- flowing into Lake Michigan offer the most town soils occupy much of western New York. suitable topography for water storage. The Ontario soils are in deep, calcareous gla- Because there exists no well-developed cial till and the Lordstown soils are in thin, main and tributary valley systems, the tribu- acid glacial till over sandstone and shale. tary surface drainage system is rudimentary. Other areas of upper New York have Glouce- With few exceptions the main valleys are low ster, a rough stony soil prevalent in the places in the glacial topography into which Adirondack Mountains. melt waters escaped from the ice front leaving the valleys partly filled with silts, sands, and gravels. Their downstream reach runs in 1.4 Climate many cases across the clay or sand flats of glacial lake bottoms. The few tributary valleys Because of their large surface area and are small and tend to follow the lows of the depth, the Great Lakes have a decided temper- glacial topography. Except in minor areas at ing effect upon the severe climate associated the east and west ends of the watershed, the with their shores. Based on the period 1883 to divides separating basins are characteristi- 1957, average annual temperature in the cally broad and vary from almost level plains Great Lakes Basin ranges from 39.0 degrees to rolling hills. The overall topography, which on Lake Superior to 48.7 degrees on Lake Erie. has large areas of sandy and gravelly tracts, is Minimun and maximum monthly tempera- favorable to infiltration and unfavorable to tures occur in February and July. rapid surface runoff. The numerous lakes, The mean annual precipitation for the en- marshes, and peat bogs further reflect the tire Basin for the same period is approxi- poor development of surface drainage. mately 31 inches, with a minumum of 25 inches in 1930 and a maximum of 37 inches in 1950. The annual snowfall within the Great Lakes 1.3 Soils Basin ranges from approximately 40 inches to 120 inches. The soils of the Great Lakes Basin are of Estimates of the annual rate of evaporation glacial origin. For 60,000 years the Basin was on the surface of the Great Lakes range from a dominated by the Wisconsin glacier. Ice thick- minimum of approximately 1.5 feet on Lake ness varied from a few thousand feet to sev- Superior to approximately 3.0 feet on Lake eral miles, and thickness of drift varies from a Erie. The Lakes are generally ice-free from few inches to more than 400 feet. By the oscil- May to the early part of November. In general lating movement of its ice and melt water, the an ice cover does not form on the Lakes except glacier finely ground, mixed, transported, and in bays and in sheltered areas between islands distributed the rock material. in the northern regions. The soils that developed from this material include the Iron River and Gogebic soils in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Penin- 1.5 Human Population Status and Trends sula of Michigan. These soils occur in thin gla- cial till over igneous bedrock. Also in this area The Great Lakes Region covers approxi- are the Ontonagon and Trenary soils, which mately 4 percent of the United States land are calcareous clays and loams. The Rubicon, area and has 14.4 percent of the nation's popu- Au Gres, and Roscommon soils occupy areas in lation. The 1960 population of the counties in Wisconsin and Michigan. These are level-to- the Region was 25.5 million. Of this total, 19.4 rolling, well-drained-to-poorly-drained sands. million were classified as urban residents. The Sims, Kawkawlin, Toledo, and Vergennes The Region's population classified as urban soils are fine and moderately fine textured de- is projected to increase to 85 percent urban by 4 Appendix 8 2000. This urbanization is attributed to the improved fire protection and reforestation. expansion of the following major metropolitan This created an improved forest resource of areas with a 1960 population in millions: high potential and gradually increasing pro- Chic ago-Northwestern Indiana, 6.8; Detroit, ductivity which is-being used by forest-based 3.8; Cleveland, 1.9; Buffalo, 1.3; Milwaukee, industries such as sawmills and pulp and 1.2; Rochester, 0.7; Syracuse, 0.6; Akron, 0.6; paper mills. In view of the long-term prospects Toledo, 0.6; Grand Rapids, 0.5; Flint, 0.4; for forest products, this resource will serve as Utica-Rome, 0.3; Lansing, 0.3; Duluth- a basis for new economic development. Pro- Superior, 0.3; South Bend, 0.3; Erie, 0.3; and 11 duction of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other Standard Metropolitan Statistical miscellaneous industrial timber products is Areas of 100,000 to 250,000 population. substantial and is expected to increase. Many people in northern Minnesota, Wis- consin, Michigan, and New York depend upon 1.6 Transportation Facilities the resources of forested areas for a livelihood. Increasing population, rising income, and The 95,000 square miles of water surface, more leisure time have greatly stimulated the extending over 2,000 miles, makes the Great demand for recreational facilities and related Lakes system the world's largest body of fresh services in the Basin. Forest and water areas water. One hundred billion ton-miles of provide scenery and a favorable environment water-borne freight per year is transported in which people can enjoy outdoor recrea- over the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence naviga- tional activities. These same areas also pro- tion system. vide good habitat conditions for fish and The Great Lakes are connected by rivers wildlife. and related waterways such as the St. Marys River, Lake Superior to Lake Huron; the 1.8 Industry Straights of Mackinac, Lake Michigan to Lake Huron; the St. Clair River, Lake Huron to From the viewpoint of economic develop- Lake St. Clair; the Detroit River, Lake St. ment, the dominant characteristics of the Clair to Lake Erie; the Niagara River, Lake Great Lakes Region and adjacent areas are Erie to Lake Ontario; and the St. Lawrence the large bodies of fresh water in the Great River, Lake Ontario to the Atlantic Ocean. As Lakes, the Region's location within the highly a result these connecting waterways provide a industrialized North Central United States, low-cost means of transporting major re- and the presence of natural resources for sources in the Basin. manufacturing. The Great Lakes Region provides approxi- mately 50 percent of the nation's steel. Within 1.7 Agriculture 100 miles of the Great Lakes are significant concentrations of various types of United The widely varying factors of climate, soils, States manufacturing industries. The Great and topography foster a diverse agriculture Lakes Region employs the following percent- that ranges from truck and fruit crops to gen- ages of the nation's work force in these indus- eral farming. The Basin is very important for tries: primary metals, 42; instruments, 36; its dry bean production, "hothouse" rhubarb, nonelectrical machinery, 31; fabricated metal sugar beets, and soft white wheat used in flour products, 30; transportation equipment, 29; blending. Dairy farming is found throughout electrical machinery, 26; rubber and plastics, the Region. Cash crops, such as corn, soy 20; printing and publishing, 20; furniture and beans, and vegetables, predominate in the fixtures, 18; food, 17; chemicals, 16; stone, clay more productive southern portion. Due to the and glass products, 16; petroleum and coal favorable climate along the Lakes, one of the products, 14; and paper and allied products, 13. nation's most important fruit and vegetable Most of the industries serve national or major areas has developed and is contributing to an subnational markets. In 1963 manufacturing expanding fresh and processed fruit and veg- activity exceeded 40 billion dollars, almost etable market. Large quantities of feed grains one-fourth of the nation's total. are grown in the Basin both for local use in the There are approximately 160 existing hy- livestock industry and for export. droelectric plants in the Basin, which supply New forest growth followed the heavy log- both private and public needs. A small portion ging of the second decade of this century. of these needs is also met by nuclear-fired Natural reproduction has been encouraged by generation. Description of Basin 5 The mineral industries are a vital and im- eluded ilmenite, gypsum, magnesium, petro- portant segment of the economy of the Basin leum and natural gas, clay, coal, and as well as of the nation. For example, the calcium-magnesium compounds. The western area's mineral production totaled $1,418 mil- Great Lakes area produces approximately lion in 1965. Principal minerals contributing to two-thirds of the nation's output of iron ore this total were metals including iron ore, cop- and five percent of its domestic copper output. per, zinc, and silver, $633 million; stone, $156 The 1964 commercial fishing catch in the million; sand and gravel, $105 million; salt, United States totaled more than 53 million $100 million; and lime, $90 million. Other im- pounds, one-half of which was taken from portant minerals produced in the Basin in- Lake Michigan. Section 2 GREAT LAKES FISHERY RESOURCES This portion of the appendix addresses those basins have fostered the greatest population problems and needs of the fisheries of the growths. Because population growth in the Great Lakes and does not concern itself with Lake Erie basin has exceeded that of other considerations of planning subareas. Great Lake areas, changes in its water The first portion of this two-part section dis- chemistry and benthos have been substantial. cusses general problems and needs of Great Lake Ontario, which receives its waters from Lakes' fisheries and fish resources. Problems Lake Erie, has exhibited similar changes in of oil spills and thermal pollution are included. water quality without the associated popula- The second part, which addresses problems of tion growth. individual Great Lakes, is subdivided into the Waters of the southern Lake Michigan ba- five sections followed by inland planning sub- sin, which is also experiencing the effect of area discussions. increased population pressure, have displayed unmistakable signs of accelerated eutrophica- tion. The rate of this process is slightly slower 2.1 Habitat Base because of Lake Michigan's large volume. This undeniable trend is discouraging because The more important physical and chemical most of the major tributaries of the Lake are characteristics of the Great Lakes are sum- heavily polluted. We can expect parallel marized in Table 8-1 and Figure 8-2 through though diluted changes in Lake Huron, which Figure 8-5. Although water quality conditions receives approximately 30 percent of its wa- differ significantly between Lakes and even ters from Lake Michigan. The possible dilu- between different areas of the same tion benefits of Lake Huron waters upon Lake Lake, a generalized summary of the more im- Erie are considerably reduced because they portant chemical changes that have taken pass through the Detroit metropolitan com- place in them was possible. More detailed dis- plex. The entire volume of the Lake can be cussions of these and other changes will be replaced in three years while that of Lake found in the individual Lake reports herein Michigan requires at least thirty. contained and in Appendix 4, Limnology of Although changes have taken place in the Lakes and Embayments. chemical characteristics of Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Michigan, and in Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron, the truly significant changes are 2.1.1 General Problems, Needs, and Solutions taking place in the sediments because of the tremendous amounts of allochthonous mate- Obvious changes in the fish and plankton rials that daily enter the Lakes. For example, populations of the Great Lakes have already 1.4 million pounds of suspended solids are dis- been discussed. There are other more subtle charged daily into the Detroit River by munic- changes such as those exhibited by changing ipal and industrial concerns. Changes in the benthos and chemical characteristics. The lat- quantity, diversity, and species composition of ter changes manifest themselves only after benthic organisms and dissolved oxygen long periods of time (Figures 8-6 through 8-9). levels testify to the changes taking place in The solid lines on these figures represent the sediments as the result of these dis- Beeton's (1965) suggested trends, dashed lines charges. Because all Great Lakes fish except represent Weiler and Chawla (1969) suggested the sheepshead have demersal eggs, changes trends, and data are from Beeton, Kramer in their populations may also be related to (1964), and Weiler and Chawla. waste inputs. The Lakes which have exhibited the most Changes in the benthos of Green and profound changes in water chemistry over the Saginaw Bays as well as isolated areas such as past three or four decades are those whose the Harbor Reach area in Lake Huron indi- 7 8 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-1 Physical Data of Great Lakes System Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Lake Superior Michigan Huron St.Clair Erie Ontario Totals Length (miles) 350 307 206 26 241 193 ------ Breadth (miles) 160 118 183 24 57 53 ------ Water area (sq.mi.) United States 20,700 22,400 9,110 200 4,990 3,600 61,000 Canada 11,120 ------ 13,900 290 4,940 3,920 34,170 Total 31,820 22,400 23,010 490 9,930 7,520 95,170 Average surface 602.20 580.54 580.54 574.88 572.34 246.03 ------ elevation since 1860 (ft.) Maximum Depth (ft.) 1,333 923 750 21 210 802 ------ Mean Depth (ft.) 487 276 195 10 58 283 ------ Drainage area (sq.mi.) 80,000 67,860 72,620 7,430 32,490 34,800 295,200 LAKE ST. LAWRENCE LAKE ST' FRANCIS ST. MARYS RIVER ST. CLAIII RIVER NIAGARA EL. 152 FALLS LAKES M MICHIGAN' HURON LAKE ST. LOUIS r LAKE EL.69 EL. 600.4 .4 ONTARIO L ERIE LAKE SUPERIOR 244.8 GULF OF DETROIT ST. LAWRENCE LAKE RIVER EL. 20 ri n 925 F1. St. CLAIR MICHIGAN ST. LAWRENCE RIVER 752 FT. HURON 212 FT. 804 FT. 1333 NIAGARA RIVE FT. 379 1. 60 J, 223 89 236 _1351,150 .1, 77 1281_52 -1331 350 DISTANCES IN MILES LA A "'Y" 'C HUI EL 600.4 EL KE SUP@ERIOR 925 FT. @1333A MICHIGAN ELEVAT ONS ON THE LAKE SURFACES ARE AVERAGES EXPRESSED ON IC INTERNATIONAL GREAT LAKES DATUM (1955) AND ARE GIVEN TO THE NEAREST TENTH (1/10) FOOT. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SCALES HAVE BEEN DISTORTED TO CONVEY VISUAL IMPRESSION. FIGURE 8-2 Great Lakes Profile Great Lakes Fishery Resources 9 cate organic enrichment of the sediments. success of these programs, which include Oligochaete species, which are associated with maintenance of all Lake water quality stan- enrichment conditions, are also important in dards, requires vigorous State and Federal the benthic communities of the littoral zones enforcement programs. of Lake Ontario. In addition to encouraging vigorous law en- Because the successful establishment or forcement, the Fish Work Group recommends: reestablishment of high-value predator (1) that current enforcement authority be species in or throughout the Great Lakes amended so that the Federal government can Basin will depend heavily upon the existence take action on pollution affecting inhabitants of a suitable environment, the Fish Work of a State without requiring the consent of the Group supports any effort geared to the Governor stabilization and improvement of water qual- (2) that because Federal water quality ity of the Lakes. In Lakes Superior and Huron standards do not presently apply to intrastate existing water quality exceeds recently waters, the Refuse Act be employed as an adopted State and Federal water quality additional tool to enforce the Federal Water standards for the Lakes. Degradation of these Pollution Control Act and to extend Federal waters should not be permitted. Until careful regulatory authority research demonstrates that degradation of (3) that existing water quality legislation existing water quality to State and Federal be amended to limit effluents levels will not result in harmful effects upon (4) that the development of policies in fish and aquatic life resources, the Fish Work waste handling and treatment to avoid water Group will argue that pollution abatement ia pollution be carried out with the realization best served by retention of the existing stan- that effective waste disposal must involve in- dards including that of non-degradation. The tegrated consideration of air and water pollu- 35 30 - 25 - < 20 I 0 Z 0 S'3 10 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DEPTH IN FEET FIGURE 8-3 Great Lakes Depth Area Curves, 0-100 Feet PERCENTAGE OF AREA w Ul 0) 00 0 0 0 0 LAKE ERIE 0 0 LAKE 'I(/ROIV 0 w 0 0 0 41 rnb -00 i M Z -n rn Ul rno o 0 0 14 0 0 00 Great Lakes Fishery Resources 11 200 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS V S/ T w T V 180 ov V 0 V V V T 160 V ERIE ONTARIO V 140 - V MICHIGAN z 120 - 0 HURON Uj a- 100 U) (L 80 - SUPERIOR AA 60 - ERIE 40 - HURON MICHIGAN ONTARIO 20 - A SUPERIOR 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 YEAR AFTER BEETON (1965), KRAMER (1964), AND WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969). CIRCLED POINTS ARE THE AVERAGES OF 12 OR MORE DETERMINATIONS. FIGURE 8-5 Changes in Total Dissolved Solids of the Great Lakes 12 Appendix 8 CALCIUM ONTARIO ERIE a MICHIGAN 30 SUPERIOR 0 MICHIGAN - - - - - - - HURON 20 ERIE (L ONTARIO SUPERIOR 10 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 YEAR SOLID LINES REPRESENT BEETON'S (1965) SUGGESTED TRENDS, DASHED LINE REPRESENT WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969) SUGGESTED TRENDS. DATA ARE FROM BEETON, KRAMER (1964), AND WEILER AND CHAWLA. FIGURE 8-6 Historical Calcium Concentration Trends in the Great Lakes 40 CHLORIDE A SUPERIOR 9 MICHIGAN 30 v HURON a ERIE z ONTARIO 'Ar 0 as 20 a. ERIE cr 0- ONTARIO 10 MICHIGAN HURON - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - SUPERIOR 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 r- v )NTARIO ERIE YEAR SOLID LINES REPRESENT BEETON'S (1965) SUGGESTED TRENDS, DASHED LINES REPRESENT WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969) SUGGESTED DATA ARE FROM KRAMER (1964), BEETON (1965), AND WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969). FIGURE 8-7 Changes in Chloride Concentration in the Great Lakes Great Lakes Fishery Resources 13 20 SODIUM AND POTASSIUM * SUPERIOR * MICHIGAN 15 HURON ERIE z ONTARIO LD 10 (L ERIE (L ONTARIO 5 MICHIGAN v v V v HURON SUPERIOR 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 YEARS SOLID LINES REPRESENT BEETON'S (1965) SUGGESTED TRENDS, DASHED LINE REPRESENT WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969) SUGGESTED TRENDS. DATA ARE FROM BEETON, KRAMER (1964), AND WEILER AND CHAWLA. FIGURE 8-8 Changes in Sodium and Potassium Concentration in the Great Lakes 40 SULPHATE SUPERIOR MICHIGAN 30 v HURON a ERIE z ONTARIO Mae - 410 ERIE 20 (L v < ONTARIO v v vv 10 MICHIGAN HURON v SUPERIOR 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 ERIE ONTARI@O YEAR SOLID LINES REPRESENT BEETON'S (1965) SUGGESTED TRENDS, DASHED LINES REPRESENT WEILER AND CHAWLA (1969) SUGGESTED TRENDS. DATA ARE FROM BEETON, KRAMER (1964), AND WEILER AND CHAWLA. FIGURE 8-9 Changes in Sulfate Concentration in the Great Lakes 14 Appendix 8 tion control and solid waste management. biological characteristics of the individual Waste pollution control policies must avoid species. creating air pollution or solid waste problems. Management techniques should exploit the Greater emphasis should be placed on effec- biological and behavioral characteristics of tive waste management through recycling, individual fish species. For example, coho recovery, and reuse. salmon can be successfully introduced into the The Fish Work Group also recommends that Great Lakes only if massive artificial propoga- research aimed at determining the amounts tion is employed. This program is required be- and sources of various system inputs (pes- cause of the lack of natural spawning oppor- ticides, fertilizers, heavy metals) be con- tunities. Biological and behavioral factors tinued. This research should also explore the must also be considered when trying to control effect of these inputs on such varied system a species. The fact that the lamprey is components as food chains, reproductive semimobile during its lengthy ammocoete capacities of various organisms, and fish stage makes eradication or extreme reduction spawning and nursery areas. It is also neces- by larvicide application difficult. sary to determine the concentration charac- Sport or commercial fishing may be essen- teristics that different species display for tially irrelevant to species with short life these various inputs. spans, early sexual maturity, high reproduc- tive potential, broad and easily satisfied spawning requirements, and vulnerability to 2.2 Biology of the Individual Species fluctuations in their environment. However, moderate exploitation may have substantial Prior to 1950 U.S. commercial fishing relied effects on species with long life spans, late heavily on eleven species: lake sturgeon, lake sexual maturity, limited reproductive poten- trout, blue pike, lake herring, chubs, lake tial, demanding spawning requirements, and whitefish, carp, suckers, catfish, yellow perch, relative immunity to fluctuations in their en- and walleye. Only the last eight have played a vironment. substantial role in the commercial fishery of Numerous types of biological and be- the last two decades. However, lake herring is havioral characteristics may be germane to no longer important in the commercial management and exploitation decision mak- fishery. Invasion by sea lamprey, smelt, and ing: longevity, time needed to attain sexual alewife, and, in some cases, overfishing has maturity, year class structure, rate of growth, led to the virtual elimination of the first four spawning requirements, vulnerability to from the commercial fishery. However, they changes in the environment, behavioral still remain as considerations for future re- characteristics, discreteness of stocks, and ca- stored fishery. Four other species, northern pacity to accumulate contaminants. Under pike, bullhead, sheepshead, and quillback, natural conditions, these characteristics often contribute to the commercial fishery, but their interact. However, they should be considered total combined catch has represented only separately as a preliminary analytical step. 1.56 percent of the total over the last 20 years. Three introduced or invading species, the smelt, alewife, and sea lamprey, have become 2.2.1 Longevity significant to the fishery over the last twenty years, and four others, the coho, chinook and The length of a fish's life defines the period kokanee salmons, and the splake are expected during which it is vulnerable to predation and to play a part in the future fishery. changes in environment. Its lifespan also af- Except for the practical elimination of the fects the options open to management. sturgeon and the decrease in yellow perch Longevity defines the period that a fish is landings since the early 1920s, relatively few available to the entire fishery. The coho sal- changes were recorded in species composition mon, for example, usually only spawns at the and total landing until the late 1930s. The end of its third year. After spawning, it dies. commercial fisheries then witnessed drastic Because it dies after spawning, the coho declines in lake herring, lake trout, and should be utilized by the fishery before becom- whitefish landings and steady declines in the ing a wasted resource. The following species walleye and sucker catches through 1969. are arranged in descending order from long- There was a significant increase in the chub lived to short-lived: lake trout, carp, lake fishery from 1958 to 1965. These changes can whitefish, splake, walleye, catfish, suckers, be attributed to many factors including the smelt, alewife, and the salmons. Great Lakes Fishery Resources 15 2.2.2. Sexual Maturity tion, population structure of the alewife and coho salmon is inherently dominated by a Age at which a fish attains sexual maturity single adult reproducing-age class. The yellow can have a significant implication for man- perch, normally an intermediate example, has agement. Late sexual maturity in a desired been reduced in Lake Erie to dependence on species usually requires considerable man- one or two year classes due to adverse changes agement efforts to insure adequate self- in the environment. sustained reproduction. The classic example is The multi-age class adult structure is the the current problem of assuring that lake most stable. Loss of an occasional year class trout, which are threatened by residual sea has only minor impact on the basic status of lamprey population, survive through sexual the stocks. Steady optimum harvest rates by maturity. Early-maturing fish are often more the sport and commercial fishery are rela- adaptable than slow-maturing species. This tively easy to calculate. Because this type of adaptability can take the form of resiliency, population age class structure is usually which allows the species to maintain itself characterized by steady but modest annual even if subjected to heavy predation. If the recruitment, exploitation at more than the alewife, a species which possess these charac- sustainable rate by either the sport fishery, teristics, were classified undesirable, this ac- the commercial fishery, or predators results in quired resiliency would make population con- rapid, even crash, declines. trol very difficult. Species which are normally characterized Changes in age of sexual maturity can re- by only one or two sexually mature adult age flect the effects that varying levels of exploi- classes are unstable, being vulnerable to fail- tation have on a specific population. This pro- ure of the dominant year class. Measures vides management with information useful in should be taken either to protect or deplete the decision making. Recent studies have shown key age class prior to spawning. In practice, that heavy exploitation of the Lake Huron however, effective management measures are whitefish has resulted in earlier sexual seldom available. Once adequate spawning maturity. Because it matures earlier, the has taken place the entire age class becomes whitefish also acquires an improved degree of available for exploitation. Species whose year adaptability and resiliency associated with class structure falls between a multi-age class early-maturing species. This flexibility pre- adult structure and an essimtially single-age vents stock depletion while still providing an class adult structure pose more complex prob- adequate supply to the commercial fishery. lems. Theoretically, measures such as reme- Attainment of sexual maturity also affects dial stocking and adjustment of exploitation the timing of exploitation. Harvest of late- rates could be employed to maintain a satis- maturing species prior to maturity can have factory age class distribution. However, such considerable repercussions on the abundance measures require adequate knowledge and of a species. In the face of exploitation early- regular monitoring of possible shifts of age maturing species usually have a distinct ad- class structure. Realistically, adequate vantage over late-maturing fish by sustaining knowledge and monitoring capabilities are a proportionally greater levels of removals. long way off. Some day a well-regulated com- Examples of late-maturing species would mercial fishery may provide this capability for include the lake trout, lake whitefish, and the Great Lakes species in this intermediate walleye, whereas those attaining maturity group. earlier are the salmons, alewife, and smelt. Species normally characterized by a multi- age class structure, while exhibiting a fluc- tuating age class structure due to long range 2.2.3 Year Class Structure environmental deterioration, cannot be effec- tively managed or exploited. Unless some- This biologically determined characteristic thing is done about the environmental causa- varies from species that normally have sev- tive factor, our only recourse is to preserve the eral sexually mature age classes to species species. that normally exhibit a structure dominated by one or two sexually mature age classes. Other species exhibit various intergradations 2.2.4 Rate of Growth between these two extremes. In spite of mar- ginal environmental conditions that can dis- A fish's growth rate defines its susceptibility tort a normally multi-age class adult popula- to predators, especially those that are size 16 Appendix 8 specific. A slow-growing species is consid- sea lamprey and smelt, streams of a character erably more vulnerable to piscivores than one occurring widely in most of the Great Lakes. that is fast-growing, but the latter becomes Examples of species with very generalized available at an earlier age to predators such as spawning location requirements are lake the sea lamprey. trout, lake herring, and alewife. Growth rates can also reflect changes in the All Great Lakes species have timing limita- environment and in the structure of the fish's tions with regard to spawning, but some are population. The fact that a species is now rela- more restricted. This has relatively few im- tively slow-growing usually indicates a plications for management and exploitation change in the abundance of food or an over- unless the timing characteristic is combined abundance of individuals in its population. with narrow location requirements so that Rate of growth is the determining factor in spawning must take place in an area made defining the time at which a fish becomes inaccessible by ice or strong winds. available to both the commercial and sport The smelt's spawning activities are re- fisheries. A fast growth rate means that a fish stricted to a two-week period. Other fish with is vulnerable to specific mesh sizes earlier fairly short spawning periods are the coho than a slow-growing species. Accelerated salmon, walleye, sucker, and the catfish. The growth often accompanies increased exploita- alewife has a long spawning period. tion. Certain Great Lakes fish, for example, the Under normal conditions, species that are whitefish, also require exacting environmen- characteristically fast growers are: the coho tal conditions such as a specific range of water salmon (extremely fast), splake, walleye and temperature to insure the success of repro- carp. Slow-growing fish include the smelt, duction. Such species are more susceptible to alewife, chubs, and yellow perch. Fish whose changes in their environment, especially if growth rates have characteristically reflected they are already near their tolerance limits. changes in levels of exploitation or increasing deleterious effects of environmental changes are the lake whitefish, lake herring, smelt, and 2.2.6 Behavioral Characteristics yellow perch. Biologically determined behavioral charac- teristics exert influence in many ways. In 2.2.5 Spawning Requirements addition to time and location preferences, a tendency to school or annually occupy specific Species that have spawning requirements parts of the Lake may have repercussions. dependent on time, place, and environmental This habit may cause interaction and competi- conditions are susceptible to management and tion for food between species. Location pref- vulnerable to exploitation. erence also means that a fish is more suscep- Fish whose preferences for time and loca- tible to specific predators at certain times. tion are restrictive and easy to identify are These behavioral characteristics may more susceptible to concentrated manage- strongly influence certain management deci- ment and exploitation than those with more sions relating to timing and geographical re- generalized requirements. These preferences striction of exploitation.. Steps might be taken increase the species' vulnerability to preda- to protect those species that school during tors and to loss of narrowly restricted spawning because they are more vulnerable to spawning grounds. On the other hand, these predation and sport and commercial harvest- restrictive characteristics allow creation of ing. additional spawning habitats or substitution Conversely, the preference of the alewife of hatchery and stocking operations for and bloater chub for mid-water depths during natural reproduction. Control options are also juvenile stages makes them relatively im- increased for this group. For example, the sea mune to commercial fishery. This protects lamprey control program is dependent on the them from harvest prior to sexual maturity. very restrictive requirements of spawning Schooling species include the coho salmon and habitat. alewife. Some Great Lakes species with restricted Smelt and alewife compete with other spawning location requirements are species because of location and depth pref- whitefish, discrete shallow inshore spawning erences. Although its effect has not been well areas; coho salmon, streams of a character not documented, the alewife seems to exert con- generally occurring in the Great Lakes; and siderable influence on young chubs. The fact Great Lakes Fishery Resources 17 that the alewife occupies mid-depth zones dur- 2.2.8 Concentration of Contaminants ing the fall and winter months might also con- tribute to the reduction of lake herring popu- The capacity of a species to concentrate in- lations. secticides, pesticides, trace elements, and heavy metals is of major importance to both the commercial and sport fisheries. The cur- 2.2.7 Vulnerability to Changes in the rent concern with mercury and DDT accumu- Environment lation reflects the impact this biological characteristic can have. Assimilation rates Some Lake Huron species are extremely and concentration levels vary with the sensitive to sudden fluctuations in various species, size, age, feeding habits, and fat dis- environmental parameters such as water tribution. Walleye assimilate mercury very ef- quality, water temperatur *e, and food supply. ficiently, catfish and yellow perch show one- These species reflect these sensitivities by in- half this proficiency, while smelt are even less curring an erratic and rapidly changing efficient. Generally, less predacious fish and number and species distribution. Other less nonbottom feeders concentrate less mercury sensitive species tend to exhibit a more stable than voracious predators or predominantly and predictable pattern of population bottom feeders. dynamics. DDT and dieldrin reach higher levels in fish These fluctuating environmental parame- which have a relatively high percentage of fat ters can have sudden large-scale effects on such as chubs, lake trout, coho salmon, and sensitive stocks and are beyond the control of yellow perch. Most of the fat and therefore the management. The only options are estimating pesticide of the first three is uniformly dis- population and growth, adjusting species tributed and remains in the dressed product, utilization to an uncontrolled supply, and while approximately 97 percent of the fat of stocking and protecting the affected species the yellow perch is concentrated in the viscera during the recovery phase. Conversely, and other portions discarded as scrap. species not particularly sensitive to these Little is known of the direct effects these fluctuations tend to be more amenable to con- contaminants have on the fish themselves. In scious management and programmed har- the case of DDT and dieldrin, relatively low vests. For the same reasons they are more levels have had a deleterious effect on repro- vulnerable to overexploitation. duction in the lake trout. The Food and Drug Alewife and whitefish are intolerant to ab- Administration has imposed a maximum level normal water temperature changes. The mor- of contamination permissible in fish flesh des- tality rate of alewife tends to be high following tined for human consumption. This imposition unusually cold winters. The erratic population ' has had a massive impact on recreational and fluctuations of whitefish may be caused by the commercial fishing by closing certain com- sensitivity of the eggs and fry to abnormal mercial fisheries and restricting sectors of water temperature changes. On the other sport fishery. hand, this environmental parameter has little Fish management agencies cannot control effect on chub population. the input of contaminants into the Lakes. This The whitefish and walleye are extremely prerogative rests with other State and Fed- sensitive to both sudden and long-range in- eral agenc ies. Unfortunately, these agencies creases of pollution, while the carp and sucker have to contend with both environmental are, within limits, essentially unaffected by need and public opinion, and so must adjust these factors. their priorities accordingly. All species are susceptible in some degree to changes in food availability. Shifts in this en- vironmental parameter do not take on critical 2.3 Status of the Fisheries importance to nonspecific gen@ralized feeders like the yellow perch. On the other hand, the sea lamprey is strongly affected by changes in 2.3.1 Commercial Fishery-Historical food availability, which, in this case, is a func- Background tion of prey size. Prior to initiation of control measures, sea lamprey population in Lake The historical development of the commer- Huron had dropped significantly because of cial fishing industry in each of the Great the virtual elimination of the desired-size prey Lakes has followed the same general pattern: species. (1) An initial period of development and 18 Appendix 8 140 - 17 130 - 16 0 120 - 15> > Z < M M OCL 110 14> M 0 > Z Z Z 100 13 LD < 90 12 C Z L) 80 11 D 0 Z Z z 70 - 10 En < 0 W 0 WE 60 9 < 50 - - 8 0 TOTAL AVERAGE ANNUAL VALUE =(CORRECTED DOLLARS: VALUE DEFLATED BY WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX, 1957-1959=100) 40 - - 7 30 - - 6 20 1 1 - T-- 5 1879 1885 & 1890 1903 & 1914- 1920- 1925- 1930- 1935- 1940. 1945- 1950- 1955- 1960- 1965. 1889 '93, '9@' 1908 19 19 1924 1929 1934 1939 1944 1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 FIGURE 8-10 Total Average Annual Catch and Total Average Annual Value of the U.S. Great Lakes Commercial Fisheries rapid expansion occurred during the middle contributing- factors were significant over- and late 19th and very early 20th centuries. exploitation of certain species by the commer- Approximately 50 percent of the total land- cial fishery as well as general deterioration of ings were high-value coldwater species such the environment in Lake Erie and isolated as lake trout, lake whitefish, lake herring, and portions of the other Great Lakes except blue pike. Superior. Figure 8-10 summarizes the total (2) The middle period, 1910 to 1940, was average annual catch and the total average characterized by an initial decrease in land- annual value of the U.S. Great Lakes commer- ings as the fishery started to stabilize. After cial fisheries for the ninety-year period from the initial readjustment it was characterized 1879 to 1969. Figure 8-11 summarizes the av- by general stability of both fish resources and erage annual percent volume contribution of production. During this period the number of various fish species from 1890 through 1969. commercial fishermen decreased significant- In order to gain a better understanding of ly. This trend has continued to the present. past and present trends of the commercial (3) The period from 1940 to the present was fishery of the Great Lakes, it is necessary to characterized by intense instability of fish re- review some of the major changes in fish re- sources. Associated instabilities became prev- sources. Since its beginning over a century alent in the fishery where the percent con- ago, the fishery of the Great Lakes has always tribution of high-value species decreased shown a preference for species that were markedly. The instability of this period can be abundant and in high demand. Less than a largely attributed to the invasion and success- dozen species were major contributors to the ful establishment of the sea lamprey and catch, and despite intensely selective fishing, alewife in the three upper Great Lakes. Other the few major changes were localized until Great Lakes Fishery Resources 19 95.6% 90 - co so - Cq' 4c/ 0 70 4c; z D 0 n L@ 0 U) 60 z 0 _j z _j 0 110 D z M F- 2 z 50 100 D 0 _j 0 z _j W < 90 =) z W z (L < W 40 80 W 70 0 30 60 50 HIGH-VALUE SPECIES=BLUE PIKE, LAKE TROUT, LAKE WHITEFISH, SAUGER, 40 20 WALLEYE LP MEDIUM-LOW VALUE SPECIES=ALL OTHERS - 30 10 - 20 4.4% 1890, '93, 1903 & 1914- 1920- 1925- 1930- 1935- 1940- 1945- 1950- 1955- 1960- 1965- '97, '99. 1908 1919 1924 1929 1934 1939 1944 1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 FIGURE8-11 Average Annual Percent Volume Contribution of High and Medium-Low Value Fish Species to the Total U.S. Great Lakes 20 Appendix 8 recent years. Species influenced greatly by The American smelt (Osmeras mordax), indig- the fishery before the late 1930s were the lake enous to Lake Ontario, was introduced into the sturgeon, lake herring, and lake whitefish. Lake Michigan drainage in 1912 and under- The sturgeon was abundant in all the Great went a population explosion in Lakes Michigan Lakes before 1900 and was the first affected by and Huron in the 1930s. The smelt population intensive exploitation. Because of its large suffered severe mortality during the fall and size, the sturgeon often damaged equipment winter of 1942-43 probably due to a bacterial or intended for more valuable species. As a con- viral disease. The commercial production in sequence it was fished heavily to remove it Lake Michigan fell from 4.8 million pounds in from the fishing grounds. At one time this 1941 to 4,500 pounds in 1944. However, the species had a high annual production of more population recovered and contributed to a pro- than one million pounds in each of Lakes ductive fishery in all the Lakes above Ontario. Michigan, Huron, and Erie, and several The fishery was particularly productive in hundred thousand pounds in Lakes Superior Lake Michigan where the catch reached a rec- and Ontario. Today this species is represented ord of 9.1 million pounds in 1958, and in Lake by an annual, incidental catch of a few thou- Erie where a peak catch of 19.2 million pounds sand pounds. was produced in 1962 by the Canadian fishery. The collapse of the lake herring population A selective fishery for the larger chubs or in Lake Erie in the mid-1920s was the first deepwater ciscoes (Leucichthys spp.) influ- precipitous change in the fish stocks of the enced the species composition during the late Great Lakes. Historically the lake herring has 1800s and early 1900s. The early stages of been the most productive species in the Great these changes could not be measured because Lakes. It frequently contributed one-third to various species of chubs were taken in the one-half of the catch of the various Lakes. same net. These species were so similar that Lake herring in Lake Erie were particularly they were not sorted by fishermen nor listed abundant and larger than in other Lakes. separately in catch statistics. However, early These factors, and the proximity of Lake Erie records indicate clearly that the two largest to markets in large eastern cities, caused in- species (L. nigripinnis and L. johannae) did in tense exploitation. Before the collapse of the fact decline. population, recorded catches were sometimes A rapid sequence of dramatic changes which greater than 20 million pounds annually and started in the late 1930s led to a major altera- ranged as high as 39 million pounds. The cause tion of the fish stocks. Despite loss of the stur- of the collapse of herring stocks in Lake Erie geon and the collapse of a few stocks in certain has never been settled because detailed biolog- Lakes, until the early 1940s the fishery of the ical, ecological, and fishing data were lacking. Great Lakes as a whole was relatively stable But in retrospect there are two pertinent fac- and productive. All preferred species con- tors to consider: intensive exploitation and in- tinued in abundance somewhere in the Great teraction with environmental changes. Lakes. Although many showed varying de- The Lake Huron whitefish was the second grees of cyclical fluctuation, the composition local fishery to collapse. The whitefish was the of the total catch showed few marked changes. most preferred and heavily exploited species The total production had stabilized at approx- in the early days of the Great Lakes fishery, imately 100 million pounds after declining and significant declines occurred in whitefish from annual catches which often exceeded 140 stocks as early as the 1860s. However, the first million pounds before 1920. collapse was recorded in the late 1920s when The sea lamprey invaded the three upper the deeptrap net was introduced into the Lake Great Lakes in the late 1930s. The resulting Huron fishery. The whitefish was extremely succession of species resembled similar vulnerable to this new equipment because of changes that had taken place earlier in Lake certain behavioral and morphological charac- Ontario, but which had gone almost unnoticed teristics. Studies verified the extirpation of because of the small and little-studied fishery. discrete stocks and the use of the deep trap net Timing was the primary difference between was consequently prohibited. Before the these changes. One can trace the successive stocks could recover, they were hit by the in- changes as they occurred first in Lake Huron, vading sea lamprey. Recovery was arrested, then Michigan, and finally, to a lesser degree, and stocks have remained at a low level to the in Superior. present time. The sea lamprey selectively attacked the Temporary collapse of another fish stock in native predatory species and caused a collapse the early 1940s was unrelated to exploitation. in their stock. The fisheries, in turn, shifted Great Lakes Fishery Resources 21 their emphasis to another species. Finally, be- economic value are defined, and an attempt is cause of the decline of these predators, species made to estimate the magnitudes of these val- interaction changed drastically. ues for a recent year. Second, analysis of the The lamprey first depleted the lake trout economic value of the present commercial and burbot, both deepwater predators, and es- fishing industry should facilitate discussion of tablished itself in each of the Lakes. Chubs, its future economic role. We assume that the normally prey for lake trout and burbot, were future fishery will have sound regulation and influenced differently depending on their size. a more desirable species composition. The largest species of chubs now became both The first section of the analysis will be de- the focus of the fishery and the prey of the voted to definition of the various estimated lamprey. Conditions were favorable for the in- values. The definitions and the methodology crease of the bloater, a slow-growing chub. employed in evaluation are taken from an However, as the large chubs declined, the economic analysis of Washington's saltwater bloater was exploited by the new trawl fishery by Crutchfield and MacFarlane.' The fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloat- second section will be devoted to estimating er had increased, making it more vulnerable to the values of interest. conventional gill-net fishing and the lam- We realize that a portion of the Michigan preys. This situation in Lakes Michigan and industry processes products from other States Huron was conducive to the growth of the and countries. However, in this discussion we small alewife, which had long been established will focus on the possible annual loss to Michi- in Lake Ontario. Like the lamprey it probably gan's economy were the State to lose its Great gained access to Lake Erie and the other Lakes-based commercial fishery. Lakes through the Welland Canal, which In assessing the annual economic impor- bypasses Niagara Falls. The alewife increased tance to Michigan three different economic rapidly and soon dominated the fish stocks of values are pertinent: both Lakes Huron and Michigan. A fishery (1) Gross value is defined as the annual limited to Lake Michigan was developed for wholesale value of products processed from this tremendously abundant resource more Michigan's landings. than a decade ago. (2) Net value is defined as the annual in- come, interest, salaries, rent, and profits Although the alewife in Lake Michigan and earned by Michigan residents as a result of the the chub in Lakes Michigan and Superior con- commercial fishery. It is the value added to tinue to be important, the present Great the Michigan economy by the commercial Lakes fishery is almost entirely supported by fishery. Value added is defined as the income medium- and low-value species such as the yel- paid at each stage of production to Michigan low perch and carp. factors of production (land, labor, and capital). Net value is calculated by deducting the fol- lowing items from gross value: 2.4 Economic Contribution (a) A portion of Michigan landings are locally consumed, which creates demand for activities such as processing, transporting, 2.4.1 Commercial Fishing Industry and marketing of fishery products. These ac- tivities create income for Michigan residents The following economic evaluation of the who own the various factors of production commercial fishing industry is restricted be- employed. If the Great Lakes-based commer- cause there is not enough information on the cial fishery were eliminated, expenditures on total Great Lakes fishery for a sound economic Michigan-produced fish would probably be di- analysis. The value of Michigan's fishery will verted to other sources of supply or to other be discussed in general terms because of lack products. In this case, the value added (income of information. earned) by marketers and processors would Although the relative annual value to probable not be significantly affected. If it Michigan's economy of the commercial fishing were to lose the fishery, the maximum net loss industry has declined significantly in the last to Michigan would be the income earned by several decades, specification of its present fishermen for this portion of the catch. How- economic role is important for present policy ever, many of the smaller fishing enterprises decisions. This type of analysis is based on process and market their catch locally. In this readily available data and has two important case, elimination of commercial fishery would objectives. First, various classifications of result in loss to the Michigan economy of both 22 Appendix 8 fisherman income and the value added from from Michigan to regional markets, as well as processing and marketing. Where this is the for those sold within the State. Price estimates case, the estimated net economic value to were made based on an average of the median Michigan must include the value added by value of each month's price range for each of these enterprises. the various species. Total wholesale value was (b) Some portion of the wholesale value- then calculated by multiplying the estimated of Michigan-produced fish exported from the pounds of each species received by their re- State includes items or services purchased spective estimated average prices. This was from other States. For example, shipping costs not an ideal method because a correct esti- paid to a firm owned in another State for mate would involve valuing each shipment of transporting fish to the Chicago market would fish by the price received and then summing be such a cost. Subtraction of estimated pay- these separate values. Estimates for gross ments to firms outside of Michigan for services value are shown in Table 8-2. rendered in exporting fish would be necessary In order to determine net value, an assump- to calculate the net economic value of this por- tion as to the final destination of the unre- tion of its annual landings. corded production was made. Although a por- (3) Net economic yield is calculated by sub- tion of the unrecorded production was proc- tracting annual Michigan fisherman produe- essed and consumed within Michigan, only tion costs from the annual value of Michigan approximately three million pounds can be landings. Although it is an important analyti- verified from published sources, Fishery cal concept for sound management of any Statistics of the United States.2 Because de- commercial fishery, lack of data precludes any tailed survey research techniques were not attempt to estimate this value. The concept of possible within this analysis, assumptions as net economic yield or rent accruing to the to the destination of the remaining production fishery is analogous in some ways to the rent were based primarily on the informed opinion that accrues to any factor of production fixed of National Marine Fishery Service (NMFS) in total supply. The owner of a piece of agricul- marketing specialists. It was estimated that tural land would expect to receive a payment in 1966 a significant portion of chub, lake her- for renting his land for agricultural purposes. ring, smelt, suckers, whitefish, and yellow Likewise, the Great Lakes ecosystem, which perch was shipped from Michigan to various produces the landed fish, should be viewed as a markets, including Cleveland, Columbus, fixed factor of production. Were it privately Pittsburgh, Chicago, New York, Baltimore, owned, a payment of rent would be expected. and various cities in Wisconsin. In this case, the resource is owned by the pub- A similar problem arises in estimating the lic and the concept of rent as applied to private magnitude of imported services used for the property is not practical. In the theory of export of Michigan fish. Because only the fisheries regulation, rent from the resource is roughest estimate of net value can be made, assumed to accrue to a public regulatory body. there was no attempt to extrapolate this com- Because it is difficult to measure, net ponent from wholesale value of exported fish. economic yield will be mentioned only briefly To allow for these unknown values, a range in the following part. was used for net value of the fishery to the Based on the concepts discussed above, the Michigan economy. If none of the unrecorded following procedure was employed to provide a production were exported, then the minimum rough estimate of the value of the commercial net value would be the total wholesale value of fishing industry to Michigan. Although an the exported catch plus the value to fishermen average of several years would be desirable, of fish landed in Michigan ports. If certain only one year, 1966, was used due to the lack of processors or restaurants were dependent on consistent data and time constraints on the Michigan-produced fish and were to go out of analysis. Data were drawn primarily from the business if their supply source disappeared, Fishery Statistics of the United States' and that portion of the product would have to be the Chicago and New York fish market report. valued at wholesale or even retail prices and Although other markets such as Baltimore would be counted as part of the net value. No receive shipments of Michigan -fish, the ship- available information exists for estimating ments were either small or no published infor- this value, but it would probably be small. On mation was found. the other hand, if most of the unrecorded pro- Gross value was calculated by first estimat- duction were exported, then net value would ing the 1966 wholesale prices for fish exported approach the estimated gross value. The pos- Great Lakes Fishery Resources 23 TABLE 8-2 Estimated Wholesale Value of Michigan-Produced Fish for 1966 Unaccounted Total Approximate For Approximate Total Gross Production Exports Wholesale Production Wholesale Value to (lbs) (lbs) Value (lbs) Value Michigan 21,284,000 6,341,000 1 $1,764,000 2 14,943,000 $1,902,000 $3,666,000 1Pounds listed received on the New York and Chicago markets are adjusted by conversion factors to reflect the estimated pounds landed before processing. 2The close approximation between the value of the six million pounds known exported and the fifteen million pounds unaccounted for is due to the large volume of high value species received on the Chicago and New York markets. sible range of net values to Michigan is a 2.4.2 Sport Fishing minimum of $3,100,000 to a maximum of less than $3,600,000. The following economic evaluation of Michi- Because a majority of fish landed from gan's salmon and steelhead fishery by Gale C. Michigan waters were exported, the net value Jamsen and Paul V. Ellefson of the Michigan to Michigan would probably be closer to $3.6 Department of Natural Resources will serve million than $3.1 million, depending on the ex- as an example for calculating the economic tent of out-of-State services used. These esti- worth of recreational fishery. Comparable in- mates are for 1966, and the fishery as well as formation is not available on all recreational the fish resources have undergone significant fisheries in the Great Lakes, which limits the changes since that time. Nevertheless, the current application of the economic evalua- approximate magnitude of the values in- tion. volved serves as a useful approximation of the Determination of the financial output of present situation. Michigan's salmon and steelhead program is If cost and return estimates for various hindered because it is difficult to define types of Michigan commercial fishing enter- exactly what the program is producing. Al- prises were available, it would be possible- to though the benefits of recreational programs approximate the net economic yield or rent have been labeled as intangible or not subject that accrues to the fishery resource. Without to measurement, recognition of their impor- such data one can only say that net economic tance exists. Therefore, we should accurately yield based on Michigan fishery resource is determine such benefits so that they can be typically very low or nonexistent. Because of included properly in private and public the lack of good regional data, these estimates decision-making. are not precise. However, they represent an The procedure used to evaluate Michigan's attempt to specify the value to Michigan from salmon and steelhead program has been its commercial fishery based on conceptually applied to sport fisheries in the past. Willing- correct methods of economic analysis. The fig- ness of the fisherman to forego money and ures represent the estimated annual income time is used to measure the value of the that would have been lost to Michigan resi-, natural resources. dents if the commercial fishing industry had Michigan's salmon and steelhead resources been suddenly eliminated. The analysis has are evaluated by analyzing recreation de- shown that Great Lakes-based commercial mand curves. This method uses travel costs as fishery is an export industry and a high pro- an indicator of the willingness of the fisher- portion of annual earnings can be counted as men to pay for the salmon and steelhead re- net value to the Michigan economy. For the source. Such costs are used to define the rela- purpose of comprehensive planning, a similar tionship between price per day to the fisher- analysis of actual net income accruing to men and the per capita attendance. This rela- Michigan residents from the sport fishery tionship is a conventional demand curve with would be helpful. a negative slope. As the price of fishing in- 24 Appendix 8 creases, we expect a decline in the number of salmon and steehlead resource was estimated days fished. By applying a range of added to be $8.34 million. prices to the demand curve, one can define a second demand curve that represents the de- mand for salmon and steelhead. The value of 2.5 Projected Demands the fishery is then measured by determining the area under the curve. This sum is an ap- This subsection discusses the present and propriate measure of the economic value of projected supplies and demands for species the salmon and steelhead resource being used important to the commercial fisheries of the to produce sport fishing opportunities. Great Lakes. It will also serve as an adequate Michigan's 1970 salmon and steelhead consideration of the projected demands for fishery was subjected to this demand curve each Lake. analysis. The procedure followed three major steps. First, the demand curve for the entire sport fishing experience was determined. This 2.5.1 Supply-Demand Relationships represented the demand situation for the en- tire sport fishing package, anticipation and Contrasted with beef, pork, and other meats, planning, travel, activity at the site, and the most species of fish have rather specific geo- recollection that occurs once the fisherman graphical, racial, religious, or cultural appeal returns home. Then a demand curve for the that must be considered in describing past and salmon and steelhead resource was deter- future consumption. The following outline mined from the demand curve for the entire discusses the characteristics of 13 principal recreation experience. Finally, the total value Great Lakes species contributing to the com- to the fishermen was determined from the lat- mercial fishery. The outline also indicates ter demand curve. Data used in the analysis past and expected abundance, the relation of were obtained from licensed fishermen sur- these trends to past and future market de- veyed by mail during and after the 1970 sea- mand, and price movements resulting from son. these relations. The value of Michigan's salmon and Aside from specific market characteristics steelhead fishery to Michigan fishermen was of various species, certain broader factors will interpreted as the sum or the area under the continue to affect the demand for Great Lakes demand curve for the resource. This area to- fish. For example, since World War II con- taled approximately $8.34 million. At an inter- sumption of fresh whole fish has declined est rate of 5.5 percent, the capitalized value of while that of processed and frozen portions Michigan's salmon and steehlead sport has increased. Consumers prefer these conve- fishery was estimated at $151 million. nient forms to fresh whole fish. Handling is The monetary value of the fishery could be also easier and more economical. However, used in forming opinions about the fishery re- with the exception of the yellow perch and source and its future. However, caution is smelt, Great Lakes fish have not undergone warranted because it does not include the modern processing and packaging. This has value of the fisherman's time or the program's particular importance for high-value species benefit to local communities in added income such as walleye, lake trout, and whitefish. Be- and new jobs. Because of these omissions the cause these species are again abundant, we value is a conservative estimate of the should determine whether the fresh whole fishery's worth. form is still preferred and whether this Michigan's salmon and steelhead program additional supply can be economically handled was spectacular in terms of the total amount through traditional channels. of sport fishing activity generated. Before the Two other important factors affecting de- introduction of salmon in 1966, Great Lakes mand are weakening of the wholesale and re- sport fishing was severely limited. By 1970 the tail infrastructure in the freshwater,fish in- salmon and steelhead fishery was producing dustry since World War II, and the gradual nearly two million days of sport fishing for an dissolution of ethnic neighborhoods and estimated 200,000 anglers. In that year the changing composition of their populations. In catch of salmon (coho and chinook) and addition to disappearance of such specialized steelhead was estimated to be approximately outlets as the push-cart peddlers in New Yotk 1.2 million. More than two-thirds of the catch City and Brooklyn, there has been a substan- was salmon. The net economic value of the tial decline in the number of wholesale and Great Lakes Fishery Resources 25 retail dealers which handle fresh fish. These (d) other supply sources: none of fresh- changes relate somewhat to population redis- water origin tribution in urban areas. The erosion of (2) Prices neighborhoods with preferences for freshwa- (a) 1945 to 1970: prices available only ter species adversely affected the freshwater since early 1960s; have fluctuated between 1.0 fish marketing structure. Dispersion of these and 1.9 cents per pound; general downward groups, rising incomes, new life-styles, chang- trend ing tastes, and loss of traditional values that (b) current prices: approximately 1.1 influenced eating habits are related factors cents per pound that influence demand for fish species with (3) Market Characteristics specific cultural, ethnic, and religious appeal. (a) general: used almost entirely for in- The net effect of these factors on future fish dustrial purposes in production of fish meal consumption is obviously difficult to foresee. and oil and pet food The following outline briefly describes past (b) market area: Great Lakes Region trends and future directions of supply, de- (c) market forms: ground for reduction mand, and price. The projected trends are purposes based on the assumption that commercial (4) Consumption fis hing will continue to occupy a significant (a) general- coastal alewife are marketed role in utilization of the Great Lakes fishery for human food but Great Lakes variety does resource and that management agencies will not reach adequate size and is used entirely maintain fishing effort below the maximum for industrial purposes. Some product re- sustainable yield (MSY) of any species. No search work is currently being carried out to specific assumptions were made in regard to develop a canned product for human food use. possible technological changes. However, ad- (b) substitute species: any species avail- vances in harvesting and processing technol- able in sufficient quantity and density to per- ogy could greatly improve the prospects for mit harvesting with high volume and low increasing the production of several abun- unit cost methods. Only carp and sheepshead dant, low-value species. are possible substitutes in Great Lakes. (c) expected trends: nationwide demand for fish meal is expected to continue rising and Alewife alternative marine supply sources are ap- proaching MSY. Price increases are likely for (1) Supply fish meal. Product development work could (a) 1945 to 1970: substantial stock in- create human food market. crease in the upper Great Lakes associated (5) Future Outlook with decline in predator species; some stock The Great Lakes supply base is likely to de- decline towards end of the period because of cline from current levels. Demand for fish development of a commercial fishery in the meal and prices paid to fishermen are ex- early 1960s, stocking of salmonids and recov- pected to rise. Future outlook for the fishery ery of lake trout in the mid to late 1960s, and a will depend on the extent to which alewife massive die-off during the winter and summer populations remain in sufficient abundance to of 1967 in Lake Michigan; commercial fishery permit high-volume production methods. production averaged about 35 to 40 million Management agencies are willing to allocate a pounds annually in Lake Michigan between significant portion of the resource to the com- 1966 and 1970; predator species are estimated mercial fishery. to consume more than 50 million pounds an- nually (b) 1970 to 1980: wide, natural fluctua- Carp tion in year class strength and abundance likely, but a general downward trend is ex- (1) Supply pected with increase in predator populations; (a) 1945 to 1970: no overall trends in land- reduction of commercial alewife production by ings which have fluctuated between 4 and 9 management agencies in order to allocate a million pounds annually; present abundance larger portion of the forage base to predator much greater than landings indicate; MSY es- species timated to be at least 36 to 40 million pounds, (c) post 1980: uncertain; decline could perhaps double this according to some esti- level off mates 26 Appendix 8 (b) 1970 to 1980: some increase expected base will be sufficient to support 10- or 20-fold (c) post 1980: may increase slightly if en- increase in landings over current levels. vironmental conditions worsen for other species (d) other supply sources: upper Missis- Catfish sippi River; inland lakes of Minnesota and Wisconsin (1) Supply (2) Prices (a) 1945 to 1970: generally steady but (a) 1945 to 1970: generally downward with a slight downward trend after 1960-61; trend; highest real prices reached during current production slightly over 1 million World War II and in mid-1950s pounds (b) current prices: approximately 2 to 8 (b) 1970 to 1980: no change in the re- cents (averaging 4 cents) to fishermen; retail source base expected; MSY estimated at ap- prices in Chicago 25 to 39 cents (drawn) proximately 2 million pounds (3) Market Characteristics (c) post 1980: no change anticipated (a) general: historically sold principally (d) other supply sources: Mississippi on Jewish market in New York and other cities River; Florida; pond-reared production areas and also a low-priced substitute for buffalo in the lower Mississippi River Valley; South fish in Chicago and other midwestern cities. America Both these markets have declined since World (2) Prices War II. Greater quantities are now used for (a) 1945 to 1970: steady upward trend stocking fee fishing ponds and for fish meal after 1955 amounting to a 70 to 80 percent and fish sausages. increase in ex-vessel prices (b) market areas: New York, Chicago, (b) current prices: approximately 28 to Detroit, Louisville, upper Mississippi River 30 cents to fishermen; $0.95 to $1.20 per pound area, and recreational lakes in Ohio, Illinois, at retail markets in Chicago and Indiana (3) Market Characteristics (c) market forms: fresh, whole; fillets or (a) general: historically a preferred sides; smoked, live species in the south-central U.S. and in the (4) Consumtpion Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Valleys (a) general: declining demand among (b) market areas: south-central States, low-income urban residents who are believed the above-mentioned river valleys, and most to have substituted buffalo fish and catfish for midwestern cities with large populations of carp. There is a decline in demand for live carp south-central U.S. origin. Most Great Lakes in the Jewish market in New York, but in- catfish are sold locally in Detroit, Chicago, and creased demand for commercially-prepared Cleveland areas, or live to fee ponds in Ohio, gefilte fish has somewhat offset this trend. Indiana, and Illinois. Overall consumption apparently drops with (c) market forms: fresh or frozen, skin- rising incomes. The demand is considered to be ned and dressed; live more price sensitive than for most freshwater (4) Consumption species. (a) general: in the past, considered a (b) substitute species: buffalo fish, suck- southern species. Highest consumption is ers, and, to some extent, catfish among low-income purchasers in the south- (c) expected trends: demand is expected central States. The image of catfish elsewhere to continue declining for fresh carp. Consump- appears to be improving. Demand is increas- tion of commercially prepared gefilte fish and ing in restaurants and short-order, carry-out smoked carp will remain at about current stores. Demand is somewhat price sensitive in levels, although smoked carp, consumption certain areas where buffalo fish are consid- could increase with promotional work. Live ered a substitute. There is a large market for market demand will increase slightly because live catfish in pay lakes. of the demand for sport fishing opportunity. (b) substitute species: ocean catfish; buf- (5) Future Outlook falo fish in some areas Resource base should increase, while over- (c) expected trends: demand appears to all demand for carp will probably decline in the be increasing. Nationwide supply and foreign future. Efforts at increasing the production of imports are now beginning to greatly expand carp for management purposes may generate supply. Catfish are now available in restau- new markets such as fish meal. The resource rants and advances in processing technology Great Lakes Fishery Resources 27 should enlarge the market considerably. Use chubs has probably adversely affected de- of live catfish in pay lakes should increase but mand. at a less rapid rate than in the past 10 years. (b) substitute species: none within price (5) Future Outlook range of chubs or with similar smoking The Great Lakes supply base is relatively characteristics limited, and increasing supply competition is (c) expected trends: nationwide decline expected from the lower Mississippi Valley of per capita consumption of smoked fish. and foreign sources. Some increase in demand Smoked fish appears to have relatively nar- is expected, and past price increases are ex- row regional and ethnic markets and only pected to level out over the 1970 to 1980 period. small increases in demand are expected, at- Afterwards prices should decline because of tributable mainly to population growth. greater efficiency in production and process- (5) Future Outlook ing in the catfish aquaculture industry. The status of the resource base is uncertain over the next few years. With maintenance of current MSY (10 to 11 million pounds), some modest price increases could be expected. Chubs Concern about pesticide levels in chubs may have dampening effect on demand. (1) Supply (a) 1945 to 1970: no overall trend in land- ings although production rose substantially during 1960 to 1963; current landings approx- Lake Herring imately 10 to 11 million pounds, the estimated MSY at the present time (1) Supply (b) 1970 to 1980: status of resource base (a) 1945 to 1970: generally downward uncertain; Lake Huron stocks will continue to trend in landings and abundance from 1955 be scarce; signs of collapse in Lake Michigan on; believed by some to be attributable to com- stocks (few young, extreme imbalance in sex petition with alewife and possibly smelt; cur- ratio) rent landings between 5 and 6 million, the es- (c) post 1980: uncertain. Abundance will timated MSY be affected by predator stocking program and, (b) 1970 to 1980: no increase in abun- possibly, abundance of competing alewife. dance expected and further declines likely (2) Prices (c) post 1980: future status uncertain; (a) 1945 to 1970: prices generally fluc- may depend on trends in alewife stocks. Con- tuating with changes in supply. Overall nomi- tinued presence of alewife in large numbers in nal ex-vessel prices remained approximately Lake Michigan and Lake Huron is likely to the same over period with some rise in retail hold lake herring abundance down at or below prices. current levels. (b) current prices: approximately 16 to (d) other supply sources: none for lake 20 cents per pound to fishermen; retail prices herring for smoked chub from $0.89 to $1.10 per pound (2) Prices in Chicago (a) 1945 to 1970: generally steady (3) Market Characteristics through 1963; sharply upward trend thereaf- (a) general: principal market for smok- ter ing; considered a delicatessen-type specialty (b) current prices: approximately 10 to product; mainstay of the Great Lakes smoked 15 cents to fisherman; retail at 79 to 89 cents fish industry; occasionally used for animal (3) Market Characteristics food (a) general: traditionally low-value, (b) market area: Chicago, Detroit, Great high-volume species considered a pan fish Lakes Region, New York, and other eastern substitute; formerly largely salted cities (b) market areas: Great Lakes Region, (c) product forms: smoked (drawn) adjoining areas of Midwest, and Appalachian (4) Consumption region. Lake herring were formerly shipped in (a) general: no specific information on large quantities to New York. chubs available. In cross-sectional studies, (c) market forms: dressed with head on; purchases of smoked fish in general are higher pickled; smoked; salted in upper-income families. Widespread public- (4) Consumption ity given to botulism and pesticide problems in (a) general: demand for herring believed 28 Appendix 8 to decline with rising incomes. Demand ap- choice, high-value species; sold to restaurants parently drops off beyond relatively low retail and on fresh market prices. Historically no price increase occurred (b) market area: formerly the Great until total supply dropped by 60 percent. Lakes Region and New York, currently Great (b) substitute species: river herring or Lakes supply usually consumed locally alewife substitute in some markets (c) market forms: fresh, drawn pre- (c) expected trends: will continue to oc- ferred; some frozen fillets produced; occa- cupy current market niche. Demand for her- sionally smoked ring at current prices will increase slowly with (4) Consumption population growth and with rising incomes. (a) general: demand believed to increase The rising prices will be offset by substitution with rising incomes. It is considered relatively of other fish. price inelastic over a moderate range, and (5) Future Outlook there is some ethnic preference in the New The resource base is expected to remain at York market. or below current levels. The current MSY is 5 (b) substitute species: whitefish to some to 6 million pounds. Slowing rising demand extent and possibly walleye. may have mild effect on prices with fixed sup- (c) expected trends: demand expected to ply, but prices should level off over next 10 increase at current price levels with rising per years. capita incomes and population growth (5) Future Outlook The resource base should increase through early 1980s, possibly approaching 85 percent Lake Trout pre-lamprey abundance with potential MSY of 13 to 15 million pounds. Under current man- (1) supply agement policies, approximately 7 million (a) 1945 to 1970: steadily downward pounds of the potential MSY may be allocated trend in landings reflecting decline in abun- to the commercial fishery, but mostly in Cana- dance brought about by sea lamprey preda- dian waters. With this quantity marketed, tion; current production (approximately 0.4 some moderate price declines will occur as million pounds) associated with research as- local market areas are saturated, and fish are sessment program of the Great Lakes Fishery shipped to urban centers. Because of rela- Commission; current MSY somewhat more tively poor freezing qualities, trout will gen- than current landings erally be sold fresh and the ability of the fresh (b) 1970 to 1980: dontinued increase in market to absorb such quantities without abundance expected as sea lamprey control is moderate price decline is questionable. It is effected; rate of increase will depend upon sta- expected that the total allowable commercial tus of forage stocks, especially chubs, lake yield will not be sold at current price levels herring, smelt, and alewife until the early 1980s. (c) post 1980: 85 percent pre-lamprey abundance could be reached, possibly in early 1980s; potential MSY may be 13 to 15 million Sheepshead pounds annually, depending on availability of forage stocks (1) Supply (d) other supply sources: only North (a) 1945 to 1970: no. overall trend in land- American source is western and northern ings; generally fluctuating between 2 and 6 Canadian lakes where production has declined million pounds annually; MSY estimated cur- since early 1950s; inland Canadian lake trout rently at more than 25 million pounds valued at 25 to 50 percent less than Great (b) 1970 to 1980: production expected to Lakes trout on U.S. wholesale markets hold around 2 million pounds, substantially (2) Prices less than MSY (a) 1945 to 1970: steady upward trend (c) post 1980: resource base expected to with decline in supply; a 50 percent increase in increase particularly in Lake Erie ex-vessel prices between 1950 and 1969 (d) other supply sources: Lake Win- (b) current prices: approximately 65 nebago, Wisconsin; upper Mississippi River; cents per pound to fishermen; $1.29 to $1.49 inland lakes of Wisconsin and Minnesota retail (dressed) in Chicago (2) Prices (3) Market Characteristics (a) 1945 to 1970: stable nominal prices; (a) general: traditionally a preferred, slightly downward trend in real terms Great Lakes Fishery Resources 29 (b) current prices: approximately 3 cents (d) other supply sources: none from for human food markets; 1.5 to 2 cents for ani- freshwater areas mal feed; retail prices 25 to 40 cents per pound (2) Prices (3) Market Characteristics (a) 1945 to 1970: generally steady after (a) general: low-value food fish in Mid- production peak reached in mid-1950s west. Great Lakes sheepshead are considered (b) current prices: prices to fishermen hard-meated and inferior to river fish; consid- between 2 and 4 cents per pound; fresh smelt ered a substitute for porgy in New York; some retail at 9 to 15 cents in round; frozen, headed, use as mink feed and gutted, 39 to 59 cents (b) market areas: upper Great Lakes and (3) Market Characteristics Canada (mink feed); Chicago and New York (a) general: fresh smelt seasonal only; (c) market forms: fresh, whole preferred processing of frozen smelt has extended mar- (4) Consumption ket appearance; some animal feed use (a) general: other species have substi- (b) market areas: Great Lakes Region tuted for sheepshead and will in the future. (c) market forms: fresh, whole; frozen, Demand should decline with rising per capita headed and gutted; frozen for animal feed incomes. Sheepshead should be relatively sen- (4) Consumption sitive to price changes in other fish species, (a) general: relatively little is known of particularly carp and buffalo fish. smelt consumption aside from its seasonal na- (b) animal feed use: one of the preferred ture. It is a traditional, seasonally available freshwater species used in mink feed because species in the lower Great Lakes Region, and it is not thiaminase-active. Use of Great Lakes a panfish substitute in Midwest. sheepshead in this market has essentially (b) substitute species: white bass and stopped because of suspicion of reproductive yellow perch are mild substitutes failure in mink from unknown cause relating (c) expected trends: no major shifts in to consumption of various species of Great demand expected. A relatively mild increase Lakes fish. in demand is possible as a result of population (c) substitute species: carp and buffalo growth, and greater use in animal feed is also fish on the human food market a possibility. (d) expected trends: declining demand (5) Future Outlook expected for both human food and animal feed The resource base is expected to drop below (5) Future Outlook current levels to an estimated MSY of 5 to 10 The MSY is estimated to be at least 25 mil- million pounds by 1980. Prices should rise lion pounds and probably much higher, and somewhat, but other species may be substi- the resource base should increase. Demand is tuted as supply falls. Price increases should expected to decline, but efforts at harvesting be moderate. greater quantities for management purposes may lead to development of new markets in the future. Suckers (1) Supply Smelt (a) 1945 to 1970: slightly downward trend in landings; believed to be the result of di- (1) Supply minishing fishing effort rather than a decline (a) 1945 to 1970: steadily upward trend in in abundance; current landings 1 to 2 million landings from 1945 through 1961; more or less pounds annually steady since; increased landings resulted from (b) 1970 to 1980: previous trends in land- development of Canadian smelt fishery in ings expected to continue; resource base to Lake Erie; current landings between 15 and 18 fluctuate; some decline in abundance in Lake million pounds; MSY estimated at approxi- Michigan possible; MSY estimated at mately 20 million pounds minimum of 30 million pounds (b) 1970 to 1980: decline in resource base (c) post 1980: fluctuations in resource in Lake Erie expected as the result of a para- base expected sitic infestation; abundance in other Lakes (d) other supply sources: Mississippi may increase; XSY could drop to 5 to 10 mil- River; certain inland lakes lion pounds over period (2) Prices (c) post 1980: uncertain; continued low (a) 1945 to 1970: generally downward levels of abundance possible trend So Appendix 8 (b) current prices: approximately 3 cents (3) Market Characteristics to fishermen; 25 to 39 cents retail (a) general: currently a preferred, (3) Market Characteristics choice, high-value species, considered equal to (a) general: low-value species used lake trout and whitefish in quality and widely mainly for preparation of gefilte fish sold in restaurants in the western Great (b) market areas: Jewish communities of Lakes States in addition to the fresh and fro- New York, Chicago, other eastern cities zen market (c) market forms: fresh (drawn) (b) market areas: Great Lakes Region; (4) Consumption other midwestern areas; New York. It is (a) general: market generally weak, con- somewhat more widely distributed than lake sumption apparently declining with rising in- trout or whitefish. comes; principal market around Jewish holi- (c) market forms: fresh (drawn); fresh days; less frequent home preparation of and frozen fillets gefilte fish a factor in declining demand (4) Consumption (b) substitute species: carp, buffalo fish (a) general: demand believed to increase (c) expected trends: demand expected to with rising incomes with a wider market ap- continue to decline peal than lake trout or whitefish. Decline in (5) Future Outlook supply of blue pike, lake trout, and whitefish The resource base is expected to hold at has apparently increased demand for walleye, present level or decline slightly, and MSY is which is considered relatively price inelastic estimated at a minimum of 30 million pounds. over a moderate range. No increase in landings is expected although (b) substitute species: considered gener- effort at increasing sucker production for ally distinct on the market although lake trout management purposes could generate new and whitefish are mild substitutes in some markets. markets (c) expected trends: demand to increase Walleye at current price levels with rising per capita incomes and population growth (1) supply (5) Future Outlook (a) 1945 to 1970: sharply downward after Some modest increase in the resource base 1956; overexploitation, poor environmental is possible with sea lamprey control, and MSY conditions in Lake Erie and possible sea lam- could be 3 to 5 million pounds annually. Size- prey predation have decreased abundance; able increases in Lake Erie are not likely. De- current production between 2 and 3 million mand should remain strong. Potential in- pounds annually, the estimated MSY crease in production is not sufficient to drop (b) 1970 to 1980: uncertain; poor repro- prices significantly. Post-1980 demand could duction in Lake Erie, apparently because of absorb projected MSY at real prices slightly unfavorable conditions on spawning reefs; sea exceeding current levels. lamprey control in Lakes Michigan and Huron may result in some increase in abundance in White Bass those Lakes (c) post 1980: uncertain; some modest in- (1) Supply creases in abundance possible, but future sta- (a) 1945 to 1970: no overall trend in land- tus in Lake Erie questionable. MSY could be in ings but some increase during 1954 to 1956 and the range of 3 to 5 million pounds if lamprey in 1961-62; followed by slight downward trend controls result in greater abundance. thereafter; current landings between 1 and 2 (d) other supply sources: western Cana- million pounds; current MSY estimated at 3 to dian lakes, but supply has been dropping; 4 million pounds Canadian walleye valued at 25 to 50 percent (b) 1970 to 1980: no change expected less than Great Lakes walleye; some foreign (c) post 1980: no change imports of walleye-like frozen fillets (d) other supply sources: none (2) Prices (2) Prices (a) 1945 to 1970: sharply increased with (a) 1945 to 1970: widely fluctuating with drop in supply; more than 100 percent gain in changes in supply; generally upward since real prices between 1952 and 1968 1955 (b) current prices: approximately 50 to (b) current prices: 20 to 30 cents for 60 cents to fishermen; retail levels at $1.29 to fishermen; retail approximately 69 to 79 cents $1.49 per pound (head off, gutted) Great Lakes Fishery Resources 31 (3) Market Characteristics (b) current prices: approximately 60 (a) general: relatively small market; cents per pound to fishermen; retail prices in considered a pan fish substitute of inter- Chicago $1.49 to $1.79 (drawn Lake Superior mediate value in Midwest whitefish) (b) market area: lower Great Lakes Re- (3) Market Characteristics gion (a) general: historically a preferred, (c) market forms: fresh, head-off and choice, high-value species; popular in restau- gutted, or filleted (skin on) rants (4) Consumption (b) market areas: Great Lakes Region; (a) general: little information available. New York One of the most sensitive of the Great Lakes (c) market forms: fresh, drawn pre- species in regard to wide price fluctuations ferred; some market for frozen fillets; also with relatively small changes in supply. White used in gefilte fish; smoked bass are considered to have a narrow regional (4) Consumption appeal confined to southern Michigan and (a) general: demand believed to increase northern Ohio and are seldom seen in Chicago with rising incomes. Whitefish are considered (b) substitute species: yellow perch relatively price inelastic over a moderate (c) expected trends: no significant shifts range with some aspects of ethnic preference expected; considered a less preferred substi- in the New York market. tute for yellow perch. Demand could increase (b) substitute species: lake trout to some somewhat with major decline in yellow perch extent and possibly walleye are substitutes in landings. certain markets (5) Future Outlook (c) expected trends: demand expected to No increases are expected in the resource increase at current price levels with rising per base. MSY is estimated at 3 to 4 million capita incomes and population growth pounds. Future demand is probably related to (5) Future Outlook yellow perch supply. The resource base will increase through 1980 to potential MSY of 7 to 8 million pounds, Whitefish but less than pre-lamprey abundance of 11 to 12 million pounds. Total MSY will be available (1) Supply to commercial fishery. Some moderate price (a) 1945 to 1970: steady downward trend declines expected with increase in supply. As as a result of sea lamprey predation and possi- landings reach MSY, prices should again rise ble overexploitation; current production is 3.6 as increase in real per capita incomes shifts million pounds as compared with 11 to 12 mil- demand upwards. Total potential MSY ex- lion pounds prior to lamprey invasion; current pected to be consumed at 1970 prices by 1980. MSY somewhat higher than current landings because of management restrictions on open fishing areas Yellow Perch (b) 1970 to 1980: resource base expected to increase but not to pre-lamprey levels be- (1) Supply cause of the disappearance of whitefish in (a) 1945 to 1970: sharp increase in land- Lake Erie ings up to late 1950s resulting from develop- (e) post 1980: pre-lamprey resource base ment of Canadian marketing and processing expected to be reached; potential MSY esti- facilities on Lake Erie; somewhat fluctuating mated at 7 to 8 million pounds; no further in- through 1969 but usually exceeding 20 million creases expected pounds; current MSY 40 to 50 million pounds (d) other supply sources: the western (b) 1970 to 1980: wide fluctuations ex- Canadian provinces, where production has pected because of erratic strength of year declined sharply since 1961, are the only other classes in Lake Erie; some improvement in significant North American sources. Fish Lake Michigan stocks may occur from these sources are valued at 25 to 50 per- (c) post 1980: relatively heavy sport cent lower than Great Lakes whitefish. Alas- fishery harvest of unknown quantity makes kan whitefish are a potential supply source. MSY estimation difficult; assuming environ- (2) Prices mental conditions in Lake Erie improve (a) 1945 to 1970: steady upward trend somewhat or at least do not worsen, MSY es- after 1950 amounting to a 70 percent increase timated at current level of 40 to 50 million in ex-vessel prices between 1952 and 1968 pounds 32 Appendix 8 (d) other supply sources: none of signifi- Coordinated management is complicated by cance jurisdictional and ecological differences in the (2) Prices Great Lakes area. The 61,000 square miles of (a) 1945 to 1970: widely fluctuating with United States waters are divided among eight the changing supply; slight upward trend in States, each having full jurisdiction over its real prices since the mid-1950s fisheries. This results in eight different (b) current prices: approximately 11 to fishery codes and a number of different, and at 16 cents per pound to U.S. fishermen; retail at times, incompatible management policies and 89 to 99 cents in Chicago for fillets philosophies. Inter- and intralake ecological (3) Market Characteristics conditions vary widely. Only the deep waters (a) general: considered a pan fish substi- of the three upper Great Lakes have any de- tute of intermediate value in Midwest. Decline gree of uniformity and stability of habitat. of high-value species in Lake Erie is believed Solution to the fishery problems of the Great to have increased demand for yellow perch. Lakes will demand close international and in- (b) market areas: Great Lakes Region terstate coordination and cooperation. Al- and nearby areas of Midwest though circumstances require agencies to (c) market forms: whole (drawn) fresh; confine their studies to waters within their fresh; frozen and breaded fillets jurisdictions, the agencies must think collec- (4) Consumption tively because fish do not recognize interna- (a) general: demand considered to be tional and interstate boundaries. The United relatively price sensitive, and effect of rising States and Canada have established two income on consumption unknown. Appear- commissions to foster this cooperation. The ance of frozen, packaged fillets apparently ex- first, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, panded market for perch. Appeal is wide- was given a clear mandate to perform its ac- spread in lower Great Lakes Region, partly tivities in the form of a treaty. The commission attributable to greater familiarity with the has employed procedures that have brought species because of large sport fishery on Lake about reductions in the sea lamprey popula- Erie. tions. It has also induced productive relation- (b) substitute species: several frozen, fil- ships among Federal, State, and Provincial leted, saltwater species are believed to be close agencies in developing coordinated fishery but less desirable substitutes; white bass to a rehabilitation programs and management lesser de@xree practices. (c) expected trends: some increase in The International Joint Commission (IJC), demand expected with population growth; established with the ratification of the probably will be substituted for as per capita Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909, serves as the income rises but not enough to offset in- second coordinating body of the two countries. creased demand through population growth Although initially concerned with water (5) Future Outlook levels and flows of boundary waters, the IJC The supply base and MSY are difficult to has recently been encouraged to assume a estimate because of possibility of collapse in major role in controlling pollution problems in Lake Erie as a result of worsening environ- the Lakes. mental conditions. With maintenance of cur- Another problem facing management agen- rent MSY at 40 to 50 million pounds (25 to 50 cies is the present instability of fish resources. percent taken by the sport fishery), a moder- Prior to 1940 a reasonably good balance be- ate increase in real prices is expected to level tween prey and predator species existed in the off after 1980. Great Lakes. The invasion of the sea lamprey and selective overexploitation of climax pred- 2.6 General Management Problems, Needs, ators upset this predator-prey relationship in and Solutions the upper Lakes. With the disappearance of the large predators in Lakes Michigan and Although a number of specific problems are Huron and their severe depletion in Lake associated with the fisheries of each Great Superior, smaller prey species such as bloater Lake, some are common to all. This section will and smelt began to dominate. After the preda- concentrate on Basinwide, Federal, or inter-. tors were decimated the imbalances and in- national programs dealing with fish resources stabilities of the fish populations in Lakes and fishery problems. Individual Lake reports Michigan and Huron were further compli- will concentrate on State and Federal pro- cated by the invasion and subsequent increase grams for each Lake. of alewife. Conditions are different and Great Lakes Fishery Resources 33 perhaps more serious in the shallower and these data. If economic data were made avail- warmer waters of Lake Erie. Discharge of able, they could be incorporated into the utili- domestic sewage, industrial wastes, and ag- zation model. This would provide the concep- ricultural drainage have caused the nutrient tual information necessary for program de- content of the waters to increase at an abnor- velopment and implementation. mal and accelerated rate. Reactions to this In spite of this lack of knowledge, manage- accelerated enrichment include drastic ment must carry on. However, projected in- changes in bottom fauna and in feeding habits creases in demand on the Great Lakes system of fish. will require sound management planning of The instability of sport and commercial the fish resources in the future. If adequate fisheries of the Great Lakes is caused by the funds are still unavailable, this will be impos- interaction of several factors: sible. Thus, the Fish Work Group recommends (1) long-term cyclic changes due to equally that the following research and applied pro- long-term changes in regional climates grams be instituted: (2) changes in the environment affecting (1) Success of any attempt to reestablish a certain life history stages of fish balance between predator and prey species (3) excessive exploitation of fish stocks will be almost totally dependent upon how the (4) effects of interbreeding among closely fish species react to changes in water quality, related fishes like the chub, blue pike, sauger, introduction of other species, sport and com- and walleye mercial exploitation, the implementation -of Thus, the complex problems faced by fishery various management techniques, and agencies require studies of fish populations, changes in food supply. Therefore, we must their interrelations, their environment, and determine how the highly individualized the fisheries. biological characteristics of the various species Two other factors that complicate manage- affect their responses to these influences. In ment are the limited amount of information order to determine these reactions, the follow- available and the generally low priority of fish ing measures are recommended: programs in relation to other programs com- (a) accelerated research in defining peting for limited public funds. those biological characterisbcs most impor- Before we can implement any program, we tant in determining species response to man- must determine its possible effect. At this agement measures. Because of the tremen- time, because we cannot predict the reaction dous complexity of the interactions involved, of species population to varying levels of considerable investment of time, money, and exploitation and controlled predation, we lack effort would be required to develop a model to the means to determine guidelines for the suc- isolate these important biological characteris- cess or failure of any given program. Unless tics. adequate research funds are made available, (b) review and organization of all species this lack of knowledge will severely hinder the literature necessary for the success of the implementation and success of any meaning- model and collection of all this information in ful program. one place. This information should include In order to balance total fish resources at a longevity, time needed to attain sexual matur- 4socially optimal level, management would ity, year class structure, growth rate, spawn- have to consider the differential characteris- ing requirements, behavioral characteristics, tics of species and groups of species. In order to and vulnerability to changes in the environ- attain this kind of management ability, it ment. would be useful to develop a theoretically ap- (c) possible establishment of a Great plicable model that incorporates our present Lakes data collection center, which could be knowledge. Given our lack of knowledge, the funded and used by any interested agency model would necessarily be crude, but an at- (2) Substantial research should be directed tempt to incorporate the population dynamics to the discovery of species capable of re- of individual species should provide more than establishing a balance between predator and academic instruction. By learning more about prey species. This type of research must not be reaction of fish resources to management pro- confined to providing only predator species, grams, we might discover other approaches. but must make a concerted effort to discover Management agencies have been unable to those species that could strengthen the forage allocate fish resources because they lac 'k the bases of the different Lakes. If lamprey con- necessary economic information. To this time, trol is effective, the success of any predator no concerted effort has been made to develop stocking program will depend upon the 34 Appendix 8 amount and kind of forage fish available. vincial activities through a Research and (3) The effect of species introduction on the Management Committee and recommends the ecosystems must be evaluated. The fact that following programs: such introductions have reached massive pro- (1) continuation'of present efforts to con- portions in Lake Michigan and are to become trol the sea lamprey throughout the Great more intensive in Lakes Huron, Superior, and Lakes Basin Ontario indicates that these studies should be (2). continued assessment of the effects of initiated as soon as possible. These, studies successful lamprey control on fish stocks. should include at least the following: Knowledge gained ftom such assessment ef- (a) studies to determine the direct ef- forts has been very valuable in the develop- fects of species introduction ment of salmonid stocking programs. (aa) position of introduced species in (3) continued assessment of fish popula- food chain tions in order to determine (bb) consequent competition with (a) strength of year classes other species for food (b) age structure of populations (cc) competition with other species for (c) general abundance and distribution spawning areas, nursery grounds (d) management capability to isolate (dd) effect on the forage base certain populations (ee) other (e) projected future availability to the (b) studies to isolate the indirect effects fisheries (aa) changes in plankton populations (f) other because of predation of the introduced species (4) concerted efforts to use what is already on local planktivores. Some work in this area is known about the peculiar biological charac- being conducted in Lake Michigan by the teristics of individual species Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (5) development of management phi- (BSF&W). losophies that are consistent with the status (bb) other of fish stocks and flexible enough to adjust to (c) investigation of the economics of the changing conditions in fish resources fisheries involved. Economic analysis of both (6) statement of long- and short-range ob- sport and commercial fisheries is necessary to jectives relating to fish resources in general rationally allocate fish stocks for competing and sport and commercial fisheries in particu- uses. Any benefit-cost analysis should include lar considerations of intangible or non-market as well as tangible benefits. 2.7 Economic Problems and Needs of the Commercial Fishery 2.6.1 Applied Programs Institutional regulations and the needs of As previously mentioned, free movement of the commercial fishery often conflict causing fish across State and international bound- severe economic problems. If a solution is to be aries contributes to the ineffectiveness of di- reached, the two must be coordinated. How- verse regulations and compounds the prob- ever, their separate aspects should be lems associated with uncoordinated manage- examined first. ment efforts. Despite a long history of failures, compatible management philosophies must be developed for the Great Lakes Basin. To in- 2.7.1 Economic Problems sure compatibility, guidelines based on the common consensus of good management must The basic economic problems of the U.S. be created. However, this consensus has not as commercial fishery in the Great Lakes are yet been reached. common to any small, fragmented, under- The Great Lakes Fishery Commission has capitalized, and technologically stagnant en- been successful in fostering unifipd moves to terprise relying on an undependable and fluc- rehabilitate the fisheries of the Great Lakes. tuating supply base and a sluggish market. If For example, since its inception in 1955 the these problems are considered within the commission has induced apathetic gov- framework of a publicly-owned resource situa- ernmental agencies to fulfill their obligations tion which is in strong competition with the to management of the Great Lakes. The com- sport fishery, they become almost insur- mission fosters coordination of State and Pro- mountable. Great Lakes Fishery Resources 35 For purposes of analysis, the economic prob- tions, there is little money available to pur- lems and needs can best be examined under chase equipment required by a trawl fishery. the subcategories of harvesting, processing, Furthermore, most of the equipment now in and marketing: use has production costs much too high to effi- (1) Harvesting aspects of the commercial ciently harvest the low-value species which fishery face a number of specific problems: dominate the present day resource. (a) The depressed populations of high- (2) Many problems associated with the value species (lake trout, lake whitefish, wall- processing aspect of the commercial fishery eye, lake herring) have alTeady been discussed are directly related to those of resource supply in relation to the historical background of the harvesting. When this is the case, they are commercial fishing industry. However, recent restated below in processing terms: assessment programs conducted in Lake (a) With the possible exception of lake Michigan have indicated that lake trout and herring, high-value species have been favored lake whitefish are responding favorably to ef- with a brisk demand for a product with a fective sea lamprey control measures. Given minimum of processing. Even in the round, an adequate forage base, a similar response these species command good prices and it can can be expected to occur in Lake Huron where be seriously questioned whether major inno- first-round treatment of streams and rivers vations in processing are required in view of was completed in 1970. The problem thus be- the lack of supply. Even if the stock is re- comes one of the feasibility of using some por- plenished, this lack of supply will still prevail tion of these rejuvenated high-value stocks for because of the natural limits of the stocks and commercial purposes. This will be covered in the legitimate demands of other users. Be- the section on institutional problems. cause of the present and the projected condi- (b) The Great Lakes commercial fishery tions of high-value stocks, the industry cannot is in a state of technological stagnation. Ex- place unlimited dependence on stocks where cept for the conversion to nylon gill-nets and processing problems are relatively incidental. the development of a trawl fishery in Lake Medium- to low-value species such as yellow Michigan, no significant changes have oc- perch, chub, sheepshead, and suckers require curred in the harvesting industry of the U.S. greater amounts of processing to compete suc- Great Lakes commercial fishery over the last cessfully in current markets (medium-value four decades. The reasons for this stagnation, species) or to retain a marginal slice well below including highly restrictive State regulations what the supply could produce (low-value which will be discussed later, are numerous. species). In both categories major processing We are immediately concerned with fisher- advances would be necessary to transform man conservatism, vessel specialization, and them into usable and desirable product forms economic difficulties. and to support significantly higher production (aa) Fisherman conservatism con- levels at profitable prices. In the case of some tinues to play an important role in determin- species like carp and sheepshead, quantity ing types of equipment used. For instance, production for the human food market may many Great Lakes commercial fishermen be- not be acceptable to the general consumer. lieve that high-value species will return to (b) Except in the case of very high-value their former levels of abundance. Such a hope items, there must be reasonable assurance of fosters a reluctance to give up fishing equip- steady, adequate supply. Otherwise justifica- ment and methods formerly used to harvest tion of the additional investment and cost of high-value species. converting and improving processing (bb) Traditional freshwater fisheries facilities for food fish and particularly for in- use vessels with specialized equipment used dustrial uses such as fish meal are impossible. only to catch specific species. This maintains This problem is aggravated by the fact that all the status quo because these specialized ves- but a few processors are small family units sels are not used to their full capacity. This with limited available capital to make adjust- situation results in insufficient earnings to ments. Attraction of outside capital is a prob- properly maintain the vessel or invest in im- lem that will be discussed in the section on provements and replacement of the craft. institutional problems. (cc) Technological improvement has The lack of steady supply is due to the inher- been checked by the limited amount of capital ent seasonal nature of fish production compli- available to the commercial fisherman. Be- cated by the limitations of traditional harvest- cause most of the fishing in the Great Lakes is ing techniques. This problem could be par- carried out by one-, two-, or three-man opera- tially remedied by establishing large storage 36 Appendix 8 and freezing units which could hold fish for total U.S. catch over the last 10-year period later processing and marketing. However, exceeded that of Canada by more than 30 per- funds to finance this program are not availa- cent, the latter's large-scale, highly ble. mechanized operation combined with cheaper (c) Traditional processing operations labor supply have allowed it to place its prod- have been necessarily labor-intensive with uc'ts on American markets at lower prices. mostly hand labor involved. Skilled laborers Furthermore, Canada's processing tech- are hard to recruit into the industry, espe- niques turn out a variety of relatively so- cially for work that may last only for a few phisticated products, all of which are in- weeks during the year. Overhead costs, which spected for quality and condition before ship- continue to be exacted whether or not equip- ment to the U.S. Because of the above situa- ment is being used, are significant because the tion, Canadian freshwater fishery products amount and size of the equipment must be can be supplied to U.S. markets on a continu- substantial in order to adequately handle ous, ample basis in already acceptable food large spring catches. fish forms at a reasonable price to the con- (d) If sufficient knowledge existed to sumer (less than one dollar per pound). These process less-desired species into acceptable are the requirements of large, U.S. market market forms, substantial investments in chains. There are no U.S. processors of Great time and money would still be required to con- Lakes fish who can meet these demands be- vert existing processing plant facilities. Un- cause the continued employment of tradi- less sufficient sales can be guaranteed to en- tional harvesting and processing techniques hance the value of such products on an open, with the associated high labor costs does not competitive market, relative investments allow for the economic handling of available would be risky. Instability of the fish resource, species. While the Canadian commercial especially the medium-value fish stocks, se- fishery faces the same basic marketing de- verely complicates the matter. Processing mand problems already described for the U.S. technology necessary to develop more attrac- Great Lakes commercial fishery, it has been tive product forms at a competitive price for able to respond from an entirely different underutilized species like sheepshead and basis of economic and institutional arrange- carp is not available. Thus, there is little fi- ments. Tariff restrictions on the import of nancial capability for research and technolog- Canadian fish products were originally in- ical development within the industry. Such tended to safeguard U.S. commercial fisher- investment would probably come from some men from being undercut by the Canadians. level of government. They have now ceased to be effective. (3) With the exception of high-value (b) Rough fish such as carp, sucker, and species for which market demand, both pres- sheepshead have limited acceptability as food ent and projected, is brisk even in existing fish to the U.S. consumer. Thus, one of their product forms, the basic marketing problem is outlets is the animal food and fish meal mar- one of either fluctuating, undependable de- ket, one of lower profit margin. The mink food mand (e.g., yellow perch and lake herring) or market, which used to entail large volumes of virtually nonexistent demand (e.g., carp and freshwater fish, is currently depressed be- sheepshead). Continued, long-range, sluggish cause it was suggested that pesticide concen- market demand is not only a fundamental trations in Great Lakes fish might be partially constraint on the commercial fisherman, but responsible for the failure of the mink to re- it discourages long-range investment in im- produce satisfactorily. provement. At the same time, it reduces the (c) The demand for Great Lakes fish has strength and flexibility of the commercial suffered additional blows due to the recent fishery to respond to changing management discovery of mercury in some species. This has needs. Some of the reasons for this basic mar- resulted in closure of the commercial fishery ket demand situation have already been cov- in some areas, plus an increase of public ap- ered under the discussion of harvesting and prehension regarding the wholesomeness of processing. Additional dimensions of the prob- Great Lakes fish in general. The possibility of lem include the following: discovery of other contaminants above allow- (a) The Ontario commercial fishing in- able levels cannot be discounted. The chub, a dustry, with the encouragement of the Pro- species available to the industry, heavily vincial government, employs efficient and utilized, and suitable for already established large-scale harvesting, processing, and mar- processing techniques, illustrates past and keting techniques. Despite the fact that the current problems with contaminants. The Great Lakes Fishery Resources 37 smoked chub market has expanded as a be highly effective for taking large quantities natural function of population growth. How- of alewife during their spring inshore move- ever, outbreaks of botulism and contamina- ments. tion from pesticides as well as consumer con- (3) If the harvest of large quantities of servatism prevent the further expansion of low-value species is to be possible, increased this industry. outlets for low-value products such as fish meal and animal food are necessary. (4) If problems of sluggish or almost 2.7.2 Economic Needs nonexistent demand are to be solved, invest- ment in technological research to develop The following list covers certain specific more efficient processing techniques and economic needs of the U.S. Great Lakes com- more attractive product forms is necessary. mercial fishery. A more comprehensive over- These problems must be solved if under- view will be pursued in Subsection 2.9, Institu- utilized low-value stocks are to become viable tional Needs. market commodities. The bulk of this invest- (1) The commercial fishery needs vertical ment will have to come from outside the ex- integration of harvesting, processing, and tremely undercapitalized fishing industry. marketing operations and the consolidation of small harvesting and processing establish- ments into larger, more viable economic units. 2.8 Proposed Solutions to Economic Problems This new structure would necessitate the dis- and Needs solution of the small, uneconomical fishing port and the consequent establishment of a few strategically located ports with the as- 2.8.1 Increasing Demand for Commercial sociated necessary landing, processing, freez- Fishery Products ing, storage, and shipping facilities. (2) The employment of such high-volume, For high-value species like lake trout, lake low-cost harvesting methods as the trawl, im- whitefish, and walleye, increasing demand is proved seining techniques, and other equip- not a problem. This is not true for low-value ment is indicated. The trawl is currently being species like carp and sheepshead. The lack of used on Lake Michigan where it has proved demand for these species tends to be @ation- successful in capturing alewife. This particu- wide and solutions are unlikely to come about lar fishery, which decreased in 1969 from 18 to solely within the scope of the Great Lakes 14 vessels, has made possible the construction fishery because this fishery contributes a rel- and operation of two large fish meal pro- atively small proportion of the national sup- cessing plants in Wisconsin. Experimental ply. Demand and prices for these species will trawling in Lakes Erie and Huron has indi- be heavily dependent upon decisions made by cated that many areas in these two Lakes are either government or industry to invest in re- also suitable for trawling. search resulting in more attractive freshwa- Furthermore, recently improved methods ter fish forms. Given the depressed state of the and equipment for operating hand seines in industry, the investment would have to come the Great Lakes have been developed. Con- largely from government. This aspect is dis- version to these new techniques would involve cussed under solutions for problems of institu- the transformation of the many trap net boats tional arrangements. throughout the Basin. Expanding freezing facilities to avoid mar- There are major advantages of this im- ket gluts and refining marketing methods proved seining system over conventional haul would decrease costs for medium-value seine operations: species like yellow perch and smelt. These (a) greatly reduced heavy manual labor methods are discussed further under solu- requirements (three-man crew as compared to tions for problems of institutional arrange- five- or six-man crews) ments. (b) considerably less time per set (21/2 to 3 hours as compared to 4 to 6 hours) (c) substantially increased mobility 2.8.2 Stabilizing Supply Such a system should be highly effective in the harvest of carp, suckers, and sheepshead in At present the problem of stabilizing supply areas such as Green and Saginaw Bays, as pertains more to high- and medium-value well as Lake Erie. The equipment would also species than to low-value species. There are a 38 Appendix 8 few proposed solutions to this problem: 2.8.4 Subsidies and Import Restrictions (1) The total supply available to both the Detailed consideration of this approach is sport and commercial fishery should be in- outside the scope of a framework study. creased by halting environmental deteriora- tion and improving management techniques. Great Lakes biologists agree that improve- 2.9 Institutional Problems and Needs ment of environmental conditions in at least Lakes Erie and Ontario would eliminate fac- The economic problems of the Great Lakes tors which presently limit certain stocks and commercial fishery discussed in the previous prevent their reestablishment or the intro- section, i.e., stagnant or unstable market de- duction of other species. Such a program could mand, depressed prices, undercapitalization, certainly improve the plight of lake whitefish, and Canadian competition, are extremely lake herring, and sauger. Environmental im- serious and could lead to eventual elimination provement and pollution control would also of the fishery. Nevertheless, institutional reduce the problem of pesticide and mercury problems and needs are even more fundamen- contamination of fish flesh, which is currently tal. Without solution of the institutional prob- depressing market demand for certain fishery lems, it becomes almost impossible to consider products. workable solutions for the purely economic (2) Research geared to developing a better problems in an orderly manner. The general understanding of fish population dynamics pattern that has prevailed in dealing with would allow for greater accuracy in predicting these problems has been one of confusion, the direction and magnitude of future fluctua- characterized by the lack of an effective tions of stocks and would enable the industry mechanism to develop rational solutions to to anticipate changes and make adjustments current problems and realities based on for them. equitable inputs from all concerned with the resources. In contrast to the working relation- (3) The reallocation of important commer- ship existing between the Canadian fisheries cial species 3 to 5 years prior to their harvest is and the governing institutional framework, a controversial solution which promises im- the U.S. fishing industry and the resource mediate benefits to the industry. The alloca- management agencies are burdened by an in- tions would have to be based on the best avail- stitutional framework which lacks unity and able information on stock condition and pros- is prejudicial, unrelated, and at times, restric- pects. The feasibility of this approach will in- tive. While development of an adequate in- crease as research data become more broadly stitutional framework will not guarantee suc- based and reliable. Of course, care would be cess to any solution of economic and manage- taken to insure that fish populations could tol- ment problems, lack of such a framework will erate such removal. Without the assurance of guarantee its failure. The only example of a at least minimum advance allocations, the in- successful international institutional dustry could hardly make the investments framework, the Great Lakes Fishery Commis- necessary to employ the innovations which sion, has been restricted to two limited prob- would insure its continued existence. lems, sea lamprey control and related re- search. The following points should be considered in any examination of the problem of institu- 2.8.3 Reorganizing the Commercial Fishery tional arrangements: (1) The international status of the Great In order to change the existing under- Lakes (except Lake Michigan) and the division capitalized, fragmented, and depressed indus- of the U.S. portion among eight States require try into a viable unit, it will be necessary to that any ultimate institutional arrangements make some dramatic changes in the commer- for fishery utilization and management be cial fishery. capable of dealing with this diversity of juris- This is a complex question and is inextrica- diction. This is not to imply that absolute uni- bly related to questions of industry and in- formity of fishing regulations must prevail stitutional arrangements to be discussed lat- throughout the system. Certain fish stocks are er. Developing more efficient harvesting relatively discrete and limited in location and equipment and methods is also influenced by many problems are local in nature. Neverthe- State regulation and restrictions. less, the local exceptions and variations Great Lakes Fishery Resources 39 should be recognized as part of a larger, in- ator species as lake trout or salmon. teracting system. In summary, an institutional framework (2) The question of institutional arrange- that encourages the sport fishery by restrict- ments is not limited to the public management ing the commercial fishery provides the lat- sector. The commercial fishery must have the ter with few options concerning fishing areas, organizational and institutional capacity to methods and equipment, and species. In turn, take the necessary steps to change and im- these restrictions dampen incentive for in- prove its structure and operations in order to vestment and innovation in the commercial meet its problems responsibly. The Canadian fishery, and so, the vicious circle is per- commercial fishery already possesses partial petuated. institutional capacity to make corporate deci- (4) The fishery resources of the Great sions on changes in operations, marketing, Lakes are renewable publicly-owned re- and processing procedures. It can also respond sources. Wise use requires an approach that to new biological knowledge and make perti- will permit distribution of the resources to the nent investment decisions. sport and commercial fisheries in a manner (3) Central to any discussion of institu- that maximizes the overall benefit to society. tional arrangements is the kind of restrictions This involves institutional arrangements that placed on the commercial fishery, the manner would advocate a balanced, mutually suppor- in which they are determined and applied, and tive sport-commercial fishery. The commer- the provisions for equitable participation by cial fishery could become an effective man- all the legitimate interests involved. agement tool, which could manipulate fish (a) The fishery resource of the Great stocks and achieve the desired balance. Lakes has been used almost exclusively by the commercial fishery. However, recent laws (5) Maintenance of a Great Lakes commer- have banned some efficient harvesting cial fishery flexible and efficient enough to techniques and prohibited commercial fishing contribute to the economy, supply an ex- where it would compete with sport fishing. panded demand, and respond to changing Even now, no comprehensive management biological and management conditions re- and regulatory goals exist. The biological data quires certain institutional arrangements. necessary for determining these goals are un- Support must be generated for the commercial available. These factors have restrained in- fishery to maintain and enhance its pro- novative research and discouraged invest- ductivity and to insure its availability as a ments necessary to retain or expand the com- flexible management tool. Reasonable expec- mercial fishery as a viable entity. tation of continuity, particularly concerning (b) Recently there has been increased supply levels, is necessary to justify invest- emphasis on the sport fishery, not only in the ment. Despite the natural supply variability traditionally utilized inshore waters but on and the limited capability for quantitative as- the open Lakes. Because of this, restrictive sessment and prediction, a firm program of regulations have been imposed on the com- stock reallocation over a sufficiently extended mercial fishery to favor growth and develop- time period (e.g., five years) would justify in- ment of the open-Lake sport fishery. Law- vestment in a more diversified, flexible, and makers feel that restriction of the commercial responsive commercial fishery. In this event, fishery may facilitate the reestablishment of a the management component of the institu- balanced predator-prey fish resource. This is tional framework would endure only a normal needed to support a viable, self-perpetuating medium-range risk factor. In the event of un- sport fishery. While the legislators have cer- anticipated fluctuations of stocks, mainte- tain misgivings about traditional commercial nance of the program could result in tem- fishing equipment and methods, there is even porarily excessive removals as well as some more concern over the more efficient adjustments of sport fishing harvest. These technique of trawling, which would supply the reallocation risks can be reduced as the level needs of a large-scale commercial fishery. of biological knowledge permits more accurate They feel that commercial fishing will se- prediction of stocks and if the institutional verely deplete prey species, for example the framework expands to encompass the whole alewife, thereby jeopardizing the food supply Great Lakes ecosystem. Once arrangements available to the desired predator species. They were made to provide reasonable allocative also feel that the use of highly efficient trawl- continuity, the basic condition for the com- ing equipment and methods will result in a mercial fishery to solve its own economic prob- high incidental catch of such valuable pred- lems in a responsible manner would be met. 40 Appendix 8 2.10 Proposed Solutions to Institutional investment decisions, and joint, effective re- Problems and Needs sponse to the need for change and innovation. The prospects for short-range solutions are not bright. However, a partial step in this di- 2.10.1 Interstate and International rection would be voluntary integration among Cooperation and Coordination existing commercial fishermen associations, trade groups, and wholesalers. To some extent The fish stocks of the Great Lakes represent the Midwest Federated Fisheries Council at- an international as well as interstate re- tempts to perform this function in the Great source. While certain stocks are discrete and Lakes area. However, the arrangement is a should be managed on a localized basis, the loose one, complicated by differences between most efficient system to handle problems of an producers and processors and the Council's economic, environmental, and. managerial na- interest in marketing all commercial fish ture relating to fish stocks would have to be products, not just those from the Great Lakes. couched in an international framework. This Nevertheless, the advantages to all concerned need has been partially fulfilled by the crea- (including the State regulatory agencies) from tion of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the existence of a Basinwide industry organi- an international, institutional mechanism es- zation capable of responsibly representing its tablished in 1956, which provides for clear-cut components justifies continued efforts in this cooperation in decisions regarding the limited area. Since the fisheries in each State would objective of effecting sea lamprey control be responsive to their respective State man- throughout the Great Lakes Basin. The corn- agement approach, the achievement of this mission is additionally charged with improv- goal is dependent upon the success of achiev- ing the cooperative and productive relation- ing interstate coordination and cooperation of ships among Federal, State, and Provincial management agencies. agencies, especially regarding research and rehabilitation programs. To realize this goal a number of advisory Lake committees have 2.10.3 Reorganization of the Management been established. Framework ExL)ansion of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission apparatus to cover the interna- Framework reorganization is not only tional gamut of fishery problems, including necessary for the successful management of uniform management and regulation policies, the commercial fishery, but also for the opti- economic solutions, and a fully integrated ap- mal management of the entire fishery re- proach to environmental problems, is not a source. With some variations the same prob- realistic short-range goal at the present time. lems are being encountered in fisheries out- This problem of international cooperation is side the Great Lakes. Identical theoretical not unique to fishery matters, but hinders the solutions are being proposed, and in some entire Framework Study, allowing it only to cases, implementation and experimentation touch upon international problems. However, are being carried out. the existence of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission puts the fishery resource in a rel- atively advanced position in comparison to re- Abolition of the Commercial Fishery sources that have no institutional entity. Sport fishermen and some fishery adminis- trators have suggested this solution, which 2.10.2 Reorganization of the Industry would solve the abrasive sport-commercial fishery relationship problem in a clear-cut, de- There is a need for a new set of internal finitive manner. Strong support for this solu- institutional arrangements that would give at tion comes from people who feel that any least the same degree of internal coherence, economic or biological benefits accruing from flexibility, and responsiveness enjoyed by the the existence of a commercial fishery are not Canadian industry. The present organization significant enough to justify the trouble and and institutional arrangements within the in- expense of administering it. Objectively, how- dustry tend to reflect the eight-part, au- ever, implementation of this alternative tonomous jurisdictional framework that pre- would have the following consequences: vails on the U.S. side. This discourages coop- (1) It would eliminate the modest, but not eration for mutual benefit, consolidation of inconsequential contribution from the Great Great Lakes Fishery Resources 41 Lakes commercial fishery which currently such as competitive bidding for available amounts to approximately 71 million pounds licenses, contractual agreements between and $5,900,000 annually (average for 5-year fishermen and the management agency, or period, 1966 to 1970). These figures do not take administratively determined allocations into consideration value added to the dockside based on various management criteria. In catch through processing. They represent practice both the reduction of fishermen and output under severe constraints and de- administration of the fishery are closely re- pressed conditions. lated problems which often are resolved on (2) It would eliminate the commercial social or political grounds and reflect the var- fishery as a tool for manipulation and man- ied nature of individual fisheries. agement of fish stocks. The validity of this potential can be questioned, but it is insepara- ble from the contention that overexploitation Establishment of Species Quotas by the commercial fishery has occasionally adversely affected the status of certain stocks. In a limited way, a quota fishery already (3) It would remove the best indicators of exists for lake trout in the Isle Royale and shifting Great Lakes fish population dynamics Caribou Islands areas of Lake Superior. There (commercial fishery statistics). These figures, is no other similar fishery in the Great Lakes which are the basis for all the analyses to date Basin. of past history and current condition of stocks, From a management standpoint this alter- would have been even more reliable had eom- native has much to recommend it, especially parable data on sport fishing utilization been in terms of directness, simplicity, and flexibil- available. ity. To operate efficiently, sufficient biological da@a must be available to assign species quotas that will simultaneously insure protec- Establishment of a Limited Entry tion and conservation of stocks while provid- Commercial Fishery ing the maximum contribution possible to the sport and commercial fisheries. Subquotas or The classic concept of a limited entry com- allocations between sport and commercial mercial fishery envisions the reduction of fisheries will be based on good judgment and fishermen to bring about a more efficient use not on prior value. of the resources in the industry. Specifically, There are a number of drawbacks to this its goal is to adjust fishing effort to the point alternative. Adequate biological data for where the maximum net economic return is management and allocation decisions do not realized. The assurance of an adequate exist. Also, quotas are essentially meaning- fishery resource to allow for long-term in- less for low-value species with low demand. vestments promoting efficiency and availabil- Quotas for high-value species can be economi- ity of product, and the allowance for the par- cally deterimental to the commercial fishery. ticipating fishermen to realize a fair return Fishermen may overinvest in harvesting on their investment are essential to this equipment so that they can harvest the concept. greatest amount as quickly as possible before Controversies associated with limited entry the quota is filled. In this system speed is es- do not stem from the concept itself, but from sential because of the expense of manpower the method selected to reduce the fishermen and equipment. and from the administrative procedures de- Enforcement of quotas without limited veloped to regulate the reduced fishery. entry is nearly impossible. Therefore, it is Fishermen often agree in principle with lim- doubtful that the establishment of quotas can ited entry, but strongly object to precipitous or be viewed as an overall institutional solution. arbitrary allocation of fishing rights. Reduc- However, as an implementation tool in a ing the number of fishermen presents obvious larger institutional framework, it may be a difficulties and a long-term approach is often partial solution to fishery problems. taken. This approach may involve gradual re- ductions by retiring licenses upon the death or exit of fishermen from the industry until the Establishment of a Contract Fishery desired number of fishermen or operating units is reached. Actual regulation of the A contract fishery is one in which the re- fishery once the appropriate level of fishing sources available to a selected number of effort is reached may take a number of forms fishermen are allocated on a contract basis, 42 Appendix 8 either through a process of competitive bid- fishery on the Great Lakes would face certain ding or direct allocation by the concerned difficulties: management agency. The total number of (1) A major difficulty would be the reduc- participating commercial fishermen and the tion of the present number of fishermen in an harvest of particular species is strictly con- equitable manner. Of the alternatives availa- trolled by the management agency. Contract ble (i.e., buying out the fishermen, establish- fishing is often implemented for the purpose of ing grandfather clauses in current regula- utilizing rough fish species, a goal which in tions, etc.), only those which took into account most instances results in improving fish re- the loss of job opportunities and consequent sources for the sport fishery. Contract fishing loss of future income would be truly equitable. is also a method used by management to ob- (2) The magnitude of the investment tain greater control over commercial harvest necessary to maintain capability of stock ma- and, at least theoretically, afford protection to nipulation large enough to be effective in the selected species which are considered to be Great Lakes would require substantial sub- threatened by commercial overexploitation. If sidization by concerned management agen- implemented for the purpose of increasing in- cies, especially in the absence of a guaranteed dustry efficiency, contract fishing would be supply created by highly unstable fish re- considered a tool of limited entry. sources. The contract fishery system works best in, (3) Certain. questions inherent in the above frameworks where the habitat naturally falls points would have to be answered. For exam- into discrete blocks and there are only one or ple, what constitutes a proper wage for a con- two target species whose particular be- tracting fisherman, and therefore, what con- havioral or biological characteristics facilitate stitutes reasonable subsidization? Response their capture. to such a question will require an understand- Such a fishery presently exists on some of ing on the part of management of the the inland lakes of Minnesota and Wisconsin economics of harvesting, processing, and where carp and buffalo fish gre the target marketing. species. The respective management agencies A bill recently introduced to the Michigan assign the exclusive fishing rights to individual State Legislature and closely watched by fishermen on an individual lake or series-of- other Great Lakes States management agen- lakes basis. Although this assignment may be cies provides the legal foundation for estab- for one year only, it usually is good for a lishment of a contract fishery in the Michigan number of years. Since highest bidders do not waters of Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and necessarily equal best performers, contracts Superior. are not awarded on a competitive bidding Because of the unbalanced nature of the fish basis. Rather, assignment is based primarily resources throughout the Great Lakes Basin, on location, of the fishermen, their past per- the infrequency of large, high-value fish popu- formance, and the amount and kind of equip- lations, and the poor markets currently avail- ment they have available. In the case of inland able for low-value species, the need to limit lakes, equipment is simple and does not re- fishing effort in the Lakes has become widely quire a large amount of capital. If the fisher- accepted. The fact that the commercial fishery men require additional help, they recruit tem- has occasionally produced significant changes porary labor on a day-to-day basis, usually in certain fish populations underscores this from the local population. States set various necessity. conditions and stipulations for the fishermen. There are reasons for controlling the com- For example, if the economics of the situation mercial harvest other than concern that un- permits, a small per-pound fee is assessed by controlled fishing may result in over- the State. exploitation of fish stocks. Efforts to obtain By carefully balancing fishermen and lakes, better fishing control to avoid jeopardizing the States are usually able to achieve con- the predator rehabilitation program and to tinuity in the fishery and efficient deployment rationally allocate certain stocks to sport and of available equipment. In those cAses where commercial fishermen are also legitimate. the resources of available fishermen are not Given the historically high demand for such sufficient to achieve the required removals, species as lake trout, whitefish, and walleye, State crews and equipment are employed to fishermen exploit these species which are at achieve the objectives. low levels of abundance and thereby jeopar- Any attempt to implement this kind of dize efforts to reestablish better balanced Great Lakes Fishery Resources 43 predator-prey populations in the Lakes. In establishing two different types of commercial these cases, controls are obviously necessary. fisheries in the Great Lakes: one geared to the Allocations based on quotas or similar meas- harvest of large volumes of low-value species, ures are absolutely necessary for stocks af- and the other geared to the harvest of smaller fected by present or potential sport- numbers of medium- and high-value species. commercial conflicts (lake trout, walleye, sal- This arrangement might be achieved in the mon, yellow perch, and alewife). The following fashion: methodology involved in determining these (1) A low-value fishery based on the cap- quotas is another issue involving resource al- ture of species such as the carp, sheepshead, location similar to those addressed in the and sucker would require the following to be Great Lakes Fishery Commission cost-benefit profitable: study of the sea lamprey control program. (a) suitable markets which could In addition to the usual justification for a guarantee a return to the fishermen large limited entry type of commercial fishery, enough to constitute a fair earning other factors that make this need more com- (b) efficient harvesting equipment pelling are the high demand for certain Great (c) management guarantee that as long Lakes species, the consequent economic in- as the amount harvested is based on sound centive to exploit certain valuable species to biological principles, industry would be low levels of abundance at a time when resto- guaranteed a sustained level of catch ration of a more desirable fish population is The allowable catch would be based on the being stressed, and the need to allocate por- estimated maximum sustainable yield of the tions of certain stocks to both sport and com- relevant species. In the case of carp, sheeps- mercial fisheries. head, and suckers, the present annual har- Many methods geared to controlling the vest from all Great Lakes waters (12.5 million number of commercial fishermen have been pounds) is only 13 percent of the estimated tried in the Great Lakes, but none has taken MSY (93 million pounds) for these species. the pure form of those traditional methods al- The number of operating units which the ready discussed. In Michigan's case, the fishery could accommodate would be esti- number of fishermen was reduced, but appar- mated on the basis of what constituted a fair ently not to the levels necessary to make the rate of return to each. The precise number of system operable in the classic mold. More im- fishermen involved probably could not be de- portantly, objections by some commercial termined, although any attempt to do so must fishermen that the elimination process was be a function of the technology employed. carried out unfairly or capriciously have re- If suitable markets could be developed for sulted in long drawn-out litigation, a fact these rough fish, and if biological data indi- which serves to indicate the possible com- cated that these stocks could withstand severe plexities involved in implementing this type of pressure from the commercial fishery, it approach. Because of this, State authorities might not be necessary to impose quotas on have concluded that limited entry is not a this fishery. workable option in terms of reorganization of (2) The high-value fishery would concen- the management framework for the Great trate on the capture of species such as lake Lakes commercial fishery and have turned to trout and whitefish. The number of fishermen the establishment of a contract fishery as an involved would be strictly limited by man- alternative. agement. This should serve as adequate warning that Because commercial fishermen restricted to any solution that will result in decreased low-value species might incidentally capture numbers of commercial fishermen will face a large or significant numbers of high-value major, initial problem in its implementation, fish, management should make some kind of that of reducing the number of fishermen in a arrangement where the high-value industry, fair, equitable, and realistic fashion. As al- because of its vested interest in the stocks, ready indicated in our discussion of the con- could regulate the low-value industry. In this tract fishery, there are a number of ways to manner, the commercial industry would be bring about such a reduction. more adherent to sound management prac- tices. This is not to imply that fishermen re- Mixed-Alternative Solution stricted to low-value species would be receiv- ing less income than those restricted to high- An alternative approach might be found by value species. In the final analysis, the value 44 Appendix 8 of the catches might be identical. It is only an to develop efficient methods to capture these attempt to insure that stocks are protected for low-value, presently underutilized stocks. Be- the benefit of all. - cause of the depressed economic conditions The entire system might be further refined throughout the industry, research into the by establishing a training program for pros- feasibility of converting conventional fishing pective Great Lakes commercial fishermen. equipment and boats into forms better geared Those who wanted to participate in either to the efficient harvest of certain fish species fishery would be required to take part in the is necessary. For example, the former Bureau training program school. Each would receive a of Commercial Fisheries' Exploratory Fishing certificate upon successful completion of the Unit converted trap net boats into modified program which would indicate his familiarity haul-seining vessels. The improved seining with such things as the biological determi- system is highly efficient in the capture of nants of management policy and the problems shallow water species like the carp and sucker facing management agencies, and serve as a and has a great advantage over traditional license to participate in the fishery. Since haul-seining equipment because it requires management agencies would be benefiting di- half the manpower and only one boat. With rectly by having the industry available as a further refinement this method could be tool with which to manipulate stocks, remove adopted as a suitable technique for the cap- rough fish, and assess population characteris- ture of low-value species throughout the tics, they might finance or partially subsidize Basin. the training program. The number of allowable fishermen would have to be determined by management, based 2.11.2 Processing Solutions on guaranteed allocation of stocks valuable enough to allow the fishermen involved a de- A factor which hinders the development of cent living. handling techniques for low-value species is In summary, it is possible that the problems their present unacceptability to the consumer currently facing management regarding the as food. If these species are to be utilized, commercial fishing industry might be forms acceptable for human consumption ameliorated by the establishment of two kinds must be developed. Because of the poor finan- of commercial fisheries: one using highly cial position of the industry, this research sophisticated equipment capable of harvest- should be subsidized almost entirely from pub- ing large volumes of low-value fish without lic funds. If this is possible, every effort must threatening the capture of high-value species, be made to develop simplified but effective and the other being highly regulated by man- processing techniques which require minimal agement and using selective equipment to skills. In this way, training of processing harvest limited numbers of medium- and laborers will not constitute a significant ex- high-value fish. The fishermen of both would pense. be required to take part in a training program At the same time, investigations should be geared to provide a solid background in biol- made into the feasibility of consolidating the ogy, harvesting techniques, and boating present small-scale, poorly equipped process- safety. ing operations into a few large-scale, well equipped cooperative operations located at strategic points. These facilities should in- 2.11 Solutions to Some Noneconomic clude landing, handling, processing, storage, Institutional Problems of the Commercial and freezing components. Fishing Industry Implicit in the preceding discussion is the 2.11.3 Marketing Solutions existence of other, more specific problems. These are susceptible to particular, Because of recent restrictions of certain fish operation-oriented solutions. products by the Food and Drug Administra- tion and the closure of specific fisheries, fish products should be inspected to determine 2.11.1 Harvesting Solutions contaminant levels. The industry could then develop descriptive packaging announcing In order to exploit large volumes of low- the findings of the inspection or some other value species, continued research is necessary kind of assurance that would allay consumer fears. Great Lakes Fishery Resources 45 2.11.4 Other Solutions centrations of mercury in fish and birds have been traced to industrial and agricultural dis- The following solutions are compatible with charges in Sweden. Seventeen States in the each other and with those already discussed: U.S. have either banned fishing in contami- (1) research programs nated waters or warned people not to eat fish (a) investigations into the feasibility of and shellfish from these waters. The sources consolidating the presently numerous, small, and environmental pathways of mercury have widely-scattered, and generally poor landing been studied in Japan and Sweden. Investiga- facilities into a small number of large, strate- tion of mercury pollution in the United States gically located fishing ports is just beginning. (b) reevaluation of past and present reg- In late 1969, Canadian authorities discov- ulations in order to determine their effective- ered concentrations of mercury in several ness and economic impact on the fishery commercial catches of fish from inland lakes (2) applied programs which ranged from 5 to 10 parts per million (a) development of a program or news- (ppm). The action level for mercury in fish tis- letter by management agencies to inform sues currently accepted by U.S. and Canadian commercial fishermen of authorities is 0.5 ppm. (aa) changes in fish stocks Subsequently, mercury concentrations (bb) management efforts to restore a above the action level have been found in fish balanced predator-prey resource in Lake St. Clair, western Lake Erie, and the (cc) management methodology in St. Clair, Clay, Wabigoon, and Detroit Rivers. doing this Embargos on export of commercial fish, clo- (dd) reasons for management sure of certain fisheries (including temporary philosophies closure of the sport fishery in Lake St. Clair) (ee) process of decision-making re- followed these discoveries. The direct effect of garding management of fish resources closures and embargos and the indirect effect (b) development of a program by the Na- of public apprehension resulted in substantial tional Marine Fisheries Service and other losses to the commercial fishermen and proc- concerned agencies to keep commercial essors. Restrictions on sport fishing in the fishermen informed of changes in fishing Lake St. Clair area depressed the entire local methods and equipment, markets, and prod- recreation industry. uct forms Mercury is presently in the environment (c) development of a master plan for im- both naturally and as the result of man's con- proving fish resources of the Great Lakes pre- tamination. Certain industries such as paper pared under the auspices of the Great Lakes processing and chemical plants have been Fishery Commission. Management officials particularly outstanding offenders, but the from each of the eight Great Lakes States as use of mercury is common in many industrial well as Ontario should play an integral role in and agricultural practices. In the St. Clair the development of such a plan. area alone, up to 200 pounds of mercury (d) creation of institutional arrange- wastes per day have been discharged by the ments by the fishing industry that encourage chlor-alkali industry in Sarnia, Ontario. Mer- disciplined, intelligent self-regulation. This is cury contamination in the mud sediments di- compatible with management objectives, and, rectly below the outfall of one of these plants at the same time, encourages the economic was recorded as high as 1800 ppm. well-being of the fishermen involved. Mercury is discharged in different chemical forms: metallic mercury, inorganic mercury, methylmercury and phenylmercury. Al- 2.12 Contaminant Problems and Associated though all these forms are toxic to humans at Needs some level, the organic forms are without a doubt more toxic than the inorganic. We know that mercury has a high affinity for the fetus, 2.12.1 Mercury but we are ignorant about the effect of long- term, low-level exposure. Mercury pollution is currently a serious After discharge into the aquatic environ- problem in many parts of the world. Humans ment, mercury tends to be tightly bound to the have died or developed neurological disorders sediment in an insoluble form. However, as a result of eating fish from mercury-con- Swedish research indicates that under taminated coastal regions of Japan. High con- anaerobic conditions, methylation of inor- 46 Appendix 8 ganic mercury may occur because of actions of should include consideration of the mechanics microorganisms present in the sediment, pro- of concentration through the food chain. Also, ducing two end products: monomethyl- a profile of various mercury compounds in mercury, which is relatively fat soluble, and selected species would facilitate a better un- tends to stay in the water environment; and derstanding of changes detected by environ- dimethyl mercury, which is a highly volatile mental monitoring. compound and may evaporate into the atmos- (4) Research on the true magnitude of the phere. Although dimethylmercury is more fat human health hazard from ingestion (by food soluble than mono methyl mercury, it can be intake or other means) of substances with a readily converted to monomethylmercury in low level of mercury contamination should be the water environment before evaporation oc- expanded. A lack of knowledge of background curs. levels that may have been operable for gener- Fish can incorporate mercury by either di- ations without harm necessitates establish- rect absorption from the water through the ment of an extremely low action level for mer- gills, or ingestion of mercury-contaminated cury, 0.5 ppm. This arbitrary level causes foods. For example, suckers or sculpins con- economic hardship to sport and commercial sume benthic forms that have fed on micro- fisheries, but until a safe, realistic level is de- organisms, and predators consume prey termined, the present action level must be species (beginning with plankton and cul- deemed necessary. minating in top predators). Much is still un- (5) Expanded investigation of the detailed known about the detailed mechanics of the cycling of mercury in the environment is system. necessary to estimate the time frames in- Problems of mercury contamination and volved in reduction of existing mercury con- their possible solutions m-ay be summarized as tamination in the aquatic environment to ac- follows: ceptable levels. Of course, this assumes rapid (1) All sources of mercury contamination control of new inputs. This investigation will must be identified and rigorously controlled also aid the development of safe and realistic by Federal, State, and Canadian authorities to removal methods for existing mercury con- shut off all inputs of mercury to Basin waters. tamination. Four approaches to removal and This has already been initiated on an neutralization of existing mercury contami- emergency basis, and no known mercury nation are under consideration: losses to Basin waters are being tolerated. (a) Dredging would require that spoils be Sale, use, and loss of mercury should be re- deposited in a suitable location to perma- corded. Inventories should be monitored-and nently avoid reentry. Disturbance of the con- any possible losses to the environment should taminated sediments and possible reentry of be reported. presently inert mercury is an obvious prob- (2) Monitoring of mercury occurrence in lem. fish flesh, aquatic life, and the aquatic envi- (b) Sealing would involve covering the ronment should be improved and expanded. mercury-rich sediments with inert clay or ab- This will establish the dimensions of the prob- sorbing material. lem and determine the effects of item one. At (c) Permanent fixation involves chemi- present, sampling and monitoring of fish flesh cal complexing of mercury to prevent its are being carried out in the Great Lakes by methylation. Canadian agencies, the FDA, NMFS, and (d) Dissipation involves raising the pH to BSF&W in the U.S., and the States of Ohio and facilitate dimethylmercury formation which Michigan. The total effort is not adequate and may eventually escape to the water and then is hampered by a lack of uniformity in analyti- to the atmosphere. These would decrease the cal techniques and sampling methodologies, concentration, but spread the pollution over a which creates difficulties in comparing re- larger area. However, the dimethylmercury sults. In addition, techniques are needed to may be converted to mono methylmercury and differentiate the various organic and inor- enter the food chain. ganic mercury com'pounds, but this is essen- Preferably, these and other approaches tially a technical problem and should be re- should be tested on a scale large enough to be solved quickly. realistic but small enough to permit adequate (3) Toxicological research on selected fish monitoring and analysis of the complex biolog- species at all stages of their life histories ical and environmental interactions. Deci- should be expanded to determine acute and sions can then be made on major implementa- sublethal effects of mercury. Such studies tion. Such testing would be expensive and Great Lakes Fishery Resources 47 time'-consuming, but justified in contrast to fish is cause for concern. In April of 1969, the hasty, possibly dangerous tampering, the ef- Food and Drug Administration ordered the fects of which could not be measured. seizure of approximately 28,000 pounds of coho salmon because of DDT levels which ex- ceeded the established action level of 5 ppm. 2.12.2 Pesticides Unlike terrestrial animals which are ex- posed to insecticides primarily through their Monitoring of pqsticide levels in Great food, fish are in constant contact with these Lakes fish was initiated in 1965 by the Great materials in the water. Because fish gills are Lakes Fishery Laboratory in Ann Arbor, extremely efficient in removing insecticides Michigan. Since that time, only two pesticides, from the water, fish can build up concentra- DDT (including DDT, DDE, DDD) and dieldrin tions of DDT and dieldrin at the parts per mil- have been recorded in all Great Lakes fish. lion (ppm) level from the parts per trillion (ppt) Ranked on the basis of concentration levels level found in water. A contributory factor is of these substances, the Lakes follow this de- that chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides scending order: Lake Michigan (where the fish such as DDT have very high partition coeffi- have two to seven times as much of these two cients; that is, they are more soluble in oil than pesticides as those from the other Lakes); in water. Therefore, the higher the fat content Lakes Ontario, Huron, Erie, and Superior. of the fish, an increase which naturally occurs As is true of mercury, the degree of pesticide as a fish grows in size, the more insecticide it concentration is heavily dependent upon the can accumulate. species characteristics, and concentration Let us summarize a few pertinent facts: varies markedly between species from differ- (1) Fish are highly efficient concentrators ent Lakes and within different areas of indi- of chlorinated hydrocarbons. vidual Lakes. (2) Large amounts of DDT and other The two organochlorine groups to which chlorinated hydrocarbons are used in the DDT and dieldrin belong increase excitability Great Lakes Basin annually; 127,000 pounds of the nervous system and have a damaging of DDT were used in the Wisconsin-Lake effect on the liver. Amounts found in food Michigan watershed in 1962 and 134,000 sources in the environment have not proved pounds of chlorinated hydrocarbons (includ- fatal to man. However, both DDT and dieldrin ing DDT) were used in the Green Bay water- are among those chlorinated hydrocarbons shed during the same year. which are causing serious damage to certain (3) DDT is extremely stable in the envi- species of birds and fish. For example, low con- ronment. centrations of these pesticides have had de- (4) Flushing times of the Great Lakes leterious effects on the reproduction of fish range from 3 years for Lake Erie to approxi- species such as lake trout and brook trout, and mately 200 years for Lake Superior. relatively low concentrations of DDT in birds (5) Success of reestablishing lake trout as result in unusually thin egg shells. Further- well as stocking of other high-value species more, the concentration of other toxicants has might well depend on the reproductive success been shown to be the causative factor in a of those species. number of fish and gull fatalities. (6) A safe level of contamination has not Halogenated pesticides may have another been determined for humans. effect just as profound as the death of fish and (7) While there is no evidence to indicate birds or the loss of commercial or recreational that pesticides presently in use are car- fisheries. DDT and other chlorinated hy- cinogenic or teratogenic in man (that they in- drocarbons reduce the photosynthetic activity crease the incidence of cancer or that they of some species of marine phytoplankton, have a damaging effect on reproduction, in- especially when cell concentrations are low. If cluding malformation of the fetus or newborn this phenomenon is widespread in the Great infant), some pesticides cause these effects in Lakes, large segments of the food chain could experimental mammals. be destroyed. At least one scientist has All these facts dictate prudence in the use suggested that selective destruction of the and consumption of Great Lakes fish. Al- food chain may partially explain the though fish occurs less frequently than meat emergence of normally uncommon phyto- in the American diet, some groups consume plankton species and the accompanying nui- four or five times more fish than the average, sance algal blooms of eutrophic lakes. and therefore, their chances of eating con- Concentration of pesticides in Great Lakes taminated fish are greatly increased. Several 48 Appendix 8 steps are recommended: ent levels, studies on the concentrations of (1) Current FDA tolerance levels for pes- these elements are in progress. To date, these ticides in fish shipped across State lines 0 studies have concluded that the concentration ppm dieldrin and 5 ppm DDT) should be sub- of trace elements varies with species and jected to immediate review because of differ- Lakes. For example, uranium and thorium ences in consumption habits exhibited by vary among species but not among individuals people of different races, regions, income of the same species from different Lakes. On groups, religions, occupations, and education. the other hand, the levels of copper, cobalt, (2) Concurrent 'efforts should be made to zinc, and bromine vary little between species apply processing methods capable of reducing and Lakes. Finally, the concentration of cad- pesticide content in fish. For example, a re- mium, arsenic, and chromium vary among duction of approximately 97 percent occurs species and among fish of the same species when yellow perch are filleted. from different Lakes. (3) Above all else, we must insure that con- This would indicate that the rate at which tamination of the aquatic and general envi- some of these trace elements are concentrated ronments by these pesticides is reduced to a is heavily dependent upon biological re- minimum. sponses to environmental parameters. In view To this end, many pesticides have been re- of the current mercury and pesticide prob- stricted by both Federal and State govern- lems, investigation of these materials and ments. In 1971, EPA conducted registration their effects on aquatic plant and animal life cancellation proceedings against DDT, Mirex, throughout the Basin must continue. 2, 4, 5-T, aldrin, and dieldrin. In June, 1972, Although PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) EPA banned nearly all use of DDT. Major pro- were used in various industrial applications visions of the 1972 amendment to the Federal before the turn of the century, they are less Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of well known than chlorinated hydrocarbon in- 1947 included: classification of pesticides secticides and have only recently begun to into general use or restricted categories; gain public attention. This attention is due, strengthening of enforcement policies; estab- principally, to two factors: the recent disclo- lishment of pesticide packaging standards; sure that these compounds occur worldwide, certification of pesticide applicators by the having already been found in such diverse State; and establishment of disposal regula- places as Antarctica and Central America, tions for excess pesticides and pesticide con- and the fact that the most deleterious effects tainers. EPA has also instituted measures to of PCBs appear to be long-range and suble- minimize pesticide impact on public waters, thal. public health, and the environment. If the rate of PCB buildup in the environ- One possible solution to the pesticide prob- ment exceeds rate of breakdown over a long lem is to replace these chlorinated hydrocar- enough period, certain organisms will begin to bons with others which are less persistent. manifest chronic effects due to the toxicity of However, caution must be exercised in sub- PCBs. In man the most apparent effects are stitution because many substitutes are skin lesions and liver damage. PCBs, like DDT organo-phosphates which are very toxic to and dieldrin, affect the calcium metabolism of mammals. Furthermore, these materials are wildfowl and as a result the birds lay thin- biodegradable and must be applied re- shelled eggs. Some ornithologists believe that peatedly, increasing the risk of toxication and PCBs have an important effect on bird popula- introduction of phosphates into the aquatic tions by delaying the breeding cycle. As for system. effects on marine life, laboratory experiments Integrated pest management is probably have shown that PCBs have detrimental ef- the best alternative. This approach calls for fects on growth of oysters and shellfish, and maximum use of natural pest populations can, at relatively low concentrations, cause such as predators, parasites, pest-specific dis- heavy mortality in juvenile shrimp. Swedish eases, etc., for control of unwanted species. experiments have shown that high mortality of salmon eggs corresponded to high concen- trations of PCB residues. 2.12.3 Other Contaminants Because of the effects of PCBs on aquatic organisms, the recent discovery of relatively Although it is not yet known whether or not high concentrations of these compounds in a other contaminants such as cadmium, arsenic, Lake Ontario white perch and in Lake Michi- and copper are dangerous to humans at pres- gan coho salmon, lake trout, and sediments Great Lakes Fishery Resources 49 should encourage further investigation and currence of PCBs in industrial and urbanized caution. When, in the fall of 1971, a sample of areas lends credence to both of the above 10 coho salmon from Lake Michigan contained hypotheses. an average of approximately 10 ppm PCBs, the However, answers to the following ques- State of Michigan exercised caution by discon- tions have not been determined: tinuing its practice of giving away weir- (1) extent of the chronic effects of PCBs caught coho salmon. In addition, the Mon- (2) level of concentration (accumulation) santo Company, the sole producer of PCBs in that begins to exhibit toxic effects the United States, has stopped all sales of (3) which of the many PCB compounds in PCBs except for those used in closed systems. commercially available mixtures are respon- In comparing PCBs with DDT compounds, sible for their toxicity one is immediately aware of certain basic (4) fate of PCBs in natural waters similarities: The consequences of the recent discovery of (1) Both are relatively insoluble in water. PCBs in the Great Lakes ecosystem are as yet (2) Both are quite soluble in fatty tissues, unknown. They could be similar to those which and can be accumulated in the ppm range from followed the discovery of high concentrations an environment in which they occur in the ppt of DDT in Great Lakes fish, i.e., seizure of range. some commercial catches. The closure of en- (3) Both are accumulated in living or- tire fisheries, as occurred shortly after the ganisms in much the same way. discovery of high mercury concentrations in (4) Both exhibit relative inertness due to certain Great Lakes fish, is unlikely but possi- their resistance to oxidation and other chemi- ble. The only certain result is that as the pub- cal and biological degradation. This explains lic becomes increasingly aware of the PCB their stability and consequent persistence in problem, the image of the Great Lakes as a the environment. producer of attractive fishery products will be Despite their similarities, significant differ- further tarnished. ences between PCBs and chlorinated hydro- carbon insecticides exist. For example, PCBs are more resistant to biological and chemical 2.13 Thermal Pollution and Associated Needs breakdown than DDT. This fact means that their eradication from the environment will be The demands for electrical energy, which more difficult, and that they can accumulate are expected to double in the next 10 years, in higher concentrations because of their will cause an increase in the demand for cool- longer half-life. PCB concentrations as high as ing waters. In 30 years the total industrial and 14,000 ppm were found in certain tissues of a thermal power input into the Great Lakes wa- Swedish white eagle, a fish-eating bird. ters is projected to increase more than 11-fold The most important difference between from the present 9.98 X 1010 Btu per hour to 114 these two classes of compounds is that PCBs X 1010 Btu per hour. In Lake Huron alone the are not introduced into the environment de- waste heat load is expected to increase by liberately. Their presence is purely accidental. more than 35 times the present load. Much Because we do not know how all PCB com- concern has been expressed over the real and pounds are introduced into the environment, possible effects of these discharges on the and because a complete index of their uses is ecosystem. Consequently, these effects are not available, the escape of PCBs into the en- under intensive study, and some preliminary vironment is extremely difficult to control. results are now being published. It has been postulated that some PCB con- Factors determining the growth, survival, tamination of the environment is a result of distribution, and abundance offish and other incineration of products which contain PCBs. cold-blooded aquatic organisms are complex Some examples are carbonless reproducing and incompletely known, but the major role of paper, plastics, specialized lubricants, gasket temperature is firmly established. Each or- sealers, and machine cutting oils. These prod- ganism has specific thermal tolerances or ucts find their way to city dumps where they limits that reflect the thermal requirements are burned, vaporized, carried into the atmos- for each of the important metabolic functions phere, collected on particulate matter, and in the individual. These functions and thermal subsequently returned to earth by rain. Their tolerances vary from life stage to life stage. entrance into the natural system may also When the limits are exceeded, the organism occur directly from land runoff from industrial functions at reduced efficiency and may ulti- waste and dump areas. The predominant oc- mately die. The rate at which individuals, 50 Appendix 8 populations, or species are lost depends on the plant shutdown). However, available informa- degree to which the thermal limits, are ex- tion on the effect of the former on larval fish ceeded, the duration of exposure to thermal indicates that the expected temperature rise stress, and the indirect effects of these ther- experienced bythese fish would be very injuri- mal conditions. The fact that many Great ous or immediately lethal. Similar undesirable Lakes species are stenothermal will necessi- effects are anticipated for other important tate close supervision of thermal pollution. aquatic organisms including the phyto- Rapidly lethal temperatures have well de- plankton that serve as food for Great Lakes fined limits for many species. Temperature fish. Organisms (adult fish, fish fry, and limits are not well determined for successful pl ankton) are subj ected to physical j arring and survival in situations where unfavorable tem- smashing when they are brought up against peratures reduce the ability of the organisms the fish screens and internal piping of the in- to move about, escape predation, compete with take structures. Assuming a use rate of 91,000 other species for food, and otherwise success- cfs by the year 2000 in Lake Michigan, approx- fully complete all of the life stages vital proc- imately 1.1 percent of the total volume of the esses, including reproduction. water inside the 30-foot depth contour (where The addition of heat to the aquatic environ- the eggs, larvae and juveniles of many impor- ment produces basic changes other than those tant Lake Michigan fishes are abundant) will just described. For example, in laboratory ex- be passed through the cooling systems of periments temperature rises reduce the per- power plants daily, and in one year a water cent of oxygen in solution. However, this is not volume equal to several times the entire water always the case in the field, for only when the mass inside the 30-foot contour would pass concentration of dissolved oxygen is greater through these cooling systems. Although than the resultant saturation level will heat studies conducted at these thermal plume drive off some of the oxygen. Increased water sites have been inadequate to thoroughly as- temperature also causes an increase in the sess possible effects, no significant damage rate of chemical reaction resulting in acceler- has occurred to this time. In addition to the ated eutrophication and bacterial decomposi- preceding facts, in January of 1971 the Tech- tion and a decreased waste assimilation capac- nical Committee on Lake Michigan Enforce- ity which reduces the suitability of the water ment Conference concluded that the use of for municipal, industrial, and recreational Lake Michigan waters for the dissipation of uses. waste heat may be damaging to the ecology of Site location of proposed plants must be the Lake, and that such adverse effects might taken into account. At present, the majority of be avoided by the reduction of the use of Lake plants are located on or near lakeshores. As a waters for waste heat dissipation. result, their cooling waters are usually taken Although the above conclusion was derived from and returned to the lakes. With flow- specifically for Lake Michigan, it should be through cooling the water returned to the lake emphasized that the effects of heated effluent would average approximately 15'F above am- discharges on aquatic plant and animal life in bient water temperature. If the heated water any of the Great Lakes are likely to be similar. is returned to the productive inshore or beach Adding heat to a warm lake may cause toler- water zone where a majority of the fish spawn- ances for warmwater species to be exceeded ing and nursery areas are located and a great just as adding heat to a cold lake may cause variety of shallow-water invertebrates are tolerances of coldwater species to be exceeded. found, adverse consequences may result be- Therefore, despite the fact that obvious cause these forms are the least mobile and physical, chemical, and biological differences thus least able to avoid unfavorable thermal exist between the Lakes, we are justified in conditions. The movement of adult, anadrom- concluding that the general recommendations ous fish into rivers and streams may also be of the Lake Michigan Committee are applica- serverely affected as would be the return of ble to the entire Great Lakes system: their young to the open lake. (1) All thermal electric power plants using Several other consequences of using lake or planning to use Great Lakes water for the waters for cooling also merit serious consid- dissipation of waste heat should be required to eration. For example, certain organisms have have closed cycle cooling systems. Other become accustomed to thermal shock (as- techniques should be approved by one of the sociated with being pulled into a power plant) agencies mentioned in paragraph (2). or reverse thermal shock (associated with the (2) Intensive field and laboratory studies dissipation of heated waters as the result of should be conducted to determine the effects Great Lakes Fishery Resources 51 on the ecology. These studies should be carried the magnitude of that which occurred in the out under the guidance of a technically compe- Santa Barbara Channel in 1969 in any of the tent steering committee to be appointed by the Great Lakes, the danger of such a spill is Lake Michigan Enforcement Conference and steadily increasing with the amount of oil should be closely coordinated with that of shipped through the Great Lakes-St. Law- similarly established technical committees for rence Seaway system. Since the opening of each of the other Lakes. The IJC should be the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959, shipping on used as a vehicle for international coordina- the Great Lakes has increased steadily. Each tion of the technical steering committees. ship now plying the Great Lakes carries on the (3) These studies should determine the average more than 1,000 tons of bunker oil. physical and biological effects of heated dis- This is equivalent to 252,000 gallons, an charges from thermal electric power plants amount greater than that lost during the drill- and the effects on organisms in the cooling ing rig rupture in the Santa Barbara Channel. water passing through these facilities. This amount of oil could create a slick approx- (4) Geographic areas affected by thermal imately four to five square miles in size. plumes from waste heat discharges should not However, significant spills have occurred. overlap or intersect. For example, during the Great Lakes shipping (5) Because of the possible detrimental ef- season, several severe cases of local pollution fect on various aquatic organisms resulting occur per month. These result from mishaps from the use of chlorine or other elements in associated with normal vessel operation. In- cooling waters, all new power facilities using cluded in this classification would be fueling or Great Lakes waters should be required to in- transferring petroleum products, discharging corporate mechanical rather than chemical oil-saturated ballast from vessels, cleaning of cleaning procedures into plant design. oil tanks, and negligent discharge of bilge wa- (6) Because of the distinct possibility of ters with their associated oil residues. These physical damage to phytoplankton, zoo- incidents have had deleterious and often seri- plankton, and fish at intake structures and dur- ous effects on water quality in harbors, ing passage through the cooling system, fu- marinas, and along bathing beaches. ture intake structures should be designed and Incidents of this nature, along with indus- located to minimize entrainment and thus trial spills similar to that which occurred in avoid possible destruction of these organisms. the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River in (7) All thermal plants should be required to April, 1969, where 96,000 gallons of cutting oil record intake and discharge flows and entered the western basin of Lake Erie, in- temperatures continuously and to make these creased 30 percent during the first nine records available to the established regula- months of 1969 with 43 percent of the Great tory agency upon request. Lakes total occurring on Lakes Huron and St. The Technical Committee proposed the fol- Clair and the Detroit-St. Clair River complex. lowing interim guidelines for Lake Michigan Throughout 1969, more than 42,000 gallons facilities with once-through cooling so that per day (gpd) of oils and greases were dis- ecological damage might be reduced or charged into the Detroit River alone. avoided: Other posed threats include sunken vessels (1) discharging far enough offshore to pre- (30 in Lakes Ontario and Erie alone), waste oil vent the thermal plumes from reaching the from gasoline filling stations (approximately shoreline 350,000,000 gallons per year throughout the (2) designing the discharge structure to United States), and leaks or pipeline breaks. prevent the thermal plume from reaching the Forty percent of all petroleum pollution en- Lake bottom forcement cases involving the U.S. Army (3) designing plant piping and pumping Corps of Engineers result from causes other systems to minimize physical damage to en- than shipping. trained aquatic organisms Additional oil pollution could result from These interim guidelines may apply in some gas and oil drilling operations,in the Lakes. degree to the other Lakes. Although exploration of some Pennsylvanian offshore sites was scheduled for 1970, gas and oil drilling in the United States is restricted to 2.14 Problems of Oil Spills and Associated Lake Erie where there are, at.present, no ac- Needs tive wells. Canada, on the other hand, had 221 producing wells in operation at the end of 1968, Although there has never been an oil spill of all restricted to natural gas production. Al- 52 Appendix 8 though Canadian interests have been drilling Great Lakes Levels Board of the IJC. While in Lake Erie since 1913 without any signifi- the intent of original plans and studies was to cant pollution incidents (only two small spills improve navigation by stablizing water levels, have occurred), there is always the threat of current research is concerned with this aspect blowout, indiscriminant dumping of oil-based as well as the possible benefits accruing to drilling muds and cuttings, and losses of oil or power, industry, and recreation. This research gas in production, storage, and transportation. also addresses the problem of shoreline prop- Although the likelihood of a major spill is erty protection and the effect of water level small, the risk is increasing as industrializa- control on the fisheries (sport and commercial) tion through the Great Lakes Basin increases. and the fish stocks. This appendix is concerned This situation, combined with existing prob- with the last two categories. lems already discussed, necessitates the de- velopment of an international program which recognizes prevention, surveillance, notifica- 2.15.1 Effects on the Fisheries tion, and clean-up responsibilities. To meet this need, the U.S., through its Environmental Extreme water levels pose a number of seri- Protection Agency (formerly through the Fed- ous problems to fisheries. For example, the eral Water Pollution Control Administration), high waters which occurred in 1952 caused ex- has developed contingency plans which are tensive damage to the dockside facilities of the procedural arrangements for the notification commercial fishing industry as well as public and clean-up of spilled pollutants. Canadian and private access sites and shoreside docks, contingency plans are still in the embryo slips, and hoists. On the other hand, the low stage. water levels experienced during 1964 posed a Existing legislation should be reviewed with different type of problem. As the water level the purpose of insuring that authority exists receded, depths in ports, harbors, and marinas for undertaking adequate measures to abate decreased correspondingly, making it increas- pollution. A significant step in this direction ingly difficult, and often impossible, for com- was taken with the enactment of the Water mercial fishing vessels to either leave or enter Quality Improvement Act of 1970 which con- fishing ports. If water levels drop low enough, tained an amendment to the Federal Water fishing may be suspended altogether or Pollution Control Act prohibiting the dis- fishermen may be forced to move operations to charge of oil of any kind or form into or upon a new and deeper port location. Similarly, low the navigable waters of the contiguous zone. levels hinder and often prohibit the launching In addition, the Province of Ontario and the of small boats from both public and private States of Michigan, New York, Wisconsin, and facilities. Ohio have developed increasingly strict wa- tercraft laws relating to the discharge of wastes and oil productions. 2.15.2 Effects on the Fish Stocks The effects of fluctuating water levels on 2.15 Problems and Needs Associated with the fish stocks are more subtle than those on Effects of Lake Level Control fisheries. Addition or subtraction of one or two feet of water in the open lake is probably neg- Plans and studies for artificially regulating ligible. However, effects on the littoral zone the levels of the Great Lakes were initiated in (less than 30 feet) and the interconnecting wa- the early 1900s. These resulted in the con- ters are far more significant. struction of regulatory works in Lake Within the littoral zone biological produc- Superior in 1921. After further planning and tion is at its peak, and fluctuations have their studies, control works were constructed on greatest effects. Based on the analysis of all Lake Ontario in 1960. present biological data, fisheries favor high In 1964 the International Joint Commission stable levels in order to increase the littoral (IJC) was asked to determine whether it was productive area and thereby enhance the total feasible and in the public interest to further fishery resource. regulate the levels of all or any of the Great The interconnecting waters, which are gen- Lakes and their interconnecting waters. The erally less than 30 feet deep and can be consid- results of this study were published in a report ered littoral, are the logical sites for regula- entitled Regulation of Great Lakes Water tory structures. Structures composed of mov- Levels, published in 1973 by the International able tainter gates would regulate the flow of Great Lakes Fishery Resources 53 these connecting waters according to the re- changed flushing time for the bays and chan- quirements of the plan. However, in the actual nels in the system. The changes in flushing construction of the works, problems occur dur- times of these restricted areas could create an ing dredging, dyking, and filling. Due to the oxygen shortage reducing the overall biologi- rapid flow through these areas, the increased cal productivity of the area. Extreme caution turbidity and siltation caused during con- should be used in evaluating any future reg- struction would be carried downstream de- ulatory plans because of the possibility of in- stroying valuable spawning and benthos- creased pollution related to the lower flows, producing areas. After construction is com- damage to fish migratory routes because of pleted, the structures could cause changes in the actual structures, and the problems al- the flows and current patterns leading to ready mentioned. Section 3 LAKE SUPERIOR BASIN, PLAN AREA 1.0 The comments on Plan Area 1.0 (Figure 3.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major 8-12) are divided into two major parts. The Changes first is limited to Lake Superior, and the sec- ond treats the individual planning subareas of The Lake Superior fishery has always been the Lake Superior basin. dominated by coldwater species. Lake trout, whitefish, herring, and chubs have dominated both in total pounds and value. 3.1 Resources, Uses, and Management Although the changes in fish populations occurred somewhat later in Lake Superior, the declines in lake trout and herring followed 3.1.1 Habitat Base the pattern of the other Great Lakes. Under the combined effects of sea lamprey predation In addition to the information included in and commercial fishing, the lake trout popula- the introductory section of the appendix, the tion collapsed. Subsequent shifts of fishing ef- following statements will serve to charac- fort to lake herring and chubs have produced terize Lake Superior more specifically: changes in these stocks as well. (1) Lake Superior is the largest freshwater Althougli alewife has become established in lake in the world in area. Lake Superior, it is not as abudant there as in (2) The Lake has an 80,000 square-mile Lakes Huron and Michigan. Smelt is the most drainage area with an exit rate at Sault Ste. abundant inshore forage species found in Marie of approximately 73,000 cubic feet per Lake Superior today. second. Whitefish was the most valuable commer- (3) Lake Superior stretches 350 miles cial species in Lake Superior until the late across North America. It is 160 miles wide and 1890s. Under heavy exploitation, the occupies 3,820 square miles. whitefish production peaked at 4.5 million (4) The Lake's principal island groups are pounds in 1885. Stocks of whitefish have gen- Isle Royale and the surrounding islands, erally declined ever since. Although occa- Michipicoten and the surrounding islands, sional strong year classes and favorable mar- and the Apostle group. ket conditions have pushed annual whitefish (5) The only important stretches of shallow production to more than one million pounds, water lie in the Apostle Islands area, the average production from Lake Superior is Whitefish Bay, and the north shore bay re- now between 300,000 and 400,000 pounds a gion. year. (6) Lake Superior is the deepest of the Recent introductions of coho and chinook Great Lakes, with a maximum depth of 1,333 salmon, and restockings of both lake trout and feet. The mean depth is approximately 487 steelhead have added tremendously to the feet. Only 17.5 percent of the lake is shallower sport fishery of Lake Superior. Maintenance than 100 feet, ,@hile 51 percent is deeper than or supplemental stocking of these species is 420 feet. still required to maintain their abundance. (7) Although thermal discontinuity is common throughoi4t sections of the Lake dur- Value of the Individual Species to the ing the summer period, Lake Superior Ecosystem exhibits thermal stratification by mid-July. (8) Lake Superior is the only Great Lake in Subsection 2.3.1 discusses in detail the which chemical conditions have remained un- major relationships between species common changed over the period of record (1886 to pres- throughout the Great Lakes. This section will ent). Concentration levels are constant deal with those relationships in Lake throughout the Lake (Figures 8-13 and 8-14). Superior. 55 WISCONSIN 5 N ICHI . I NlWYORK ILLINOIS VICINITY MAP 0 N T R c@ U, Ulm; 0 (z:, Y, MINNESOTA D 0. 1.2 m C H_ I C A WISCONSIN IG SC A- SCALE IN MILES % 2t0=3=OL 40 50 Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 57 80 - z 0 60 - ------ 40 - CL 20 - 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 YEAR FIGURE 8-13 Lake Superior and Tributaries, Total Dissolved Solids 15 - z CALCIUM 2 0 z - 10 - W 2 2 cr 0 W 5 (L W 5 SULFATE > SODIUM + POTASSIUM CH LORIDE 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 YEAR FIGURE 8-14 Lake Superior and Tributaries, Chemical Changes Lake Superior is oligotrophic, with a rela- Sea lamprey continues to limit numbers of tively simple complex of fish species. In such a large salmonids, particularly lake trout. De- simple system the abundance of one species spite more than ten years of a sea lamprey can have an immediate and dramatic effect on chemical control program, these predators the survival, growth, and abundance of remain a significant factor in preventing the another. Because growth is slow, exploitation establishment of a self-re prod ucin g lake trout rates are a major factor in the abundance of a population. species. Similarly, the introduction of non- Lack of forage species such as herring, indigenous species may have a pronounced ef- chubs, and smelt will limit both the growth fect on the species composition. and abundance of lake trout, steelhead, brown 58 Appendix 8 trout, coho, and chinook. Conversely, white- streams indicated that the angler take of fish compete directly with the forage species warmwater species totaled over two million for the basic plankton productivity of the fish. The following numbers of fish were tak- Lake. en: smelt, 1,625,890; perch, 254,240; suckers, Because of their abundance and the lack of 118,520; centrarchid panfish, 39,420; northern other forage food, small suckers may provide pike, 37,240; walleye, 13,020; bass, 13,020. Simi- forage for predators during certain times of lar data are not available on the catch of the year. However, the effect of suckers on warmwater species from Minnesota and Wis- other fish species in Lake Superior is not consin waters, but, catch from these two clearly understood. Since suckers are omni- States would probably increase the above to- vores, they may compete with more valuable tals by approximately one-third. species for the limited basic productivity of the The Lake Superior salmonid fishery is Lake. dominated by lake trout. Wisconsin reported While carp, alewife, yellow perch, walleye, that in 1970 sport fishermen took 16,988 lake smallmouth bass, and northern pike are pres- trout, 2,545 coho, 1,562 rainbow, 2,324 brown ent in Lake Superior, they are ecologically im- trout, and 1,964 brook trout. Michigan reports portant only in limited areas of the Lake. indicate that 172,380 lake trout, 18,590 rain- bow trout, 3,061 coho, and 2,020 chinook were taken by anglers in Michigan waters during Contribution of Individual Species to 1970. In addition, the sport catch for salmonids the Commercial Fishery in Michigan's anadromous streams tributary to Lake Superior totaled 10,420 coho, 69,070 The contribution of each species to the steelhead, and 2,860 chinook during 1970. commercial catch was reviewed in detail in the Minnesota reported a sport catch of less than Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin Report, Fish 1,000 trout and salmon in Lake Superior dur- and Wildlife as Related to Water Quality of the ing 1969. Although the fishery was reportedly Lake Superior Basin by the Fish and Wildlife growing, the catch was probably similar in Service in 1969. Figures 8-15 and 8-16 and Ta- 1970. bles 8-3 and 8-4 summarize the contribution of each species since 1935. There is continuing concern for the precipi- 3.1.3 The Fisheries tous reduction in herring catch since the early 1960s. Herring is the most important species to the Lake Superior commercial fishery. Her- Historical Background of the Lake ring and chubs combine to provide more than Superior Commercial Fishery 70 percent of the pounds and more than half the value of the commercial take from the Traditionally, Lake Superior has furnished Lake. Whitefish catches have been relatively approximately 16 percent of the total Great constant over the past decade. They rank sec- Lakes fishery production. Most of the com- ond to herring in total dollar value of fish niercial fishing is done in U.S. waters. Lake landed each year. Inshore lake trout catches trout, whitefish, and lake herring have been are now limited to assessment fishing to de- the three dominant species in the commercial termine the results of sea lamprey control and catch since the mid-1800s. lake trout stocking programs. Some offshore As the commercial fishing industry de- stocks (Isle Royale and Caribous) are self- veloped in Lake Superior during the latter sustaining and conservative quotas have been part of the 19th century, lake trout increased established to provide a comniercial catch. in importance. By 1897 lake trout was the lead- However, lake trout will continue to play a ing producer in pounds taken and it main- minor role in the Lake Superior commercial tained this position until being eclipsed by fishery until self-sustaining stocks are rees- lake herring in 1903. However, lake trout con- tablished. tinued to be the top producer in value, ac- counting for 50 to 60 percent or more of the total value of the Lake Superior commercial Contribution of Individual Species to catch through 1949. The largest harvest of the Sport Fishery lake trout in U.S. waters occurred in 1903, when 5.6 million pounds were taken. After A 1970 creel census in Michigan waters of 1903 production leveled off to between two and Lake Superior and major anadromous three million pounds annually and remained Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 59 at that level for the next five decades. During Although the catch of lake trout remained this time, there was a westward shift in the farily constant until IM4, there was evidence major trout production centers, reflecting in- by 1949 that the stocks were declining. In 1949 creased production from the less exploited trout production was up six percent above the western stocks. 1929 to 1943 mean, but commercial fishing 3,168,048 OTHER 2,922,722 LAKE WHITEFI -TOTAL IN DOLLARS 1119,224 2,079,116 1781,659 LAKE TROUT .096,578 1983,215 SMELT CHUBS 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 77@ FIGURE 8-15 Average Annual Production (Dollars) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Superior Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 60 Appendix 8 pressure was up 62 percent. During the late pounds during 1948, 1954, and 1955. Heavy 1940s and early 1950s, the combination of the fishing pressure has continued on whitefish, efficient nylon gill net and increased fishing but annual production has leveled off to be- pressure maintained the commercial catch at tween 300,000 and 400,000 pounds. a fairly stable level even though the stocks of The lake herring production ranged be- lake trout were declining. tween 10 and 12 million pounds annually be- However, by 1955 the combined effects of tween 1951 and 1961, but during this time the fishing pressures and lamprey predation pro- average size was increasing and the abun- duced a sharp decline in the lake trout popula- dance decreasing. Between 1954 and 1964, the tion. This decline was reflected in the commer- average weight of the commercial lake her- cial catch, which dropped from 3.1 million ring doubled. Since 1961, the lake herring pro- pounds in 1951 to 2.1 million in 1955, and only duction has steadily declined as has catch per 380,00 pounds in 1960. unit of effort. Since the decline of the lake trout, the pri- Chubs and smelt have become increasingly mary commercial species have been lake her- important to the commercial fishery in Lake ring, whitefish, and chubs. Strong individual Superior. When the abundance of small lake year classes of whitefish in the late 1940s and trout and herring decreased, lake conditions early 1950s and increased fishing pressure became more favorable for the survival and pushed whitefish production over one million growth of these two species. 19,925,540 LBS. SUCKER 17,702,380 LBS. 16,306,380 LBS. TOTAL 14,223,740 LEIS. ..... 13,777,180 LBS. .A#@E W 17 _EFISII 12,577,720 LBS. @LAK E TROUT ' S-M*E-L- OTHER LAKE HERRING X 7,342,760 . LBS. 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-16 Average Annual Production (Pounds) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Superior Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 61 TABLE 8-3 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of Six Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Chub lbs. 320,160 487,240 166,640 89,120 616,100 1,167,020 1,555,880 % of Volume 2.0 2.4 .9 .6 4.5 9.3 21.2 Lake Herring lbs. 12,063,120 15,457,120 13,180,820 10,572,860 10,739,000 9,354,840 3,773,520 % of Volume 74.0 77.6 74.5 74.3 77.9 74.4 51.4 Lake Trout lbs. 3,141,020 3,056,580 3,139,240 2,724,720 1,406,440 232,400 172,320 % of Volume 19.3 15.3 17.7 19.2 10.2 1.8 2.3 Lake Whitefish lbs. 440,480 713,140 1,013,460 688,680 627,580 379,320 477,680 % of Volume 2.7 3.6 5.7 4.8 4.6 3.0 6.5 Smelt lbs. 900 1 1801 540 1 18,500 292,420 1,350,860 1,273,420 % of Volume --- --- --- .1 2.1 10.7 17.3 Suckers lbs. 261,520 162,620 144,300 84,600 44,780 51,780 45,560 % of Volume 1.6 .8 .8 .6 .3 .4 .6 Average Total Volume 16,306,380 19,925,540 17,702,380 14,223,740 13,777,180 12,577,720 7,342,760 1Less than .1% TABLE 8-4 Average Value and Percent Contribution of Six Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Chubs Dollars 83,027 165,217 39,194 13,864 116,506 186,373 187,588 % of Value 4.0 5.2 1.3 .6 6.5 17.0 19.1 Lake Herring Dollars 703,635 1,148,225 790,556 517,245 605,026 518,521 371,434 % of Value 33.8 36.2 27.0 24.4 34.0 47.3 37.8 Lake Trout Dollars 1,062,075 1,444,374 1,596,743 1,248,754 691,614 139,772 101,478 % of Value 51.1 45.6 54.6 58.9 38.8 12.7 10.3 Lake Whitefish Dollars 197,211 38,054 468,940 322,408 346,485 199,187 262,770 % of Value 9.4 1.2 16.0 15.2 19.4 18.2 26.7 Smelt I 1 1 Dollars ---1 ---I ---1 9751 10,381 43,567 50,805 % of Value --- --- --- --- .6 4.0 5.2 Suckers Dollars 17,782 15,572 11,505 5,781 3,382 2,255 2,353 % of Value .9 .5 .4 .3 .2 .2 .2 Average Total Value 2,079,116 3,168,048 2,922,722 2,119,224 1,781,659 1,096,578 983,215 1Less than $100 or .1% 62 Appendix 8 Historical Background of the Lake productivity in the U.S. waters of Lake Superior Sport Fishery Superior. Michigan has conducted a series of economic The sport fishery, like the commercial studies on its steelhead and salrnon fisheries fishery, relied heavily on lake trout. While the in the Great Lakes. Projects based on these sport fishery took only approximately 10 per- studies indicate that the net economic worth cent of the total lake trout harvest in the early of the sport fishery of Michigan's Lake 1940s, it was a growing fishing attraction be- Superior lake trout, salmon, and steelhead fore the lake trout began declining drastically fishery is 3.8 million dollars annually. This es- in number in the 1950s. timate is conservative because it neither in- Steelhead has attracted fishermen to Lake cludes the value of the fisherman's time, nor Superior and its major tributaries since early reflects secondary benefits such as net impact in this century. The waterfalls which occur of the sport fishery on the local community in within a few miles of the mouths of many Lake terms of added income and new jobs. Superior tributaries on the U.S. side have We therefore assume that the net economic probably limited the abundance of this species. worth of the total Lake Superior sport fishery Sea lamprey control and recent stocking pro- exceeds 4.0 million dollars and is still expand- grams have renewed fishing interest in steel- ing. head. Although many trophy-size specimens have been taken in recent years, brown trout has 3.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish never been abundant in Lake Superior. The Resources largest sport-caught brown trout on record in the entire North American continent was re- Lake Superior has many uses other than cently taken in Wisconsin waters of Lake fishing: navigation, water supply, recreation, Superior where a specialized fishery for brown and waste disposal. These uses can cause trout has developed. chemical, physical, and biologieal changes Coho and chinook fishing began less than a that indirectly or indirectly affect the fishery year after the first plant was made in 1966. In resource. 1971 Michigan planted 252,000 chinook, 403,000 coho, and 54,000 steelhead. Minnesota planted 130,000 coho in 1971. United States Effects of Chemical Changes waters of Lake Superior were stocked with approximately 1,465,000 lake trout in 1971. Lake Superior is the only Great Lake in Ontario stocked approximately 25,000 coho which the chemical parameters measured in Lake Superior and cooperated in the plant- since 1886 have remained unchanged. Figure ing of approximately 475,000 lake trout in 8-14 summarizes the chemical characteristics Canadian waters during 1971. of Lake Superior water. These are relatively homogeneous in respect to both area and depth of the Lake. Economics The region of Lake Superior near Duluth has a higher concentration of ions such as sul- The wholesale value of the United States fate. However, the effects of these higher ion commercial catch from Lake Superior has av- concentrations on the fishery is unknown. eraged approximately one million dollars an- Trace elements such as manganese, copper, nually during the last decade. Most of the fish lead, and zinc are found in surface waters of taken from Lake Superior are marketed Lake Superior indicating active sediment- through Chicago wholesale markets. The net water exchange of these materials. The sig- worth of the commercial fishery to the Lake nificance of trace elements, particularly the Superior area has not been calculated, but it is heavy metals, is just now receiving attention relatively small. While commercial fishing because of the recent discovery that fish con- contributes significantly to the economy of a centrate mercury to dangerous levels. Mer- few small Lake Superior communities, its cury from industrial discharges on the Cana- most important contribution is the indirect dian side of Lake Superior has made some fish benefit it provides to the tourist trade by sup- unsafe for human consumption in localized plying fresh fish to local restaurants. Table areas. 8-5 lists commercial operating units and Pesticides, particularly DDT and its Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 63 TABLE 8-5 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Superior Number Pounds Value of Number Number of Landed per Catch per 2 of of Year Fishermen Fisherman Fisherman Vessels Boats 1930 1,278 11,497 $1,153 40 560 1931 1,200 9,400 1,310 40 479 1932 1,067 9,534 1,004 44 285 1934 1,202 14,526 1,466 41 295 1936 1,140 14,042 1,842 51 288 1937 1,227 13,049 1,586 61 468 1938 1,360 10,924 1,496 63 512 1939 1,491 17,256 1,465 62 567 1940 1,000 20,672 2,103 107 386 1950 1,029 12,230 2,214 173 361 1954 938 16,401 2,430 175 315 1955 857 15,847 2,358 166 319 1956 834 16,296 2,418 154 279 1957 823 16,482 2,032 146 295 1958 777 16,980 1,955 144 277 1959 877 17,053 1,942 136 265 1960 780 17,654 1,655 125 238 1961 742 19,877 1,697 114 221 1962 632 19,940 1,707 98 266 1963 608 19,942 1,657 97 278 1964 540 17,856 1,552 89 250 1965 542 16,140 1,913 85 249 1966 475 17,385 2,176 82 216 1967 451 17,506 2,368 80 213 1968 381 17,253 2,425 72 139 1969 316 16,580 2,729 57 125 1 Refers to all fishermen engaged in harvesting. 2 Value deflated by wholesale price index (1957-1959=100). metabolites, are a problem in Lake Superior. concentration in fish in oligotrophic lakes Some long-lived species, such as lake trout, than in mesotrophic or eutrophic lakes. There- show signs of concentrating DDT above the fore, the water quality of Lake Superior may maximum level of 5 ppm allowed for interstate need greater protection from these types of commerce. The effect of the chlorinated hy- pollutants. drocarbons on the reproduction of lake trout In addition, it is evident that the high qual- in Lake Superior is not known. ity of water now existing in Lake Superior There is considerable evidence that rela- helps maintain higher quality water in Lake tively small quantities of either heavy metal Huron and perhaps in the lower Lakes. Thus, or persistent pesticide pollutants can cause protection afforded the Lake Superior wa- severe problems in oligotrophic lakes. These tershed benefits a large area of the Great pollutants are apparently more available for Lakes. 64 Appendix 8 Effects of Physical Changes tury and little effort was made to manage the fishery by any State. As virgin fish popula- Major physical changes in Lake Superior tions became more difficult to find and take, have occurred near mining or ore processing the whitefish catch dropped significantly. In facilities around the shoreline. At these loca- the early 1900s, the States began programs to tions, tons of waste material have been depos- control the take of immature whitefish and in ited into the Lake. Once a problem at several cooperation with the United States Fish locations, the disposal of ore processing waste Commission, whitefish and lake trout fry now constitutes a major threat in only one plantings were made in Lake Superior. northshore location in Minnesota. This min- Despite little evidence that they were suc- ing operation is now under orders from the cessful, the fry planting program continued Federal government to stop further disposal through the early 1900s. The States concen- of waste into Lake Superior. However, a large trated their fish management efforts on their area has already been affected by this opera- inland waters during the first half of this cen- tion. tury. During this same period, a patchwork of Filling, dredging, and lake level manipula- regulations was imposed on commercial fish- tion for navigation does not pose a serious ing dealing with seasons, size limits, and gear problem for the fish populations of Lake restrictions. The net result of these regula- Superior. However, spoiling areas need to be tions was to make commercial fishing ineffi- carefully chosen to prevent destruction of cient without providing adequate protection valuable spawning areas. Obviously polluted for the stocks. waste from harbor facilities should not be During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the dumped in the open waters of Lake Superior. management agencies became concerned over declining stocks of herring and lake trout and potential effects of the sea lamprey invasion in Effects of Biological Changes Lake Superior. In the late 1950s, under the auspices of the Great Lakes Fishery Commis- Like Lakes Huron and Michigan, Lake sion, Lake Superior was chosen as the first Superior has been affected by the invasion of Great Lake to receive sea lamprey control and the sea lamprey, which gained entrance into lake trout restocking under the new interna- the upper Great Lakes through the Welland tional compact. In 1958 chemical sea lamprey Canal. In Lake Superior, alewife has never control began on Lake Superior tributaries reached the abundance levels existing in and lake trout fingerling stocking began. Lakes Huron and Michigan. The introduction The States initiated further restrictions on of smelt remains an important factor in the commercial fishing for lake trout to protect present composition of fish in Lake Superior. the planted fish. By 1970, Michigan and Wis- Sea lamprey continues to have a depressing consin had initiated forms of limited entry to effect on the rehabilitation of the valuable reduce the number of commercial fishermen fisheries of Lake Superior. The role of smelt is and had instituted closed fishing areas to pro- not clearly understood. The introductions of tect expanding lake trout stocks. coho, chinook and pink salmon, brown trout, By 1970 both Michigan and Wisconsin had and steelhead have had both positive and licensed sport fishermen on Lake Superior for negative effects on the Lake Superior fishery. the first time and all three States had insti- Commercial fishing has affected fluctua- tuted creel censuses to estimate the sport tions of fish populations in Lake Superior. catch of salmonids from Lake Superior. In Since commercial exploitation has been di- Michigan and Wisconsin size and daily catch rected at short-term gains, the net effect on limits on sport-caught trout and salmon were the fishery has been negative. made more restrictive. The broad goal of the State fishery pro- grams on Lake Superior is to restore an op- 3.1.5 Fisheries Management timum balance between prey and high-value predator species, and to manage these popula- tions for the maximum benefit of society. Past and Present Management Management policies place high priorities on developing the recreational fishery to its Commercial fish production in Lake maximum economic level and enhancing the Superior remained relatively stable for white- commercial fishery by limited entry control. fish and lake trout until the turn of the cen- In order to achieve management objectives, Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 65 the States are currently involved in numerous ment and enforcement costs on the Great management programs, in cooperation with Lakes from those on the adjacent inland wa- the Federal governments of the United States ters. The known fish management costs are and Canada and the Provincial government of included in Table 8-6. Some of the activities of Ontario. These include sea lamprey control, the former Bureau of Commercial Fisheries stocking of salmonids, habitat improvement (now National Marine Fisheries Service) have and maintenance on anadromous streams, been taken over by the Bureau of Sport biological research, and regulation of the Fisheries and Wildlife and the estimated costs fishery. of these programs are included in Table 8-6. Each Federal, State, and Provincial agency (1) State Costs for Regulating the Com- participates in phases of eight current studies mercial Fishery evaluating the lake trout rehabilitation pro- The State management agencies are re- gram. These lake trout studies include: sponsible for enforcement of both sport and (1) success and movements of different commercial fishing laws in the United States hatchery plantings portion of Lake Superior. (2) incidence of lamprey wounding As might be expected, Michigan, with its (3) relative abundance of trout at various large geographic area, great number of com- ages mercial fishermen, and large sport fishery, (4) growth has high enforcement costs. Michigan's an- (5) relative abundance, age composition, nual enforcement cost exceeds $75,000 in Lake and distribution of spawning stocks Superior. Wisconsin estimates its enforce- (6) success of natural reproduction ment cost at $100,000 annually in Lake (7) availability rates for sport fishery Superior, mostly in control of the commercial (8) mortality rates at various ages fishery. In specific projects, Michigan is evaluating (2) Fish Stocking Costs the distribution, growth, sport catch, and sur- All three States and the Bureau of Sport vival of hatchery plantings of coho and Fisheries and Wildlife stock fish annually in chinook salmon, and brook and rainbow trout Lake Superior. For the past several years, the through creel census and biological surveys. planting rate for lake trout has been ap- Michigan is also continuing to evaluate the proximately 3,000,000 in the United States distribution, growth, age composition, and waters of Lake Superior. This costs the mortality rates of lake herring in an effort to Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife ap- determine the causes for recent decreases in proximately $240,000 annually. Based on the catch. Wisconsin is conducting a creel census to 1970 planting rates, Wisconsin has the second determine the quantity and species contribut- highest fish planting costs at $75,000. Michi- ing to the sport fishery. Wisconsin is also gan ranks third at $33,453. Although no exact studying walleye to determine abundance, figures are avilable, Minnesota probably distribution, discreteness, and catch rates, spends less than $20,000 annually. and planted brown and rainbow trout to de- (3) Fish Management and Research Costs termine their contribution to the sport The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife fishery. Minnesota is studying herring and as- operates a fishery research station on Lake sociated species to determine the causes for Superior at an annual cost of $84,300. This recent declines and testing smelt fishing trawl station carries out basic research detailed in gear for seasonal effectiveness. earlier sections. Wisconsin spends approxi- The Department of Interior's Bureau of mately $115,000 each year on fish manage- Sport Fisheries and Wildlife carries out re- ment and research in Lake Superior. Michi- search programs in addition to their sea lam- gan's expenditures in Lake Superior amount prey control responsibilities. In addition to to approximately $50,000 a year. Minnesota those on lake trout, studies now under way in- spends less than $30,000 a year in fish man- clude monitoring changes in forage and non- agement and research on Lake Superior. commercial species, changes in invertebrate organisms, and pollutants. 3.1.6 Projected Demands Cost of Fish Management and Projected demands for Lake Superior com- Development Programs mercial fish species are identical to those dis- cussed in the general demand section of Sec- Many States do not segregate fish manage- tion 2 and need not be repeated here. 66 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-6 Approximate 1972 Expenditures by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife on Lake Superior and Lake Michigan Unassignable Program Superior Michigan Gen. Great Lakes Fish Management Stocking 116.0 160.0 ----- Habitat Improvement ----- ----- ----- Lamprey Control 1 331.4 230.8 ----- Fishery Management ----- ----- Research Habitat Base 32.1 ----- ----- Heavy Metals ----- ----- 115.4 Fish 52.2 77.9 233.0 Sea Lamprey ----- ----- 203.2 1 Fishery Commercial Fishery ----- ----- ----- Statistics ----- 84.5 Creel Census ----- ------ ----- Total 531.7 468.7 636.1 1 1971 Recreational fishing demand is detailed in tion of water quality. High water quality is the following planning subarea discussions. essential for feeding, growth, reproduction, Future sport fishing demand for Lake Su- and survival of trout, salmon,and whitefish perior is not necessarily tied to the popula- found in Lake Superior. tion of the Lake Superior basin. Much of the There are few Lakewide water quality prob- current fishing demand on Lake Superior lems in Lake Superior. However, recent re- comes from people living outside the basin. search has indicated that the fish of oligo- Future demand will depend on maintenance trophic lakes are more likely to concentrate and improvement of the quality of the Lake contaminants such as mercury and DDT than Superior sport fishery. those of more eutrophic lakes. This fact may justify more stringent effluent standards on such contaminants in Lake Superior than in 3.1.7 Problems and Needs the other Great Lakes. Rigid enforcement of the Water Quality Standards adopted by the States under the Natural Resource Base 1965 Water Quality Act and the cooperation of Canada through the IJC are necessary to per- The protection of water quality in Lake petuate the high quality of water now present Superior is of utmost importance not only to in Lake Superior. the fishery resources of Lake Superior, but to Two major activities currently threaten the those of the lower Lakes as well. Fish are one natural resource base in Lake Superior. These of the first organisms to respond to degrada- are the dumping of tailing waste and the open Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 67 water disposal of harbor dredge material. 3.1.8 Probable Nature of Solutions Both practices should be controlled. A more specific discussion of these two problems oc- curs in the next section. Natural Resource Base Many potential solutions to Lake Superior Problems and Needs of the Total fisheries resource problems have already been Fishery discussed in Section 2. However, a few solu- tions need emphasis here because of their im- The reader should refer to Section 2 for de- portance to the future of the Lake Superior tailed discussion of problems and needs of the fishery. Lake Superior fishery common to all the Great Lake trout is the preferred prey species of Lakes. There are five major problems hamper- sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. Lake trout is ing the development and effective use of the probably more important to the Lake Superior fishery resource in Lake Superior: fishery than to the future of any other Lake. (1) An optimum balance between the prey Lake trout grows and matures more slowly in and predator species must be restored in the Lake Superior than in Lakes Michigan or Lake. Sea lamprey stocks must be reduced and Huron and is most vulnerable to sea lamprey maintained at levels low enough to allow the predation in Lake Superior. Therefore, im- recovery of self-propagating stocks of lake proved sea lamprey control methods are trout and other salmonid species. During the perhaps more important to the Lake Superior recovery period of these high-value predator fishery than to the fisheries of the other Great species, intensive biological and environmen- Lakes. The integrated sea lamprey control tal studies are required to provide fundamen- program recently proposed by the Great tal information on the factors which influence Lakes Fishery Commission offers the best changes in the survival and abundance of fish. hope for more effective sea lamprey control. These factors must be fully understood in This integrated program calls for several order to establish and maintain a well-bal- methods including chemical and biological anced multispecies complex in the Lake. controls and physical barriers to migration. (2) Coordinated management programs Research has begun on potential biological must be developed to assure that fish popula- controls, and a task force has been formed to tions are utilized on an optimum sustained recommend potential migration barrier sites. basis for maximum economic and social bene- The Fish Work Group strongly recommends fit. The solution of this problem requires: that these two control methods be adequately (a) intensive biological and economic funded both at the research and implementa- studies to provide the information needed to tion levels, properly balance the fishing intensities of the The spoiling of mining waste into Lake sport and commercial fisheries Superior has already'created serious losses in (b) development and public acceptance fisheries habitat. The United States En- of limited entry control to improve the vironmental Protection Agency has taken economic efficiency of the commercial fishery steps to stop the spoiling of mining waste and which is currently hampered by excessive the Fish Work Group supports this action. operators using nonselective fishing gear (c) full cooperation of agencies in de- veloping well-coordinated and compatible 3.2 Planning Subarea 1.1 management policies, philosophies, and pro- grams (3) Pollution abatement procedures must 3.2.1 Species Composition, Relative be developed to assure the maintenance of Importance, and Status water quality standards required by salmonid fishes. Planning Subarea 1.1, located in Minnesota (4) Necessary funds must be bbtained to and Wisconsin along the western portion of sustain long-range fishery management and Lake Superior (Figure 8-17), has fairly well- research programs. drained topography. As a result, the area is (5) In order to maximize the sport fishery, covered by streams, many of which support adequate harbors of refuge and public access trout or other coldwater species. Lake trout is areas to the Lake must be provided. found in the northern section in the deeper 68 Appendix 8 VtCINITY MAP -1- -ES 0@ P@ L Rive, \3 ecc-7 grule take @p CP e, cb Be itt A rand Marais LAKE Aurora Chi.h.Irn 0 , irginea Hibbing @vefeth 6@ /I / / . . 0 44 Silver Bay efa@ ST. LOUIS Two Harbors 0 0 V 19 APOSTLE ISLANDS S River 0) ST. UIS Dulut Bayfield Cloquet 0 C% nor ?. APOSTLE ISLANDS *As 0-10N A, -C. Z CARLTON@ Pot4 lo I n.ood 0 0Z W BAD Z MICH, zW S IV DOUGLAS BAYFIELD L ASHLAND IRON SCALIf IN MILES M ID 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-17 Planning Subarea 1.1 Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 69 rock-bound lakes. Walleye, northern pike, and because outsiders buy licenses at the point of smallmouth bass make up the predominant destination for their fishing trips. This is remainder of sport catch in the inland waters probably true to a lesser extent for the other of this area. Salmonids, including the counties. steelhead or rainbow trout, brown trout, and In this planning subarea with its well- coho salmon, are caught at the mouths of the drained topography, a combination of warm- tributaries to Lake Superior. Because of the water and coldwater streams will be found. nature of the lakes and streams and their low The largest stream is the St. Louis River productivity, few panfish species are found. which has hundreds of miles of main stream Due to their general inaccessibility, most in- and tributaries. This stream contains channel land lakes have provided good angling oppor- catfish, northern pike, walleye, and tunities for the prevalent species. Increased smallmouth bass. It has many miles of fisha- fishing pressure has reduced fishing success ble water in a remote wilderness surrounding in the lake trout lakes. and is considerably underfished. One of its The stream fishery is characterized by major tributaries, the Cloquet River, has been lake-run rainbow, steelhead, or brown trout at designated a wild river, and the St. Louis the lower end and a coldwater portion at the River is partly designated as a State canoe headwaters where brook, brown, or sometimes river. rainbow trout exist. Because there are more Watershed site investigations have been mature trees and shade on the upper portions completed for both the St. Louis and north of the streams, water temperatures have been shore watersheds and management programs declining and providing more extensive trout have been implemented in these streams. habitat than was the case following the log- ging era. A the present time factors limiting popula- 3.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production tion are shallowness of the streams, lack of and Distribution of Important Fish pools, and heavy winter ice cover when there Species is a lack of ground water. Because of the rocky terrain, the streams are not able to cut deep The low productivity of inland waters af- pools needed by trout for winter cover. To im- fects the production of sport fish in this north- prove this habitat, pools need to be deepened eastern section of Minnesota. However, this for wintering trout. low productivity is associated with a good dis- Because coho salmon and steelhead make tribution of oligotrophic lakes which have runs to spawning grounds, certain spawning high water quality and support lake troup areas in the lower ends of some streams must fisheries. Introduction of bass and walleye has be -improved. Fishways must be provided in affected the production of lake trout in many some streams to circumvent the falls that lakes. block passage of fish near the lower end -of In many of the streams which support these streams. stream trout, poor wintering habitat, includ- ing lack of pools, escape cover, and a scarcity of good spawning gravel, limits population. 3.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity Streams flowing over the outeroppings of the Laurentian Upland do not have the opportu- In Minnesota, the natural inland lakes pro- nity to create pools and banks undercuttings vide approximately 562,500 acres of surface necessary for trout cover. Extreme winters water within a land area of 10,281 square and two or more feet of ice cover severely di- miles. In this portion of the State, the area of minished the winter habitat and supporting lakes per capita amounts to 2.08 acres. capacity of the streams. Figure 8-18 shows acres of ponded water in Lakeshore development has not created any PSA 1.1. Approximately 84 percent of the problems except for a few lakes near the City Minnesota population in this basin dwells in of Duluth in St. Louis County. Water skiing St. Louis County, the major portion in the City and boating on these lakes reduce the amount of Duluth. Resident license sales, which total of fishing on weekend days. Competition for 94,163 for the Minnesota portion, and the rate the limited supply of fish food occurs in many per capita is generally the same in all counties of the northern inland lakes. Removal of suck- except Cook. In Cook County, a sparsely popu- ers and other competing species will provide lated area, resident fishing licenses sold ex- an increased production of desirable sport ceed the number of people living in the county fish. 70 Appendix 8 x .......... ............. ......... . "S :x-i-xi: X: X. 0 0 ................. G> ... ....... .......... 0 ............ .... T. LOUj ...................... .......... . ................. ........... ................. ::: ..... .............. ........ ....... CARLTON@ .......................... ........... ........... .. ....... ..... ........... C/) ......... w .0 . . .. .... % ... ...... :4. ................. .. ........ /Sc ........ ........................ ... ..... DOUGLAS ::::::::BAYFIELD::::::: ASHLAND LEGEND F] UNDER 10,000 10,000-100,000 -S OVER 100,000 SCALE IN MILES rj '-.=@5 20 25 FIGURE 8-18 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 1.1 Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 71 Most rivers and streams in the Minnesota mand should be met in one or more of the fol- portion have not suffered much physical lowing ways: abuse or pollution. The short stretch of the (1) additional intensive management of re- lower portion of the St. Louis River has poorer claimed trout lakes water quality because of paper mill wastes (2) fishing for other species in other lakes and other sources of pollution in the vicinity of (3) successful introduction of new sal- Cloquet. Several hydroelectric or storage res- monid species into Lake Superior and ervoirs on the St. Louis River cause fluctua- tributaries tions that create fish production problems. Programs necessary to raise production in trout waters are limited to small lakes and will not provide any large relief. Warmwater fish- 3.2.4 History of Sport Fishery ing is not a true substitute for trout fishing and will not be acceptable to ardent trout The sport fishery in the Minnesota portion fishermen. New developments in coho salmon of this basin started with emphasis on coldwa- and rainbow trout introduction into Lake ter species. Lake and brook trout fishing in the Superior and its tributaries hold the most tributaries to Lake Superior was the most promise in meeting new demand. popular sport fishing in the area. As fishing The lakes of the Minnesota border country for lake trout declined in the 1930s and 1940s, should be maintained in their present oligo- emphasis shifted to warmwater fish which in trophic state. Preservation of these high qual- turn brought demand for stocking such ity waters is important because the area is species as walleye and smallmouth bass. This fragile. stocking brought about a population boom in Using population trends, a calculation inland lakes with very little competition. As a based on multiple regression analysis was, result, many of the coldwater species suffered. made and these figures show a 1970 total de- The establishment of lake-run trout and sal- mand of 2.691 million angler days. By 1980 this monid species in the tributaries of Lake will have reached approximately 2.840 million; Superior has created a new interest in this by 2000, an estimated 3.228 million; and by sport fishery. This new sport fishery seems to 2020, a total of 2.679 million angler days. The offer the most promise for growth to meet fu- Minnesota portion of the demand amounts to ture fishing demand in the area. Regulations 1.906 million angler days in 1970 (approxi- on the harvest of lake trout and control of mately 70 percent of total demand for the competing species may bring lake trout popu- planning subarea). lation back to acceptable standards for a lim- In-migration from other areas represents a ited number of sport fishermen. large percentage of the total number of angler days. The number of residents who go to other areas of the State to fish and buy their licenses 3.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and outside of Planning Subarea 1.1 is insignifi- Current Needs cant in the computation of demand (Table 8-7). According to a 1967 survey, Lake, Cook, St. Louis, and Carleton Counties and Koochiching 3.2.6 Ongoing Programs and 1pasca Counties to the west sustained ap- proximately 532,000 fishing trips for coldwa- The current fishery programs involve prop- ter species and 1,534,000 for warmwater er protection and improvement of the species. A comparison of lake and stream natural resources which serve as a basis for water area to coldwater fishing demand in fish production and the direct manipulation of terms of fishing trips shows that there was a fish population in poor lakes and streams. In- deficiency of approximately 6,000 acres of tensive warmwater management includes ac- lakes and 820 miles of streams to meet the quisition of a spawning area, chemical re- resident demand within the State. By 1985 habilitation of small stream trout lakes, re- this demand is anticipated to increase nearly moval of warmwater competing species in cer- five times. tain soft-water walleye or oligotrophic lake The number of lakes capable of supporting trout lakes, and intensive fish stocking in trout is now limited, and may be decreasing as trout streams, reclaimed trout lakes, and in certain lakes undergo natural aging and lose some of the larger walleye lakes. Some lake their trout production capacity. Future de- trout stocking is done in the lake trout lakes. 72 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-7 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 1.1 States Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res* Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Minnesota Carlton 860 29.4 34.2 6,910 .2350 693 9,897 .3366 Cook 1,335 3.2 2.4 101,152 31.6100 5,200 3,437 1.0741 Lake 2,050 12.9 6.3 118,038 9.1502 5,020 6,011 .4660 St. Louis 6,036 225.0 37.3 336,426 1.4952 27,938 74,818 .3325 Total 10,281 270.5 26.3 562,526 2.0796 38,851 94,163 .3481 Wisconsin Ashland 1,026 16.2 15.8 4,382 .2705 1,328 2,881 .1778 Bayfield 1,450 12.3 8.5 20,792 1.6904 5,358 4,072 .3311 Douglas 1,305 42.7 32.7 11,833 .2771 4,622 7,526 .1763 Iron 741 5.9 8.0 32,689 5.5405 4,967 22710 .4593 Total 4,522 77.1 17.0 69,696 .9040 16,275 17,189 .2229 Projected Angler Day Demand Land Area Population Population 1 2 States and Years (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Total Minnesota 1980 10,281 288.2 28.0 2,280,000 3,787,171 2000 10,281 334.3 32.5 2,623,000 4,392,961 2020 10,281 386.0 37.5 3,010,000 5,072,339 Wisconsin 1980 4,522 78.4 17.3 510,000 1,247,000 2000 4,522 83.0 18.4 535,000 1,395,000 2020 4,522 88.9 19.7 569,000 1,569,000 Total PSA 1.1 14,803 347.6 23.5 1980 14,803 366.6 24.8 2,790,000 5pO34,171 2000 14,803 417.3 28.2 3,158,000 5,787,961 2020 14.803 474.9 32.1 3,579,000 6,641,339 1Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. Regular rotational stocking of the walleye coho salmon and rainbow trout introductions lakes and lake trout lakes generally follows the into Lake Superior and its tributaries rather fishery management plans instituted for such than attempting to increase the productivity waters. Annual 'stocking of stream trout usu- of the oligotrophic lakes in the border country. ally follows a management plan. Anadromous fish passages are important to Figure 8-19 shows the current extension of salmonid fishery development in both large the stream trout fishery as well as the general and small river systems. area of the lake trout fishery. However, even Plans for fishery development beyond 1980 the most vigorous programs to increase fish- have not been formulated at this time. How- ing potential in the area will -not meet the de- ever, it will probably include intensive man- mand because of the low productivity of wa- agement of reclaimed trout lakes, introduc- ters and the increasing demand for trout fish- tion of salmon and steelhead trout into Lake ing. Therefore, increases in fishing demand Superior and its tributaries along with neces- should be met by new developments such as sary spawning run development, and perhaps Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 73 cl cocw LAKE ST. LOUIS CARLTON@ t: z w 0 z U z U) ?: S S/iv DOUGLAS BAYFIELD ASHLAND IRON 4k LEGEND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ALL COLD AND WARM WATER LAKES ER LAKES WARM-WAT COLD-WATER LAKES SCALE IN MILES @-i _F@ 0 5 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-19 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 1.1 74 Appendix 8 an expansion of warmwater species manage- fleets this uniform distribution of water. Alger ment via removal of competing species and County has the highest number of resident development of artificial spawning areas. license sales per capita at.2984, and Chippewa County has the lowest at .1212. Amount of ponded water per capita varies from .3038 3.3 Planning Subarea 1.2 acres in Chippewa County to 2.5871 acres in Keweenaw County (Table 8-8). The river systems are relatively small and 3.3.1 Species Composition, Relative movement of fish is restricted by numerous Importance, and Status waterfalls along an escarpment running gen- erally east and west across the entire plan- Planning Subarea 1.2 (Figure 8-20) covers ning subarea. the northern portion of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, with a number of short streams draining to Lake Superior. The topography is 3.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production generally rolling to rugged. and Distribution of Important Fish Brook trout was indigenous to tributaries of Species Lake Superior, and most river systems still support its populations. Brown trout is less Only a few rivers around urban and indus- common in this area than in Michigan's Lower trial complexes have poor water quality and Peninsula. Steelhead runs most of the streanis efforts are under way to improve waste treat- during the spring, but its penetration up- ment in these areas. Generally, water quality stream is often only a short distance because is excellent in Planning Subarea 1.2 in both waterfalls are common within a few miles of lakes and streams. the mouths of Lake Superior tributaries. The distribution of fish is primarily deter- Largemouth bass and bluegill were proba- mined by natural conditions. Most larger bly not indigenous to this area and their pres- lakes are oligotrophic and many of the smaller sent distribution resulted from introductions lakes border on being acid bogs. Low annual early in this century. Neither of these warm- mean temperatures depress the growth of water species does well in the cold, generally many species better adapted to temperate oligotrophic lakes of this planning subarea, warmwater environments. but they are common in impounded backwater areas. Smallmouth bass, yellow perch, north- ern pike, and rock bass are the most abundant 3.3.4 History of Sport Fishery and popular sport fish in the warmwater lakes of the area. Natural populations of walleye Resident fishing license sales reached an and muskellunge add ta the recreational all-time high in 1969. Over 43,000 resident fishery in some warmwater lakes. licenses were sold in 1969 compared to 26,000 Lake trout is native to some of the inland in 1950. Part of the increase is due to the re- lakes and annual stocking of rainbow trout, covery of lake trout in Lake Superior and the brook trout, and splake provides over 10,000 introduction of salmon. The construction of acres of trout fishing opportunities. the Mackinac Bridge and the recent reduction The same species found in the lakes are of tolls have made the fishery resources more common in most river systems. Trout is most available to anglers of southern Michigan. Ac- important in cold rivers and headwater areas, cess site development, new road construction, and warmwater species dominate the large, and better fish management practices have relatively warm mainstream areas. also provided new sport fishing opportunities in the last 20 years. 3.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity 3.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and The impoundments and inland lakes of Plan- Current Needs ning Subarea 1.2 total over 145,535 acres of fishable water. The distribution of water The total angler-day demand within the in- within the planning subarea is relatively uni- land waters exceeds 1,400,000. Because de- form with only two counties having less than mand is determined through license sales, 9,000 acres of ponded water (Figure 8-21). The there is no quantitative way to calculate need. number of resident license sales per capita re- However, the need to preserve and maintain Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 75 10 KEWEENAW ISLE ROYALE E EN Laurium PENIN LA KEWEENAW COUNTY S Houghto LAKE SUPERIOR Portelp talm 4 Ontonagon f HURON MT. Yellow 9L- \-1 RV S RGEON @ Marquette Gogebic Lake 0 ONAG Wakefiel Ishpernin. 0, Negaun wood \-f. IGA ro.; CU HOUGHTd@N UPINE T. GR 0 M AIS Iu TONA N CGEBI 4c MARQUETTE s LAKE SUPERIOR -44 Howled Sault Ste. Marie 4 0 G D ARAIS WHITEFISH X SAY W a Mun* Ing IENON -11 Tbqu- SAULT ewberry LUCE_ < ALGER CHIPPE A DR MMONDI. VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES o o-O E." @-ISLE III SCALE IN MILES 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-20 Planning Subarea 1.2 76 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-8 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 1.2 State Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Michigan Alger 896 8.3 9.3 12,260 1.4771 1,951 2,477 .2984 Baraga 899 7.8 8.7 8,198 1.0510 883 1,696 .2174 Chippewa 1,586 36.8 23.2 11,181 .3038 4,420 4,459 .1212 Gogebic 1,104 20.7 18.8 37,634 1.8181 5,022 4,076 .1969 Houghton 1,013 34.3 33.9 22,899 .6676 1,844 5,656 .1649 Keweenaw 534 2.1 3.9 5,433 2.5871 329 509 .2424 Luce 901 6.8 7.5 10,311 1.5163 1,005 1,969 .2896 Marquette 1,818 67.8 37.3 279510 .4058 2,472 10,879 .1605 Ontonagon 1,314 10.6 8.1 10,109 .9537 1,127 2,286 .2157 Total 10,065 195.2 19.4 145,535 .7456 19,053 34,007 .1742 Projected Angler Day Demand Land Area Population Population 1 2 State and Year (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Total Michigan 1980 10,065 171.3 17.0 1,214,626 2,315,000 2000 10,065 177.4 17.6 1,257,879 2,589,000 2020 10,065 193.8 19.3 1,574,165 39185,000 1Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. the present fishery resource base is obvious. game species. Habitat protection activities do Nearly all the demand expressed by local not consume as much time as they do in the anglers is supplied within the planning sub- populous areas of southern Michigan. area. In addition, many people who live and The United States Forest Service has ex- buy their licenses in other planning subareas tensive areas under management, and many come to PSA 1.2 to fish. In Alger, Chippewa, cooperative programs for developing the and Gogebic Counties, out-of-State fishermen fishery resources are carried out by the State buy as many licenses as Michigan residents. of Michigan and the Forest Service in Na- Fishermen who buy their licenses elsewhere tional Forests. These include chemical re- probably add at least 1,000,000 angler days to habilitation, fish stocking, and access de- the current demand. velopment. Latent demand for fishing opportunities is Figure 8-22 and Table 8-9 summarize cur- low for people living in Planning Subarea 1.2, rent intensive fish management programs. but the latent demand of southern Michigan Most of the trout streams have sufficient and Wisconsin will be important in consider- natural reproduction and annual plantings ing the future management plans for this are not required. In 1969, more than 800,000 planning subarea. The majority of fishing de- trout were stocked primarily in- inland lakes. mand currently expressed comes'\from people Almost 3,000,000 warmwater fish were living outside the planning subarea. planted in inland lakes in 1969 including northern pike, bass, walleye, and muskel- lunge. The number of fish planted is somewhat deceiving because many of the warmwater 3.3.6 Ongoing Programs fish planted were fry. Actually, trout plant- ings totaled more than 40,000 pounds in 1969 Fish management activities involve and warmwater fish plants totaled only 523 maintenance plantings and introduction of pounds. Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 77 KEWEENAW KE EENAW COUNTY .......... ............ .......... .................. ........... . %.%. X ............ ..... ....... 2 :% .... .......... .. .............. ..... ........... X. ......................... ................. ............ ................ ........ .......... I .......... BARAGA ............. X. ................ Z .. ............. UNIUNAUUN- X %: . . . . . . . ............ ........... :% ................ ............. ...... ............. ........... ....... . ................... .n ......... .......... ............... .......... ....... ............. . ... ........ ... ....... ................. ............. ............ ............... .......... ........ ...... ............... .......... .................... ..................... LEGEND UNDER 9000 F] 9000-12,000 OVER 12,000 SCALE IN MILES 0 5 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-21 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 1.2 78 Appendix 8 TABLE8-9 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 1.2 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Intensive Total Trout Anadromous County (sq-mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Alger 934 12,260 277 19 66.1 921.8 709 603.4 33.0 Baraga 925 8,198 157 9 ------- 137 696 447.5 68.5 Chippewa 1,651 11,181 153 9 1,576.8 119.4 800 387.3 78.0 Gogebic 1,146 37,634 276 30 653.5 1,838 1,204 519.3 6.5 Houghton 1,047 22,899 139 10 ------- 373 923 538.7 133.5 Keweenaw, 587 5,433 46 6 ------- 1,025 271 98.6 45.7 Luce 929 10,311 228 38 2,191.5 722.5 658 420.3 35.4 Marquette 1,878 27,510 419 38 32 4,970.5 1,906 1,363.5 23.5 Ontonagon 1,331 10,109 78 7 ------- 152 1,282 555.0 114.0 Total 10,428 145,535 1,773 166 4,519.9 10,259.2 8,449 4,933.6 538.1 Table 8-10 summarizes the salmon plants jections for the years 2000 and 2020 are one- made during 1970. Salmon plants provide half of the possible number (Table 8-8). some stream fishery and an open water Lake The fishing quality and natural beauty of Superior fishery. Salmon plants were initiated Michigan's Upper Peninsula must be main- in 1966 in the Big Huron River in Baraga tained in order to attract fishermen from the County. more populous areas. State and Federal lands should be purchased and developed to pre- serve and enhance the unique qualities of the 3.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and fishery resources. Fishery resources in this Participation planning subarea cannot withstand heavy exploitation, but they can and should provide Future demand was calculated on expected considerable recreation. Unique and fragile population trends. Since population is ex- natural resources can be used and enjoyed pected to decrease in the next 10 years, fishing without being destroyed or significantly al- demand figures decrease. However, from cur- tered. The current restricted catch fishery on rent trends, it is evident that fishing demand the Sylvania Lakes of the Ottawa National is increasing steadily primarily because of the Forest is a good example of this. inflow of fishermen living outside the plan- ning subarea. It is reasonable to expect an increase of fishing demand to 2,000,000 angler 3.3.8 Fishery Development Plans days by 1980. If new fishing opportunities are added and promoted, latent demand from Most of the increased demand expected by southern Michigan could add an additional 1980, approximately 1,000,000 angler days, 250,000 angler days by 1980. Similarly, the pro- will be supplied by Lake Superior where lake trout, salmon, and steelhead are providing a larger sport fishery each year. Many of the inland lakes and streams could TABLE 8-10 1970 Salmon Stocking, PSA 1.2 provide more fishing opportunities without large management expenditures. The lack of Location Coho Chinook promotion and information about this fishery Anna River 150,000 ------- resource, and the relatively high cost in both Dead River 75,000 50,006 money and time necessary to take advantage Falls River at of them currently limits angler use. Dault's Creek 81,616 ------- New fish management expenditures will be Presque Isle River 50,000 ------- directed toward developing and promoting Sturgeon River 100,000 100,000 unique high quality fisheries that can attract Sucker River 50,000 ------- anglers from long distances. Land acquisition for access, habitat protection, and fish pas- Total 506,616 150,006 sage is essential to the development of the fishery. The priority land acquisition sites and Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 79 A A KEWEENAW KEWEENAW COUNTY A A A A A A A A, A A A 0 A 0 AA A A A 00 0 A HOUGHTON BARAGA A A 0 0 0 ONTONAGON A A -A A GOGESICA A A U A MARQUETTE C /GA 0 ALGER 2 S/IV A A 00 A A A 0 A A AA & 0 a a 0 A A A 0 A A A 00 A A A 0 , A A A 0 0 LUCE 2 0 ALGER CHIPPEWA LEGEND o WARM-WATER LAKES A, COLD-WATER LAKES SCALE IN MILES 0 [AL.IER 0 5 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-22 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 1.2 80 Appendix 8 estimated costs are detailed in Figure 8-23 TABLE8-11 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, and Table 8-11. Fish passages over existing Planning Subarea 1.2 barriers are planned on at least one major County River Acres Cost stream before 1980 at a cost of between $100,000 and $200,000. Baraga Huron 220 $ 50,000 The planned trout hatchery will provide Baraga Falls 40 40,000 better quality and more trout for stocking Houghton Pilgrim 900 60,000 lakes. Approximately $800,000 of the capital cost of the new trout hatchery will be charged Houghton Otter 700 40,000 to Planning Subarea 1.2. Operating costs for Baraga this new hatchery and the costs of treating Ontonagon Ontonagon 2,560 130,000 lakes and planting the trout will add $75,000 to the annual operating expenditures. The bene- Ontonagon Big Iron 1,280- 60,000 fits in terms of angler days attributable to this Total 5,700 $380,000 new hatchery have not yet been determined. Increases in fishing quality and cost efficien- cies in providing trout for the creel are the primary justification. source of eggs and fry, existing rearing The development of the new warmwater facilities can be put to full use in the produc- hatchery in southern Michigan will directly tion of warmwater fish. Some new rearing affect fish management. The lack of suitable facilities may be built to take full advantage of replacement stock like walleye and this new hatchery capability. The costs and smallmouth bass has always deterred warm- benefits of this program have not yet been water rehabilitation projects. With this new detailed. Lake Superior Basin, Plan Area 1.0 81 10 KEWEENAW ISLE ROYALE E EN Laurium PENIN LA KEWEENAW COUNTY H.ught. LAKE SUPERIOR Ontonagon f URON M Yellow D09 'L* Gogebic Lake S RGEON Marquette 'Is- Wakefiel 0. Ishpeming 0 0 ONAG ._O,.@Negaun Ironwood HOUGHTIA BARAGA GR D M AIS w P(hRCUPINE MT. z ONTONAGON D 1@j MARQUETTE sco st ALGER 2 LAKE SUPERIOR Sault Ste. Marie a D ARAIS WHITEFISH 4 0 - - - NON DAY w M Ing SAULT @@Lewberry LICE LGER CHIPPE MMOIND 1. VICINITY INAP SME 1. .-ICS 0 w It LEGEND GENERALIZED LOCATION FOR HABITAT PROTECTION AND FISHERMEN ACCESS ISLE ROY", SCALE IN MILES n 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-23 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 1.2 Section 4 LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN, PLAN AREA 2.0 The comments on Plan Area 2.0 (Figure dance of certain prized food species after the 8-24) are divided into two major parts. The establishment of the first major commercial first is limited to Lake Michigan and the fishery in the mid-1800s, dramatic fluctua- second treats the individual planning sub- tions in the numbers and kinds of fish began in areas of the Lake Michigan basin. the early 1940s. Since 1940 several major fac- tors have affected Lake Michigan fish popula- tions: overexploitation and selective exploi- 4.1 Resources, Uses, and Management tation by the commercial fishery of high- and medium-value species, the invasion of the sea 4.1.1 Habitat Base lamprey, the population explosion of alewife, partial sea lamprey control programs, and In addition to the information included in large scale hatchery plantings of salmonids. the introductory section of the appendix, the Commercial species such as herring and following statements characterize Lake walleye are now nearly extinct. Yellow perch Michigan more specifically: and lake trout have not yet recovered to (1) Lake Michigan is the second largest former Lakewide abundance levels. Chubs, Great Lake (22,400 square miles). whitefish, and alewife now dominate the (2) The Lake has a 67,860-mile drainage commercial catch in both dollars and pound- area and except for the man-made Chicago Di- age. The increasing sport catch of trout and version Canal, its only outlet is to Lake Huron salmon since 1966 reflects their increase in through the Straits of Mackinac. abundance. (3) Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake The alewife forage base and the generally entirely within the continental limits of the good water quality (Figure 8-25) have made United States. Lake Michigan the top producer of trout and (4) Maximum depth of Lake Michigan is salmon. There are positive signs that natural approximately 924 feet and its maximum reproduction of lake trout occurred through- length and width are 315 and 75 miles respec- out the northern half of the Lake for the first tively. time in the fall of 1971. Although natural re- (5) Three large bays in Lake Michigan production of lake trout may someday support break up an otherwise regular shoreline: the lake trout fishery, maintenance stocking Green Bay (including the Bays de Noe), Little of trout and salmon will be required in the Traverse Bay, and Grand Traverse Bay. future. (6) The major island areas are located near 4f the eastern side of Green Bay and near Grand Traverse Bay in the northeast section of Lake Value of the Individual Species to the Michigan. Ecosystem Subsection 2.3.1 discusses in detail the 4.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major major relationships between species common Changes throughout the Great Lakes. This subsection will deal with those relationships in Lake Lake Michigan fish populations have Michigan. undergone dramatic changes during the last Considered as a whole, Lake Michigan could 40 years. Coldwater species including lake be defined as an oligotrophic lake with a sim- trout, whitefish, herring, and chubs have ple complex of species. However, the shallow, dominated the catch of the commercial productive areas of the southern portion of the fishery. Lake and the Green Bay area sustain fish Although changes occurred in the abun- populations similar to those found in Lake 83 84 APPend"' 8 CAM" 03 4 VICIt4ITY MAP 2A 2.4 w C A 14 2.3 2.2 ILLINO" N 0 1 A N SCALE Ir4 MILES 1. @111 w 0 10 20 Q-24 plan Area 2.0 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 85 40 LAKE MICHIGAN 35 - CALCIUM % 30 - 25 - Z 0 20 (L cn cr 4 0. 15 - SULFATE 10 - 0 0 0 X CHLORIDE 0 0 5 00 0 A X 0 00 SODIUM AND POTASSIUM 0 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 YEAR FIGURE 8-25 Lake Michigan, Major Chemical Cations Erie. Alewife inhabits and dominates nearly Lake Michigan Basin by the Fish and Wildlife all areas of the Lake at various times of the Service in 1966. Figures 8-26 and 8-27 and Ta- year and is the single most important species bles 8-12 and 8-13 summarize the contribution from a biological standpoint. Alewife directly or of each species since 1935. indirectly affects the growth, survival, and The contribution of individual species to the abundance of most major species in Lake commercial fishery has varied considerably Michigan. The sea lamprey, now at perhaps 15 depending upon intensity of the fishery and percent of its peak abundance, still plays a availability of high-value species. Peak years major role in determining the abundance of of production for many species were often fol- larger species, particularly lake trout. lowed by severe declines strongly suggesting Hatchery planting programs will continue that overexploitation had taken place. to affect the abundance of large salmonid Lake trout was the primary money species predators, which feed largely on alewife. The in the Lake Michigan commercial fishery until level of trout and salmon plantings has helped the late 1940s when the fishing effort shifted to hold down the abundance of alewife and to more abundant low-value species. Lake relieve population pressures on the other herring production varied between two and species such as yellow perch, smelt, and chubs. five million pounds in the period 1920 to 1947. In 1948 the catch began to increase and hit a high of 9,691,000 pounds in 1952. By 1960 the Contribution of Individual Species to catch of lake herring dropped to 233,000 the Commercial Fishery pounds. Lake herring is now commercially un- important and rapidly approaching biological The contribution of each species to the extinction. commercial catch was reviewed in detail in the Similary, walleye production from Lake Great Lakes-Illinois River Basin Report, Fish Michigan varied between 50,000 and 200,000 and Wildlife as Related to Water Quality of the pounds annually from the turn of the century 86 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-12 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 12 Major Species in Lake Michigan Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Alewife 1 1 1 1 Lbs. ---1 --- ---I ---1 568,340 5,490,020 28,269,600 % of Volume --- --- --- --- 2.1 22.8 63.7 Burbot Lbs. 37,700 44,140 66,420 15,200 17,520 5,2002 34,720 % of Volume .2 .2 .3 .1 .1 --- .1 Carp Lbs. 1,605,440 1,701,840 1,318,600 1,169,680 1,785,520 1,412,020 2,348,800 % of Volume 6.4 7.8 5.4 4.0 6.5 5.9 5.3 Chub Lbs. 5,295,400 1,970,760 5,436,520 10,481,600 9,946,640 9,707,920 8,620,080 % of Volume 21.2 9.1 22.3 35.9 36.4 40.3 19.4 Lake Herring Lbs. 4,621,400 1,829,880 6,044,120 8,000,140 3,639,100 120,160 47,180 % of Volume 18.5 8.4 24.8 27.4 13.3 .5 .1 Lake Trout Lbs. 5,037,580 6,578,640 2,675,060 13,740 ___l 5,440 31,320 % of Volume 20.2 30.3 11.0 --- 2 --- I --- 2 .1 Sheepshead 2 Lbs. 9,420 2 85,780 86,200 17,840 3,400 2 2,0202 ---2 % of Volume --- .4 .4 .1 --- --- --- Smelt Lbs. 1,452,040 2,911,460 765,140 4,384,040 6,982,580 1,827,540 1,506,520 % of Volume 5.8 13.4 3.1 15.0 25.6 7.6 3.4 Sucker Lbs. 2,265,820 2,125,120 1,900,940 881,940 652,180 407,580 443,260 % of Volume 9.1 9.8 7.8 3.0 2.4 1.7 1.0 Lake Whitefish Lbs. 1,200,940 1,349,160 3,775,880 1,436,000 107,340 369,400 1,114,700 % of Volume 4.8 6.2 15.4 4.9 .4 1.5 2.5 Yellow Perch Lbs. 2,406,160 2,728,940 1,446,320 1,962,220 3,055,180 4,600,200 930,500 % of Volume 9.6 12.6 5.9 6.7 11.2 19.1 2.1 Yellow Pike Lbs. 77,440 49,020 506,200 605,120 488,400 75,660 18,220 2 % of Volume .3 .2 2.1 2.1 1.8 .3 --- Average Total Volume 24,935,280 21,712,440 24,406,980 29,181,400 27,326,760 24,113,520 44,401,760 1Absent from the commercial catch 2Less than 100 pounds or .1% to the late 1940s. In 1950 walleye production pounds for the first time and has remained reached an all-time high of 1,349,000 pounds near the 10-million-pound mark since then. but it quickly dropped off to less than 200,000 Formerly several chub species made up the pounds by 1960. Now walleye contributes less catch, now only bloaters are left. These for- than 5,000 pounds annually to the commercial merly common species of chubs now maintain catch. only remnant populations. The largest of Commercial chub production varied be- these is in Grand Traverse Bay which has re- tween 1.5 and 6.0 million pounds between 1900 mained closed to commercial fishing for sev- and 1948. In 1950 it surpassed 10 million eral years. Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 87 TABLE 8-13 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 12 Major Species in Lake Michigan Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Alewife 1 1 1 1 Dollars --- --- --- --- 15,248 94,348 325,782 % of Value --- I ___l ---1 ---1 .5 4.2 12.2 Burbot Dollars 1,338 2 2,7292 2,4832 4562 8472 2442 1,786 % of Value --- --- --- --- --- .2 Carp Dollars 113,417 140,457 86,222 52,363 87,055 43,333 67,556 % of Value 2.2 2.2 1.5 1.4 2.8 1.9 2.5 Ch ub Dollars 1,509,202 737,112 1,235,884 1,736,749 1,944,015 1,143,829 1,348,268 % of Value 28.9 11.5 21.4 45.7 61.8 50.8 50.5 Lake Herring Dollars 321,020 211,986 470,757 495,662 232,358 13,228 7,400 % of Value 6.2 3.3 8.1 13.0 7.4 .6 .3 Lake Trout Dollars 1,930,982 3,330,860 1,524,185 5,410 ---2 2,767 15,183 % of Value 37.0 51.9 26.4 .1 ---2 .1 .6 Sheepshead 2 2 Dollars 501 2 8,851 8,963 1,7202 2062 --- 2 ---2 % of Value --- .1 .2 --- --- --- --- Smelt Dollars 119,807 268,419 134,301 248,043 227,116 61,020 42,974 % of Value 2.3 4.2 2.3 6.5 7.2 2.7 1.6 Sucker Dollars 160,490 216,746 148,076 56,891 36,222 16,825 12,744 % of Value 3.1 3.4 2.6 1.5 1.2 .7 .5 Lake Whitefish Dollars 534,660 776,752 1,585,329 674,766 58,654 219,308 568,847 % of Value 10.3 12.1 27.4 17.7 1.9 9.7 21.3 Yellow Perch Dollars 421,134 631,178 319,703 306,373 361,694 612,921 155,978 % of Value 8.1 9.8 5.5 8.1 11.5 27.2 5.8 Yellow Pike Dollars 23,311 17,419 186,320 191,338 164,608 30,459 7,938 % of Value .4 .3 3.2 5.0 5.2 1.4 .3 Average Total Value 5,215,621 6,421,397 5,783,023 3,803,117 3,141,234 2,251,908 2,671,528 Absent from the commercial catch - 2Less than $100 or .1% Yellow perch consistently provided a catch the yellow perch populations in Michigan wa- of between 1.0 and 3.4 million pounds in the ters of Lake Michigan are beginning to recov- period from 1900 to 1960. In 1961 the catch er. more than doubled to 4,959,000 pounds and Whitefish is one of the few commercial reached a peak of 5,835,000 pounds in 1964. In species which appears to have recovered from 1968 the catch dropped to 632,000 pounds, the effects of heavy exploitation and sea lam- nearly a 10-fold decrease in four years. Michi- prey predation. Whitefish, after reaching a gan has since closed its commercial fishery for peak production of 5,825,000 pounds in 1947, yellow perch and there are indications that dropped off to 31,000 pounds in 1959. Sea lam- 88 Appendix 8 6,421,397 YELLOW PERCH 5,783,023 5,215,621 YELLOW PIKE LAKE WHITEFISH TOTAL IN DOLLARS X: X, 3,803,117 3,141,234 2,671,528 2,251,908 OTHER SMELT EEN@ FE: .--..LAKE HERRIN. 7-CARP I I 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-26 Average Annual Production (Dollars) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Michigan Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 prey control began in the early 1960s and 25,000,000 pounds annually. Smelt production whitefish catches began increasing. The pres- reached a peak in 1958 at 9,102,000 pounds, but ent catch is approximately one million it has now leveled off at approximately pounds. Fishing effort has stabilized with the 1,500,000 pounds annually. institution of limited entry and limitations on the net amount taken. With the demise of high-value species, there Contribution of Individual Species to has been an increase in effort for low-value the Sport Fishery alewife and smelt. Alewife hit a peak in abun- dance in 1967 prior to a major die-off. The The 1971 creel census in Michigan waters commercial catch began with 220,000 pounds indicated that a total of 1,959,300 non- in 1957 and reached a peak of 41,895,000 salmonids and 930,660 salmonids were taken pounds in 1967. Current alewife production by sport fishermen. The non-salmonids has now stabilized at approximately primarily consisted of yellow perch, smelt, Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 89 44,401,760 LBS. OTHER TOTAL - 29,181,400 LBS. 7-32 760 LBS. 4,935,280 LBS. 24,113,520 24,406,980 LB LBS. YELLOW PIKE 21,712,440 LBS. Yk 0$ ............... XX_ SUCKER ..................... HERR Nq.*,.'::*.:'.:.:-:.:.:.:.:.::.:.:.-@-, X . . ......... LAKE TROUT ...... X X :::-X-:-X-X-, CHUBS CARP 1935 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-27 Average Annual Production (Pounds) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Michigan Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 suckers, smallmouth bass, northern pike, wall- Lake Michigan waters. In addition, Wisconsin eye, and assorted centrarchid panfish. The reported an anadromous stream fishery of 380 openwater catch of salmonids consisted of brook trout, 800 brown trout, 4,600 steelhead, 442,000 coho salmon, 48,000 chinook salmon, 4,800 coho, and 100 chinook in Lake Michigan 76,000 rainbow trout, 311,000 lake trout, and tributaries. some brown and brook trout. The Lake Michigan total catch of salmonids In 1971 Michigan's anadromous sport catch by sportsmen is more than 1,700,000 annually, in Lake Michigan tributaries included 218,000 nearly equal to the total sport catch of salmon coho, 202,000 chinook, 220,000 rainbows, and a and steelhead in the five West Coast states of few thousand brown trout. Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, and Wisconsin reported an openwater catch of Idaho. Sport catch of trout and salmon in- 900 brook trout, 11,300 brown trout, 14,300 creased by 25 percent in 1971 in Michigan wa- rainbow trout, 28,000 coho salmon, 6,000 ters, and by nearly 50 percent in Wisconsin chinook salmon, and 43,100 lake trout from its waters of Lake Michigan. 90 Appendix 8 4.1.3 The Fisheries before systematic collection of catch records began. Although tributaries act as spawning habitat for certain species (especially the wall- Historical Background of the Lake eye) and influence localized areas of the open Michigan Commercial Fishery Lake, they currently support no commercial fishery. In general, the commercial fishery of the Lake Michigan basin has paralleled the origin and development outlined for the Great Lakes. Little is known of the earliest opera- Historical Background of the Lake tions, but haul seines were probably the first Michigan Sport Fishery gear used. As more people moved into the Lake Michigan area, the demand for fishery Yellow perch has been the primary sport products increased and various gear that are fish in Lake Michigan. Pier and jetty fishing still in use were evolved. Gill nets appeared in has been popular in all four States. Surveys in approximately 1835, pound nets in 1860, trap the early 1960s indicated that more than one nets in 1885, set hooks in 1870, and trawls in million fishermen annually fished primarily 1957. At the present time, most fishermen op- for yellow perch in the 30 miles of Illinois erate in the gill-net fishery. shoreline. Similarly yellow perch fishing is in- Table 8-14 summarizes data on commercial tense on all piers and jetties open to the'public fishing units (fishermen, boats, and vessels) in the southern half of Lake Michigan in Wis- operating on Lake Michigan since 1930. The consin, Indiana, and Michigan. averages for each decade present a repre- Walleye, smelt, smallmouth bass, and suck- sentative picture, showing a steady decline in ers are seasonally important to sport fishing fishermen and craft. This has been accom- as they move into tributaries or near shore to panied by an increase in production per unit, spawn. Green Bay and the Bays de Noc offer although there has been a leveling off in re- almost year-round fishing for these warmwa- cent years. ter species as well as localized fisheries for Records for harvests prior to 1930 are based northern pike. on figures for the years 1879, 1885, 1889 to 1890, The sport fishery for lake trout was just be- 1892 to 1897, 1899, 1903, and 1908. While aver- ginning to expand in such areas as Grand age total production has not varied greatly, Traverse Bay and Charlevoix when the lake there have been major shifts among the vari- trout population began to decline in the late ous components making up this production. 1940s and early 1950s. Steel head fishing has These changes reflect the drastic influence of been a popular stream fishery in Lake Michi- over-exploitation, sea lamprey invasion, intro- gan tributaries since the 1920s, but it also suf- duction of new species, and other factors dis- fered a decline during the 1950s when sea lam- cussed in this report. In general, fishermen prey reached peak abundance. are now catching larger quantities of low- Since the mid-1960s trout and salmon sport value fish to offset declines in landings of fisheries have undergone tremendous growth. high-value varieties, such as lake trout and Sea lamprey control programs and massive whitefish. For example, lake trout catches plantings of lake trout, coho, chinook, rain- from 1911 to 1948 averaged more than six mil- bows, browns, and steelhead have made trout lion pounds annually while landings from 1949 and salmon fishing in Lake Michigan one of to 1963 were insignificant. the most important sport fisheries in the Over the period of record, Lake Michigan Great Lakes Region. has occupied an intermediate position in rank- ings of commercial fishery production in the five Great Lakes. Its production of 1.81 pounds per acre ranks second to Lake Erie's 8.07 Economics pounds per acre and ahead of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario, all of which have produc- The economics of the sport and commercial tions less than one pound per acre. fisheries of the Great Lakes is discussed in Scattered early records indicate the exis- detail in the introductory section. After sev- tence of commercial fishery activity in some of eral years of declining value the Lake Michi- the larger tributaries. Adverse environmen- gan fishery has grown tremendously in tal changes, restrictive legislation, and economic value largely on the strength of the perhaps other factors eliminated this activity expanding sport fishery. Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 91 TABLE 8-14 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in Lake Michigan Number Pounds Value of Number Number of Landed per Catch per 2 of of Year Fishermen Fisherman Fisherman Vessels Boats 1930 2,�21 10,980 $1,621 307 793 1931 2,790 8,982 1,789 336 524 1932 2,527 7,118 1,193 330 569 1934 3,272 8,693 1,369 330 704 1936 2,295 11,234 2,101 329 392 1937 2,658 9,932 2,043 326 493 1938 2,902 8,401 1,830 318 447 1939 3,038 7,579 2,005 319 538 1940 2,126 10,731 2,242 271 279 1950 1,984 13,647 2,126 284 508 1954 1,716 17,652 2,004 268 362 1955 1,554 19,328 2,224 238 391 1956 1,456 21,152 2,472 216 236 1957 1,346 20,224 2,371 203 313 1958 1,470 18,891 2,143 223 387 1959 1,521 13,680 1,548 205 350 1960 1,337 18,183 1,817 187 336 1961 1,367 18,697 1,821 184,*@ 362 1962 996 23,569 1,896 171 342 1963 911 23,074 2,047 155 360 1964 939 27,903 2,756 171 369 1965 867 31,135 2,730 174 312 1966 758 56,417 3,508 159 252 1967 801 73,597 3,486 166 303 1968 734 66,502 3,869 166 202 1969 701 67,744 3,823 156 210 1Refers to all fishermen engaged in harvesting. 2Value deflated by wholesale price index (1957-1959=100). 4.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish solved solids, calcium, chlorides, sodium and Resources potassium, and sulphates since the turn of the century (Figure 8-25). Green Bay and extreme Lake Michigan is used for things other than southern Lake Michigan have been most af- fishing: navigation, water supply, waste dis- fected and show unmistakable signs of accel- posal, and recreation. The following para- erated eutrophication approaching rates graphs discuss the physical, chemical, and found in Lake Erie. biological changes generated by these other Heavy metal concentrations in Lake Michi- uses that directly or indirectly affect the gan do not appear to pose a threat to the fishery resource. fisheries, but DDT, dieldrin, and PCBs have reached such high concentrations that many Effects of Chemical Changes fish, particularly larger predators, do not meet tolerance levels established for these Lake Michigan has ranked third behind materials. Recent restrictions on the use of Lakes Erie and Ontario in increase in total dis- DDT in Michigan and Wisconsin appear to 92 Appendix 8 have helped reduce the levels of DDT in fish sharp decline in abundance and distinct flesh. change in the distribution of yellow perch, and the recent disappearance of the emerald shiner, an important forage species. Allevia- Effects of Physical Changes tion of problems presented by the alewife must come through control or suppression of their Most physical changes in Lake Michigan numbers. Steps taken by management agen- have taken place on or near the shore areas. cies concern mainly the establishment and Shallow areas of Green Bay and the Bays maintenance of efficient climax predators. DeNoc have been greatly affected because Fish management has been important in many former marsh areas were filled. Dredg- implementing position changes in the fish ing and filling for navigation has had a pro- populations in Lake Michigan. Great Lakes nounced effect on the character of the bottom management programs such as sea lamprey in certain areas. Waste from sawmills had a control, fish stocking programs, and regula- major effect on estuary areas around the turn tion of the commercial harvest will determine of the century, but mining waste has not been the abundance of the more important species a major problem in the Lake Michigan wa- in the Lake, barring unforeseen environmen- tershed. tal changes. Filling and dredging, placement of shoreline stabilizing material, and dumping of harbor dredgings need to be closely controlled 4.1.5 Fisheries Management in order to protect nearshore spawning areas of important fish species. Past and Present Management The broad goals of State management pro- Effects on Biological Changes grams on Lake Michigan are similar to those for Lake Superior: to restore an optimum bal- Effects of sea lamprey, smelt, and alewife ance between prey and high-value predator have been most dramatic in Lake Michigan. species and then to apply management The introduction and reestablishment of sal- techniques that would establish the necessary monids have been most successful in Lake balance between the fishing intensities of the Michigan because of the effective sea lamprey recreational and commercial fisheries to as- control program and the abundant forage sure maximum economic returns and to base of alewife. achieve optimum utilization of fish stocks. A decline in the larger species of chubs and Management policies place high priorities on whitefish early in the century was associated the recreational fishery. In the States of with overexploitation by the commercial Michigan and Wisconsin where sizable com- fishery. Introduced smelt increased in abun- mercial fishing operations are carried out, the dance during the 1930s and became the second aim is to enhance the commercial fishery by most important commercial species by 1940. limited entry control. Sea lamprey invaded the Lake in the 1940s Management measures under way on Lake and by 1950 it had destroyed or greatly re- Michigan include sea lamprey control, stock- duced stocks of lake trout, burbot, whitefish, ing of hatchery-reared salmonids, regulation and larger species of chubs. With the disap- of fishing, habitat improvement and mainte- pearance of these species, particularly the nance, and development of public access. lake trout and burbot that fed on small chubs, Chemical treatment of the 99 lamprey the small, slow-growing bloater increased to streams on Lake Michigan by the U.S. BureAu more than 90 percent of the coregonid popula- of Commercial Fisheries commenced in 1960 tion. The alewife was first recorded in Lake and by 1966 the first round of treatments was Michigan in 1949, but by 1959 it had become completed. The effectiveness of these control the most widely distributed and rhost abun- measures is reflected in the resurgence of dant species in' the Lake. The domination of whitefish, rainbow trout, and burbot popula- alewife has been a further cause of the ex- tions and the rapid growth and survival of treme imbalance in Lake Michigan. Some of planted coho salmon and lake trout. Chemical the problems associated with their dominance control will be continued to further reduce are the severe biological stresses apparent in lamprey abundance. the bloater population, the continuing decline The stocking program in Lake Michigan in- in abundance of the remaining chubs, the volves intensive annual plantings of lake Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 93 trout, coho and chinook salmon and smaller mon, and migratory trout species. The objec- annual plantings of rainbow, brook, and tive is to provide maximum protection of these brown trout. This is aimed at restoring or pro- planted salmonids during the rehabilitation viding optimum populations of high-value period. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Indiana predator species. have also employed permit and zoning sys- Several agencies are cooperatively engaged tems to provide closer control over the gill-net in the lake trout program. The State of Michi- fishery. These regulations attempt to provide gan provides lake trout eggs from brood fish more protection for planted salmonid species, maintained in hatcheries. The U.S. Bureau of to allow close surveillance of the gill-net Sport Fisheries and Wildlife hatches and rears fishery, and to prevent overexploitation of fish lake trout to yearling size and receives assis- stocks. tance from the States of Wisconsin and Michi- Other regulatory procedures under way to gan in distribution. The objective of lake trout improve management include Michigan's new stocking in Lake Michigan is similar to that in authority to impose limited entry on the com- Lake Superior, to reestablish spawning stocks mercial fishery which is designed to control to a level where population can be sustained and promote the economic welfare of the through natural reproduction. Annual plant- commercial fishery. Methods of implementa- ings of lake trout in Lake Michigan began in tion are currently being developed. The entire 1965 and now total 7.3 million fish annually. Indiana Fish and Game Code was rewritten Coho and chinook salmon were introduced and approved in 1969. Generally speaking, the into Lake Michigan by the State of Michigan recodification removed regulatory authority in 1966 and 1967 respectively, and annual from legislative action and placed it within the plantings of both species have been carried discretionary power of the Department of out since that time. Coho plantings totaled Natural Resources. 659,400 in 1966,1,732,000 in 1967, and 1,177,000 Sport fishing regulations have undergone a in 1968. Chinook plantings totaled 801,400 in few basic changes in recent years. The four 1967 and 686,700 in 1968. The objective of the States recently enacted uniform sport fishing salmon program is to improve the recreational regulations governing seasons, size, and bag fishery and to develop control of the abundant limits of salmonid species. alewife population by predation. Michigan's Michigan enacted legislation in 1968 requir- aims are to develop optimum salmon stocking ing all Great Lakes anglers to be licensed. rates from empirical data collected on growth, Anglers must also be licensed in Indiana, Illi- survival, and average size at harvest. The nois, and Wisconsin. States of Wisconsin and Indiana are engaged The States of Michigan, Wisconsin, and In- in the coho program with modest plantings diana have established fishery stations on beginning in Wisconsin tributaries in 1968 and Lake Michigan and are currently developing in Trail Creek of Indiana in 1970. monitoring programs to provide information Annual plantings of less than 200,000 rain- on the abundance of fish of various species, bow, brook, and brown trout have been made sizes, and ages; distribution and existence as by Michigan and Wisconsin. Indiana initiated discrete populations; interrelations; and the rainbow trout plantings in the east branch of extent utilized by sport and commercial the Calumet River in the fall of 1968 that will fishermen. The State of Illinois has recog- be continued annually if spawning runs de- nized the need for a similar program in its velop. Current Michigan plans call for expan- waters, but to date investigations have been sion of steelhead plantings in its waters using limited to periodic observations of incidental progeny of wild brood fish. catches of trout and salmon in the severely The commercial fishery of Lake Michigan depressed commercial fishery that now sub- operates under a series of regulations. Few sists almost entirely on chubs. are based on a biological understanding of Biological investigations carried out by the current conditions within the Lake and some U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries involve regulations are no longer useful. Most man- several long-range research projects to pro- agement agencies have adopted or proposed vide fundamental information on fish stocks of changes to correct the situation and to achieve importance to State agencies for the solution greater uniformity of regulations on fish of Lakewide management programs of in- stocks of common concern. terstate interest. The long-range objective is Recent changes in commercial fishing regu- to understand the factors which influence lations include the closure of all commercial changes in the survival and abundance of fish fishing on lake trout, coho and chinook sal- and to develop and maintain a balanced mul- 94 Appendix 8 tispecies complex essential to realize the full costs less than $15,000 a year. Illinois also has productivity of the Lake. a small stocking program costing less than Major investigations in Lake Michigan in- $5,000 a year. volve the evaluation of lake trout rehabilita- The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife tion, assessment of coho, chinook, and other operates a fishery research station on Lake salmonid plantings, and monitoring of alewife Michigan at an annual cost of $77,900. Wiscon- and other commercial fish stocks. Sampling sin estimates its fish management and re- programs carried out by Michigan, Wisconsin, search cost on Lake Michigan at $130,000 an- and Indiana are providing comparable infor- nually. Michigan operates a Great Lakes sta- mation on the success and movement of differ- tion on Lake Michigan at an estimated cost of ent hatchery plantings, the incidence of lam- $100,000 a year, and other management ac- prey wounding on trout and salmon, and tivities add another $100,000. Combined man- growth and relative abundance of lake trout agement and research costs for Illinois and at various ages. In the future lake trout pro- Indiana are less than $50,000 a year. gram emphasis will be placed on determining the relative abundance, age composition, and distribution of spawning stocks; the success of natural reproduction; recruitment rates; and 4.1.6 Projected Demands mortality rates at various ages. The sampling program of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Projected demands for Lake Michigan Wildlife provides information on changes in commercial fish species are identical to those abundance, age composition, size distribution, discussed in the introductory section on the and other biological characteristics of alewife Great Lakes. and other important fish stocks. Considerable Recreational demand is expected to follow emphasis has been placed on all aspects of the the trends projected for the planning sub- life history of the alewife and its interrelations areas in Plan Area 2.0. The Summary contains with other species and assessment of its year projected demand for each Lake by planning class strength in attempting to predict the subarea (Table 8-75). magnitude and location of future alewife die- offs. 4.1.7 Problems and Needs Cost of Fish Management and Development Programs Natural Resource Base Some of the activities of the former Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now National Considered as a whole, Lake Michigan has Marine Fisheries Service) have been taken exceptionally high water quality capable of over by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and supporting even the most intolerant aquatic Wildlife and the estimated costs of these pro- organisms. However, because Lake Michi- grams are included in Table 8-6. gan's exchange rate is measured in years, the Wisconsin estimates its annual enforcement addition of nutrients and persistent toxic sub- costs at approximately $100,000, primarily for stances is cumulative over time. Therefore, regulating the commercial fishery. Michigan's Lake Michigan is vulnerable to waste inputs enforcement costs have ranged between that might not affect lakes with more rapid $150,000 and $200,000 annually, primarily for exchange rates. the administration and enforcement of com- The shoreline areas and tributaries of Lake mercial fishing regulations. Illinois and In- Michigan are essential to the maintenance of diana each spend less than $15,000 a year. the high quality fishery resource. Any appre- The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife ciable change in quality of shore waters or in estimates the annual cost of rearing and tributaries will affect nearly all species in planting lake trout in Lake Michigan at Lake Michigan. $160,000. Wisconsin fish stocking costs have Water quality standards must be rigidly en- risen to more than $80,000 per year. Michigan forced and anticipated development of nuclear costs for planting fish in Lake Michigan in power facilities must be carefully monitored if 1971 hit an all-time high of $689,200. Indiana the high quality water and the fishery it sup- has a relatively minor stocking program that ports is to be preserved. Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 95 Problems and Needs of the Total agement and research programs on Lake Fishery Michigan. Four major problems hampering the effec- tive use of the fishery resources of Lake 4.2 Planning Subarea 2.1 Michigan have been cited by the State man- agement agencies: (1) An optimum balance must be estab- lished between the prey and predator species 4.2.1 Species- Composition, Relative in the Lake. Requirements for the solution of Importance, and Status this problem are: (a) reduction and maintenance of the sea Planning Subarea 2.1 (Figure 8-28) has di- lamprey at a level low enough to allow recov- verse habitat conditions which contribute to a ery or establishment of desirable predator broad range of fisheries. Panfish (black crap- species pies, bluegills, yellow perch) dominate the (b) supression of the dominant alewife sport fishery in number of fish caught. How- stocks through predation by large salmonids ever, most sport fishing interest is generated and prudent use of the commercial fishery by the muskellunge, walleye, largemouth (c) intensive biological and environmental bass, northern pike, and trout fisheries of studies to provide fundamental information major lakes and streams within the region. on factors controlling changes in survival and Winnebago is the largest lake in the region, abundance of fish stocks. Anunderstanding of and although it is shallow, it provides out- these factors and their interactions is essen- standing fishing for walleye, yellow perch, tial for the establishment and maintenance of white bass, sauger, and other species. a well-balanced multispecies complex in the The region lying inland from the Lake Lake. Michigan and Green Bay shore counties has a (2) Coordinated management programs high density of trout streams of major signifi- must be developed to assure that fish popula- cance. These streams start out in shallow gla- tions are utilized on a sustained basis for cial drift overlying impervious bedrock, and as maximum economic and sociological benefit. a result, have abundant supplies of high qual- The solution of this problem requires: ity water. (a) intensive biological and economic Although this region does not encompass studies to provide the information needed to the original range of muskellunge, its intro- properly balance the fishing intensities of the duction into larger lakes and reservoirs within sport and commercial fisheries the region has been successful and unparal- (b) development and public acceptance of leled muskellunge fisheries currently exist in both Michigan and Wisconsin waters. limited entry control to improve the economic A unique sturgeon fishery in the efficiency of the commercial fishery which is Menominee River is worthy of special men- currently hampered by excessive operators tion. This is perhaps the largest naturally re- and nonselective fishing gear producing population of sturgeon in Wisconsin (c) full cooperation among agencies in de- and Michigan and is the stronghold of a relict veloping coordinated and compatible man- species threatened elsewhere by deteriorat- agement policies, philosophies, and programs ing water quality. (3) Stringent pollution control measures The interlobate glacial moraine extends must be enacted to curb the growing discharge through the region and has left numerous of untreated domestic and industrial wastes small "kettle" lakes characterized by their into the Lake. These wastes have already largemouth bass and panfish fisheries. Be- caused distressing increases in the enrich- cause of insufficient public access, these popu- ment of waters in lower Lake Michigan and lations are presently largely unexploited. Green Bay. If the commercial and sport fisheries are to be fairly considered, pollution abatement agencies (State, Federal, or inter- 4.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity national) should consider the requirements of aquatic organisms in establishing water qual- Inland lakes and impoundments provide ity standards for Lake Michigan. more than 315,948 acres of water for fishing. (4) Fishery agencies must obtain the Lake Winnebago occupies 137,708 acres and is necessary funds to sustain long-range man- the largest single contributing body of water. 96 Appendix 8 VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES LIM Lake Michigamme IRO IAE Paint 77" -I\1 4.iga- 'firon River k" 411c"j, DICKINSON Pin. Rival MENOM a' 0Norwa Popple on Mounta 1 0, Ewa aba 14CE Kingsford Cdar ARINE ME NEE MENOMINEE River -0 6REST N QWASHINGTO ISLAND An 'go LNGLADE, PESHTI 0Mei 5 M OMINEE I Mari ette OCONTO Oconto -k Stu on Bay DOOR E. Shawa@@- k S AWANO 'A; OCONTO z ii? SAUMICO KEWALINE Lillie lintonville, @!t % Algoma OUTA FJIE (j (3, jr FOX IX/ ran Bay Kewaunee DeP a Waupa New London ROWN WALIPACA leton Kaukaun MA TOW C Menash CAL Myr SH BOYGAN Ri Neenah*' GRE N Y 0 River Two Rivers k. Pyga. Manitowoc VVALIS@ARA Berlin Oshkosh Chilton WINNEBAGO FOND OU LAC 5 E YGA 0 Ripon Green Lake Fond du Lac 5 . an Sheboygan yrr% Ri MAR FTTE GREEN LAKE/ 00, -Wa.nun jlort.ga@@ S CAL=ILES 0 5 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-28 Planning Subarea 2.1 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 97 With this exception the bulk of the water area water power for timber and grain processing. is distant from large population centers. The These mills blocked seasonal migrations of two counties with the lowest population (Flor- northern pike and walleye and created pools ence, Forest) have the highest rate of ponded which warmed many miles of trout streams. water per capita, and the county with the The paper industries in the lower Fox River highest population (Brown) has the lowest valley have had serious effects on fish popula- rate of ponded water per capita. With the ex- tion. The warming effect, fiber deposition, and ception of Winnebago County, those counties chemical deterioration produced by these in- with the highest ratios of ponded water per dustries eliminated both warm- and coldwater capita also have the highest ratios of licenses fisheries in this, the principal stream in the per capita. However, the largest number of basin. licenses are sold in counties (except Win- nebago County) with lesser areas of water available. 4.2.4 History of Sport Fishery Sport fishing license sales have remained 4.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production relatively stable over the last 20 years. The and Distribution of Important Fish greatest participation occurred in 1954 when Species 170,046 fishing licenses were sold in the basin. Changes in sport fishing license sales gener- That part of the region which has not ex- ally have been reflections of socio-economic perienced urbanization, the Michigan waters changes rather than resource-related and headwaters areas in Wisconsin, has re- changes. mained relatively unchanged in recent years. Improved management (introduction of Improvements in sewage effluent handling in muskellunge) and increased public access in smaller communities may be enhancing the recent years appear to have successfully quality of the resource over what existed 10 or countered the recent trend to more restrictive 20 years ago. land tenancy (posting against trespass). Extensive urbanization and industrializa- tion in the area of the Fox River valley has threatened several bodies of water with pollu- tion and nearly eliminated the sport fishery in 4.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and much of the lower Fox River. Toxic substances Current Needs at sublethal levels in fish in this area are threatening the use of fish for food in the in- Current demand expressed by people living dustrialized Fox River valley. and buying licenses in this planning subarea is With deterioration of the environment in estimated to exceed 5.4 million angler days. the southern and eastern counties of the re- This demand approximates 16 angler days per gion, tolerant fish species, notably carp and acre of pounded water. However, demand is white suckers, have increased. The south- not uniformly distributed throughout the ernmost counties in the basin encompassing planning subarea. Populous Winnebago Coun- the upper Fox River valley have been invaded ty exerts a heavy demand on the lakes in the by carp to the detriment of northern pike and Winnebago complex, while counties in Michi- largemouth bass populations. This is the only gan with extensive ponded water and less part of the basin that was heavily farmed and populous counties in Wisconsin may experi- subjected to various drainage schemes. ence less than two angler days per acre of Northern pike used marshes for spawning ponded water. areas. When these marshes were drained to In-migration of licensed anglers from areas facilitate crop production, the northern pike outside the planning subarea is substantial disappeared. Carp were introduced and and may more than double this calculated de- further deteriorated conditions by destroying mand. Recently improved highways have the remaining aquatic vegetation in their put the planning subarea in reach of Chicago feeding activities. area residents. As the basin was settled in the late 19th At present, demand for sport fishing is suffi- century, small communities were established ciently exceeded by the supply of ponded wa- on nearly all significant streams. Mills were ter. Quality fishing can be easily experienced constructed in these communities to utilize within the present capacity of the resource. 98 Appendix 8 TABLE8-15 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.1 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Intensive Total Trout Anadromous County (sq.mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Dickinson 763 6,324 119 4 748 97 645 203.0 --- Iron 1,219 24,593 528 16 396 4,101 902 313.2 --- Menominee 1,044 4,510 52 2 180 5 815 131.6 70 Wisconsin Brown 524 42 1 --- ----- ------ 30 1.8 --- Calumet 322 124 8 1 ----- 10 75 ------ --- Door 518 3,011 10 1 273 ------ 93 12.5 1 Florence 499 5,350 80 11 399 304 320 251.3 --- Fond du Lac 728 1,619 33 2 105 ----- 271 13.9 --- Forest 1,055 20,451 155 19 5,532 1,239 570 480.4 --- Green Lake 388 14,336 10 5 789 7,370 218 6.4 --- Kewaunee 330 221 3 48 46 140 22.1 28 Langlade 867 7,879 167 27 2,764 809 450 326.0 --- Manitowoc 590 1,367 55 7 287 91 265 6.7 25 Marinette 1,402 13,134 159 9 4,332 465 685 550.0 3 Marquette 465 4,892 53 2 211 85 249 66.7 --- Menominee 359 2,419 49 6 ----- 440 395 279.6 --- Oconto 1,189 12,759 142 12 2,660 120 400 261.1 --- Outagamie 631 66 2 1 62 ------ 140 ------ --- Shawano 1,106 10,294 54 6 582 2 594 330.5 --- Sheboygan 508 2,050 35 10 533 463 264 31.8 10 Waupaca 766 6,660 117 16 453 531 337 158.6 --- Waushara 633 4,297 64 15 2,024 431 223 144.1 --- Winnebago 858 169,550 6 1 3,070 ------ 70 ------ --- Total 16,764 315,948 1,908 176 25,448 16,609 8,151 3,591.2 136 4.2.6 Ongoing Programs eliminate carp and stunted panfish popula- tions. Northern pike, muskellunge, and walleye Acquisition of fish habitat and access is in- are the principal warmwater species managed tended to provide greater utilization of the in this planning subarea. The current warm- existing resource base. This ongoing program water stocking program includes more than 60 has established annual goals, but its ac- lakes (Figure 8-29) and a total of 25,448 acres complishments are unpredictable. of ponded water (Figure 8-30 and Table 8-15). Trout stocking management encompasses 72 lakes in Wisconsin and more than 16,609 4.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and acres of water. Those species included in this Participation program are brown trout, splake, brook trout, chinook salmon, and coho salmon. The inland Future demand based on the current rela- coho program is currently conducted on only tionship of habitat base to number of fisher- one lake in the planning subarea. men indicates that there will be an increase of Coho are also stocked in eight streams 800,000 angler days by 1980. While the present within the planning subarea, all tributaries of resource supply is sufficient for 1980 demands Lake Michigan or Green Bay. Chinook salmon on this basis, increases in in-migration of has been stocked in two streams, the anglers will dramatically affect the supply- Menominee and Strawberry Rivers, and is ex- demand relationship (Table 8-16). pected to provide a fishery in future years. Future supplies of ponded water will not Salmon plantings will exhibit their greatest change appreciably, but as a result of ongoing influence in the Great Lakes, but they may programs, particularly lake rehabilitation, also attract anglers who utilize other fisheries carrying capacity for optimum fishing will be within the planning subarea (Figure 8-31). increased. This possibility exists on more than An extensive ongoing program of chemical 10,000 acres in Wisconsin waters alone. rehabilitation of lakes and river systems is Acquisition of water frontage will increase being conducted. In 1969, 14 lakes and river the availability ofthe existing resource supply systems underwent chemical rehabilitation to and therefore, the attractiveness of the area Lake miehigan Ba8in, Plan Area 2.0 99 IRON 41/CV ,- , DICKINSON SC A0V�I/V q., 0 0 A 0 A MENOMINEE A 0 FLORENCEA A MARINETTE A A 0 0 A 0 0 A A FOREST A 0 A0 A 0 A 0 ()A0 0 A 00 A 0 LINILADEO A A 0 A 0 &A AAAA MENOKIWE A AA A A 0 A 00 DOOR S AWA DO A OCONTO 0 KEWAUNEE OUTAGAMIE A 0 0 A A 0 A A 0 A A 0 BROWN UPACA MANITOWOC A A A 0 CALUMET 00 A A 0 WAUSHARA A 0 WINNEBAGO A 0 A LEGEND 0 A FOND DU LAC SHEBOYGAN COLD-WATER LAKES 0 0 00 A 0 WARM-WATER LAKES MARQUETTE GREEN AL 0 A AKE 0 0 A 0 0 FIGURE 8-29 Current Fish Stocking Prografn, Planning Subarea 2*11 Wisconsin portion 100 Appendix 8 . .......... .. . ......... .... . .... . .............. .. . . .. ...... X ..... -X ................ .. ................ .......... ........................ .................. x.. ........ . !:FLO -RENCE::::::i, .......... .................. WI ................. ........... ........... ........ .... ........... ....... ..... . .......... .......... .......... . .......... .............. ................ ............ k .. ..... . ..... .................. ........... . ......... .. ..... .......... ....... .................... . ...... . . . . :X-, ...... ... X, ... ...... ..... ...... ..... ......... .. ................ v ...... MENOMINEE .. ....... ........... ........... .;;,OOOR.. ............. . . . ............... ------------- .............. ....... ......... .... KEWAUNEE X %:% ............... ... XX:.... ....................... X_. OU ....... BROWN X MANITOWOC X: :X ............... . CALUMET .. ..... . X .............. ... . LEGEND ............. ........... . .................. ............ FOND DU LAC SHEBOYGAN UNDER 3000 XXX: % 3000-6000 % :GREEN LAKE..' ....... OVER 6000 FIGURE 8-30 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.1 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 101 TABLE 8-16 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 2.1 States Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Michigan Dickinson 755 24.6 32.6 6,324 .0257 2,830 3,967 .0161 Iron 1,165 15.2 13.0 24,593 .1618 5,493 3,213 .0211 Menominee 1,034 23.1 22.3 4,510 .0195 1,525 3,292 .0143 Total 2,954 62.9 21.3 35,427 .0563 9,848 10,472 .0166 Wisconsin Brown 524 137.7 262.8 42 .0003 173 13,598 .0988 Calumet 322 24.1 74.8 124 .0051 212 4,633 .1922 Door 491 20.4 41.5 3,011 .1476 612 1,813 .0889 Florence 486 3.2 6.6 5,350 1.6719 1,397 1,646 .5144 Fond Du Lac 724 80.0 110.5 1,619 .0202 1,494 14,061 .1758 Forest 1,005 7.5 7.5 20,451 2.7268 2,143 5,027 .6703 Green Lake 354 15.5 43.8 14,336 .9249 6,739 7,213 .4654 Kewaunee 330 19.4 58.8 221 .0114 65 2,282 .1176 Langlade 848 20.6 24.3 7,879 .3825 2,537 7,661 .3719 Manitowoc 587 78.6 133.9 1,367 .0174 205 10,086 .1283 Marinette 1,370 34.2 25.0 13,134 .3840 4,001 10,163 .2972 Marquette 452 7.61 16.8 1 4,892 .6437 1 4,676 3,537 .4654 1 Menominee 353 ---- 1 ---- 2,419 ----- 114 240 ----- Oconto 1,158 25.2 21.8 12,759 .5063 2,450 9,250 .3671 Outagamie 631 111.8 177.2 66 .0006 907 19,341 .1730 Shawano 1,081 35.7 33.0 10,294 .2883 2,041 11,762 .3295 Sheboygan 503 94.1 187.1 2,050 .0218 371 11,964 .1271 Waupaca 750 38.1 50.8 6,660 .1748 8,426 12,068 .3167 Waushara 2 623 13.8 22.2 4,297 .3114 2,534 6,278 .4549 Winnebago 448 117.6 262.5 169,550 1.4418 7,565 23,874 .2030 Total 12,687 885.1 69.8 278,102 .3142 48,548 176,617 .1995 Projected Angler Day Demand Land Area Population Population 3 Tota14 States and Years (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Michigan 1980 2,954 66.1 22.4 53,000 108,000 2000 2,954 74.1 25.1 59,422 126,000 2020 2,954 86.1 29.1 69,045 150,000 Wisconsin 1980 12,687 1,016.1 80.1 7,094,107 12,979,000 2000 12,687 1,283.5 101.2 8,961,015 16,082,000 2020 12,687 1,639.9 129.3 11,449,293 20,065,000 Total PSA 2.1 15,641 948.0 60.6 1980 15,641 1,082.2 69.2 7,147,113 13,087,000 2000 15,641 1,357.6 86.8 9,020,437 16,154,000 2020 15,641 1,726.0 110.4 11,518,338 20,215,000 1Menominee County included in Shawano County. Menominee County was created since 1960 from Menominee Indian Reservation, formerly part of Shawano and Oconto Counties. 2Includes Lake Winnebago. 3Demand generated within planning subarea. 4Total demand including in- and out-migration. 102 Appendix 8 VICINITY MAP SCAI@ I. u.1ES 0 1 a MiAigaivun. IRO?4 . tot Im. River Of DICKINSON IV 1\ CID pi.0 Ri,II'r t-MENOM 71 POW. ' ron Mounta 0 0 .Norwa `<11 . FLO ENCE Kingsford 1\ Cadar Esca aba ARINE MENOMINEE ME NEE Ri 61RE@ST Q'ASHINGTCt4 a ISLANID Anti;g@o, @LA. LADE Me i a PESHTI 0 s M OMINEE Mari ette OCONTO Oconto -k Stu n Bay DOOR Sha.a SHAWANO CONTO lintonvilleO AUMICO KEWAUNE Liffle % Algoma g OUTAq*A IE FOX Green Bay Kewaunee De Pele C3 . P Waupaca New London OWN 144 A MAINTOW C WAILIPACA ,Ppleton K ukaunp Menash CA @Fr SH BOYGAN Neenah GRE N Y p-yg_ .2 ito RW Two Rivers WAUS ARA Berlin Oshkosh Chilton Manitowoc WINNEBAGO LEGEND FOND DU LAC S E GA 0 Ripon 41 ANADROMOLIS FISH STREAMS G- LA. Fond du Lac 0 Sheboygan MAR ETTE GREEN LAKE 0 Portag 7" SCALE IN MILES 1. . 20 2 FIGURE 8-31 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.1 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 103 for tourist fishing. There are more than 70 also sustained by high quality fishing for trout active acquisition projects at present, all with and the larger warmwater species. long-range goals of completion. In general, the water quality of lakes and streams is excellent, and does not restrict the range of important species. 4.2.8 Fishery Development Plans A new anadromous fish hatchery now being Habitat Distribution and Quantity developed in Wisconsin will have a great effect on streams. By assuming the responsibility Inland lakes and impoundments of the three for production of salmon for this planning counties provide more than 35,000 acres of subarea, it will free other rearing stations to water for fishing (although 25,000 acres are provide additional fish for inland stocking. located in Iron County). The distribution of Similarly, a new warmwater hatchery plan- water is directly related to license sales. Iron ned for Planning Subarea 4.1 will insure County, which has the highest ratio of ponded maintenance and perhaps enhancement of the water per capita, has the largest number of unique sturgeon and muskellunge fisheries. fishermen. Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation pro- gram shows continual increases in production which will substantially enhance the muskel- lunge fishery in Planning Subarea 2.1 Habitat Problems Affecting Produc- Lake and watershed fishery rehabilitation tion and Distribution of Fish Species and development programs are ongoing pro- grams which will enhance warmwater Unlike areas in southern Michigan, fishing fisheries most noticeably in the southernmost quality in this area has remained relatively counties of the planning subarea. stable for the last 20 years. Many of the lakes and most of the streams remain relatively undeveloped. Local water 4.2.9 Michigan's Comments on Species quality problems associated with the few Composition, Relative Importance, and urban areas are in the process of being im- Status proved, and existing State standards are de- signed to protect the waters of the area from Two unique fisheries are found in this plan- further degradation in quality. ning subarea. The Menominee River sturgeon If good zoning laws and development plans represents the largest naturally reproducing are initiated, habitat problems common to population of this rapidly disappearing more urbanized areas can be avoided in Plan- species in the State. Iron Lake in Iron County ning Subarea 2.1. supports a population of muskellunge unpar- alleled in Michigan. Both of these fish popula- tions are utilized as sources of eggs for hatch- History of Sport Fishery ery propagation of these species to expand their current range. The small streams and Sport fishing license sales in the Michigan headwaters of major rivers in the area provide portion have been relatively stable for the last excellent brook trout fishing. Larger rivers 20 years. The highest number of resident and streams too warm for trout have good licenses, 11,082, was sold in 1969. There has populations of intermediate warmwater fish been a slow upward trend in fishing license such as smallmouth bass and northern pike. sales since 1964. Nearly all streams directly tributary to Lake These license sales figures generally indi- Michigan have runs of both trout and cate that fishing quality has remained the smallmouth bass which are seasonally impor- same. tant fisheries. Although panfish dominates the inland lakes and reservoir catches in number, Existing Sport Fishing Demand and smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, walleye, Current Needs muskellunge, northern pike, and trout keep angler interest high and may account for a Demand in the Michigan portion of Planning majority of the angling effort in the three Subarea 2.1 is unusual in that approximately counties in Michigan. The river fisheries are the same number of residents and nonresi- 104 Appendix 8 dents buy fishing licenses. Many Wisconsin High quality and unique fisheries should be residents utilize the fishing opportunities promoted and developed to attract fishermen available in the Michigan portion of this plan- from other areas. Latent fishing demand ning subarea. The current fishing demand, within the planning subarea is probably small 50,000 angler days, does not include the in- (Table 8-16). migration of licensed anglers from other por- tions of the State which may more than double this calculated demand based on license sales. Fishery Development Plans This area could sustain more fishing activ- ity on the present resource. The existing pres- The new warmwater hatchery planned for sure is probably less than two angler days per Planning Subarea 4.1 will insure maintenance acre of ponded water. and perhaps enhance the unique sturgeon and The present long travel time from urban muskellunge fisheries. This hatchery may areas discourages full use of the fishery re- also provide limited walleye for these lakes. sources of this area. Improved transportation No capital expansions are planned at this time and promotion could increase the use of outside of the small watershed project now fishery resources. being considered on the Sturgeon River in Dickinson County. Acquisition of key lands may become important in the future, but no Ongoing Programs money will be put to this purpose on Planning Subarea 2.1 before 1980. Northern pike, muskellunge, and walleye are the primary warmwater species managed in this planning subarea through artificial propagation. The current warmwater man- 4.3 Planning Subarea 2.2 agement program involves approximately 1,300 acres of water (Figure 8-32 and Table This planning subarea encompasses parts of 8-15). Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin along the Trout management in lakes involves more southwestern portion'of Lake Michigan (Fig- than 20 lakes and approximately 4,000 acres. ure 8-33). In 1969 more than 154,250 brook, brown, and rainbow trout were stocked primarily in Iron County. 4.3.1 Illinois The anadromous fish management pro- gram was initiated in 1969 when 62,000 coho salmon were stocked in the Big Cedar River in Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Menominee County. In 1970 the Menominee Current Needs River was also stocked with 50,000 coho and 100,000 chinook salmon. Both of these rivers The total angler day demand on inland wa- are expected to provide fisheries for salmon in ters has stabilized since the mid-1950s in this the few miles open to anadromous fish. highly urbanized basin area. The 455,866 Perhaps this new attraction will draw (licensed and unlicensed) fishermen (1970) sportsmen who will also use other area fishing generate a fishing demand of about 8.2 million opportunities. days per year of which 10.5 percent (861,586 days) are generated by Lake Michigan. The total inland water areas approximate 30,364 Future Trends in Habitat and acres of impoundments and 11,520 acres of Participation public streams and should provide 816,700 angler days per year based on 25 angler days Future demand based on the current rela- peryearper acre of impoundment and 5 angler tionship of habitat base to number of fisher- days per year per acre of stream. However, men indicates that the current 110,000 angler much of this water area is not available for days will increase to 138,000 by 1980. This fishing for the following reasons: poor fish small increase can be supplied easily by exist- populations, multiple use conflicts, poor fish ing programs. However, this planning subarea habitat and water quality, or water not man- should be attracting fishermen from other ageable for sustained quality sport fishing. planning subareas where the resource base is Lake Michigan has increased in popularity limited. due to the improved salmonid fishery. Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 105 IRON 0 0 DICKINSON w/S'CO ENOMINEE FLOR CE MARINETTE FO EST LANGLADE MENOMINEE DOOR SHA AND OCONTO KEWAUNEE OUTAGAMIE BROWN MANTOWOC WAUPACA CALUMET LEGEND WAUSHARA o WARM-WATER LAKES WINNEBAGO * TROUT LAKES FOND DU LAC SHEBOYGAN MARQUETT i@T LN LADE MEAN".1EE E GREEN LAKE SCALE IN MILES 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-32 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.1, Michigan Portion 106 Appendix 8 The Lake has generated more than 800,000 population analyses, 4 weed control projects, angler days of fishing in recent years. Im- and 11 fish rehabilitation projects. Consider- proved salmonid, yellow perch, and smelt fish- able time was spent on the Lake Michigan ing have been the major attraction. salmonid project. Several access areas were Resident sport fishing license sales have in- proposed and surveyed on the heavily used creased slowly since the mid-1950s. This is at- Chain O'Lakes, and several State lake de- tributable to population growth and possibly velopment sites were investigated. to the new salmon and trout fishery in Lake Fish stocking of new or rehabilitated inland Michigan. Resident license's sold in the plan- waters and of Lake Michigan is an essential ning subarea totaled 273,520 in 1970 with only part of the overall fisheries program. Finger- 1,267 non-resident licenses sold. This indicates ling largemouth bass, bluegill, and redear sun- very little in-migration from other States. fish are provided to approved water areas Licensed fishermen represent 3.9 percent of each year. During 1971, 63 approved water the area population while the total licensed areas received a total of 39,165 fingerling bass, and unlicensed fishermen are estimated to 212,845 fingerling bluegill, and 19,700 finger- represent 6.5 percent of the total population ling redear sunfish. In addition, Lake Miehi- (7,000,000). gan received 4,621 yearling coho, 7,604 year- Most of the demand is on a short-term basis ling chinook salmon, 18,065 yearling rainbow, (near home) while long-term fishing demand 8,263 brown trout, and 100,000 yearling lake (vacations and weekends) is usually satisfied trout during 1971. Since experimental plant- outside the area. If more quality fishing op- ings of salmon began in 1969 in the Illinois portunities were available, more people would portion of Lake Michigan, the upgrading of go fishing in the area. An estimated 1.6 million the Spring Grove Hatchery, which will pro- angler days are provided in the area with the duce at least 50,000 coho and 50,000 chinook remaining demand supplied by other areas, fingerlings, is an important part of the current principally Michigan and Wisconsin and the hatchery program. larger rivers and reservoirs throughout Illi- nois. The sport fishery has the following needs: Future Trends in Habitat and (1) more sport fishing opportunities within Participation urbanized areas, particularly an urban fish- ing program in poverty areas within cities The current angler day demand generated (2) an accelerated public and State lake cannot provide quality fishing with the construction program amount, type, and availability of the water (3) more intensive fish management to im- that presently exists let alone meet the future prove the quality of fishing needs within the area. The estimated de- (4) expansion of the salmonid program in mands generated in 1980 will be 9.2 million Lake Michigan through increased hatchery angler days, in 2000 there will be a demand of production and fish planting 11.2 million days, and in 2020 the demand an- (5) stricter enforcement and monitoring ticipated is 13.8 million days. Presently, only regarding water pollution laws about 1.6 million days of fishing are satisfied in (6) protection and enhancement of desira- the area on a short-term basis. There will be a ble fish habitat deficit of 6.6 million angler days in the area if it (7) additional public access to fishable wa- is assumed that inland waters consisting of ters 30,364 acres of impoundments and 11,520 acres of public streams will'satisfy approximately 816,000 angler days and that the Illinois por- Ongoing Programs tion of Lake Michigan consisting of 1,024,000 acres will satisfy close to 861,000 angler days. The primary function of the Division of If 25 angler trips per year per new acre of new Fisheries is to provide technical fishery man- or rehabilitated water can be provided, it agement services and advice. Management would take an additional 268,000 acres of such practices, such as lake and stream surveys, impounded water to satisfy fishing needs population analysis, fish rehabilitation proj- within the area. National surveys indicate ects, aquatic weed control, and public rela- that an estimated 8 percent of the population tions work, are but a few of the activities un- would like to start fishing and another 13 per- dertaken in the area. During 1971, 84 water cent would like to fish more. This would add a areas in the six county area underwent 29 substantial number of angler days to the Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 107 VICINITY MAP SCAl- .-S 0 W Im AS I UKEE o" Cn@k Port Washington 0 Hartford Cedarburg 00conornowoc Milwaukee Waukesha @ ) South Milwaukee IMILWAUKEE WALWORTH WAUKESHA R..t NHjICAG0- M LWAILIKEE Elkhorn Racine RACfNr- N AL Kenosha 1W' a W'@@D SHA KE!I.R..A 01-lamard ILLINOIs Zion Waukegan 7r- oMarengo Lake Forest o Crystal ake M@HENRY LAKE Highland Park KANE Co Elgin COOK Saint Charles 0 Chicago ICHIGAN DU PAGE INDIANA 0 Michigan City Ce Chesterton 0 La Porte Joliet it" III Chicag Heights@ U, 1< CHICAG IL AUKEE - raiso /- ,_j LA PORTE z 0 Crown Point : z J WILL PORTER LAKE 0 Knox STARKF SCALE IN MILES 15 20 FIGURE 8-33 Planning Subarea 2.2 108 Appendix 8 existing deficit, The continual urbanization of steelhead, brown trout, and yellow perch. In this area will not permit the satisfaction of the months of March, April, and May, there is a future anticipated demand within the area concentration of young (2 to 4 pounds) coho because lake sites of this magnitude are not salmon in the southernmost part of the Lake. available and if such lake projects were feasi- During a recent spring catch, sport fishermen ble, the costs would be prohibitive. The only landed an estimated 80,000 coho salmon. alternative is for the generated demand to be A few steelheads, brown trout, chinook, and met outside of the planning subarea, pref- lake trout are also taken during these months, erably in the urban fringe area not more than but many more are caught in the fall. a 2-hour drive from the urban center, and by Steelhead and chinook salmon spawning runs Lake Michigan. start in Trail Creek in La Porte County and in Protection and enhancement of existing the Little Calumet River in Porter County in fisheries habitat is essential, but difficult be- early September. Lake trout and yellow perch cause of urbanization. Habitat can be created fishing is also good in the Lake at about the on less valuable land at great expense by ex- same time or a few weeks later. Brown trout cavating lakes, impounding wet, marshy are not abundant, but more are caught in the areas, rebuilding existing bodies of water, and fall and winter (around hot-water discharges) improving water quality. than in the spring. The Kankakee and Yellow Rivers are two of the better fishing streams in Indiana. The Fishery Development Plans Kankakee provides one of the few walleye fisheries in the State. Both rivers contain Present capital and operational expendi- northern pike, channel catfish, largemouth tures,each run about 1.2 million dollars. Capi- bass, smallmouth bass, and rock bass. These tal requests funded for major projects in- sport fish are accompanied by a broad range of cluded the DeKalb County Shabbona Lake rough species: carp, buffalo, shad, bullheads, Construction ($850,000), deficit area lake site carp-suckers, whitesuckers, and redhorse. feasibility studies ($100,000), a pilot urban The St. Joseph River has lower water qual- fishing program ($20,000), and salmon rearing ity but it does support a surprisingly good and imprinting project ($50,000). A source of smallmouth bass population in the South funds in the amount of 4 million dollars has not Bend area. However, rough species dorninate, been found for the much needed cold- and with carp probably the most abundant. warmwater fish hatchery, nor has the Trout streams stocked on a put-and-take $150,000 needed annually to operate the basis are found in Porter, La Porte, and St. hatchery. None of the above expenditures are Joesph Counties. These streams are generally completely located in the planning subarea small and offer limited opportunity. except the urban fishing and salmon projects. The natural lakes in the planning subarea However, all partially involve the planning range from highly eutrophic to water capable subarea and, coupled with other expenditures of supporting trout year around. Some lakes in will probably exceed 6 million dollars by target' Marshall County have been stocked with trout. year 1980 if funded. Most of the lakes support bass and bluegill fisheries and have a lonelist of other species which is presented on page 109. The com- 4.3.2 Indiana mercial fishery of the planning subarea is confined to Lake Michigan. Reported catch of the most important species for the last several Species Composition of the Fishery years is presented on page 109. The 1972 commercial catch was valued at $126,465. The sport fishery in this planning subarea is as varied as any five-county area in the State. Fishing waters range from Lake Michigan to Habitat Problems Affecting the north to the Kankakee and Yellow Rivers Production and Distribution of Fish to the south, to a small portion of the St. Species Joseph River to the east. They also include a Water quality degradation and channeliza- few trout streams and several lakes (up to 1,850 acres). tion are probably the biggest threats to sport The Lake Michigan sport fishery centers fish habitat in this planning subarea. Water around coho and chinook salmon, lake trout, quality ranges from excellent to horrible Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 109 Species 1970 1971 1972 1973 mand (Table 8-17). This is an area which prob- yellow perch 205,764 333,850 340,213 252,957 ably has all the water it will ever have with the suckers -- 208,984 17,659 12,647 exception of farm ponds. Realizing this, we chubs 74,390 28,489 38,262 35,701 believe that the maximum sport fishing po- whitefish 3,816 22,636 999 815 tential must come from existing waters. lake trout 8,079 25,790 13,903 7,049 Therefore, salmon and steelhead runs have coho salmon 3,227 5,083 1,157 217 been established in Lake Michigan tribu- taries, and a hatchery is being constructed to support this program. Common Name Scientific Name A gradual improvement in water quality through the efforts of the Indiana State Board yellow perch Perca flavenscens of Health will greatly benefit the sport fishery rock bass Ambloplites rupestris of the area. This will be a slow process, but bluegill Lepomis macrochirus progress is being made, especially near Lake longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus Michigan. Most of the natural lakes in the white bass Roccus chrysops planning subarea will probably be placed gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum white sucker Catostomus commersonz . under intensive management as fishing de longear sunfish Lepomis megalotis mand grows. It may also be necessary to re- carp Cyprinus carpio vise our present philosophy which limits use of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus the put-and-take concept if the projected de- spotted sucker Minytrema melanops mand in Table 8-17 is to be met. Regardless of pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus what future course is followed, expansion of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolimieui present capabilities will be prerequisite to black bullhead Ictalurus melas meeting need. warmouth Chaenobryttus gulosus spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus yellow bullhead Ictalurus natalis 4.4 Planning Subarea 2.3 lake chubsucker Erimyzon sucetta largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas bowfin Amia calva 4.4.1 Species Composition, Relative walleye Stizostedion vitreum Importance, and Status grass pickerel Esox americanus northern hog sucker Hypentelium nigricans Planning Subarea 2.3 (Figure 8-34) contains channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus a wide range of fishery habitat. Crappie, green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus perch, rock bass, bluegill, and other sunfish brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus dominate the sport catch in the inland waters mud minnow Umbra limi of this area. Large- and smallmouth bass, trout, walleye, northern pike, and muskellunge within the same county. Municipal, domestic, are highly prized for their sporting value. and industrial wastes appear to be the pri- Anadromous salmonids, including steelhead, mary causes of low water quality. This degra- brown trout, and coho salmon, have added a dation is widespread in the large industrial new dimension to the stream fishery. Catfish, and residential complexes. bullhead, sucker, cisco, carp, gar, bowfin, and Almost all the streams and rivers in this sturgeon add variety to traditional hook-and- area have been channelized to varying de- line fishing and to specialized netting, spear- grees. Certainly one of the major habitat ing, and bow-and-arrow fisheries of this area. losses occurred with the draining of the Grand Inland lakes provide the majority of angling Kankakee Marsh. Only remnants are left of opportunities. However, many of the lakes are the hundreds of thousands of wetland acres dominated by stunted panfish and rough which fed the Kankakee River. species instead of larger more desirable game fish. Selective exploitation of larger fish is greatly responsible for the decline in quality of Ongoing Programs and Current Needs the inland lake fishery. The stream fishery is dominated by warm- The diversity of the sport fishery in this water species such as smallmouth bass, planning subarea has been described. It northern pike, rock bass, and suckers. A few should also be pointed out that the fishery is good trout streams consistently provide a high limited in terms of the resource versus de- intensity fishery in the few miles available. 110 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-17 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 2.2 States Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Illinois Cook 949 5,492.4 5,787.6 7,174 .0013 837 152,190 .0277 Du Page 330 491.9 1,490.6 1,206 .0024 5 12,053 .0245 Kane 518 251.0 484.6 786 .0031 25 21,127 .0842 Lake 454 382.6 842.7 13,333 .0348 349 61,916 .1618 McHenry 608 111.5 183.4 4,001 .0358 21 8,234 .0738 Will 841 245.5 291.9 3,864 .0157 30 18,000 .0733 Total 3,700 6,974.9 1,885.1 30,364 .0043 1,267 273,520 .0392 Indiana Lake 511 523.9 1,025.2 1,024 .0020 1,724 38,333 .0732 La Porte 590 105.1 178.1 1,605 .0153 803 11,320 .1077 Porter 423 75.5 178.5 375 .0050 217 7,226 .0957 Starke 310 19.4 62.6 1,822 .0939 871 3,759 .1938 Total 1,834 723.9 394.7 4,826 .0067 3,615 60,638 .0838 Wisconsin Kenosha 272 113.7 418.0 3,423 .0301 10,767 12,482 .1098 Milwaukee 236 1,038.5 4,400.4 96 .0001 2,563 92,201 .0888 Ozaukee 234 44.6 190.6 270 .0061 71 4,384 .0983 Racine 337 156.3 463.8 3,608 .0231 1,291 17,356 .1110 Walworth 552 58.8 106.5 12,526 .2130 14,501 9,161 .1558 Washington 427 53.7 125.8 3,168 .0590 301 9,663 .1799 Waukesha 553 193.8 350.5 14,872 .0767 1,449 34,769 .1794 Total 2,611 1,659.4 635.5 37,963 .0229 30,801 180,016 .1085 Projected Angler Day Demand Land Area Population Population 1 2 States and Years (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Total Illinois 1980 3,700 7,884.8 2,131.0 8,256,000 1,500,000 2000 3,700 9,625.8 2,601.6 10,079,000 2,000,000 2020 3,700 11,782.0 3,184.3 12,338,000 2,000,000 Indiana 1980 1,834 914.6 498.7 2,352,342 200,000 2000 1,834 1,221.6 666.1 3,141,942 400,000 2020 1,834 1,611.2 878.5 4,143,990 400,000 Wisconsin 1980 2,611 2,199.6 842.4 7,857,053 1,500,000 2000 2,611 2,997.0 1,147.8 10,705,395 2,000,000 2020 2,611 3,992.5 1,529.1 14,261,358 2,000,000 Total PSA 2.2 8,145 9,358.2 1,148.9 1980 8,145 10,999.0 1,350.4 18,465,395 3,200,000 2000 8,145 13,844.4 1,699.7 23,926,337 4,400,000 2020 8,145 17,385.7 2,134.5 30,743,348 4,400,000 1Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 111 M07CAL KENT Sparta 0 AWA Rockford SHIAWASSEE elding CLINTON Grand Haven G`d"d Walker 0 Gnd GI_A a Owosso Ra ds n @to, Cree* 0S.J hn Q. 1@-n Durand a wie:&II E Lo ell H udsonvil". @o Rival s TTAWA N ortland L ingg, Zeela4 IONIA Lansing Holland ALkEGAN F fumy P, Grand Ledge Hastin Cedar Ri,a, G.. Lk. @ @? I Mason KALAMAZOO @h . o rtly @. a n Rapids t. ,jadk,f 9go Plat i Nell % ?@ d`1 @,O@, @@ INGHAM AN@ElJkN AMAZOO 6 CALHOUNJ 4kf South Haven B CKV RI R >_ Batt a Creek z7o at Paw Pa. Is Jackso a. 'a \1 -Marshall Albion 0 Michigatp Center I oTege St. Joseph III, Benton rbor \- CASS ST. OSEP I HILLSDALE Cf. Do. ac "I hree Rivers Cold t ro Hills ale Buchanfo Niles ST. JOS EPH Sturgis BE RIEN MICHIGAN -0 INDIANA I,. Pi ITELIBEN MICHIGAN 0 hart OHIO South 0 Ang a Bend Goshen LAC@RANGE ST.. OSEPH \@,go NOBLE Sne r ,fLK ART ,V" oPlymouth erd@nle'o) MARSHALL VICINITY MAP ... SCALE IN MILES 0 50 Y Ile SCALE IN MILES 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 8-34 Planning Subarea 2.3 112 Appendix 8 Decline in fish habitat is the primary cause for While eutrophic lakes are often more produc- poor quality and lower angler interest in tive in a total biological sense, desirable game warmwater streams and rivers in this area. fish and the quality of fish habitat are seri- The steelhead and salmon fisheries have ously diminished. g9nerated new angler interest in the large Urban development near inland lakes has rivers of this area, particularly in the lower created other problems. Filling and dredging Grand, Kalamazoo, and St. Joseph, all of of inland lakes have destroyed many natural which had an adult run of coho salmon for the spawning areas used by valuable game fish first time in the fall of 1970. Dams on these such as northern pike, bass, and panfish. rivers now block migration and exclude large Heavy selective fishing in many lakes has re- upst 'ream areas that could benefit from an sulted in the reduction of fish populations to anadromous trout and salmon fishery., stunted panfish. Competing uses such as Considerable room for improvement exists, water skiing and speed boating have reduced and new fishing opportunities can be pro- the aesthetics of the fishing experience, and in vided. Warmwater lake, trout lake, warmwa- some cases, the surface area available for ter stream, trout stream, and anadromous angling. stream fisheries all can be improved by stock- Inland lake levels also affect fish reproduc- ing and maintenance of high-value sport tion. In general, reproduction of valuable species. In many cases water quality im- species increases during periods of high lake provement; chemical rehabilitation, fish pas- levels. However, the actual fluctuation of the sage, and land acquisition should precede, or level may be the important factor in increas- at least coincide with predator stocking pro- ing reproduction. If marshes and impound- grams. ments are allowed to drain periodically, they can enhance fish production. Depending upon thetime of yearitoccurs, high water may have 4.4.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity positive effects. Rivers and streams in southwest Michigan The impoundments and natural inland have suffered from both physical abuse and lakes in Planning Subarea 2.3 provide more pollution. These problems are now partially than 104,000 surface acres of fishable water controlled, but in many cases, damage to fish- (Figure 8-35). The ponded water per capita ing cannot be repaired without extensive varies from a high of .299 in Barry County to a chemical rehabilitation and maintenance low of .003 in Ingham County. This sporadic stocking of valuable species. More than 60 distribution of fishable water does affect miles of the Grand, Kalamazoo, and Black license sales: Barry County has the highest (Holland) river systems have severe water resident fishing license sales per capita, .248, quality problems related to dissolved oxygen. and Ingham has the lowest, .069 (Table 8-18). These problems restrict even the most mini- Ingham, Clinton, and Eaton Counties encom- mal types of sport fishing. pass the second largest population center in Increases in stream temperatures due to the planning subarea and yet have a total of municipal and industrial waste discharge and less than 2,500 acres of water. impoundments are significant factors in the present range of intermediate warmwater species such as smallmouth bass and northern 4.4.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production pike. Increased stream temperatures are also and Distribution of Important Fish an adverse factor in extending the range of Species anadromous salmonids. The changing watershed in this area has Many factors affect the production and dis- affected the quality of river fishing. Water tribution of game fish in southwest Michigan. quality is critical during periods of low flow, The quantity and distribution of inland wa- and as urban development covers more of the ters is important, but, except for constructing natural drainage area with asphalt and con- impoundments, little can be done to change crete, low flows are more intense and their the size or placement of the resource base. duration lasts longer. Flood damage to fish However, the quality of this water resource habitat also occurs when river flows are left and kinds of game fish available can be altered uncontrolled in highly developed areas. through direct management. Soil erosion from construction and agricul- Many inland lakes in this area show effects tural practices in the watersheds of this area of eutrophication caused by domestic sewage. has deposited enormous quantities of silt in Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 113 TABLE 8-18 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 2.3 States Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Indiana Elkhart 464 121.2 261.2 3,640 .0300 320 13,602 .1122 LaGrange 381 19.0 49.9 3,460 .1821 834 6,209 .3267 Marshall 442 32.4 71.3 4,296 .1325 472 7,180 .2216 Noble 409 29.4 71.9 4,620 .1571 872 12,624 .4293 St. Joseph 466 238.7 512.2 1,215 .0050 323 19,146 .0802 Steuben 307 18.0 58.6 10,640 .5911 5,111 8,153 .4529 Total 2,469 458.7 185.8 27,871 .0607 7,932 66,914 .1458 Michigan Allegan 824 60.6 73.5 7,760 .1280 2,050 8,869 .1463 Barry 549 34.8 63.4 10,407 .2990 2,601 8,623 .2477 Berrien 576 165.7 287.7 2,761 .0166 4,391 19,423 .1172 Branch 505 37.7 74.7 8,111 .2151 14,110 7,209 .1912 Calhoun 706 142.1 201.3 4,794 .0337 938 18,877 .1328 Cass 487 39.5 81.1 9,427 .2386 11,188 8,156 .2064 Clinton 571 44.7 78.3 809 .0180 128 4,582 .1025 Eaton 569 55.9 98.2 659 .0117 189 6,946 .1242 Hillsdale 594 34.7 58.4 3,881 .1118 3,713 5,177 .1491 Ingham 558 246.9 442.5 700 .0028 329 17,123 .0693 Ionia 574 42.7 74.4 1,796 .0420 275 6,488 .1519 Jackson 692 136.9 197.8 9,630 .0703 1,793 16,188 .1182 Kalamazoo 559 188.3 336.9 9,471 .0502 1,182 20,638 .1096 Kent 852 391.2 459.2 8,022 .0205 1,237 50,721 .1296 Montcalm, 707 40.4 57.1 7,263 .1797 538 8,955 .2216 Ottawa 563 112.4 199.6 5,095 .0453 916 11,591 .1031 St. Joseph 538 60.2 111.9 9,042 .1501 8,793 8,876 .1474 Shiawassee 498 45.4 91.2 911 .0200 53 5,284 .1163 Van Buren 601 55.0 91.5 4,217 .0766 4,397 8,691 .1580 Total 11,523 1,935.1 167.9 104,756 .0541 58,821 242,417 .1252 Projected Angler Day Demand Land Area Population Population 1 2 States and Years (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Total Indiana 1980 2,469 527.2 213.5 2,103,816 1,242,000 2000 2,469 635.5 257.4 2,535,992 1,497,000 2020 2,469 778.3 315.2 3,105,842 1,834,000 Michigan 1980 11,523 2,386.8 207.1 10,265,317 6,060,000 2000 11,523 3,136.3 272.2 13,488,820 7,964,000 2020 11,523 4,098.1 355.6 17,625,000 10,405,000 Total PSA 2.3 13,992 2,393.8 171.1 1980 13,992 2,914.0 208.3 12,369,133 7,302,000 2000 13,992 3,771.9 269.6 16,024,812 9,461,000 2020 13,992 4,876.4 348.5 20,731,239 12,239,000 1 Demand generated within planning subarea. 2 Total demand including in- and out-migration. 114 Appendix 8 the rivers and impoundments. Large sections Well planned use of the water and related land of rivers that were once productive continue to area could upgrade the resource with minimal be destroyed by heavy siltation. effect on the present sport fishery. .In spite of the long list of fishery problems, Because of recent improvements in water sport fishing activity in southwest Michigan is quality in the rivers of this planning subarea high compared to other areas of the country. and new controls over habitat abuse, the .... .......... .......................... ...................... X.: ............ .... .......... . . . .......... -X @:::::::OTTAWA:::::: CLINTON SHIAWASSEE .............. .. ........ . .......... ....... ..... ......................... .............. ............. ............. % .... ........... IONIA ........... ..................... . ........... .................... ........... EATON INGHAM .......... .... A:::::VAN BUREN::::::X:_*:*_:*_A_1n__ A-Y-A-4-6 --CAL H 0 U N i ON ............. .. ...................... ..................... . ......................... ......................... ............... . ................. HILLSDALE,:::::: ST. J SEPH'.'. ................................... . ......... . .............. ............ ................ .................. .................... ..................... ........ .................... .................... .......... .. ................ BERRIEN .................. .......... ..... .... ::7rA1_CHIGAN:::: INDIANA": ......... OHIO ............ % .. ........ ............ ST. JOSEPH ................ ELKHART:::. ..... ........... LEGEND UNDER 3000 -C A L 0 -U N JA CK@ ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... ......................... H .... R.A NC' .............. . ....... ... ................. . . ... .. /BERRIEN - - - - -- . - . @--. ..L . T EN OHIO - n. MARSHALL uz.@@ 3000-6000 OVER 6000 FIGURE 8-35 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.3 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 115 Michigan Department of Natural Resources 4.4.6 Ongoing Programs plans to build a major warmwater fish hatch- ery to service the waters of this area. Many of the current fishery programs in Planning Subarea 2.3 involve protection and maintenance of the resource base. However, 4.4.4 History of Sport Fishery direct or intensive manipulation of fish popu- lations is often employed by fish management The former record for fishing license sales in agencies. Figure 8-36 and Table 8-19 sum- this area occurred in 1955. As the fishery de- marize the intensive fish management efforts clined in quality and recreational uses of the in the planning subarea. Obviously, the water increased, fishing license sales de- specific lakes, total acreage involved, and creased steadily until 1966. Since 1966, license number of lakes change from year to year, but sales have increased by 10 percent or more per Figure 8-36 and Table 8-19 fairly represent year. Despite increased license fees, a new rec- the magnitude and distribution of the current ord high was established in 1968. Increased program. sales are partially due to the new salmon pro- Intensive warmwater management in- gram in the State. However, fishing interest cludes spawning marsh operations, partial or has also increased on inland waters. total chemical rehabilitation, and warmwater The sport fishery on inland waters had been fish plantings. Intensive trout management comprised of primarily warmwater species. in lakes includes trout plantings and chemical Although the Lake Michigan and anadromous rehabilitation. Nearly half the trout streams stream fishery will continue to grow in impor- require trout stockings because of the lack of tance, bass, walleye, northern pike, muskel- natural reproduction and the failure of chemi- lunge, and assorted panfish still offer the best cal rehabilitation to remove competing potential for full development of the inland species. lakes. In 1968, 646 pounds of warmwater species and 18,272 pounds of trout were planted in lakes and streams. The 1,120,185 fry and 4.4.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and fingerling warmwater fish stocked included Current Needs northern pike, muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, smallmouth bass, and hybrid sunfish. Brown The total angler day demand expressed and rainbow trout were the only coldwater within the inland water of this planning sub- species planted for the inland fishery. Anad- area has remained relatively constant Isince romous fish stocking began in 1968, when 6,000 the late 1950s. However, the number of steelhead were planted in the Black River, in licensed sport fishermen and the number of Allegan County. Salmon plants began in 1969 angler days per capita from this planning sub- when a total of 300,000 coho were stocked in area has increased. The current angler day the Grand, Kalamazoo, and St. Joseph Rivers. demand expressed by people living or buying Figure 8-37 shows the current extension of licenses in Planning Subarea 2.3 exceeds 9.0 the anadromous stream fishery. The small million angler days. Approximately 60 percent tributary streams used by anadromous fish of the current demand is supplied within this for spawning are not shown. planning subarea, leaving nearly 3.6 million angler days to be supplied in other areas, primarily northern Michigan and the Great 4.4.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Lakes. Participation In-migration from other areas represents a small percentage of the total number of angler Future demand based on the current rela- days recorded in the planning subarea. The tionship of habitat base to number of fisher- purchase of licenses by residents of Planning men indicates that the number of angler days Subarea 2.3 in other areas of the State is sub- generated from Michigan's portion will in- stantial and this demand will be considered in crease to more than 11.8 million by 1980 (Table the counties in which the licenses were pur- 8-18). The extension of the anadromous chased. Nonresident license sales were used stream fishery for steelhead and salmon will as an index to the number of angler days ex- spread this demand to the St. Joseph, Black, pressed by out-of-State fishermen. Latent Kalamazoo, and Grand Rivers. Pollution fishing demand will be discussed later. abatement, habitat manipulation programs, 116 Appendix 8 TABLE8-19 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.3 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Lntensive Total Trout Anadromous County (sq.mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Allegan 837 7,760 97 10 873 351 517 33.5 41.5 Barry 571 10,407 165 16 4,227 2,394 272 18.6 18.0 Berrien 584 2,761 32 2 0 12 500 8.2 62.5 Branch 517 8,111 71 5 355 650 325 0.0 ---- Calhoun 716 4,794 91 3 628 136 540 55.3 ---- Cass 505 9,427 103 9 148 965 229 54.6 ---- Clinton 573 809 27 1 0 2 319 0.0 ---- Eaton 572 659 25 0 0 0 207 0.0 ---- Hillsdale 604 3,881 89 5 0 331 298 3.2 ---- Ingham 560 700 22 0 0 0 234 0.0 ---- Ionia 578 1,796 27 4 1,205 0 464 10.8 ---- Jackson 717 9,630 96 8 1,715 751 324 23.7 ---- Kalamazoo 580 9,471 74 8 515 288 365 25.0 ---- Kent 868 8,022 186 10 576 278 772 131.4 7.5 Montcalm 720 7,263 160 9 557 248 477 97.2 ---- Ottawa 572 5,095 24 5 1,918 4 307 21.8 40.0 Shiawassee 540 911 23 0 0 0 307 0.0 ---- St. Joseph 518 9,042 80 4 211 1,045 292 7.2 ---- Van Buren 615 4,217 88 5 0 752 324 39.7 50.5 Total 11,747 104,756 1,480 104 12,928 8,207 7,073 530.2 220.0 and the proposed warmwater hatchery will in- fish opportunities on disposable income and crease the quality of the area fisheries. leisure was not considered. It is hoped that In order to calculate the future supply of these factors will encourage fishermen to ex- fishing opportunities in the area, additional press their latent fishing demand. anadromous streams, new impoundments, In the first three years of the Great Lakes and the acres of water improved with fish from salmon fishery, 1967 through 1969, 50,000 new the new warmwater hatchery were estimated. fishermen bought licenses in the area. This The number of new angler days provided by figure equals three percent of the 1966 popula- these management efforts was estimated at tion of southwest Michigan. If the latent fish- 250 angler days per year per mile of new anad- ing demand fulfilled by a Great Lakes fishery romous stream; 25 angler days per year per was three percent of the 1966 population, the acre of new impounded water; and 25 angler total latent demand must be higher because days per year per new acre of water stocked all the people would not necessarily take ad- with warmwater fish. vantage of the new salmon fishery. A Future latent demand is estimated by in- minimum estimate of latent demand for the creases in disposable income and leisure time. area would be six percent of the population. Leisure time preferences compiled from cen- The latent demand will increase the calcu- sus interviews were used to estimate what lated total angler days (Table 8-18) in Michi- portion of the population would like to begin gan by 3,322,426 in 1980, 3,204,570 in 2000, and fishing or fish more often. These national sur- 5,597,012 in 2020. veys indicated that 8 percent of the population would like to begin to fish and 13 percent would like to fish more. Eighty-seven percent 4.4.8 Fishery Development Plans of the respondents indicated that lack of time, money, transportation, equipment, or The operational and capital outlay of funds facilities prevented them from participating required to implement the previously men- in the given outdoor activity. -Because in- tioned ongoing programs are not assured. Al- creases in available facilities (new impound- though preliminary planning has been com- ments) were considered in projected future pleted, land acquisition, the new warmwater demand, a small portion of the latent demand hatchery, and anadromous fish passages have has been considered. However, the impact of not yet been funded. An estimated $250,000 improved warmwater fishing, new anadro- will be required in annual operational funds to mous fishing streams, and the new Great Lakes produce and stock the warmwater fish Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 117 MONTCALM 0 A KENT OTTAWA CLINTON SHIAWASSEE 0 0 0 0 10 ]A ALLEGAN BARRY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EATON INGHAM VAN*BUREN *KALAMAZOO CALHOUN JACKSON 0 0 CASS ST. JOSEPH BRANCH H;LLSDALE 0 0 BERRIEN MICHIGAN INDIANA STEUBEN HIGAN LAGRANGE NOBLE ST. JOSEPH ELKHART LEGEND * WARM-WATER LAKES * TROUT LAKES MARSHALL FIGURE 8-36 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.3 118 Appendix 8 MONTCALM KENT OTTAWA f CLINTON SHIAWASSEE ft IONIA %@,-L ALLEGAN -8*RRY EATON INGHAM VA BUREN KALAMAZOO CALHOUN JACKSON CASS ST. JOSEPH BRANCH HILLSDALE ti BERRIEN MICHIGAN INDIANA STEUBEN MICHIGAN OHIO LAGRANGE ST. JOSEPH ELKHART NOBLE MARSHALL LEGEND CURRENT 145 MILES PROJECTED 1980 324 MILES KENT r4 FIGURE 8-37 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.3 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 119 scheduled for the planning subarea by 1980. TABLE8-20 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, Capital outlay costs attributable to the fishery Planning Subarea 2.3 programs in the planning subarea, exclusive County River Acres Cost of impoundment construction, will probably exceed 3.0 million dollars by 1980. Allegan Rabb i t 160 $ 16,000 The extension of the anadromous stream Allegan Black 240 24,000 fishery indicated in Figure 8-37 will require VanBuren capital expenditures for fish passage and dam Berrien Paw Paw 400 60,000 removal. Land acquisition detailed in Figure 8-38 and Table 8-20 is essential in providing Berrien Pipestone Creek 200 10,000 fishermen access and habitat protection to Eaton Grand 200 60,000 both the developing anadromous fishery and to the existing high quality trout and warm- Ionia Libhart Creek 120 20,000 water stream fisheries. Planting of warmwa- Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 600 100,000 ter species from the new hatchery will be con- centrated in those counties with the largest Kent Rogue 300 100,000 acreage of natural lakes. However, efforts will Montcalm Fish Creek 400 30,000 be made to intensify fish management in lakes near metropolitan centers. Approximately Ottawa Grand 120 36,000 50,000 acres of lakes will be enhanced through Total 2,740 $456,000 the warmwater planting stock produced by the warmwater hatchery. Nearly all new programs designed to make further use of the water and land-related re- sources of the area can potentially damage the trout, but even these streams are marginal fishery habitat. Impoundment construction coldwater habitat. Bluegill is probably the on any stream or river should be carefully most sought-after species in inland lakes. evaluated for costs (including damages) and Largemouth bass, bluegill, redear, yellow benefits. Anadromous fish passage is critical perch, black crappie, and northern pike domi- to the potential fishery development of the nate the sport catch in this area. The stream three major river systems. Fish passage on fishery is predominately for smallmouth bass, smaller streams may be equally important to rock bass, and northern pike. Destruction of the local fishery. The destructive effects of habitat by dredging and impoundments rep- warming and siltation caused by some im- resents a threat to the existing stream poundments should be considered. fishery. Plans for fishery development beyond 1980 Spring sucker fishing, rough fish spearing, are purely speculative. However, they would and cisco netting are only locally important. include expansion of the warmwater stocking The latter is declining in popularity as cisco program into large stretches of rivers and populations dwindle. Eutrophication is be- additional lakes and extension of the anad- lieved to be the cause for reduced Cisco num- romous stream fishery into the Kalamazoo bers. River. Acquisition of key lands for access and Habitat improvement and provisions for habitat protection will be a growing need. Cap- new fishing opportunity are badly needed in ital funding for such programs during the Indiana. Severe personnel limitations and a period from 1980 to 2000 would demand more relatively new fisheries program (since 1962) than six million dollars. have made even routine survey work a slow process. As a result, little is known about many of the lakes and streams. There is no maintenance stocking. Limited 4.4.9 Indiana's Comments resources go where they will do the most good (newly eradicated or impounded waters). In- Indiana's portion of Planning Subarea 2.3 diana has not stocked exotic fish in the past, contains a wide range of habitat. Four of the but it is now making limited introductions of six counties fall within the natural lakes re- walleye and salmonids. gion. All but Marshall County contain trout Although quality of the habitat is declining, streams stocked on a put-and-take basis. habitat distribution in the planning subarea is Nineteen streams within the planning sub- fair. Ponded waters per capita range from area are annually stocked with catchable-size 0.591 in Steuben County to 0.005 in St. Joseph S 120 Appendix 8 M N UAL KENT Sparta Gree ille 0 AWA Rockford SHIAWASSEE Grand Haven Or.,, Walker Beldin CLINTON GRAND 0 G nd Ra 'CIS Ionia 0 Owasso -6& St. John Q. "Ikoronn8 Hudsonville Lowel Durand TTAWA rtland ItiYe, ZeelaS L I INIA H Iland ALk*GAN F y Grand Ledge Lansing nd Led * 0 Hastings Riw r Gua Lk. I @ M KALAM ZOO Cha ott ason aton Rapids Otse Plainwell INGHAM VA U N MAZ "Ov South Haven 1 0 CALHOUN JACKSON CK RI ER J Battle Creek jVe(( la z Paw Pa. aw P I" ---M Jackson rshaft 0 Michig Center Mg. Albi ZZ, St. Joseph 0 Benton rbor CASS ST. OSEP CX- DO- ac ANCH \HILLSDALE hree Rivers Cold aterO Hills ale Buchan Niles ST.JOSEPH Sturgis BERRIEN 1 MICHIGAN 0 INDIANA TEUBEN MICHIGAN Uth hart Ariga OHIO @-@iaa-nd Gosh IT LAG ANGE ST. JOSEPH Ligonie NOBLE LK RT Plymouth endaliville 0 MARSHALL -m VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES LEGEND 0 SO= GENERALIZED LOCATION ow N FOR HABITAT PROTECTION AND FISHERMEN ACCESS WALE IN MILES FIGURE 8-38 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 2.3 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 121 County. License sales per capita somewhat re- pressure for warmwater species on inland flect this distribution. lakes has declined in the past 20 years. Habitat problems encountered in Indiana's portion of Planning Subarea 2.3 closely paral- lel those in southwest Michigan. Nothing can 4.5.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity be added to the Michigan narrative except to emphasize the roles of unwise land use and The inland ponded waters of Planning Sub- municipal and industrial waste in the decline area 2.4 provide more than 285,565 acres of river and stream habitat and in the acceler- available for fishing. The distribution of water ated eutrophication of lakes. within the planning subarea is reasonably good. Twenty-eight percent of the population of the area is licensed to fish. In five of the 4.5 Planning Subarea 2.4 counties of Planning Subarea 2.4, more than 50 percent of the population is licensed. Ponded water per capita ranges from a high in 4.5.1 Species Composition, Relative Roscommon County of 4.8 to a low of .07 in Importance, and Status Muskegon County (Figure 8-40). Water areas in Planning Subarea 2.4 attract Planning Subarea 2.4 (Figure 8-39) encom- fishermen from outside the planning subarea. passes some of the best fishing waters in the For example, the resident license sales per State of Michigan. Nearly all the rivers are capita in Roscommon County is 2.07. Thus, managed for trout. Brook trout, brown trout, fishing license sales are more than double the and steelhead are common to each river sys- Roscommon County population (Table 8-21). tem. Steelhead makes annual runs in every major river tributary to Lake Michigan in Planning Subarea 2.4. Brown trout is the dom- 4.5.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production inant species in upstream sections of the ma- and Distribution of Important Fish jor rivers, and brook trout is of primary im- Species portance in the smaller colder streams and headwater areas, Where natural lakes of im- Many factors affect production and dis- poundments alter the character of a river tribution of game fish in this area. The detri- system, northern pike, walleye, large- and mental effects of man's activities are dis- smallmouth bass, and assorted panfish are cussed in detail in the part of this report deal- the most important species. ing with Planning Subarea 2.3. However, resi- Inland lakes have traditionally provided the dent population of the planning subarea is majority of fishing opportunities in the area. small compared to Planning Subareas 2.3 and Walleye, large- and smallmouth bass, north- 4.1 and the degree of lakeside and streamside ern pike, muskellunge, lake trout, and panfish development is tremendous. Therefore, the such as yellow perch and bluegill are the most accompanying problems are growing faster commonly sought species. Annual mainte- than the means to cope with them. nance of brook, brown, and rainbow plantings Generally, water quality is excellent and adds to the importance of the inland lake problems associated with industrial waste are fishery. Recent improvements in steelhead isolated to bay harbor lakes such as Manistee plantings and the introduction of salmon may and Muskegon or in Great Lakes harbors. now place river and stream fishing effort in Current programs to remove waste outfalls the planning subarea on a par with the inland from these lakes and provide advance treat- lake fishery of Planning Subarea 2.4. ment facilities are designed to solve present Specialized and seasonal fisheries for suckers, problems. smelt, lake run walleye, and whitefish add to One of the major habitat problems is the the variety of the sport fishery of the area. indiscriminate damming of small trout The inland lake fisheries have been so streams for real estate development or private exploited that the larger predators are no use. This practice has become so widespread longer dominant. Perch, bluegill, and other that the ability of some mainstream areas to panfish populations are often overabundant sustain trout population is in danger. If left and individual fish are sometimes too small to uncontrolled, the damming of small feeder attract anglers. Fishing quality and fishing streams could destroy trout fishing on such 122 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-21 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 2.4 State Land Popula- Popula@ Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per Waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Michigan Antrim 474 10.7 22.6 30,060 2.8093 2,644 5,504 .5144 Benzie 314 6.9 22.0 17,634 2.5557 2,335 4,239 .6143 Charlevoix 413 14.1 34.1 25,040 1.7759 1,433 4,734 .3357 Delta 1,173 33.3 28.4 4,439 .1333 1,549 3,759 .1129 Emmet 459 16.5 35.9 7,958 .4823 3,144 4,865 .2948 Gr. Traverse 460 36.0 78.3 13,899 .3861 3,026 8,807 .2446 Kalkaska 564 4.9 8.7 5,316 1.0849 709 2,688 .5486 Lake 568 5.1 9.0 4,300 .8431 1,824 3,620 .7098 Leelanau 344 9.7 28.2 17,369 1.7906 2,105 3,030 .3124 Mackinac 1,010 10.1 10.0 28,538 2.8255 5,870 3,459 .3425 Manistee 548 19.6 35.8 7,559 .3857 3,654 6,028 .3076 Mason 489 21.7 44.4 8,986 .4141 4,084 5,235 .2412 Mecosta 558 25.8 46.2 8,498 .3294 1,747 9,272 .3594 Missaukee 564 6.1 10.8 4,396 .7207 295 1,994 .3269 Muskegon 500 152.1 304.2 10,713 .0704 1,990 18,830 .1238 Newaygo 846 25.7 30.4 11,493 .4472 3,044 9,124 .3550 Oceans 535 17.0 31.8 3,711 .2183 2,146 4,501 .2648 Osceola 578 13.9 24.0 2,614 .1881 420 4,065 .2924 Roscommon 519 8.1 15.6 393089 4.8258 4,999 16,803 2.0744 Schoolcraft 1,173 8.0 6.8 27,480 3.4350 2,551 2,787 .3484 Wexford 559 19.5 34.9 6,473 .3319 1,790 6,502 .3334 Total 12,648 464.8 36.7 285,565 .6144 51,359 129,846 .2794 Land area Population Population Projected Angler Day Demand State and Years (sq. mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident1 Total 2 Michigan 1980 12,648 547.2 43.3 5,719,528 9,020,000 2000 12,648 671.4 53.1 7,017,710 11,011,000 2020 12,648 841.4 66.5 8,794,611 13,627,000 Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. famous rivers as the Pere Marquette and the streams in the Great Lakes Basin are located upper Manistee. in this planning subarea. The variety of high quality fishing oppor- tunities available will continue to attract 4.5.4 History of Sport Fishery anglers from Michigan and ajdacent States. Resident fishing license sales reached an all-time high in 1969 when 144,630 were sold. 4.5.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and License sales in the most southern and popu- Current Needs lous county, Muskegon, have declined in the last 20 years, while license sales have more The total angler-day demand expressed than doubled in Manistee County and other within the inland water of Planning Subarea counties where fishing opportunities have 2.4 has increased steadily since the early expanded. 1950s. The current estimate of 4,850,000 an- The recovery of steelhead and the introduc- gler days (base year 1970) does not include the tion of salmon from 1966 through 1970 have large number of anglers who buy their had a tremendous impact on this area. The licenses outside the area but do most of their most important salmon and steelhead fishing fishing within Planning Subarea 2.4 (Table Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 123 SCHOOLCRAFT ESCANABA Manistiques Lake STIQIJ A DELTA S IX-GROSC ACKINAC Ay DE NOC @Bnevoori take Manistique Mackinac Island I dston nace (@ Escanab Straits of Mackinac Q@@i, 81.nc Island &-er Island Is (@ c 0 Petoskey Charlevoix I It North Ma,ifou island _V CHARLI b South Manitou Island .59 GO- Twch lake NTRIM Lake a LEELANAU TRA RSE y BENZIE Trav Ise City 0 ,an Frankfort Crystal Lake @RAN@@RAWVE SE 5A Mlti UKEE-@ W@ --i;- lake MANISTE .E p age @-' % hlo.qhto@ Manistee Lake illac 0 MANIS EE Cadillac @0 'S' WE RD ROSCOM/MON RiVa, Ludington pane MUSKEGON VICINITY MAP MASO N LAK_@ OSCEOLA, 1-@=,Es SABLE Ell(\p 0 wim IIR V, OCEANA M ECOSTA F -.nt -f WIT iteh a I I NEZYGO ,plake@ ce 0 Mu MILES .@ALE IN 7 MUSKEGON 0 5 172 M15 40 25 FIGURE 8-39 Planning Subarea 2.4 EM" x, -N*::@" ........ . C KALKASKA M SSAU KEE MANISTEE I WEXFORD __'!@ASON LAKE OSCEOLA ........... LEGEND MECOSTA ANA UNDER 9000 ... ... ........ ............ ............ .. ....... ............... .... 9000-12,000 OVER 12,000 ......... .. SME IN MILES 0 5 30 15 20 26 FIGURE 8-40 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 2.4 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 125 TABLE8-22 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 2.4 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Intensive Total Trout Anadromous County (sq.mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Antrim 520 30,060 45 4 -------- 26,560.5 264 112.1 1.6 Benzie 342 17,634 55 6 771 10,808 104 55.3 32.6 Charlevoix 451 25,040 41 3 -------- 17,752.5 215 140.2 ---- Delta 1,202 4,439 116 10 214 246.5 581 542.9 34.4 Emmet 477 7,958 18 1 -------- 4,320 98 64.4 ---- Gr. Traverse 490 13,899 81 9 -------- 4,957.4 186 168.5 12.2 Kalkaska 573 5,316 96 13 -------- 1,049 284 117.8 10.8 Lake 577 4,300 119 6 912 218.9 250 156.4 70.5 Leelanau 374 17,369 31 8 -------- 13,895.2 124 97.9 6.1 Mackinac 1,081 28,538 172 5 6,236 1,072.7 521 390.7 68.2 Manistee 568 7,559 41 2 -------- 69 276 140.7 86.5 Mason 505 8,986 72 2 333 -------- 238 116.2 55.5 Mecosta 570 8p498 91 4 512 553.2 293 141.0 ---- Missaukee 572 4,396 32 4 73.5 60.5 209 54.9 ---- Muskegon 519 10,713 72 2 -------- 73 394 45.0 Newaygo 867 11,493 143 7 4,080 608.2 484 219.1 51.0 Oceana 541 3,711 66 2 -------- 81.6 224 169.3 53.5 Osceola 585 2,614 80 3 -------- 168.5 301 199.8 ---- Roscommon 573 39,089 61 3 20,044 9,735.4 204 36.1 ---- Schoolcraft 1,229 27,480 430 23 9,482.1 449.9 734 411.3 .5 Wexford 570 6,473 26 3 -------- 35 313 283.6 ---- Total 73,186 i85,565 1,888 119 42,657.6 92,715 6,297 3,663.2 507.2 8-21). Nearly all of the current demand is important in maintaining the present fishery. supplied within the planning subarea. In addi- Figure 8-41 and Table 8-22 summarize the tion, Planning Subarea 2.4 supplies a fishery programs. minimum of 3,000,000 angler days to fisher- In 1969, slightly more than 2.5 million men who buy their licenses in other Michigan warmwater fish were planted including wall- counties, primarily Planning Subareas 2.3,4.1, eye, northern pike, largemouth bass, tiger and 3.2. Many out-of-State tourists fish in musky, bluegill, and hybrid sunfish. Approxi- Planning Subarea 2.4. In 1966, 51,000 nonresi- mately two million brown trout, rainbow trout, dent licenses were sold in the area adding a brook trout, steelhead, splake, and lake minimum of another 500,000 angler days to trout were planted the same year. the current demand in Planning Subarea 2.4. Since 1966 several million salmon have been The projected demand and latent demand planted in the streams. Table 8-23 sum- for Planning Subareas 2.3, 4. 1, and 3.2 must be marizes the size and location of the 1970 considered in future fisheries programs be- plants of salmon in the planning subarea. cause residents from these three planning subareas are now the largest users of the fishery resources of Planning Subarea 2.4. Current demand is measured in license TABLE 8-23 1970 Salmon Stocking, PSA 2.4 sales. Supply equals current demand in this planning subarea. However, because Plan- Location Coho Chinook ning Subarea 2.4 offers perhaps the greatest Bear River 276,982 200,034 potential for expanding the quality and quan- Big Sable River 199,990 100,000 tity of fishing opportunities in Michigan, one Brewery Creek 200,074 ------- can expect that the latent fishing demand in Carp River 100,000 ------- the more populated areas of southern Michi- Little Manistee R. 550,012 308,900 gan will be supplied in Planning Subarea 2.4. Manistee River 100,000 ------- Manistique River 50,000 ------- Muskegon River 201,622 500,000 4.5.6 Ongoing Programs Platte River 777,640 ------- Porter Creek 75,031 ------- Much of the current fish management effort Thompson Creek 73,100 ------- involves protection and maintenance of the Whitefish River 100,000 ------- existing fishery resources. The current fish planting and spawning marsh programs are Total 2,704,451 1,108,934 126 Appendix 8 SCHOOLCRAFT 0 0 0 0 DELTA MACKINAC 0 0 0 0 0 0 C EMMET CHARLEVOIX ANTRIM L EL NAU BE ZIE 0 0 GRAND TRAVERSE KAI KASKA MISSAUKEE 0 MANIS EE WEXFORD ROSCOMMON 0 0 0 MASON LAKE OSCEOLA 0 0 MECOSTA LEGEND OCEANA 0 * WARM-WATER LAKES * TROUT LAKES NEWAYGO S CAL=ILES r4 0 5 10 15 '0 PS MUSKEGON FIGURE 8-41 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 2.4 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 127 Figure 8-42 shows the current extension of TABLE 8-24 1980 Projected Capital and the anadromous stream fishery for steelhead Operating Costs and Benefits, PSA 2.4 and salmon in major rivers. Smaller New Capital Operational tributaries to Lake Michigan and tributaries Item Costs Costs Benefits to major rivers, which are important to both Warmwater Hatchery $ 750,000 $250,000 1,000,000 the anadromous fishery and natural spawn- angler ing, are not shown. days/year 2 Trout Hatchery 1,800,000 150,000 --------- Land Acquisition 162,000 ------- --------- 2 4.5.7 Future Trends in Habitat and Fish Passage 350,000 ------- 200,000 Participation angler days/year Estimates of future demand based on the Stream Improvement --------- 100,000 --------- 2 current relationship of habitat base to Total $3,062,000 $550,000/year 1,200,000 number of licensed fishermen indicate that angler the number of angler days will increase by days/year more than 800,000 by 1980 (Table 8-21). De- 1To be built in Planning Subarea 4.1. mand on the resources from in-migration will 2To maintain current benefits and increase quality plus increase by an additional 500,000 angler days increase in angler days not yet calculated. by 1980. Because abundant inland ponded water is available, new impoundments in the TABLE8-25 Priority Land Acquisition Areas, planning subarea could not be justified by an Planning Subarea 2.4 increase in fishing opportunities except in iso- County River Acres Cost lated local situations. The problem is in main- taining and rebuilding fish populations to Antrim Jordan 80 $35,000 support a high intensity sport fishery. Benzie Platte 120 10,000 The new warmwater hatchery is expected to Benzie Betsie 380 32,000 provide enough fish to add 40,000 acres of well- managed water by 1980. This new manage- Charlevoix Deer Creek 200 10,000 ment program will supply nearly 1,000,000 Delta Schaawe Lake Outlet 40 1,000 new angler days. One of the most important problems will be Grand Traverse Boardman so 8,000 preservation of the quantity and quality of the Mason Pere Marquette 240 20,000 present fishery. With expanded use and de- velopment of this planning subarea the more Newaygo White 80 8,000 fragile resources such as trout streams and Newaygo Muskegon 200 30,000 the fisheries of oligotrophic lakes could easily Oceana Pentwater 80 8,000 be damaged by the people who use them. If the - present resource base is to be preserved, Total 1,500 $162,000 stream improvement, proper zoning, and wild frontage acquisition need to be stepped up. subarea to maintain the current trout man- agement in lakes and streams and to enhance the quality of the fishery is a new modern 4.5.8 Fishery Development Plans trout hatchery. The current hatcheries sup- porting the inland trout management pro- The new warmwater hatchery will cost $3 gram were built between 1901 and 1931 and million with $750,000 of the capital cost being need to be replaced. Phasing out some existing charged to Planning Subarea 2.4 (Table 8-24). facilities and constructing a new hatchery for In addition, $250,000 in annual operating cost trout are planned before 1980 at a capital cost will be required to raise and stock warmwater of $3.7 million. Approximately 1.8 million fish scheduled for PSA 2.4 by 1980. dollars of this capital cost will be charged to Land acquisition for habitat protection and the inland programs of Planning Subarea 2.4. fishermen access is detailed in Figure 8-43 Stream improvement was once an impor- and Table 8-25 and will cost $162,000 before tant program in the maintenance of the trout 1980. Fish passages and dam removal to pro- fishery. This program was phased out because vide for the extension of the current anadro- of increasing costs of other programs. But mous fishery will cost at least $350,000 by 1980. it is still important in the total trout fishery One of the greatest needs of this planning management program and should be reinsti- 128 Appendix 8 tuted with a $100,000 annual operating cost. new land acquisition and fish passage Fish management programs beyond 1980 facilities. Operating costs will increase even have not been detailed, but they would include without expabsion in programs. SCHOOLCRAFT DELTA MACKINAC EMMET CHARLEVO X ANTRIM LEELANALI BENZIE GRAND TRAVERSE --/KALKASKA . MISSALIKEE MANISTEE WEXFORD ROSCOMMON M N LAKE OSCEOLA LEGEND MECOSTA CURRENT 500 MILES OCEANA - - - - - - PROJECTED 1980 200 MILES I U@DELTA. NEW Y SCA I MILES MUSKEG )N 0 5 1 20 25 FIGURE 8-42 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 2.4 Lake Michigan Basin, Plan Area 2.0 129 SCHOOLC&A. ESCANABA tp. mani.6 Lake STIQU DE TA fS III -GROSC ACKINAC AY BE NBC 8-cort Lake Manistiquo Q I dston n.c. (Slackiriac Wand Escanaba Sflifi; of Madine, i. III- Wand 0 Bae- Wand \Go, O\ Pet Charl-oi. Iosk y MMET L Charl-j oyne North M..ifou I.I.,d AR EVO.@' S.A Mnit.. 1,6nda Ghel Torch Lake #NTRIM Lake EELANAU TRA RSE BENZIE a 0 Frankfort [email protected] KAL ASKA MISSALIKEE-@ LEGEND GENERALIZED LOCATION MANISTEE on IAO Manistee 0 MANISTEE ROSCOMMON wExio FOR HABITAT PROTECTION AND FISHERMEN ACCESS Ludi n MUS EGON MU' VICINITYMAP N :'IN I " LAK' OSCEOLA, SABLE 0 Big Awd. 0@ MECOSTA OCEA14A f".-t Whitpe J N EIWAYGO 0 Muskego SCALE IN MILES I--- PQ;R MUSKEWN 20 25 FIGURE 8-43 Priority Land Acquisition, Planning Subarea 2.4 Section 5 LAKE HURON BASIN, PLAN AREA 3.0 The comments on Plan Area 3.0 (Figure 8- have exhibited a distinct acceleration in rate 44) are divided into two major parts. The first of increase during the last 35 years. This in- deals with Lake Huron, and the second treats crease is primarily due to a substantial in- the individual planning subareas of the Lake crease in sulfate and a lesser, but significant Huron basin. increase in chloride (Figure 8-45). 5.1 Resources, Uses, and Management 5.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major Changes 5.1.1 Habitat Base Changes in fish resources of Lake Huron closely follow those indicated in our discussion In addition to the information included in of the historical background of the commercial the introductory section of the appendix, the fisheries of the Great Lakes in Subsection following statements characterize Lake 2.3.1. Huron more specifically: The United States sector of Lake Huron can (1) Lake Huron is the fifth largest lake in be divided into four general ecological areas, the world and the second largest in the St. each of which has traditionally yielded a Lawrence-Great Lakes system. characteristic combination of fish species. The (2) The Lake receives approximately large central basin, which extends from above 122,000 cubic feet of water per second from Rogers City south to below Harbor Beach, was Lakes Michigan and Superior. Two-thirds of the habitat of chubs and lake trout. The this flow comes from Lake Superior. Most habitat in the far northern straits was similar water exits the Lake through a single outlet, to the adjacent habitat of Lake Michigan. the St. Clair River. The exit rate is approxi- Both supported lake trout, whitefish, and suck- mately 177,000 efs. ers. The southern portion of the Lake yielded (3) Lake Huron is 206 miles wide, 183 miles yellow perch, lake herring, walleye, and suck- long, and occupies 32 percent (23,000 sq. mi.) of ers near the shore and whitefish offshore. its watershed. The volume of the Lake is ap- Saginaw Bay provided a highly productive proximately 850 cubic miles. habitat for yellow perch, smelt, walleye, lake (4) Georgian Bay and the North Channel, herring, suckers, catfish, and carp. which are almost exclusively within Canadian Except for the appearance of carp and the waters, are nearly isolated by a barrier formed near disappearance of sturgeon in the early by the Bruce Peninsula, Manitoulin Island, 1900s, there were few major changes in the and other islands. This area contains more Lake's fish population prior to 1930. However, than 20,000 islands. fish population has undergone considerable (5) Saginaw Bay, a shallow (generally 60 change since then. Many of the species pres- feet or less) arm 51 miles long and 25 miles ent today were deliberately introduced or en- wide, is the largest bay on the U.S. side of the tered the Lake as a result of man's activities. Lake. After the invasion of the sea lamprey in the (6) The Lake reaches a depth of 750 feet, 1930s, lake trout and whitefish populations but also contains significant areas of shallow underwent rapid declines. This allowed the water. It ranks second to Lake Erie in propor- smelt and small (bloater) chub populations to tion of water less than 100 feet in depth. increase in the 1940s and the alewife popula- (7) Lake Huron exhibits a well-defined tion to explode in the 1950s. Walleye and thermocline during the warmer months and a sucker also experienced declines beginning in thermal bar during the spring and fall. the 1940s, and continuing to the present time. (8) Total dissolved solids are low, but they The lake herring population fell sharply in the 131 132 Appendix 8 CIIAM .1-sol. (D 16wom- 5 E. 2 -'No's 'E"1111-A VICINITY MAP 0 N T R- 1 0 7-5 S4 3.1 L A, K E 1@fCHIGAN H U R\, 0 N t., rj 3.2 SCALEIN MILES E@ @@ o lo 1 30 40 50 FIGURE 8-44 Plan Area 3.0 Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 133 130 z 120 0 -J -J 2 0 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS Cr 110 W (L i o L 0 90 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 YEAR 30 25 - CALCIUM (NIP Z 20 - 0 -J -J 2 01 15 W 0- ch W F- 10 SULFATE 0 0 a CHLORIDE,@@0.2_ 00 5 0 X @SODILIM + POTASSIUM XX X 1 1 1 XX 1 1 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 YEAR FIGURE 8-45 Changes in the Chemical Characteristics of Lake Huron 1940s and suffered an extreme decline during is in a state of extreme imbalance and the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966 the chub popula- additional changes are anticipated in fish tion collapsed. population structure. Today alewife dominates the Lake and the presence of sea lamprey hinders the reestab- lishment of high-value predator species. The Value of The Individual Species to the effects of sea lamprey predation in Saginaw Ecosystem Bay are less serious. The shall6w waters are vv v SULFATE-__ CP inhabited by carp and yellow perch, and the Major contributions of individual species to deeper waters support large populations of the Lake Huron ecosystem have already been smelt and limited populations of chub, salmon, discussed in Subsection 2.3.1. and splake. The fish population of Lake Huron Other contributions to the ecosystem of the 134 Appendix 8 Lake include the position which each species On the positive side, alewife has provided occupies in the food chain. For instance, seven the food base for planted lake trout and salm- of the 15 species with which we are concerned on in Lake Michigan and is expected to do are primarily predators: lake trout, coho salm- the same in Lake Huron. on, chinook salmon, splake, walleye, yellow It is not yet possible to predict the effect that perch, and sea lamprey. Five of the remaining the introduction of trout (including the hybrid eight, lake whitefish, smelt, herring, bloater splake) and salmon will have on the ecosys- chub, and alewife, are mainly plantivores. tem. Successful control of the sea lamprey will Suckers and catfish are true omnivores, and result in the firm establishment of large carp is an herbivore. stocks of high-value salmonids, depending of Of all these species, lake whitefish occupies course on the prey species available. a unique niche in the ecosystem of the Lake. It is also impossible to predict the effect of Although the adult is basically a plantivore, it the recently imposed zone management sys- can also convert bottom fauna into high-value tem, limited entry, and future management protein in one step. This contrasts directly approaches. with secondary and tertiary piscivores such as In short accurate portrayal of species' con- walleye and lake trout which occupy the upper tributions to.the Lake Huron fishery resource layers of the food webs with primarily depends heavily upon the stability of the planktonic and partially benthic bases. overall ecosystem. Carp are also important to the ecosystem. Their spawning and feeding habits usually re- sult in increased turbidity in extensive shal- Contribution of Individual Species to low water areas, making these areas generally the Commercial Fishery uninhabitable for other species. Although the ecological interactions of The contribution of individual species to the these species with one another and their commercial fishery through 1966 has been common environment are tremendously com- summarized in the Great Lakes-Illinois River plex, present day influences of these species Basin Report, Fish and Wildlife as Related to can be recorded in a number of ways. For Water Quality in the Lake Huron Basin by the example, 1969-1970 data indicated that 72 per- Fish and Wildlife Service. Information from cent of returning age I I coho, and 20 percent of that report has been concentrated, revised, age II, III, and IV lake whitefish were and summarized in Tables 8-26 and 8-27, and wounded by sea lamprey. The general decline Figures 8-46 and 8-47. of the large coregonids and suckers confirms Commercial landings during the last five the fact that sea lamprey will greatly affect years reflect the concentration on medium- the ecosystem of the Lake until its residual and low-value species because of depressed populations are controlled. stocks or near absence of many high-value The success of the alewife has resulted in species like walleye, lake whitefish, and lake changes in the abundance of other species. trout. Recently introduced high-value species For example, alewife has had a direct effect on such as salmon, rainbow trout, and brown smelt and possibly chub populations. It has trout are reserved for the sport fishery. caused decreased growth rates and delayed Except for chub and yellow perch, the total sexual maturity in smelt. Roving schools of average annual values for all commercially alewife sometimes cause other species to va- important species have followed the general cate an area, and thus, have an indirect effect downward trends established prior to 1965 on the ecosystem by causing the underutiliza- (Figure 8-48). In the case of catfish and wall- tion of a stationary food supply. Alewife has eye, these downward trends have continued also caused changes in zooplankton popula- despite upward trends in the value per pound tions of the Lake. Studies in Lake Michigan of these species. This indicates that both these have documented severe reduction of several species are declining in abundance. of the larger species of cladocerans and Chub catches for the last five years have calanoid copepods by alewife. This directly af- decreased substantially resulting in a sharp fects the food supply available to other zoo- decrease in total' value despite increased plankton feeders. Although detailed plankton prices. On the other hand, the total volume of studies have not been carried out in Lake Hu- yellow perch landings increased dramatically ron, one expects that the same effects have through 1966. Prices and consequent total occurred. value similarly increased. Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 135 TABLE 8-26 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 11 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Alewife Lbs. ---1 ---I ---1 9802 6,220 8802 % of Volume ---1 ---1 ---1 .1 --- Carp Lbs. 779,625 916,160 1,555,200 1,457,660 1,483,200 1,411,450 1,108,380 % of Volume 6.2 11.1 21.0 26.4 34.2 24.0 32.2 Catfish 3 3 Lbs. 145,125 389,380 244,270 256,260 315,880 203,720 145,520 % of Volume 1.2 4.7 3.3 4.6 7.3 3.5 4.2 Chub Lbs. 222,825 140,780 132,540 122,860 923,780 2,322,640 525,340 % of Volume 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.2 21.3 39.5 15.2 Lake Herring Lbs. 5sl27,500 2,390,460 1,498,960 1,514,620 127,840 39,540 16,690 % of Volume 41.1 28.9 20.2 27.4 3.0 .7 .5 Lake Trout 2 2 1 Lbs. 1,345,750 668,920 45,640 ---2 ---2 ---1 2102 Z of Volume 10.8 8.1 .6 --- --- --- --- Smelt 2 Lbs. ---2 6,500 4,100 186,340 143,580 30,200 40,330 %of Volume --- .1 .1 3.4 3.3 .5 1.2 Suckers Lbs. 1,677,375 1,300,300 1,361,900 1,140,400 606,360 531,900 248,670 % of Volume- 13.4 15.7 18.4 20.7 14.0 9.0 7.2 Walleye Lbs. 1,547,325 1,589,440 512,320 171,980 135,880 122,460 50,200 Z of Volume 12.4 19.2 6.9 3.1 3.1 2.1 1.4 Lake Whitefish Lbs. 818,525 146,600 1,450,300 133,780 62,460 271,940 239,310 % of Volume 6.6 1.8 19.6 2.4 1.4 4.6 6.9 Yellow Perch Lbs. 697,125 613,940 449,980 445,700 375,520 564,360 1,015,400 % of Volume 5.6 7.4 6.1 8.1 8.7 9.6 29.5 Average Total Volume 12,485,700 8,266,500 7,412,600 5,517,100 4,332,800 5,885,840 3,445,750 1Absent from the commercial catch 2Less than 100 pounds or .1% 3Includes bullhead catch 136 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-27 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 11 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron Species 1936-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Alewife I 1 1 1 2 2 Dollars ---1 ---I ---1 ---I --- 2 1322 --- 2 % of Value --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Carp Dollars 53,147 65,126 90,064 81,954 62,613 66,628 55,463 % of Value 2.6 3.9 6.7 13.4 11.0 7.0 11.0 Catfish Dollars 28,415 98,614 74,558 69,507 71,427 51,758 36,692 % of Value 1.4 5.9 5.5 11.3 12.5 5.4 7.3 Chub Dollars 70,066 52,942 40,378 26,377 205,996 483,033 97,774 % of Value 3.4 3.2 3.0 4.3 36.1 50.5 19.4 Lake Herring Dollars 338,404 228,083 131,954 115,613 13,906 5,176 2,690 % of Value 16.7 13.8 9.8 18.9 2.4 .5 .5 Lake Trout 2 Dollars 488,583 291,314 29,612 2 2 1 115 2 % of Value 24.1 17.6 2.2 --- --- --- --- Smelt Dollars 2 3392 3512 7,514 4,3722 6,269 1,411 % of Value --- --- --- 1.2 --- .7 .3 Suckers Dollars 109,989 108,705 110,432 65,389 35,261 24,457 9,862 % of Value 5.4 6.6 8.2 12.1 6.2 2.6 2.0 Walleye Dollars 423,247 468,074 178,247 63,389 52,284 52,591 25,314 % of Value 20.9 28.2 13.2 10.3 9.2 5.5 5.0 Lake Whitefish Dollars 360,857 80,771 566,350 69,808 40,662 150,138 130,566 % of Value 17.8 4.9 42.0 11.4 7.1 15.7 25.9 Yellow Perch Dollars 132,671 154,345 98,016 87,306 76,115 91,664 137,473 % of Value 6.5 9.3 7.3 14.2 13.3 9.6 27.2 Average Total Value 2,027,390 1,658,669 1,349,487 612,847 570,528 955,556 504,353 lAbsent from the commercial catch 21,ess than $100 or .1%. Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 137 485,700 LBS. TOTAL 8,266,500 LBS. 7,412,600 LBS. WALLEYE LAKE 5,885,840 LBS. 5,517,100 LBS. WHITEFISH OTHER 41332800 LBS. LAKE TROUT:%. SUCKER 3,445,750 LBS. SWIM CHUBS CATFISH CARP 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-46 Average Annual Production (Pounds) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Huron Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 Contribution of Individual Species to fish, 177,375 pounds; walleye, 97,370 pounds; the Sport Fishery smelt, 62,544 pounds; and muskellunge, 4,000 pounds. Although fishing interest in catfish Michigan's 1970 creel census of the Lake remains low, it is gaining in importance to the Huron sport fishery indicated that in numbers sport fishery. The majority of warmwater of warmwater fish caught, smelt ranked first sport fishing occurs in either in Saginaw Bay followed by yellow perch, centrarchid panfish, or in the extreme northern portion of Lake suckers, bass, northern pike, and muskel- Huron in the Les Cheneaux and Drummond lunge. In total weight of warmwater fish tak- Island areas. en, perch ranked first with 912,225 pounds, fol- The total catch of Lake Huron salmonid lowed by northern pike, 594,920 pounds; suck- species in Michigan waters was 158,600 in 1970 ers, 556,920 pounds; bass, 183,232 pounds; pan- (more than 150,000 pounds). Trout and salmon 138 Appendix 8 ,027,390 1,658,669 OTHER YELLOW PERC ---- 1,349,487 - TOTALIN DOLLARS 955,556 LAKE WHITEFISH 612,847 570,528 L @KETROU 504,353 ............ .. .......... % %% SJJC"'('C CHUBS CATFISH CARP 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-47 Average Annual Production (Dollars) for Major Species by the U.S. Lake Huron Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 fishermen took 76,000 coho, 18,000 chinook, tional gill nets in the mid-1830s led to a well- 64,000 steelhead, and 600 lake trout in Lake established fishery by mid-century. Although Huron and tributaries during 1970. seines were first used in approximately 1840, their use did not gain wide acceptance until the early 1900s when carp production began in 5.1.3 The Fisheries Saginaw Bay. Fyke net fishing was repre- sented by a through-the-ice fishery for yellow perch, suckers, and catfish in the Saginaw Historical Background of the Lake River. Huron Commercial Fishery The pound net was introduced around 1860, and the trap net first appeared in the 1890s. Commercial fishing began on the U.S. side of These nets were the most prevalently used Lake Huron in the, early 1800s and consisted gear at the turn of the century and accounted largely of the capture of lake trout, lake for more than 75 percent of the landings at whitefish, and sturgeon by various Indian that time. tribes using spears;dip nets, hook and line, and Except for the introduction of the deep trap elm bark gill nets. The introduction of conven- net from Lake Ontario in 1929 (a gear ex- Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 139 programs will determine the future of the commercial fishery beyond 1980. Creation of 16 10 an economically viable commercial fishery must be based on the rational allocation of fish 14 stocks and the maximum utilization of the 9 commercial fishery in directly manipulating fish stocks. Z PRODUCTION Z C 12 0 FISHERMEN 8K Historical Background of the Lake Z 10 71 Huron Sport Fishery Z 8 6 Yellow perch, northern pike, smallmouth 0 X bass, walleye, and smelt have been the pri- U C mary spo 0 6 5 rt fish of Lake Huron. Although wall- 0 eye, bass, and northern pike fisheries have 4 - 4e always been restricted to large protected bays and northern island areas, yellow perch fish- ing was once good from Port Huron to the 3 S 2 - traits of Mackinac. Every port had small boats or charter-head boats available to sportsmen. 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 .34 1939 1944 1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 Until recently sport and commercial fishermen were in direct competition for all FIGURE 8-48 U.S. Lake Huron Commercial the species mentioned except smallmouth Fishery Production and Numbers of Fishermen bass which were reserved for sport fishing early in the century. In 1966 northern pike fishing was closed to the commercial fishery, and the sport fishery for this species has in- creased substantially since the closure. In tremely efficient in the capture of whitefish 1970, walleye fishing was closed to the com- and consequently severely restricted in 1935) mercial fishery. However, walleye population and the conversion from conventional to nylon is so low and the habitat damage so severe that gill nets in the early 1950s, no other major they may not respond to their increased pro- equipment changes have occurred since the tection without the assistance of artificial turn of the century. Figure 8-48 and Table propagation. Commercial yellow perch fishing 8-28 reflect the profound changes which have was restricted to Saginaw Bay in 1970. It was occurred in the fishery over the last 40 years. hoped that this restriction would allow the The landed value of the U.S. Lake Huron population to expand to its former abundance commercial catch has averaged approxi- and range, but recent investigations indicate mately $500,000 annualy in recent years. A that yellow perch need further protection to high proportion of the catch is marketed regain their former prominence in the sport within the Lake Huron basin. Although the fishery. total impact of the fishery on the basin Salmonid plants were started by Michigan economy is relatively small, it does contribute in 1968 when 402,000 coho, 200,000 chinook, significantly to the economy of some smaller and 42,000 steelhead were planted in Lake lakeside communities by providing both tem- Huron tributaries. Plantings were continued porary and permanent employment and sup- at about the same rate through 1970. Brown plying local restaurants with fresh fish, an trout and rainbow trout were added to the list important aspect of the tourist trade. of species stocked in 1970 when a combined Additional benefits provided by the fishery in- total of 600,000 were planted in Lake Huron. clude a capability for manipulation of fish Little is known about the present economic stocks and a relatively inexpensive method of contribution of the Lake Huron sport fishery. obtaining crucial stock assessment data. The new programs will undoubtedly increase The present condition of Lake Huron fish the economic contribution of the sport fishery. stocks does not warrant stabilization or ex- Its economic importance should soon exceed pansion of the commercial fishery for the next that of Lake Superior and at least equal that 10 years. The success of fishery rehabilitation of Michigan's portion of Lake Michigan. 140 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-28 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Huron Number Pounds Value of Number Number of Landed per Catch per 2 Of of Year Fishermen Fisherman Fisherman Vessels Boats 1930 1,118 13,700 $2,502 60 363 1931 1,182 13,931 3,203 65 337 1932 1,228 12,552 2,630 66 341 1934 1,293 11,129 1,800 61 299 1936 836 15,232 2,706 43 232 1937 931 12,722 2,167 36 246 1938 954 12,613 1,851 33 260 1939 1,039 12,852 1,974 35 296 1940 667 13,641 2,369 44 175 1950 513 9,889 924 48 184 1954 491 11,041 1,242 35 186 1955 373 12,228 1,394 30 137 1956 376 9,667 1,062 35 157 1957 346 9,656 1,262 29 152 1958 446 11,421 1,510 44 172 1959 499 10,102 1,625 65 161 1960 566 11,199 2,191 81 172 1961 569 12,158 2,090 82 172 1962 485 121124 1,838 70 208 1963 426 12,220 1,836 71 182 1964 404 10,134 1,671 62 163 1965 353 13,238 2,169 59 149 1966 303 12,439 1,712 45 49 1967 259 12,399 1,731 39 121 1968 252 10,626 1,602 35 125 1969 222 13,050 1,967 29 102 1Refers to all fishermen engaged in harvesting. 2Value deflated by wholesale price index (1957-1959=100). 5.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on the Fish amounts of pollutants have been added, the Resources main body of the Lake has shown only slight changes with increases evident in total dis- Lake Huron has uses other than fishing: solved solids, chlorides, and sulfates. How- navigation, water supply, waste disposal, and ever, most Great Lakes experts feel that en- recreation. These uses result in chemical, vironmental changes have been partially re- physical, and biological changes in the Lake sponsible for changes in fish populations par- which in turn affect fish resources. ticularly because of their strong influence on tributaries, shore zones, and bays. For in- stance, during the 1930s sauger production in Effects of Chemical Changes Saginaw Bay declined to insignificance de- spite the absence of an intensive fishery. This Table 8-29 lists yealpiiy loadin-g's of chemical would indicate that changing environmental substances to Lake Huron. Although large conditions were partially responsible for their Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 141 TABLE 8-29 Loadings to Lake Huron in Tons per Year Inflow Inflow U.S. Outflow Parameter Lake Superior Lake Michigan Tributaries Lake Huron Chlorides (Cl) 78,000 280,000 950,000 1,000,000 Total Solids 3,900,000 6,400,000 5,200,000 22,000,000 Suspended Solids 78,000 95,000 290,000 1,600,000 Volatile Susp. Solids 78,000 95,000 90,000 520,000 Total Iron (Fc) 36,000 13,000 6,000 35,000 Total Phosphate (POO 2,900 5,700 5,000 15,000 Soluble Phosphate (PO 4) 1,400 2,800 3,300 12,000 Nitrate-Nitrogen (N) 10,000 9,500 5,200 31,000 Ammonia-Nitrogen (N) 5,700 9,000 4,900 19,000 Organic-'Nitrogen (N) 5,700 7,600 2,300 19,000 Calcium (Ca) 930,000 1,400,000 810,000 4,700,000 Magnesium (Mg) 210,000 520,000 230,000 1,600,000 Sodium (Na) 140,000 190,000 400,000 700,000 Potassium (K) 72,000 94,000 74,000 170,000 Sulfate (SOO 210,000 900,000 470,000 3,000,000 Alkalinity (CaCO 3) 3,000,000 4,400,000 1,800,000 14,000,000 Hardness (CaCO 3 3,200,000 5,200,000 2,700,000 16,000,000 Phenol 140 95 68 520 COD 430,000 240,000 260,000 1,200,000 BOD 72,000 94,000 39,000 170,000 DO 720,000 530,000 110,000 1,900,000 Flow (in cfs) 72,600 48,000 11,000 176,900 demise. Similarly, pollution may have been a will undoubtedly have adverse effects. Condi- significant factor in the decline of the walleye. tions in the open waters of the Lake will It may also be responsible for the current ab- largely depend on the quality of inflows from sence of walleye reproduction. Lakes Michigan and Superior. Inputs of pollutants have had profound ef- fects on a local level. Many harbor beach bot- toms have been covered by a fine black ooze Effects of Physical Changes which has created areas of anaerobic decom- position. In these areas this bottom cannot be The major physical changes that have oc- used for spawning or feeding. As far back as curred in the Lake are concentrated in the 1943 investigations in Saginaw Bay have indi- Saginaw Bay region where dredge and fill op- cated that pollution has tainted fish taken erations have reduced or altered fish habitat. from the Bay. Therefore commercial produc- However, lakewide physical changes have tion of some species has been limited. Dis- been minor. - solved oxygen levels in Saginaw Bay as low as Studies are being conducted on the feasibil- 66 percent saturation have been recorded. ity of regulating the water levels and extend- Were it not for the rapid flushing rate, 186 ing the navigation season of the Great Lakes. days, conditions would be worse. Both studies propose alternatives which If remedial measures are not applied, the would grossly affect physical conditions and water quality of Saginaw Bay and other in- fish resources. If the Lakes were controlled at shore areas will decline. Because these shal- a high level, the fish habitat would probably be low areas are important to the life cycles of enhanced by increasing @@oal areas. However, many fish species of Lake Huron, this decline lower levels would reduce the shoal areas and 142 Appendix 8 adversely affect fish resources. been limited to adjusting regulations on Certain proposals for extending the naviga- closed seasons, fish size, and gear rather than tion season involve procedures which would controlling fishing effort. These laws have had maintain channels ice-free. These include the negative effects on both the commercial fish- use of air curtains (which could block and re- ery and the fish resources. They have restrict- tard fish movement), the building of ice- ed the fishery to inefficient harvesting stabilizing islands (which could adversely af- techniques, and they have not provided fect local lake environment), and thermal dis- adequate protection for the fish stock. There charges from strategically located power have been few regulations on sport fishing. plants (which could adversely affect the Sport fishing licenses were not required on ecosystem). Lake Huron until 1968. Michigan's management objective on Lake Huron is to achieve a viable, high-value sport Effects of Biological Changes fishery and at the same time develop a profit- able and progressive commercial fishing in- In summary, major changes have occurred dustry. Both goals necessarily involve inten- in Lake Huron's fish resources. The principal sive efforts to build up species that would con- factors for these changes have been sea lam- tribute to both fisheries. prey predation, increase in alewife abun- The State and Federal governments and dance, and fishing exploitation. Localized the Provincial government of Ontario are con- changes in the chemical and physical envi- ducting several such programs on the Lake: ronment have added to the problems in Lake sea lamprey control, stocking of hatchery- Huron and decreased the value of the fish re- reared salmonids, habitat improvement and sources of the Lake. maintenance, regulation of fishing, and other investigations. Sea lamprey control in U.S. waters of Lake 5.1.5 Competition between Fishing and Other Huron is carried out by the Bureau of Sport Uses Fisheries and Wildlife under a contract with the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. In There is little direct competition between Canadian waters, it is under the direction of fishing and other uses of Lake Huron. the Department of Fisheries and Forestry. Shoreline property for access sites or for the Chemical treatment of Lake Huron streams land-based operations of a commercial fishery began in 1960 but was discontinued in 1962 has not become prohibitively expensive, and because of lack of funds. Treatment was re- the State of Michigan's zone management sumed in 1968, and the first round of treat- plan is designed to separate users and reduce ment was completed in 1970. conflicts. Presently, only minor problems exist Michigan has concentrated on developing in areas (such as parts of Saginaw Bay, which hatchery stocks of rainbow and brown trout receive heavy recreational pressures) where and coho and chinook salmon, as well as rear- commercial fishing is voluntarily curtailed ing splake obtained from the Province of On- during the summer months to allow recrea- tario. Michigan started stocking salmon in tional boating and water-skiing. 1968. Although Canada experimentally intro- duced F1 splake in 1958, selected splake (F3 or greater) were not planted until 1969. This 5.1.6 Fisheries Management marked the beginning of an attempt to estab- lish a self-sustaining population of splake. A second, substantially larger planting was Past and Present Management made in 1970. At this time the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife made the first Michigan Until the latter part of the 19th century, a water planting of splake. The Province of laissez-faire management policy existed in the Ontar'lo* is also involved in plantings of koka- Michigan waters of Lake Huron. The Michi- nee salmon. To complement these stocking gan Fish Commission was formed in 1873 and programs several habitat improvement pro- continued this policy until the mid-1940s. Dur- grams are under way to improve access and ing the time, management efforts were de- provide release ponds for anadromous fish. signed to increase the number of fish available To facilitate management activities, the through massive stocking programs. Department of Natural Resources presently Regulation of commercial fishermen has operates five hatcheries, two rearing stations, Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 143 and one brood stock station (for lake trout). It mercial Fisheries (BCF) are not included in also operates the Hatchery Biology Service the table because of the recent dissolution of Center, which diagnoses and treats hatchery the BCF Inland Region 3. It is not yet known disease. Michigan also operates two manage- whether some other agency will pick up these ment surveillance vessels and two converted activities and associated costs, which were es- law enforcement vessels. timated at $43,000 annually for Lake Huron. Michigan recently started requiring sport These costs represent the single greatest fishing licenses for Lake Huron. The State is State expenditure for any activity other than also moving toward greater control of the fish stocking specified in Table 8-30 and re- commercial fishery through outright prohibi- flect the serious problems encountered when tion of the commercial capture of certain Michigan attempted to exert control over the speci es, establishment of a partial form of lim- commercial fishery. Developing a climate of ited entry by limiting licenses to fishermen greater mutual confidence could result in re- who have met certain standards for minimum duced costs. activity and production, and initiation of a Michigan's Department of Natural Re- zone management plan in 1970 by which com- sources, assisted by Federal aid programs of mercial fishing is limited to specific areas. the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, is Implementation procedures for limited currently involved in planting salmonids in entry are being contested in court by some U.S. Lake Huron waters. The sport fishery has commercial fishermen. Zone management has already realized the limited benefits of these been successful in eliminating some conflicts initial stocking programs. However, commer- between the sport and commercial fisheries by cial fishermen are restricted from taking sal- removing the commercial fishery from certain monid species in Michigan waters of Lake Hu- areas. This has simplified @enforcement proce- ron. In addition rainbow trout, brown trout, dures for the management agency. Implemen- and salmon will not be utilized by an open tation of limited entry and zone management water commercial fishery as we now know it. has not had a significant effect on either the Fishery research on the open Lake has been total commercial fishery production or value done primarily by the Great Lakes Fishery of the catch per fisherman in comparison to Laboratory of the old Bureau of Commercial previously established levels. Fisheries. The name Bureau of Commerical Both the State of Michigan and the Federal Fisheries suggests that research conducted government are conducting investigations of by this agency was intended to benefit the fish resources (including the habitat base) and commercial fisheries. However, the actual end the fishery of Lake Huron. Programs of the result of the Bureau's research was a basic Federal Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory are understanding of ecological processes in the designed to develop an understanding of fac- Great Lakes. Biological research findings tors which influence fish survival and abun- have sometimes been applicable to the total dance and to contribute to the knowledge fishery, but direct, specific benefits to the needed by the DNR to establish and maintain commercial fishery are rare. a balanced, multispecies complex in the Lake. The Branch of Marketing of the National In 1968 the Fisheries Division established a Marine Fisheries Service carries on programs fishery station at Alpena to develop a monitor- to educate consumers on the advantages of ing program to assess salmon plantings. Other fish as a diet item. However, this effort is di- current or proposed investigations by Michi- rected towards the consumption of saltwater gan include creel censuses, delineation of fish and is rarely applied to species currently populations and habitat requirements of produced by the Lake Huron commercial northern pike, walleye, and smallmouth bass, fishery. The dissolution of the BCF Inland Re- and stock assessment of important sport and gional Office may result in further deem- commercial species. phasis on freshwater fish. The BCF Exploratory Fishing and Gear Re- search Program has assisted the Lake Huron Cost of Fish Management and commercial fishery in the past. However, with Development Programs the dissolution of the BCF Inland Regional Of- fice, this program is currently nonexistent. The cost of fish management and develop- The limited level of BCF technological (proc- ment programs can be found in Table 8-30. essing) assistance to the commercial indus- Costs mentioned in the following discussion try has been useful, but the costs assigned to and rendered by the former Bureau of Com- the Lake Huron commercial fishery were rela- 144 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-30 Annual Expenditures on Fisheries Programs in Thousands of Dollars, Lake Huron Michigan Dept. Natural Resources Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Program 1965 1966 1967 1968 . 1969 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Fish Management Stocking ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 1 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Habitat Improvement ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Lamprey Contro13 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 46.04 182.04 .... 210.94 Fishery Management Enforcement Sport ----5 ----5 ----5 ....5 13.4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Commercial ----5 ----5 ----5 ....5 43.0 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- License Overhead 5.4 5.1 5.3 9.7 10.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Research Habitat Base ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- .5 ---- 1.0 ---- Fish 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 44.66 41.06 46.26 43.56 66.8 7 Fishery Commercial Fishery ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Statistics8 ----5 ----5 ----5 ----5 ---- 5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Creel Census ----5 ----5 ----5 .5 2.5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Total 35.4 35.1 35.3 40.2 99.4 44.6 87.0 228.2 44.5 277.7 iStocking initiated in 1970 at $344,822 2Habitat improvement initiated in 1970 at $5,342 3New (FY1971) handled by Bureau Sport Fishery and Wildlife 4Funds provided by Great Lakes Fishery Commission 5Unavailable 6 Research on Lamprey--funds provided by Great Lakes Fishery Commission 7Research on Lamprey--funds provided by Great Lakes Fishery Commission (includes $20,000 of Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' money for population assessment) 81970 cost--$33,000 tively negligible. The program's technological elusion will greatly increase the approxi- research was unable to develop product forms mately $500,000 annual landed value of the that would increase the acceptability of cur- current harvest. rently underutilized, low-value species. Sea lamprey control has been initiated on the U.S. side of Lake Huron at an approximate 5.1.7 Projected Demands cost of $200,000 annually. Based on results in Lakes Superior and Michigan, it will take a Projected demands for Lake Huron com- few years to reduce lamprey populations and mercial fish species are identical to those dis- restore or establish salmonids and other cussed in Subsection 2.5.1. high-value species. Because stock allocations of these species are made to the commercial fishery, it would be appropriate that the 5.1.8 Problems and Needs fishery pay a portion of the costs. Although high-value fish are not significantly present in The economic and recreational value of the the current commercial catch, their future in- Lake Huron basin depends directly upon the Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 145 Lake, its bays, and inshore waters. High qual- most all parameters. Until careful research ity water, which meets the various biological demonstrates that degradation of existing requirements for feeding, growth, reproduc- water quality to State and Federal levels will tion, and survival, is vital to fish and wildlife. not result in harmful effects upon fish and Lake Huron has not exhibited the signs of aquatic life resources, the Fish Work Group water quality degradation apparent in Lakes contends that pollution abatement in Lake Michigan and Erie except for inner Saginaw Huron is best served by retention of the exist- Bay and other previously mentioned inshore inghigh quality. In orderto maintain the pres- areas. Water quality changes have not had ent water quality, conditions in the Saginaw significant adverse effects on fish and aquatic River and inner Saginaw Bay, which are sig- life resources in the open Lake. Although nificant sources of pollution input, should be water quality is relatively good for fish and improved. Immediate efforts should also be wildlife, some changes have developed. In the made to restore the water quality of Lake open Lake, there has been a slight increase in Michigan because programs to maintain pres- total dissolved solids. Although dissolved oxy- ent water quality in the open waters of Lake gen is usually near saturation, it has been re- Huron are meaningless unless the quality of ported as low as 66 percent saturation in water that flows in from Lake Michigan is im- Saginaw Bay. Were it not for the rapid flush- proved. ing rate of the bay, serious oxygen depletion Because of their inherent sensitivity to sub- problems would have already developed. Nui- tle, long-range environmental changes, fish sance growths of Cladophora have occurred in and other aquatic organisms make excellent certain inshore areas and Oligochaetes, often indicators of changes in water quality. There- a biological indicator of enriched or polluted fore, problems, should be recognized and cor- habitat, are dominant in the vicinity of several rected before they become critical to humans. harbors. These indications of changing water Unfortunately, these indicators have not been quality should be taken seriously and steps used in the past. In the future more emphasis should be taken to slow down, and eventually should be placed on research and monitoring halt, inputs of pollution. In addition many of the fish and wildlife-aquatic organism sec- tributaries such as the Saginaw River have tor of water quality. displayed extensive deterioration of water To obtain maximum benefits from an en- quality. vironmental research program and to assure Although it is important to control pollutants continuity in data collection, information entering Lake Huron from its own basin, the must be coordinated and exchanged. Because overriding determinant of Lake Huron water fishery agencies presumably have the respon- quality is the quality of waters received from sibity to maintain a harvestable surplus of Lakes Michigan and Superior. Except for bac- aquatic life and to contribute to man's under- teria levels, water quality standards that standing of aquatic resources and their envi- meet fish and wildlife needs should meet the ronment, these agencies should also coordi- needs of most other uses. Therefore, it is in the nate and conduct research related to long- public interest to preserve and enhance Lake term water quality changes. This latter func- Huron and its basin. tion could be partially exercised through the After the passage of the 1965 Water Quality Great Lakes Fishery Commission, where an Act, Michigan developed water quality stan- approach encompassing all the Great Lakes dards to protect the fish and wildlife resources can be adopted. of Lake Huron. However, these standards may prove to be inadequate for aquatic life. Additional research may demonstrate the Fish Resource Problems and Needs need for redefinition and refinement to meet fish and wildlife requirements. Moreover, Although the Michigan Department of water quality standards are ge 'nerally the Natural Resources is experiencing problems minimum necessary to maintain various con- common to all Great Lakes management ditions of habitat quality. Because of the rapid agencies, its coordination and allocation prob- changes occuring in the Great Lakes lems in Lake Huron are accentuated by local ecosystem, every effort should be made to conditions and deserve special consideration. maintain the quality of those areas currently In anticipation of the success of the sea lam- exceeding minimum standards. Existing prey control program, Michigan and the Prov- water quality in most of the Lake Huron basin ince of Ontario have initiated plantings of is better than the minimum standards for al- various salmonid species, some of which have 146 Appendix 8 already entered the fishery in limited num- (1) total restrictions against the commer- bers. Coordination problems between the two cial harvest of certain species management agencies have arisen as a result (2) limited entry of conflicting agency objectives. (3) zone management In an attempt to reestablish a viable, (4) possible contract fishery high-value fishery resource in Lake Huron, A mixture of approaches geared to meet the Province of Ontario has been developing a specific Lake Huron situations is needed. If lake trout-brook trout hybrid, the splake. The this process is to succeed, the following splake combines the large size and deep guidelines must be considered: swimming ability of the lake trout and the (1) The goal is balanced development of the early sexual maturity of the brook trout. It is total fishery in the light of the best biological, hoped that the splake, because of its earlier economic, and sociological information. sexual maturity, will exhibit more adaptabil- (2) All those who use and benefit from the ity than late-maturing species and will there- fishery resources must participate in select- fore perpetuate itself despite residual sea ing and implementing the approaches neces- lamprey populations. sary to achieve a balanced total fishery. Iffi- Michigan is more concerned with planting plementation is difficult at the practical ad- lake trout in order to develop an immediately ministrative level and requires communica- viable sports fishery. This program is influ- tion between management agencies and the enced by mounting pressure from sports commercial fishing industry. fishermen, and the fact that no large-scale (3) Programs should be flexible enough to plantings of splake were possible until after meet changing conditions and permit modifi- 1972. However, it is possible that planting cation in solving problems of allocation and large numbers of lake trout will cause a dilu- regulation. At the same time, enough con- tion of the gene pool thus negating the positive tinuity and stability should prevail (particu- characteristics of the splake. larly in allocation decisions) to permit rational If reestablishment of a high-value fish re- investment decisions. source is to be realized, these coordination (4) The amount of accurate biological in- problems must be resolved. The Great Lakes formation should be increased by using all Fishery Commission is the only existing available sources. agency capable of achieving this kind of coor- (5) The Great Lakes, including the Cana- dination and is currently engaged in efforts to dian portion, should be viewed as a total sys- realize this goal. tem in approaching fishing problems. Problems and Needs of Lake Huron Problems and Needs of Lake Huron Commercial Fishery Sport Fishery General problems and needs of the Lake Sea lamprey control and trout and salmon Huron commercial fishery are identical to stocking are the greatest needs of the Lake those of the Great Lakes discussed in Subsec- Huron sport fishery. Promotion is essential in tion 2.7. Specific problems will be discussed in the early stages of development to attract and this subsection. educate fishermen. Safe and adequate launch- Lake Huron suffers from depressed stocks of ing facilities are also needed in many locations high-value species. Various programs are to assure access to the better fishing areas. under way which hopefully will lead to the The problem for any Great Lakes sport rehabilitation of those stocks and restoration fishery is that of competing commercial inter- of a desired ecological balance. Because of in- ests. A sport fishery must have an abundance creased sport fishing demand in both inshore of highly desirable species in order to,sustain and open waters, constraints on the allocation fisherman interest. The sport fishery cannot of rehabilitated fish stocks to the commercial develop unless commercial exploitation of the fishery are inevitable. Even without sport sport species or the forage base is controlled. fishing pressure, management agencies be- lieve that there are too many commercial fish- ermen for the present, and even the future 5.1.9 Probable Nature of Solutions, Natural resources. Resource Base There are several management approaches to this problem: The solutions for deteriorating water qual- Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 147 ity proposed in the Introduction are generally 5.2 Planning Subarea 3.1 applicable to Lake Huron as well. However, Lake Huron has some particular problems to be considered: 5.2.1 Species Composition, Relative (1) Saginaw Bay is a major focal point of Importance, and Status water problems because of its large size, shel- tered waters, shallow depths, and the mag- Planning Subarea 3.1 (Figure 8-49) is simi- nitude of waste loads delivered by the lar to Planning Subarea 2.4. Trout is the most Saginaw River (which services every major important sport fish in the river systems. The U.S. city in the Lake Huron basin). Smaller Black, Sturgeon, Pigeon, Au Sable, and Rifle streams, such as the Kawkawlin, also contrib- Rivers offer some of the best fishing for brook ute to the pollution of the bay. The bay has the and brown trout in the State. Impoundments highest fishery productivity of the entire Lake and natural lakes are common throughout the Huron ecosystem, and demand for water- lower reaches of major rivers, and warmwater dependent and water-enhanced recreational species such as smallmouth bass, walleye, and activities in the Saginaw Bay area is expected northern pike are the most important species to triple. Therefore, a need exists for more effi- in these areas. cient treatment plants. Improvement of the The inland lakes have traditionally sup- Saginaw Bay waters would also require: ported sport fisheries for perch, bluegill, and (a) continued monitoring and assess- other panfish. Big fish which attract anglers ment of effluent discharges in the Lake Huron to the inland lakes include large- and basin, especially those in the Saginaw River smallmouth bass, northern pike, muskel- basin. Special emphasis should be placed on lunge, walleye and, in rare cases, sturgeon. identifying and halting those likely to cause Populations of large warmwater predators damage to the receiving waters and biota. in the inland lakes are restricted due to de- struction of spawning habitat and selective (b) accelerated construction of waste overexploitation by fishermen. Populations of treatment plants which were funded by panfish and rough species have expanded and Michigan's 1968 $335 million pollution bond- now dominate many lakes to the detriment of ing program the total sport fishery. (c) stringent implementation of present Some large inland lakes are deep enough to laws including the Federal Water Pollution support trout as well as warmwater spec,ies. Control Act Amendment of 1972 and updated Many smaller lakes are managed exclusively State water quality standards. This would in- for trout through periodic chemical treatment clude continuation of present State policies and annual maintenance plantings. and regulations related to dredging and depo- Anadromous runs are limited because of the sitions of spoils. location of hydroelectric dams and the current (d) preservation and enhancement of the lack of adequate sea lamprey control in Lake shallow water habitat (and associated wet- Huron. The few streams that do support runs lands) which characterize much of Saginaw of steelhead and salmon are very important. Bay and which represent the largest single block of this habitat in the Lake Huron ecosys- tem. Dredging, dumping, and developmental 5.2.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity encroachment have already eroded this habitat base. These procedures are expected The distribution of ponded water (Figure to increase. Further consideration should be 8-50) has little direct effect on license sales. In given to establishing Saginaw Bay as a Na- counties where ponded water is lowest, the tional Estuary under the provisions of the Na- available trout stream resources more than tional Estuary Protection Act. make up the difference. Resident license sales (2) Because Lake Huron receives approx- per capita range from 1.0 to .25 and ponded imately 30 percent of its waters from Lake water per capita averages more than 1.0 for Michigan, it is important to insure that Lake the entire planning subarea (Table 8-31). Michigan waters are of high quality. This planning subarea offers more than Solutions to the problems and needs of the 138,000 acres of ponded water. Cheboygan fishery resources of Lake Huron are not sub- County alone has 51,000 acres of ponded water stantially different from those of the Great and supports the largest number of licensed Lakes discussed in the Introduction of this fishermen in the planning subarea, more than appendix. 12,000 in 1966. 148 Appendix 8 @--soloo Pim Ili ST. MARYS CHIPPEWA MACKINAC LES CHENEAU 10, Carp 'v UMMOND ISLAND St I a ':c 'ki;:@Island Straits of Macki@ Bois bl@ Warx! ygan B,,t Mullet Lak* Rogers ity RES E ISLE 0.11 CHEBO GAN Gmnd Lake 'S CHEBOYGAN R UE11I L D a TH NDER SAY A ena Gaylord Th-cler Bay OTSEGO )"Zl\M N 0 ENCY ALP NA Hb4,d fake Saul- ALCONA (9 Grayling ALI SABLE COWIORD OSCODA ALCONA roggo- Oscoda R FLE U GR@ES Au Tawas City E t Tawas OGE W ARENAC Rill. k4w SAGINAW aAY SCALE IN MILES I l. 15 20 FIGURE 8-49 Planning Subarea 3.1 Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 149 TABLE 8-31 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 3.1 state Land Popula@ Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) Sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Michigan Alcona 676 6.3 9.3 12,777 2.0281 490 3,428 .5441 Alpena 564 29.2 51.8 17,251 .5908 1,877 7,187 .2461 krenac 367 9.6 26.2 190 .0198 893 6,243 .6503 Cheboygan 716 14.9 20.8 51,870 3.4812 4,111 8,047 .5401 Crawford 560 5.9 10.5 2,491 .4222 1,327 4,096 .6942 losco 542 23.1 42.6 10,718 .4640 1,570 10,038 .4345 Montmorency 554 4.6 8.3 11,543 2.5093 1,304 4,965 1.0793 Ogemaw 567 10.1 17.8 5,826 .5768 522 4,924 .4875 Oscoda 561 4.1 7.3 5,338 1.3020 442 2,200 .5366 Otsego 524 8.2 15.6 6,737 .8216 1,016 4,005 .4884 Presque Isle 645 12.1 18.8 14,036 1.1600 891 4,607 .3807 Total 6,276 128.1 20.4 138,777 1.0833 14,443 59,740 .4664 Projected Angler Day Demand Land area Population Population 1 2 State and Years (sq.mi.) (1000s) (sq.mi.) Resident Total Michigan 1980 6,276 164.3 26.2 2,630,998 4,281,000 2000 6,276 208.7 33.3 3,341,992 5,339,000 2020 6,276 267.0 42.5 4,275,572 6,692,000 1Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. 5.2.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production areas, domestic waste disposal is a majorprob- and Distribution of Important Fish lem. Small communities that once depended Species upon streams to dilute and carry away waste now find that these streams are slowly chang- The rapid development of recreational sites ing because of the nutrients in domestic has caused considerable habitat damage to waste. Many stream areas below these waste both the lakes and streams of the planning outfalls can no longer support good trout subarea. Dredging and filling have reduced populations. The solution may have to be land the available spawning areas on inland lakes, disposal of the nutrient-rich waste effluent. and septic runoff from heavy cottage de- velopment has accelerated eutrophication. - Intense streamside cottage development has 5.2.4 History of Sport Fishery destroyed the aesthetic attraction of many streams. The construction of low-head dams The number of resident fishing licenses sold on trout feeder streams has elevated stream has been steadily increasing, and in 1968 it temperatures beyond the limits for trout. reached a new high of 66,462. Nonresident New Statewide restrictions on dredge and license sales are consistently approximately fill have helped control some of the problems one-fourth the resident sales. on inland lakes and navigable rivers. Some Planning Subarea 3.1 has not experienced townships and counties have instituted zon- the large increase in fishing license sales re- ing ordinanc6s to preserve the quality of corded in Planning Subarea 2.4 during the last streamside property, but strong legislation is three years because steelhead and salmon needed to provide State agency support to fishing has not developed as rapidly in Lake local communities in planning and implement- Huron and its tributaries. ing necessary zoning laws. Warmwater fishing on large inland lakes Although there are no major metropolitan and trout stream fishing will probably remain 150 Appendix 8 MACKINAC @N 'K ............... . ......... .. "qqyy' OTSEG CRAWFORD ............... .......... ..................... LEGEND ........... ............. ........... (3MI)ER 9000 VOEMAW A*. RENAC ........ 9000-12,000 12,000 SCALE IN MILFS FIGURE 8-50 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 3.1 Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 151 the primary sources of angling opportunities poundage was quite small in comparison. in the planning subarea. Warmwater plants included muskellunge, sunfish hybrids, smallmouth bass, and large- mouth bass. 5.2.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Salmon plants were initiated in 1969 when Current Needs 200,000 chinook were planted in the Ocqueoe River. In 1968 the Au Sable, Tawas, and The total angler day demand expressed in Thunder Bay Rivers were planted with a total the inland waters has increased steadily since of 352,000 Chinook. These same three rivers the early 1950s. An excess of 2,000,000 angler were planted with 500,000 coho in 1970. days is currently (1970 base year) provided, Steelhead stocking was initiated in 1968 in not including fishermen who buy their the Au Gres, Au Sable, and Ocqueoc Rivers licenses outside the planning subarea and when 50,000 were planted. Steelhead stocking fish in Planning Subarea 3.1. In-migration rates have increased each succeeding year in probably accounts for an additional 1.4 million these rivers. angler days currently provided. This entire demand is probably being supplied by the inland waters. Needs reflect 5.2.7 Future Trends in Habitat and the difference between existing supply and Participation demand. Demand determined only through license sales must be satisfied, and therefore, Future demand based on the current rela- needs cannot be quantitatively determined. tionship of habitat base to number of licensed fishermen indicates that the number of angler days will increase to 3.1 million by 1980. There 5.2.6 Ongoing Programs will be an increased demand on the fishery resources of Planning Subarea 3.1 from people Much of the fish management effort in- buying their licenses in other planning sub- volves protection of fish habitat and mainte- areas (Table 8-31). nance of existing fishery resources. Annual New impoundments are not a significant maintenance plantings of hatchery fish and factor in supplying this demand in Planning the operation of artificial spawning marshes Subarea 3.1. However, the new warmwater are important to the current fishery program. fish hatchery in Planning Subarea 4.1 will Figures 8-51 and 8-52 and Table 8-32 sum- raise enough planting stock to manage 30,000 marize the fishery programs in Planning Sub- acres of warmwater lakes in Planning Sub- area 3.1. area 3.1 and provide 750,000 new angler days In 1969 more than 800,000 rainbow trout, in the planning subarea by 1980. brown trout, splake, and steelhead were Preservation of the quantity and quality of planted totaling more than 50,000 pounds. the present fishery resources of Planning Warmwater fish plants during the same year Subarea 3.1 will be a difficult task because of totaled 316,000 fish, but most were fry and the the expected increased use and development TABLE8-32 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 3.1 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Intensive Total Trout Anadromous County (sq.mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Alcona 694 12,777 46 4 1,513.1 25.9 362 251.8 7.0 Alpena 590 17,251 31 ------- -------- 301 16.5 1.1 Arenac 369 190 8 ------- -------- 156 34.5 29.3 Cheboygan 798 51,870 44 6 3,395 34,596.9 420 118.0 ---- Crawford 566 2,491 34 9 1,920 9,725.8 204 87.2 ---- losco 563 10,718 53 493 -------- 259 123.1 12.4 Montmorency 567 11,543 89 9 128.5 1,064.2 306 120.0 ---- Ogemaw 580 5,826 129 2 ------- 126 381 162.0 ---- Oscoda 568 5,338 73 3 224 311.6 219 104.2 ---- Otsego 538 6,737 115 11 1,972 467.6 198 134.8 ---- Presque Isle 678 14,036 77 5 6,560 139 301 103.6 2.0 Total 6,511 138,777 699 50 16,205.6 46,457 3,107 1,255.7 51.8 152 Appendix 8 CHIPPEWA MACKINAC Z) 0 0 CHEBOYGAN PRESQUE ISLE 0 0 0 OTSEGO MONTMORENCY ALPENA 0 0 0 0 CRAWFORD OSCODA ALCONA 10SCO 0 LEGEND OGEMAW ARENAC o WARM-WATER LAKES * TROUT LAKES F* SCALE IN MILES L 5 10 15 20 FIGURE 8-51 Current Fish Stocking Program, Planning Subarea 3.1 Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 153 CHIPPEWA MACKINAC CHEBOYGAN PRESQUE ISLE OTSEGO MONTMORENCY ALPENA CRAWFORD OSCODA ALCONA 10SCO LEGEND OGEMAW CURRENT ARENAC F.,@,LGU SCALE IN MILES rl@ 0 5 10 15 20 FIGURE 8-52 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 3.1 154 Appendix 8 in the planning subarea. If the present fishery Although large lakes are not common, large resource is to be maintained, stream im- impoundments and warmwater lakes do sup- provement, proper zoning, and wild frontage port sport fisheries for many species. The most acquisition must receive a high priority. important to the catch are bluegill and perch. Pollution of the rivers and impoundments in the past has forced many fishermen in the 5.2.8 Fishery Development Plans planning subarea to seek recreation either in Saginaw Bay or further north, However, re- Approximately $400,000 of the capital cost of cent improvements in water quality and plan- the warmwater hatchery in Planning Subarea ned impoundments on the Pine River offer 4.1 will be charged against the fishery pro- hope for reestablishing valuable fisheries in grams of Planning Subarea 3.1. An additional Planning Subarea 3.2. $150,000 will be needed each year in new oper- ational monies to pay for the cost of raising and planting the warmwater fish scheduled 5.3.2 Habitat Distribution and Quantity for Planning Subarea 3.1. Only three land acquisition projects are The inland ponded waters provide only scheduled for Planning Subarea. 3.1 before 29,575 acres of water. In Clare and Gladwin 1980, one each in Arenac, Presque Isle, and Counties nearly 50 percent of the population is Cheboygan Counties. Although the capital licensed to fish. In these two counties the cost should be less than $250,000, total acreage ponded water per capita averages approxi- and sites have not yet been determined. mately 0.5 acres. In Genesee and Saginaw Planning Subarea 3.1 will share the capital Counties less than 7 percent of the population cost of the new trout hatchery with Planning is licensed, and the ponded water per capita is Subarea 2.4. Approximately 1.2 million dollars less than .01 acres (Figure 8-55 and Table in capital cost and an annual operating cost of 8-33). $100,000 will be charged to Planning Subarea The large rivers and existing impound- 3.1 for this new facility. ments in the planning subarea represent the No expenditures for fish passage have been largest untapped fishery resource. The few planned for Planning Subarea 3.1 before 1980. remaining trout streams need to be protected However, an annual operating expenditure of or they will disappear. $100,000 has been planned for new trout stream improvement programs by 1980. Fish management programs beyond 1980 5.3.3 Habitat Problems Affecting Production have not been detailed. However, fish passage and Distribution of Important Fish and land acquisition will be key programs to Species insure continued growth and maintenance of existing fishing opportunities in Planning Water pollution from industrial, municipal, Subarea 3.1. and agricultural development has diminished the fishing quality in many major rivers and impoundments, particularly around Flint, 5.3 Planning Subarea 3.2 Saginaw, Bay City, and Midland. Improved waste treatment facilities now allow fish management for valuable sport species. How- 5.3.1 Species Composition, Relative ever rough species must be removed first. Importance, and Status Steady improvement in water quality of the streams is also anticipated under newly estab- Planning Subarea 3.2 (Figure 8-53) has the lished water quality criteria. full range of fish species found in Michigan. Major problems facing the stream fishery Brook and brown trout are common in the resources in this planning subarea are flood headwater areas of the -Pine, Tobacco, and control and drainage improvement projects. Cedar Rivers. The mainstream areas of the Channelization has destroyed many stream Tittabawassee, Saginaw, Cass, Flin t, and fisheries. Flood control and improved land Shiawassee Rivers contain northern pike, drainage need not be done at the expense of smallmouth bass, rock bass, suckers, and carp. public fishery values. Erosion and siltation Anadromous streams in Planning Subarea 3.2 from agricultural and urban construction are are shown in Figure 8-54. also major problems in this planning subarea. Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 155 TABLE 8-33 Base Year and Projected Land, Water, and Angler Days, Planning Subarea 3.2 State Land Popula- Popula- Ponded Ponded Non-Res. Res. Res. and Area tion tion per waters Waters Fish Fish Licenses Counties (sq.mi.) (1000s) Sq. mi. (Acres) Per Capita Licenses Licenses Per Capita Michigan Bay 447 112.3 251.2 154 .0014 435 10,325 .0919 Clare 568 12.9 22.7 5,191 .4024 1,092 7,933 .6150 Genesee 641 422.1 658.5 42301 .0102 550 39,371 .0933 Gladwin 503 11.4 22.7 6,878 .6033 302 5,155 .4522 Gratiot 565 39.1 69.2 1,375 .0352 119 4,095 .1047 Huron 819 33.5 40.9 155 .0046 37 2,593 .0774 Isabella 571 38.6 67.6 1,082 .0280 124 3,297 .0854 Lapeer 651 47.6 73.1 5,095 .1070 98 5,624 .1182 Midland 520 55.6 106.9 2,502 .0450 527 9,696 .1744 Saginaw 813 210.2 258.5 1,442 .0069 149 13,647 .0649 Tuscola 800 48.1 60.1 1,400 .0291 33 4,870 .1012 Total 6,898 1,031.4 149.5 29,575 .0287 3,466 106,606 .1034 Projected Angler Day Demand Land area Population Population 1 2 State and Years (sq. mi.) (1000s) (sq. mi.) Resident Total Michigan 1980 6,898 1,246.8 180.7 3,886,911 2,322,000 2000 6,898 1,600.5 232.0 4,989,575 2,994,000 2020 6,898 2,057.6 298.3 6,414,589 3,849,000 1Demand generated within planning subarea. 2Total demand including in- and out-migration. 5.3.4 History of Sport Fishery 5.3.6 Ongoing Programs Resident fishinglicense sales reached an all- In 1969, 50,017 rainbow and brown trout time high in Planning Subarea 3.2 during the were planted in the planning subarea. Warm- mid-1950s when 131,643 resident licenses were water plants of walleye, muskellunge, north- sold. License sales declined to 100,284 in-1965 ern pike, bass, and assorted panfish in the before they began climbing again. The 1970 same year totaled more than 117,256. These resident license sales rose to more than planting numbers are deceiving because 120,000. fingerling trout plants represented 5,770 Fishing demand in the 1950s was primarily pounds, and warmwater species, mostly fry, fulfilled within the planning subarea until amounted to only 634 pounds. Salmon plants fishing quality declined. Recent increases in were initiated in 1971 when nearly 500,000 resident demand probably represent growing salmon were planted in the Cass River. interest in Great Lakes and anadromous Table 8-34 summarizes the current acreage stream fishing. under intensive management. Approximately 20 percent of the surface acres (6,000 acres) is now under intensive management. 5.3.5 Existing Sport Fishing Demand and Current Needs 5.3.7 Future Trends in Habitat and The resident angler day demand expressed Participation on the inland water is more than 3 million angler days. In-migration is only significant in Present fishing demand far exceeds the Clare and Gladwin Counties. supply within the planning subarea. Resident 156 Appendix 8 TABLE8-34 Summary of Base Year Fish Habitat and Management Efforts, Planning Subarea 3.2 Acres Number Number Acres Acres Miles Miles Miles Total Area Ponded Ponded Intensively Intensive Intensive Total Trout Anadromous; County (sq.mi.) Waters Waters Managed Warmwater Trout Streams Streams Streams Michigan Bay 451 154 .4 ------- ----- 50 ---- ---- Clare 577 5,191 123 7_ 526.4 159.4 331 97.3 ---- Genesee 649 4,301 75 1 ------- 77 355 3.0 ---- Gladwin 512 6,878 49 7 2,506 316 473 41.4 ---- Gratiot 566 1,375 20 1 117 ----- 241 ---- ---- Huron 824 155 5 ------- ----- 942 ---- ---- Isabella 573 1,082 32 2 65 13 330 24.1 ---- Lapeer 662 5,095 129 13 750.3 729.3 594 24.4 ---- Midland 523 2,502 11 1 1,250 ----- 309 ---- ---- Saginaw 814 1,442 6 ------- ----- 593 ---- ---- Tuscola 820 1,400 35 1 209 ----- 184 6.6 ---- Total 6,971 29,575 479 33 5,423.7 1,294.7 4,402 196.8 ---- angler day demand is expected to increase by 1980. However, land acquisition may be re- nearly one million by 1980. Most of this de- quired on the Cass River to provide adequate mand will have to be supplied outside the public access for the new salmon fishery. The inland area, either in Saginaw Bay or in areas prorated share of the capital cost of the new to the north. warmwater hatchery will be $120,000. An The new warmwater hatchery in Planning additional annual operating cost of $35,000 Subarea 4.1 will 'expand intensive manage- will be required by 1980 to chemically treat ment on lakes and impoundments in Planning lakes, impoundments, and rivers, and to pay Subarea 3.2 by 10,000 acres. This will supply the cost of raising and planting new warm- an additional 250,000 angler days by 1980. water hatchery fish. Anadromous stream salmon management can be expected to provide an additional 50,000 New impoundments planned for flood con- angler days by 1980 in the Cass River leaving trol and low flow augmentation will provide more than 500,000 additional angler days to be fishing benefits. However, it is not yet certain supplied in other planning subareas or in the how costs will be divided. Great Lakes. Fishery development plans for the inland waters beyond 1980 will involve additional ef- 5.3.8 Fishery Development Plans forts to expand intensive warmwater man- agement and acquisition of key lands for No new capital expenditures are planned by habitat protection and fishermen access. Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 157 N L A K E HURON Port Austi .0o Caseville KAWKAWLIN THUMB C REI G DWIN 4 Bad Axe a Harbor Beach Clare SAGINAW RAY N River HURON Chi Ml, land E xville o""t Plea ot 11 Bay ity ISABELL MIDLAN Y St. Louis SAGINAW \1 - 1@ Alrn S aginaw Vassar .Ithaca TUSCOLA Chesaning *Mount Morris GRATIOT GINAW Flint Flushin Lapeer g @' @00wosso sv,@ rtz Creek ind GENESEE LAPEE@. Fentgn Holly VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES 0 w 1@ OW C SCALE IN MILES 15 20 FIGURE 8-53 Planning Subarea 3.2 158 Appendix 8 L A K E HURON CLARE GLADWIN 'z Q, SAGINAW RAY HURON ISA13ELLA MIDLAND V-1. L-L SAY TUSCOLA GRATIOT _oSAGINAW GENESEE LAPEE@R Fentm SCALE IN MILES I . 15 20 FIGURE 8-54 Anadromous Stream Fishery, Planning Subarea 3.2 Lake Huron Basin, Plan Area 3.0 159 GLAI .......... URON ......... ........ .......... .................. .......... .......... ........ ......... ........ ........ ...................... C.... 6....... M 6'L*A*N* bj:@' ....... _11AI ............ . ................ --v ...... ...... !It"Itm ....... ........................ ................. :: . ............... ::: .............................. ... ............... ................. ... ............... . ................. ............ .................... ................. "::TUSCOLA .......... ............... ... ............... ... ............... ... ....... ................... ::::::::::::SAGINAW:: ..... .... .. X X.: X, PEE@ LEGEND F-1 UNDER 1000 1000-3000 OVER 3000 LA. SCALE IN MILES 0 5 10 15 20 FIGURE 8-55 Acres of Ponded Water, Planning Subarea 3.2 Section 6 LAKE ERIE BASIN, PLAN AREA 4.0 The comments on Plan Area 4.0 (Figure the central and eastern basin by June. Oxygen 8-56) are divided into two major parts. The content nears zero in the hypolimnion waters first is limited to Lake Erie, and the second of the western and central basins, and it may treats the individual planning subareas of the decline to 60 percent saturation in the eastern Lake Erie basin. basin. Lake Erie is bicarbonate, has an aver- age pH of 8.3, and specific conductance of 242 microohms at 25'C. Dissolved solids have been 6.1 Resources, Uses, and Management increasing in Lake Erie in this century. Since 1900 chlorides have increased threefold, and sulfates have increased 90 percent. Lake 6.1.1 Habitat Base transparency in the western basin averages 1.5 meters, and 6 meters in the central and Lake Erie ranks fourth of the five Great eastern basins (Figures 8-61 and 8-62). Lakes in surface area (9,930 square miles). The Diatoms comprise 75, percent of the phyto- U.S. share of Lake Erie is 4,990 square miles. plankton in Lake Erie. Copepods make up the Although Lake Erie stores 125 trillion gallons bulk of the zooplankton while protozoans and it amounts to only two percent of the total rotifers are more numerous. Major benthic Great Lakes volume, the smallest of the Great organisms of the western basin are Lakes. The Lake is 240 miles long and more Oligochaeta, Tendipedidae, Sphaeriidae, and than 55 miles wide near the midpoint of its long Gastropoda. In the central basin, macroben- axis. The average depth of Lake Erie is 60 feet. thos is sparse and composed mainly of midge- The western basin ranges from 25 to 35 feet, fly larvae and oligochaetes.* The eastern basin the central basin ranges from 60 to 84 feet, and is composed of deepwater species of Ten- the eastern basin ranges from 85 to 210 feet. dipedidae and Lumbriculidae. The filamen- Topographically, the western basin bottom tous green algae, Cladophora, is an increasing is flat, except for the sharply rising islands nuisance in western Lake Erie, and Ulothrix is and shoals in the central and eastern sections. an abundant green algae. Blue-green algae The central basin is flat except for the rising are comprised largely of Aphanizomenon and slopes of a morainic bar extending south- Microcystis which occur in massive blooms southeastward from Point Pelee, Ontario. The during August in the western basin. eastern basin is bowl-shaped and uniform. The flat bottom areas of Lake Erie are mud and clay, and the ridges and rising slopes are sand 6.1.2 Fish Resources-A Summary of Major and gravel. Rock is exposed in shoal areas of Changes the western basin and nearshore areas of the central and eastern basins. Fish distribution and composition in Lake Surface currents in western Lake Erie are Erie differ from other Great Lakes primarily dependent upon winds. There is a surface and because of environmental factors. The Lake bottom clockwise rotational movement of Erie fish ecosystem has undergone radical water in western Lake Erie and a general changes due to environmental changes and down-lake surface flow which increases in ve- high utilization. locity as it nears the outlet at the eastern end. Sturgeon virtually disappeared from Lake Lake Erie waters are normally near satura- Erie around the turn of the century. Cisco, tion with oxygen from October through April, once a dominant Lake Erie species, experi- and mixing is prevalent from top to bottom. enced a sharp decline in 1926. It recovered Temporary thermal stratification occurs in slightly, and then *declined to insignificance in the western basin during prolonged quiescent 1957. Whitefish were abundant in Lake Erie periods. Stable stratification is established in until 1955 when they declined drastically. Wall- 161 It N T A -MICHIGAN 4. PENNSYLVAN)A .2 1 0 Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 163 eye declined in 1957 and remain in distress. Erie respectively, declined to extremely low Blue pike was nearly extinct in 1958 and is numbers in the 1960s. The Lake Erie blue pike listed as an endangered species. The yellow and sturgeon are now listed as endangered perch population is beginning to show signs of species. weakening, but the smelt population (first The 1970s are demonstrating a valuable and noted in Lake Erie in 1932) remains relatively unstable walleye population in western Lake stable. White bass and channel catfish have Erie and a separate, less valuable but more been abundant in Lake Erie since the turn of stable eastern basin population. Since the the century, and utilization emphasis has start of the century, walleye, Stizostedion vit- shifted to these species in the past 20 years. reum vitreum, yellow perch, Perca flaveseens , Alewife entered Lake Erie in 1931 via the St. white bass, Roccus chrysops, and channel cat- Lawrence River. Gizzard shad is indigenous to fish, Ictalurus punctatus, have occurred in Lake Erie and has experienced massive die- Lake Erie commercial landings, and within offs. Tables 8-35 and 8-36 show some of the the past 25 years utilization emphasis has major changes in these species. shifted to these species. Because of harvest The capability of Lake Erie to support fish and habitat stress factors, these populations may be improving. Habitat changes favor are depressed and fluctuating. Consequently, such species as sheepshead, alewife, shad, carp, carp, Cyprinus carpio, freshwater drum, Ap- and goldfish. Sheepshead has always been plenti- lodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, and smelt, ful in Lake Erie. It presently dominates western Osmerus mordax, dominate the Lake Erie fish Lake Erie habitats and is probably the most un- ecosystem. The trends of species dominance is derexploited Lake Erie species (Figures 8-57 and reflected by the order of yield of Lake Erie 8-58). commercial fish species shown in Table 8-35 and Figure 8-58. Value of the Individual Species to the Ecosystem 6.1.3 The Fisheries The natural shallowness of Lake Erie has supported a fish ecosystem that has fluc- Historical Background and Economic tuated considerably over the past 60 years. Contribution of the Commercial Many of the dominant species occurred in one Fishery geographical basin, while some species oc- curred in all basins, and discrete populations Commercial fishing began as a seine fishery of the same species occurred in two different in the Maumee River in Ohio about 1815. Early basins. fishing methods involved the use of brush The western basin of Lake Erie accounts for weirs and drag nets in nearshore areas. The the major portion of Lake Erie commercial lack of storage facilities caused 95 percent of and sport fish production. As many as 19 the landed fish to be released after local de- species have occurred in fish landings during mand was met. The fisheries had attained the history of the fisheries. Lake trout, Sal- economic importance by 1830. Twine gear re- velinus namaycush, was a dominant and im- placed brush gear, but until 1850 commercial portant commercial species a century ago in fishing was nearshore. At this time deepwater eastern Lake Erie, but it is now considered fishing was restricted to hook-and-line. Com- extinct. At one time sturgeon, Acipenser ful- mercial fishing in streams took place in the vescens, was plentiful in Lake Erie, but this pools below the mill dams. species virtually disappeared at the turn of Around 1850 pound nets and gill nets were the century. Lake herring, Coregonus artedii used in the western and eastern basins re- albus, which dominated portions of the central spectively. The Civil War increased the de- basin, dwindled in commercial production mand for fish, and by 1870 more than 100 from millions of pounds to hundreds of pounds pound nets were in use. Fyke nets, seines, and per year between 1900 and 1970. Whitefish, some trap nets were reported in use in the U.S. Coregonus clupeaformis, which was once section of Lake Erie at this time. The gill net abundant in all basins of Lake Erie, has fol- fishery was strengthened in 1899 with the ad- lowed the same pattern as herring. Sauger, vent of mechanical net lifters. Beginning in Stizostedion canadense, and blue pike, Stizos- 1903, deep meshed gill nets (bull nets) were tedion vitreum glaucum, which once domi- floated off the bottom of Lake Erie until they nated the western and eastern basins of Lake were outlawed in 1929. Pound net use began to 164 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-35 Average Pound and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of- Lake Erie Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Blue Pike Lbs. 11,652,800 8,123,980 7,381,260 5,879,380 3,818,280 2,1801 1201 % of Volume 38.7 32.5 26.7 23.3 14.4 --- --- Burbot Lbs. 353,760 374,540 378,920 195,700 120,300 7,7601 2,7001 % of Volume 1.2 1.5 1.4 .8 .5 --- --- Bullhead 2 2 3 Lbs. 565,500 858,500 226,475 95,080 136,220 100,860 46,620 % of Volume 1.9 3.4 .8 .4 .5 .6 .4 Catfish 2 2 - 3 Lbs. --- --- 741,475 1,405,240 1,612,360 1,325,160 778,540 % of Volume --- --- 2.7 5.6 6.1 7.3 6.4 Carp Lbs. 2,288,800 2,330,280 1,923,740 2,768,800 3,879,000 4,056,160 3,127,600 % of Volume 7.6 9.3 7.0 11.0 14.7 22.3 25.7 Lake Herring Lbs. 345,980 51,900 2,176,340 85,420 28,880 5,1801 1601 % of Volume 1.1 .2 7.9 .3 .1 --- --- Sauger 1 Lbs. 1,414,780 878,080 566,740 271,620 7,3801 3401 ---1 % of Volume 4.7 3.5 2.0 1.1 --- --- --- Sheepshead - Lbs. 3,359,420 3,623,580 3,732,060 2,619,940 2,951,320 4,612,400 2,801,040 % of Volume 11.2 14.5 13.5 10.4 11.2 25.3 23.0 Sucker Lbs. 979,920 628,340 505,820 509,640 269,080 260,960 175,000 ,% of Volume 3.2 2.5 1.8 2.0 .1 1.4 1.4 White Bass Lbs. 655,440 552,980 601,520 1,537,740 1,696,400 1,609,640 1,075,480 % of Volume 2.2 2.2 2.2 6.1 6.4 8.8 8.8 Lake Whitefish Lbs. 1,161,960 1,698,400 1,947,760 1,069,160 359,320 6,5801 2,760 1 % of Volume 3.9 6.8 7.0 4.2 .1 --- --- Yellow Perch Lbs. 3,928,060 2,450,280 2,226,560 3,012,060 6,892,800 4,994,900 3,536,640 % of Volume 13.1 9.8 8.0 12.0 26.1 27.4 29.1 Yellow Pike Lbs. 3,076,520 3,294,260 4,957,520 5,535,100 4,507,460 754,760 419,963 % of Volume 10.2 13.2 17.9 22.0 17.0 4.1 3.5 Average Total Volume 30,069,720 25,017,860 27,664,160 25,188,160 26,450,740 18,214,615 12,161,400 1Less than 100 pounds or .1% 2Includes catfish catch 3Based on four-year average Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 165 decline in 1920 and was completely discon- 1929, largely because of the decline in cisco tinued in 1935. landings that began in 1925, although these Although the catches of various species recovered briefly in 1945 and 1946. Since 1957, have fluctuated considerably, fishing methods the cisco has become commercially extinct. in the U.S. waters of Lake Erie have changed During the same period, northern pike began little since 1935. Lake Erie has accounted for a to disappear from commercial catches, follow- third of the total Great Lakes fish production ing an abrupt decline in 1915. Whitefish land- annually. ings fluctuated between one and seven million Early landings (1879-1930) suggest healthy pounds annually between 1913 and 1954. In production until 1913 and reflect only the loss 1955 landings dropped drastically and this of the sturgeon fishery. United States and downward trend has continued. Less than one Canadian fisheries declined steadily until thousand pounds were landed in 1963. 5,654,397 5,367,988 TOTAL IN DOLLARS 4,543,764 4,277,165 OTHER YELLOW PERCH 3,581,973 SHEE, SUCKER CARp 1,557,884 CA7-F/S@l BULLHEAD 1,214,999 E 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-57 Average Annual Production (Dollars) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Erie Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 166 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-36 Average Value and Percent Contribution of 13 Major Species in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie Species 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 Blue Pike Dollars 1,131,315 1,874,382 1,430,237 1,175,053 750,411 823 ---1 % of Value 26.5 34.9 25.3 25.9 20.9 .1 ---1 Burbot Dollars 10,628 22,085 16,390 14,442 6,364 5061 1311 % of Value .2 .4 .3 .3 .2 --- --- Bullhead 2 2 3 Dollars 94,610 192,072 37,287 15,043 15,687 11,731 6,980 % of Value 2.2 3.6 .7 .3 .4 .8 .6 Catfish 2 2 Dollars --- 199,878 321,715 338,106 303,837 -113,374 % of Value --- --- 3.5 7.1 9.4 20.0 17.6 Carp Dollars 135,259 174,215 124,248 127,492 136,682 138,362 104,372 % of Value 3.2 3.2 2.2 2.8 3.8 8.9 8.6 Lake Herring Dollars 98,848 18,535 406,910 35,784 9,865 1,710 --- % of Value 2.3 .3 7.2 .9 .3 .1 Sauger Dollars 231,746 213,973 132,003 60,636 1,261 ---I % of Value 5.4 4.0 2.3 1.3 --- I ---1 Sheepshead Dollars 177,873 315,240 236,308 100,222 86,891 99,889 75,757 % of Value 4.2 5.9 4.2 2.2 2.4 6.4 6.2 Sucker Dollars 59,753 55,087 34,792 26,671 9,780 8,257 4,527 % of Value 1.4 1.0 .6 .6 .3 .5 .4 White Bass Dollars 81,512 102,213 158,894 179,178 203,127 233,183 221,903 %of Value 1.9 1.9 2.8 3.9 5.7 15.0 --- Lake Whitefish Dollars 482,891 694,428 805,740 505,380 209,483 4,100 1,488 % of Value 11.3 12.9 14.2 11.1 5.8 .3 .1 Yellow Perch Dollars 614,426 589,988 508,571 499,733 666,621 454,173 392,358 % of Value 14.4 11.0 9.0 11.0 18.6 29.2 32.3 Yellow Pike Dollars 627,503 1,098,205 1,529,354 1,448,381 1,134,275 279,384 183,164 % of Value 14.5 20.5 27.0 31.9 31.7 17.9 15.1 Average Total Value 4,277,165 5,367,988 5,654,397 4,543,764 3,581,973 1,557,884 1,214,999 1Less than $100 or .1% 2Includes catfish catch 3Based on four-year average Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 167 ,720 LBS. 27,664,160 LBS. ,017,860 TOTAL LEIS. 26,450,740 LBS. 25,188,1 LBS. OTHER NVAR LAKE WHITEFISH 18,214,615 w9ava YELLOW PERCH LBS. SHEEPSHEAD W HITE BA S SP, 12,161,400 LBS. BURBOT- L HERRING A CA /Y 1935-1939 1940-1944 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959 1960-1964 1965-1969 FIGURE 8-58 Average Annual Production (Pounds) of Major Species by the U.S. Lake Erie Commercial Fishery for 5-Year Periods, 1935-1969 168 Appendix 8 Between 1913 and 1957, the blue pike pro- tions such as the Bass Islands north of Port duction never fell below several million Clinton, Ohio, and the Presque Isle area near pounds. Following a drop in landings to 1.4 Erie, Pennsylvania. million pounds in 1958, the fishery collapsed Sport harvest records from Lake Erie are completely. Deterioration of commercial poor. Fishing pressure and success on Lake sauger production preceded that of the Erie has been dictated by many factors. Each whitefish and blue pike. Until 1945, annual decade experienced various social and yields did not depart from the mean, but be- economic changes that dictated the status of tween 1946 and 1948 commercial production the sport fishery. Since 1945 sport angling declined steadily and swiftly. methods and pressures have changed radi- Walleye has always contributed to the com- cally. Sportsmen have acquired great num- mercial fisheries. Until 1930 walleye produc- bers of improved boats and fishing tackle. tion was unchanged in long-term landing Throughout the early and mid-1900s, the trends. At that time landings increased from black (smallmouth) bass, walleye, sauger, blue one or two million to more than three million pike, and perch were the major species sought pounds per year. In the ensuing years, walleye by sportsmen. Because of commercial exploi- production rose until 1956, when an unprece- tation and environmental degradation, dented catch of 15.5 million pounds was made. species composition has changed in recent Production since that date has dropped to years. Currently available species sought by pre-1935 levels (Table 8-38). sport anglers arranged in order of abundance Yellow perch, white bass, and channel cat- are: yellow perch, white bass, channel catfish, fish have also made significant contributions smallmouth bass, and walleye. Estimated an- to the commercial landings. Perch landings nual numbers of anglers, angler days, and over a 50-year period averaged 7 million total harvest within' the last decade (1960- pounds annually, and in 1969 total Lake pro- 1969) are presented in Tables 8-39 and 8-40. duction was 30 million pounds. White bass United States sports fishing on Lake Erie landings have ranged between one and nine during the past decade was directed primarily million pounds annually since 1952. For the at the yellow perch, white bass, channel cat- past 20 years, channel catfish landings have fish, walleye, and smallmouth bass. Yellow ranged between .75 and 2 mill -ion pounds. perch is by far the most popular and harvested Early production figures for these species are species sought throughout the Lake. White not indicative because they were not actively bass and channel catfish angling is a spring sought by fishermen (Table 8-35). and early summer fishery, confined primarily From 1930 to 1950 lakewide production to the western and central basins. Walleye and leveled off. Table 8-37 reflects changes in smallmouth bass angling is concentrated in commercial operating units and productivity. the Bass Islands and reef areas of the western In the decade 1951 to 1960 lakewide production basin and along the rocky shorelines of the rose, due to gear efficiency (nylon nets) and central and eastern basins. These two species intensified effort in Canada. Effort was di- are. the mainstay of the New York sport rected at smelt, which appeared in 1953 in fisheries. Annual walleye and smallmouth large enough numbers to be commercially im- bass angler success is strongly dependent on portant. Concurrent with this rise in Cana- the current population densities of thes6 dian production, U.S. production was reduced species. as sauger, whitefish, and blue pike declined in More than 1.3 million anglers annually abundance and producers became dependent spend some 26.7 million angler days sport fish- upon perch, white bass, channel catfish, and ing in the United States waters of Lake Erie walleye. and its major drainage basins. Approximately 476,000 of these anglers spend some 8.5 million man-days on Lake Erie proper. The majority Historical Background and Economic of the effort comes from pier fishing and from Contribution of Sport Fishery private boats (Table 8-39). The value of the charter boat industry outlined in Table 8-41 is Sport fishing has been important in the de- for Ohio only. Estimated annual sport harvest velopment of resorts and vacation areas lo- from Lake Erie is nearly 18 million fish. Yel- cated in the island areas and various points low perch compose nearly 96 percent (by along the south shore of Lake Erie. Writings number) of the total harvest (Table 8-40). from the late 1800s refer to excellent catches Revenue generated by the sports fishery for of black bass by sportsmen at popular loca- all agencies bordering Lake Erie is not pre- Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 169 TABLE 8-37 Commercial Operating Units and Productivity in the U.S. Waters of Lake Erie Number Pounds Value of Number Number of Landed per Catch per 2 of of Year Fishermen Fisherman Fisherman Vessels Boats 1930 1,507 19,603 $2,327 59 279 1931 1,408 24,696 3,024 63 291 1932 1,479 22,765 2,749 57 305 1934 1,504 21,815 2,324 55 276 1936 1,081 34,021 4,509 48 268 1937 1,313 20,512 2,316 51 288 1938 1,471 18,777 3,132 52 304 1939 1,517 18,895 3,462 60 303 1940 1,083 21,186 3,676 75 237 1950 1,089 22,022 4,626 155 229 1954 1,132 25,035 3,704 175 190 1955 957 27,999 4,433 161 142 1956 883 34,817 4,976 151 117 1957 858 34,622 4,931 142 123 1958 873 25,859 145 143 1959 855 26,237 2,362 135 156 1960 1,044 20,362 1,826 128 332 1961 1,022 19,141 1,723 110 369 1962 917 21,439 1,551 102 321 1963 644 26,766 2,228 86 261 1964 596 22,406 2,090 84 254 1965 523 25,858 2,639 80 247 1966 503 25,243 2,212 66 258 1967 452 25,696 2,764 62 226 1968 397 30,026 2,700 42 223 1969 381 29,001 3,317 42 199 1Refers to all fishermen engaged in harvesting. 2Value deflated by wholesale price index (1957-1959=100). sented. However, the net economic value evident in Lake Erie. Fertilizer runoff and sil- added by sport fishing in Ohio is presented in tation from agriculture enter Lake Erie in in- Table 8-42. creasing amounts. Power plants add vast amounts of fly ash and hot water to the Lake. Steel industries discharge such wastes as 6.1.4 Effects of Non-Fishery Uses on Fish chromium, phenols, cutting oils, and acids. Resources Herbicides and pesticides are detectable in Lake Erie, and significant concentrations of Effects of Physicochemical Changes mercury have recently been discovered. Nit- rogen- and phosphate- bearing nutrients from Since 1850, pollutants such as wastes from industrial and commercial wastes continue to industrial sites, gas and oil wells, and salt be discharged into Lake Erie (Table 8-43 and mines as well as municipal sewage have been Figures 8-59 and 8-60). 170 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-38 Economic Value, Lake Erie Commercial Fishery (Dollars) Net Value Added Year Species Harvesting Processing Marketing Total 1969 Walleye .28 .44 .23 .95 to Perch .13. .08 .23 .44 1965 Catfish .45 .17 .23 .85 (Avg.) White Bass .18 .12 .22 .52 Suckers .04 .03 .22 .29 Sheepshead .05 .04 .19 .28 Carp .04 .03 .19 .26 Buffalo .10 o6 .19 .35 Miscellaneous .03 .04 .20 .27 1965 Walleye .30 .38 .21 .89 to Perch .10 .16 .21 .47 1960 Catfish .50 .19 .21 .90 (Avg.) White Bass .20 .12 .20 .52 Suckers .04 .04 .20 .28 Sheepshead .04 o4 .17 .25 Carp .04 .03 .17 .24 Buffalo .05 .05 .17 .27 Miscellaneous .03 .03 .18 .24 1960 Walleye .40 .37 .21 .98 to Perch .07 .13 .20 .40 1955 Catfish .40 .19 .21 .80 (Avg.) White Bass .20 .12 .20 .52 Suckers .04 .05 .20 .29 Sheepshead .03 .05 .17 .25 Carp .04 .03 .17 .24 Buffalo .04 .03 .17 .24 1955 Walleye .40 .37 .21 .98 to Perch .07 .09 .17 .35 1950 Catfish .35 .09 .18 .62 (Avg.) White Bass .06 .10 .17 .33 Blue Pike .20 .13 .17 .50 Whitefish .37 .24 .17 .77 Turbidity has increased substantially in Turbidity readings in Lake Erie increased Lake Erie. Approximately 32 million tons of approximately 30 ppm during a period from sediment wash into the Lake annually. Six- 1930 to 1950. The greatest turbidity readings teen million tons come from shore erosion, were generally found in the western basin nine million tons from lake dredging opera- (Figure 8-61). tions, and seven million tons from stream dis- Water temperature records from Erie, charges. In western Lake Erie alone, the Pennsylvania, show an increase in mean an- Maumee, Portage, and Sandusky Rivers add nual water temperature of about 2'F since the approximately three million tons of suspended early 1920s. This follows the general climatic solids per year. warming trends. However, Ohio Division of Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 171 TABLE 8-39 Estimated Anglers and Angler Wildlife temperature recorders at Put-In Bay Days, U.S. Waters of Lake Erie show a slight trend toward lower tempera- Number Angler tures during the same period. Type Angler Anglers Days Expended Chemical changes in Lake Erie were Pier 309,451 5,757,620 gradual until about 1910, after which there was a rapid increase. From 1910 to 1960 the Private Boat 117,824 2,120,832 total dissolved solids, calcium chloride, Charter Boat 25,000 75,000 sodium, potassium, and sulfate rose almost 50 ppm (Figures 8-62 and 8-63). Only incomplete Shore 23,804 615,974 data is available for nitrogen changes, but Total 476,079 8,569,426 data collected by Wright in 1930, Chandler and Weeks in 1942, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in 1958, and the Federal Water Qual- ity Administration in 1964 seem to be reliable. These show increasing nitrogen levels in the western basin. Free ammonia (NH3) had the following concentrations: 1930, 0.13 ppm; 1942, TABLE 8-40 Estimated Sport Fish Harvest, 0.036 ppm; 1958, 0.092 ppm; 1964, 0.190 ppm. U.S. Waters of Lake Erie Low oxygen concentrations in bottom wa- Species Number Caught ters have occurred annually in the central ba- sin, and the extent of affected areas has in- Yellow Perch 17,000,000 creased in recent years. Areas devoid of oxy- White Bass 180,000 gen in the hypolimnetic waters of the central basin during summer months are not uncom- Catfish 96,000 mon. Turbulence in the shallower waters of the western basin has restricted depletion of Walleye 56,000 oxygen in the bottom waters to an intermit- Smallmouth Bass 90,000 tent occurrence dependent on high air tem- peratures and low wind velocity. These factors Sheepshead 135,000 point to increased fertility, greater algal blooms, and increasingly widespread oxygen Miscellaneous 258,000 depletion of the bottom waters. This is due not - only to the BOD of decaying algal blooms, but Total 17,815,000 also to the oxygen demands of sediment. Such conditions can result in direct changes not only in fish populations, through the survival of preferred fish species' eggs and larval stages, but also in invertebrate populations. TABLE 8-41 Charter Boat Industry on Ohio Waters of Lake Erie Number of Number of Number of Gross Net Average Net Income Year Boats Excursions Fisherman-Days Income Income Per Boat 1969 31 3,720 55,500 $390,600 $279,000 $9,000 1968 36 4,320 65,446 453,600 324,000 9,000 1967 32 3,840 57,600 403,200 288,000 9,000 1966 30 3,600 59,400 378,000 270,000 9,000 1965 29 3,480 52,200 365,400 261,000 9,000 1964 27 3,240 48,600 340,200 243,000 9,000 1963 32 3,840 63,360 364,800 249,600 7,800 1962 34 4,080 73,440 387,600 265,200 7,800 1961 38 4,560 75,240 433,200 296,400 7,800 1960 40 4,800 72,000 456,000 312,000 7,800 172 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-42 Net Economic Value of Sport Fishery in Ohio Waters of Lake Erie in Millions of Dollars Year Species Local State Regional National Total 1969 Perch 7.15 3.25 1.69 .91 13.00 White Bass 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye .28 .12 .06 o4 .50 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 ..12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 o6 .04 .50 Total 10.47 4.73 2.45 1.35 19.01 1968 Perch 8.25 3.75 1.95 1.05 15.00 White Bass .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye .55 .25 .13 .07 1.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 11.57 5.24 2.71 1.48 21.00 1967 Perch 8.25 3.75 1.95 1.05 15.00 White Bass .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 o6 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 11.85 5.37 2.77 1.51 21.50 1966 Perch 7.15 3.25 1.69 .91 13.00 White Bass 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Catfish .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Walleye 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 o4 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 11.02 4.99 2.58 1.41 20.00 1965 Perch 6.60 3.00 1.56 .84 12.00 White Bass .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Catfish .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Walleye 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 10.20 4.62 2.38 1.30 18.50 Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 173 TABLE 8-42(continued) Net Economic Value of Sport Fishery in Ohio Waters of Lake Erie in Millions of Dollars Year Species Local State Regional National Total 1964 Perch 6.60 3.00 1.56 .84 12.00 White Bass 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye 1.38 .62 .33 .17 2.50 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 11.02 4.98 2.59 1.41 20.00 1963 Perch 5.50 2.50 1.30 .70 10.00 White Bass .55 .25 .13 .07 1.00 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye 1.38 .62 .33 .17 2.50 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 9.37 4.23 2.20 1.20 17.00 1962 Perch 4.95 2.25 1.17 .63 9.00 White Bass .55 .25 .13 .07 1.00 Catfish .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Walleye 1.65 .75 .39 .21 3.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 8.82 3.99 2.06 1.13 16.00 1961 Perch 4.95 2.25 1.17 .63 9.00 White Bass .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Catfish .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Walleye 1.65 .75 .39 .21 3.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 9.10 4.12 2.12 1.16 16.50 1960 Perch 4.40 2.00 1.04 .56 8.00 White Bass .83 .38 .19 .10 1.50 Catfish 1.10 .50 .26 .14 2.00 Walleye 1.65 .75 .39 .21 3.00 Smallmouth Bass .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Sheepshead .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Miscellaneous .28 .12 .06 .04 .50 Total 8.82 3.99 2.06 1.13 16.00 174 Appendix 8 TABLE 8-43 Near Shore and Harbor Water Quality in Mg/l Michigan Waters of Maumee Sandusky Lorain Cleveland Fairport Astabula Erie ake Erie Bay Bay Harbor Harbor Harbor Harbor Harbor Parameter- Min Max Min Max Min Max -Hi-nMax -MFn-Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Cond (25*C) --- ___ 280 460 256 800 300 340 --- --- 330 5920 --- --- 330 360 DS --- --- 200 290 190 680 160 230 180 370 180 6000 170 230 180 290 TS --- --- 200 350 210 760 170 270 180 680 190 6100 180 250 200 290 Chlor. 27 82 20 32 16 32 19 25 14 88 --- --- 24 42 26 38 Sol PO4 .05 .20 .02 .19 .02 .17 .02 .11 --- --- --- --- .02 .06 .01 .03 S04 --- --- --- --- 25 256 27 37 --- --- --- --- --- --- 26 44 S102 --- --- 0.6 1.7 0.3 5.9 .40 1.10 --- --- --- ___ --- --- .3 .5 K --- --- 1.4 2.6 1.2 4.0 1.3 2.2 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.4 1.9 Mg --- --- 12 18 10 38 9 11 --- --- --- --- --- 9 9 Ca --- --- 35 42 38 114 34 38 --- --- --- --- --- --- 42 47 Na --- --- 12 20 10 16 10 13 --- --- --- --- --- --- 17 21 ABS <.025 .05 .15 .05 .20 .05 .15 --- --- --- --- --- --- .07 .14 Alk 78 157 86 120 87 120 88 99 81 130 90 110 94 100 90 96 PH 8.4 9.2 7.4 9.7 7.5 9.1 7.5 8.7 6.7 9.5 7.1 8.7 8.2 8.5 7.3 8.1 Temp --- --- 21 25 23 26 24 25 16 21 23 29 15 17 16 19 DO%S --- --- 60 95 65 115 80 95 70 95 80 130 95 110 Avg.60% BOD --- 1 1.5 4.0 2.1 6.3 1.0 2.3 --- --- --- --- 2.0 5.6 Avg.3.3 COD --- --- 12 53 13 42 10 28 8 22 8 12 7 11 Avg.24 Phenol 0.0 0.058 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Total N --- --- .82 3.45 .82 3.50 .50 4.20 --- --- --- --- --- --- .66 .80 Org N 0.20 0.30 .07 1.33 .53 2.30 .01 1.10 --- --- --- --- .29 .49 .30 .59 Amn N 0.20 0.30 .30 1.80 --- --- .12 .90 --- --- --- --- .03 1.55 .12 .23 Nit N 0.11 0.91 .00 .80 .01 1.80 .00 2.90 --- --- --- --- --- --- .07 .14 The most harmful effects of pollution enter- cury, lead, and cadmium in Lake Erie fish ing western Lake Erie from the Maumee, Por- species. This has significantly depressed the tage, and Raisin Rivers are the depletion of commercial and sports industry. The effect of dissolved oxygen and siltation. Bottom condi- these pollutants on fish reproduction and tions in western Lake Erie have deteriorated. physiology is not fully known. State and Fed- Large die-offs of mayflies have resulted from eral agencies are currently involved in the lack of oxygen in the bottom muds. White- measuring the levels of pollutants found in all fish in the Detroit River and Maumee Bay age groups of Lake Erie fish. decreased drastically around 1900. Biologists The heavy siltation rate and increased believe that the heavy silt load entering the water temperatures, plus the continued en- Lake from the Maumee River smothered their richment from agricultural, municipal, and spawning beds and hastened the decline of the industrial pollution will increase phyto- fisheries. plankton production and result in higher Agricultural fertilizers and phosphorus biochemical oxygen demands. This will in- from detergents in municipal wastes enrich crease the incidence of oxygen depletion in the Lake Erie waters, contributing to the heavy bottom waters of all basins and result in vastly algal growths that commonly collect in many altered or reduced populations of both fish and Lake Erie coves and beaches. Decomposition benthic organisms. of dead algae does not always result in fish kills, but it creates numerous nuisances, such as bad odors, bad-tasting water, and fouled beaches. Biological Changes Nitrogen- and phosphate-bearing nutrients from domestic sewage and industrial wastes Besides the major changes in fish species cause pollution and aesthetic problems at enumerated in the preceding sections, in many points along the lakeshore. Highly- western Lake Erie there has been a reduction tolerant tubificid worms have increased mark- of Hexagenia to a mere fraction of its former edly in areas adjacent to sewage outfalls. abundance. Sphaeriidae has increased Other effects of industrial pollutiQn include twofold, Chironomidae fourfold, Gastropoda increased turbidity, sludge deposits, grease sixfold, and Ologochaeta ninefold. These and oil mats, suspended solids, and chemical changes can be attributed to: dyes, all of which either directly or indirectly (1) siltation from erosion and dredging impair fish propagation. (2) industrial and municipal wastes Modern technology is beginning to discover (3) intensive agricultural practices critical levels of herbicides, pesticides, (4) stream and river rehabilitation proj- polychlorides, and heavy metals such as mer- ects Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 175 1.4- 1.2- 1.0- UPPER LAKES INPUT W=WESTERN BASIN w F- -i C=CENTRAL BASIN cr w E=EASTERN BASIN (L 0.8- cr. 0.6] cr 0.41 0 Z Z 6 C3 cr cr- 0 0 0 0.2- z 0 0 z z z 3: 0.0 W C E W C E W C E W C E POTASSIUM SILI_PA NITROGEN SOL. P04 FIGURE8-59 Chemistry of Lake Erie Water in Western, Central, and Eastern Basins, Nutrients 176 Appendix 8 200- 180- c/i U5 160- 140- c/i Ui 6 ci ci UPPER LAKES INPUT 120- w W=WESTERN BASIN C=CENTRAL BASIN w 0- E=EASTERN BASIN U) 100- 80- 60 40- 20- 0 vmfii W C E W C E W C E W C E W C E W C E SOLIDS CALCIUM MAGNESIUM SODIUM CHLORIDE SULFATE 01 FIGURE 8-60 Chemistry of Lake Erie Water in Western, Central, and Eastern Basins, Major Constituents n n C+ C+ Vt- oq ID 0, (D M W PARTS PER MIL uq c+ CD w p (D 0 (D X A o C-- (D w (D I C+ C) m CD 0 aq DD 4 1 @j (D C+ (D to c+ @@ ::r " (@* m oq (D 0 C+ :z ERIE, PA. (D4 r, r+ C+ n n -- (D (D (D 0 p (D C+ ch 4 m z n 4 a, M (D :r o z w @j (D 14. CONNEAUT, OHIO = m @C+j CW+ (D Ma, Z' U2 . &a C@- 01 n C+ C+ C+ (D I-,! - p @j 5 z z m :31 Z' 0- 'd - Z o- P aq z (D M n 0 V z " 4 C+ *1 0 c+ (D 0 c! X- (D F+ (D ASHTABULA . (D 0 81 Z cr :@ C"+ (D -0 0 'd m aq @:s @-- @o - EW c+ (D C+ o 'j, B 0 m zr' 'i kv 0 - . zl: z m - 0 FAIRPORT n (D :r c+ (D C+ 79 (D - c+ (D OZ -CC) Z (D t:r:@ Z C+ t"! (D (D p z o CLEVELAND c+ (D (-D P O@ z z rp @g --v -d ELYRIA c@ (D m C) (D W m P (D c+ ol c+ n C+ a- -UR (D 0 P z , @3- rp 0 C+ Z (D M " VERMILION cm+ 'I o Z. c+ 0 m C+ (D C+ n W o C+ - c, &, " rA (D z &- p (D (D 0 rA G- 5 HURON z clt Z m zZ C-t- 0 (D 1+ 10 Es p (D 4 c+ M (D C+ (D 0--o 0 W C+ c+ - Z SANDUSKY CC,+ m (D ( '+0 n D C+ C+ Z 0 I-D M 0- Z Mm w Z "', .1 " -'+5 C+ m (D C+ C+ p CA+' (D Z so M V:@ " PORT CLINTON M w :@ Z- 0@ 5. m O@ (D " - Z-. @' 0 0 p '@ ::5 5 (D - Z (D Z aq @3' w rp m Z p C+ (D M z ::r z . Z' P C+ CF m 41 z w 1.0 w 0 w (D C+ 6.'J m :0 U2 c+ 0 1 z @:$ Z '0 TOLEDO @3- 0 r- aq m @:r 0, W 13, o m cr .4 En -- M c+ c+ m c+ c+ !+ :j (D (D c+ 41 aq p m W M (D W c+ z co '+ pql m 0 m m@ "m m m -l< 5*'-e@ 41 178 Appendix 8 0 0 40 - 0 0 35 - z 0 30 6D CO 25 z 0 Z 20 w 0 z 0 0 15 - 00 10 - \DV- 0 0 00 SOC)IUM 4- pOTASSIUM 0 5 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 YEAR r@\_rpPA@@@@@ FIGURE 8-62 Changes in the Chemical Characteristics of Lake Erie Waters Lake Erie Basin, Plan Area 4.0 179 210 200 190 2 _J 2 X 180 LU (L U) Z 170 Z UJ 0 Z 0 160 0 LU LU 150 0 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS 140 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 YEAR FIGURE 8-63 Changes in the Concentration of Total Dissolved Solids in Lake Erie 6.1.5 Fisheries Management by imposing restrictions on or prohibiting gear and regulating fish sizes; and use of abun- dance predictions that allow for adjustments Past and Present Management of harvest rates by concerned agencies. Inconsistency in the approach and Fishery operations in Lake Erie are under philosophies of governmental agencies com- the jurisdiction of four States and the Pro- pounds the problem. Most of the assessed data vince of Ontario. Management has used the have had little value because of lack of cooper- following priorities as guidelines: restoration ation between agencies. Exotics introduced of desirable species by stocking programs; en- without proper preinventory studies have suring abundant levels of high-value species been unsuccessful. With minor exceptions, 180 Appendix 8 there has never been an attempt to manage pollution abatement activities. the Lake Erie fisheries by restricting fishing State, interstate, Federal, and interna- effort. Sport fishing has had only minor limita- tional agencies cooperate in matters pertain- tions imposed upon it throughout its history. ing to dredging and filling, establishment of The broad goal of the State fishery pro- harbors of refuge, and development of fishing grams is to restore an optimum balance be- piers, marinas, and public access sites. tween prey and high-value predator species, In New York a Memorandum of Under- and to manage these populations for the standing between the Departments of Trans- maximum benefit of society on a lakewide portation and Conservation provides coordi- basis. Management policies place high nated planning of all public works projects to priorities on a multiple-use concept of the fish protect fish and and wildlife resources. The populations for both sport and commercial Stream Protection Law of 1966 requires pri- harvest. The United States commercial vate individuals and industry to obtain per- fishery uses high-value species only during mits before the beds or banks of most waters periods of limited supply. The States of Ohio can be altered. Counties, towns, and and Michigan are attempting to improve the municipalities must obtain permits or economic viability of the commercial fishery Memoranda of Understanding before high- through limited entry control. way construction affecting watersheds can be Management measures under way on Lake undertaken. Erie include stocking of hatchery-reared fish, Ohio has a research unit on Lake Erie that regulation of fishing, and habitat improve- carries out a monitoring program, collecting ment and maintenance. In addition to coho information on the abundance of various fish and chinook plants, the Lake Erie stocking species, their sizes and ages, distribution and program includes plantings of rainbow trout existence of discrete populations, year class fingerlings by Pennsylvania and New York, strength, interrelations, and the extent to and walleye fry by Ohio. The desirability and which they are utilized by recreational and practicability of stocking blue pike, sauger, commercial fishermen. The Commonwealth of and striped bass are being investigated by Pennsylvania has begun developmejit of a various State agencies. modest but similar program in its waters. In Recent changes in commercial fishing regu- Michigan waters investigations are limited to lations have been limited to Ohio waters, sampling of commercial landings by the where considerable effort has been made to Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and periodic provide greater protection for depressed wall- observations by Michigan's Lake St. Clair re- eye stock. Ohio changes include an increase in search unit. Investigations in New York wa- the minimum legal length of walleye from 13 ters have been limited to periodic observa- to 151/2 inches; complete closure of gill net tions in cooperation with the Bureau of Com- fishery in the western basin; and closure of mercial Fisheries. commercial fishing within 1/4 mile of reefs from Biological investigations carried out by the March 1 to May 9. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries involve sev- Sport fishing regulations have undergone eral long-range research projects to provide few changes in recent years, but uniform regu- information on the following areas: life his- lations on sport fishing for trout and salmon tories of fish with emphasis on walleye, yellow are being developed. perch, and sheepshead; relationship between Thermal pollution from nuclear and fossil physical, chemical, and biological properties of fuel plants is a major concern. State and Fed- the environment and fish survival, growth, eral agencies are aware of the seriousness of and reproduction; population dynamics of prevailing conditions and have undertaken walleye, yellow perch, and sheepshead; and studies to provide solutions that will deceler- the effect of changes in environment and ate the unnatural rates in the aging processes species composition. of the Lake. State agencies cooperate with the Ohio is conducting a study to assess the Environmental Protection Agency in a sport fishing pressure, success, and harvest pollution abatement program on Lake Erie. for perch, walleye, white bass, and channel Water quality standards have been desig-