[House Report 116-23]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]


116th Congress    }                                     {       Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 1st Session      }                                     {       116-23

======================================================================



 
                    CBP WORKLOAD STAFFING MODEL ACT

                                _______
                                

 March 28, 2019.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed

                                _______
                                

 Mr. Thompson of Mississippi, from the Committee on Homeland Security, 
                        submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [To accompany H.R. 1639]

    The Committee on Homeland Security, to whom was referred 
the bill (H.R. 1639) to amend the Homeland Security Act of 2002 
to improve U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) 
identification of staffing needs, and for other purposes, 
having considered the same, report favorably thereon with an 
amendment and recommend that the bill as amended do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page
Purpose and Summary..............................................     2
Background and Need for Legislation..............................     2
Hearings.........................................................     3
Committee Consideration..........................................     3
Committee Votes..................................................     4
Committee Oversight Findings.....................................     4
C.B.O. Estimate, New Budget Authority, Entitlement Authority, and 
  Tax Expenditures...............................................     4
Federal Mandates Statement.......................................     5
Duplicative Federal Programs.....................................     5
Statement of General Performance Goals and Objectives............     5
Congressional Earmarks, Limited Tax Benefits, and Limited Tariff 
  Benefits.......................................................     5
Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation...................     5
Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported............     6

  Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the 
following:
    The amendment is as follows:

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

  This Act may be cited as the ``CBP Workload Staffing Model Act''.

SEC. 2. ESTABLISHMENT OF WORKLOAD STAFFING MODELS FOR U.S. BORDER 
                    PATROL AND AIR AND MARINE OPERATIONS OF CBP.

  (a) In General.--The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border 
Protection shall in coordination with the Under Secretary for 
Management, Chief Human Capital Officer, and Chief Financial Officer of 
the Department of Homeland Security, develop and implement, by not 
later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, a 
workload staffing model for each of the U.S. Border Patrol and Air and 
Marine Operations.
  (b) Responsibilities of the Commissioner of CBP.--Subsection (c) of 
section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 211) is 
amended--
          (1) by redesignating paragraphs (18) and (19) as paragraphs 
        (20) and (21), respectively; and
          (2) by inserting after paragraph (17) the following new 
        paragraphs:
          ``(18) implement a staffing model that includes consideration 
        for essential frontline operator activities and functions, 
        variations in operating environments, present and planned 
        infrastructure, present and planned technology, and required 
        operations support levels for the U.S. Border Patrol, Air and 
        Marine Operations, and the Office of Field Operations, to 
        manage and assign personnel of such entities to ensure field 
        and support posts possess adequate resources to carry out 
        duties specified in this section;
          ``(19) develop standard operating procedures for a workforce 
        tracking system within the U.S. Border Patrol, Air and Marine 
        Operations, and the Office of Field Operations, train the 
        workforce of each of such entities on the use, capabilities, 
        and purpose of such system, and implement internal controls to 
        ensure timely and accurate scheduling and reporting of actual 
        completed work hours and activities;''.
  (c) Report.--Not later than one year after the date of the enactment 
of this Act with respect to subsection (a) and paragraphs (18) and (19) 
of section 411(c) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (as amended by 
subsection (b)), and annually thereafter with respect to such 
paragraphs (18) and (19), the Secretary of Homeland Security shall 
submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs of the Senate a status update on the implementation of this Act 
and such paragraphs (18) and (19), and status updates on such 
paragraphs (18) and (19), as well as all relevant workload staffing 
models. Such status updates shall include information on data sources 
and methodology used to generate such staffing models.
  (d) Inspector General Review.--Not later than 120 days after the 
Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection develops a workload 
staffing model pursuant to subsection (a), the Inspector General of the 
Department of Homeland Security shall review such model and provide 
feedback to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Committee on 
Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate regarding the 
degree to which such model is responsive to Inspector General 
recommendations, including recommendations from the Inspector General's 
February 2019 audit, and as appropriate, any further recommendations to 
improve such model.

                          Purpose and Summary

    H.R. 1639, the ``CBP Workload Staffing Model Act'' requires 
the use of workload staffing models to determine staffing needs 
for all three subcomponents of U.S. Customs and Border 
Protection (CBP)--the Office of Field Operations, U.S. Border 
Patrol, and Air and Marine Operations.

                  Background and Need for Legislation

    In 2011, Congress directed the U.S. Border Patrol to submit 
a five-year staffing and deployment plan. The plan that was 
submitted in 2013 failed to address key goals of border 
security and did not identify factors that affect deployment. 
Congress requested a more complete five-year plan that 
addressed these missing factors. However, Border Patrol never 
completed this plan.
    In 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order 13767, 
Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements, which 
directed the Department of Homeland Security (DHS or 
Department) to hire an additional 5,000 Border Patrol agents. 
In July 2017, the Department's Office of the Inspector General 
(OIG) found that Border Patrol was unable to show an 
operational need for the 5,000 agents and could not articulate 
a deployment strategy for these additional agents.
    In a March OIG 2019 report, the Inspector General 
determined that Border Patrol has not prioritized the 
development of a workload staffing model and without such a 
model, Border Patrol's current workforce may not be deployed in 
the most efficient or economical way. Further, the report also 
found that officials did not consistently schedule agents' work 
duties, document hours worked, or update work duties completed. 
As a result, data systems have incomplete information and show 
a disparity between hours scheduled and the amount of time 
agents are paid for, which hinders CBP's ability to determine 
if it is fulfilling all mission requirements.
    H.R. 1639 seeks to help CBP resolve the deficiencies 
identified in the March 2019 DHS OIG report by directing CBP to 
develop a workload staffing model for Border Patrol (USBP) as 
well as Air and Marine Operations. These staffing models will 
help USBP and AMO evaluate operational needs and determine 
where and how many additional agents would get them to optimal 
staffing levels. Since the Safe Port Act of 2006, CBP's Office 
of Field Operations (OFO) has utilized a workload staffing 
model that incorporates a variety of data points to calculate 
the optimal staffing level at each CBP port of entry. The 
success of this model has demonstrated the utility of such 
analysis in the CBP environment. Furthermore, the establishment 
of standard operating procedures to track activities by the CBP 
workforce will ensure that all three subcomponents are using 
staff efficiently. The bill would add both the workload 
staffing model requirement and the workforce tracking system 
requirement to the duties of the Commissioner to ensure these 
will be priorities to CBP moving forward. The Committee does 
not intend for this bill to change or modify OFO's current 
staffing model and standard operating procedures for tracking 
officer hours.

                                Hearings

    The Committee did not hold any legislative hearings on H.R. 
1639 in the 116th Congress. However, this legislation was 
informed by an Oversight, Management, and Accountability 
Subcommittee hearing on March 7, 2019 entitled, ``CBP Workforce 
Challenges: Exploring Solutions to Address Recruitment and 
Retention.'' Testimony was heard from Mr. Benjamine ``Carry'' 
Huffman, Acting Executive Assistant Commissioner, Enterprise 
Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Ms. Rebecca 
Gambler, Director, Homeland Security and Justice Team, U.S. 
Government Accountability Office; and Mr. Anthony M. Reardon, 
President, The National Treasury Employees Union.

                        Committee Consideration

    The Committee met on March 13, 2019, with a quorum being 
present, to consider H.R. 1639 and ordered the measure to be 
reported to the House with a favorable recommendation, without 
amendment, by unanimous consent.
    The following amendments were offered:
    An en bloc amendment offered by Ms. Torres Small (#1); was 
AGREED TO by unanimous consent.
    Consisting of the following amendment:
    Add at the end the following:

  (d) Inspector General Review.--Not later than 120 days after 
the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection develops 
a workload staffing model pursuant to subsection (a), the 
Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall 
review such model and provide feedback to the Secretary of 
Homeland Security and the Committee on Homeland Security of the 
House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security 
and Governmental Affairs of the Senate regarding the degree to 
which such model is responsive to Inspector General 
recommendations, including recommendations from the Inspector 
General's February 2019 audit, and as appropriate, any further 
recommendations to improve such model.

    An en bloc amendment offered by Ms. Jackson Lee (#399); was 
AGREED TO by unanimous consent.
    Consisting of the following amendment:

Page 3, line 25, after ``models.'' Insert ``Such status updates 
shall include information on data sources and methodology used 
to generate such staffing models.''

                            Committee Votes

    Clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives requires the Committee to list the recorded 
votes on the motion to report legislation and amendments 
thereto.
    No recorded votes were requested during consideration of 
H.R. 1639.

                      Committee Oversight Findings

    In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules 
of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the 
findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on 
oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the 
Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the 
descriptive portions of this report.

Congressional Budget Office Estimate, New Budget Authority, Entitlement 
                    Authority, and Tax Expenditures

    With respect to the requirements of clause 3(c)(2) of rule 
XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives and section 
308(a) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 and with respect 
to requirements of clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives and section 402 of the 
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee has requested 
but not received a cost estimate for this bill from the 
Director of the Congressional Budget Office.
    The Committee has requested but not received from the 
Director of the Congressional Budget Office a statement as to 
whether this bill contains any new budget authority, spending 
authority, credit authority, or an increase or decrease in 
revenues or tax expenditures.

                       Federal Mandates Statement

    An estimate of Federal mandates prepared by the Director of 
the Congressional Budget Office pursuant to section 423 of the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act was not made available to the 
Committee in time for the filing of this report. The Chairman 
of the Committee shall cause such estimate to be printed in the 
Congressional Record upon its receipt by the Committee.

                      Duplicative Federal Programs

    Pursuant to clause 3(c) of rule XIII, the Committee finds 
that H.R. 1639 does not contain any provision that establishes 
or reauthorizes a program known to be duplicative of another 
Federal program.

                    Performance Goals and Objectives

    The Committee states that pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of 
rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, H.R. 
1639 would require the U.S. Customs and Border Protection to 
identify staffing needs through the use of workload staffing 
models for all three of its subcomponents--Office of Field 
Operations, U.S. Border Patrol, and Air and Marine Operations.

                          Advisory on Earmarks

    In compliance with rule XXI of the Rules of the House of 
Representatives, this bill, as reported, contains no 
congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff 
benefits as defined in clause 9(d), 9(e), or 9(f) of the rule 
XXI.

             Section-by-Section Analysis of the Legislation


Section 1. Short title

    This section provides that this bill may be cited as the 
``CBP Workload Staffing Model Act''.

Sec. 2. Establishment of workload staffing models for U.S. Border 
        Patrol and Air and Marine Operations of CBP

    This section requires the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and 
Border Protection to, in coordination with the Department of 
Homeland Security's Under Secretary for Management, Chief Human 
Capital Officer, and Chief Financial Officer, develop and 
implement workload staffing models for the U.S. Border Patrol 
(USBP) and Air and Marine Operations (AMO). The Committee 
believes the use of these models will make staffing needs for 
USBP and AMO subcomponents data analysis driven and 
transparent. It will also put these two subcomponents on equal 
footing with the Office of Field Operations which already 
completes a workload staffing model on a recurring basis.
    This section also includes the criteria that should be 
considered in such workload staffing models, and requires the 
development of standard operating procedures to track the 
workforce of the three subcomponents.
    This section further requires the Secretary of Homeland 
Security to report to the House Committee on Homeland Security 
and the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
Affairs on progress made toward implementing these workload 
staffing models as well as providing the models within a year 
of enactment and annually thereafter.
    The Committee considers this analysis of staffing needs an 
important component of border security and fulfilling CBP's 
multi-faceted mission along the U.S. borders.

         Changes in Existing Law Made by the Bill, as Reported

  In compliance with clause 3(e) of rule XIII of the Rules of 
the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by 
the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law 
proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new 
matter is printed in italic, and existing law in which no 
change is proposed is shown in roman):

                     HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002




           *       *       *       *       *       *       *
TITLE IV--BORDER, MARITIME, AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


             Subtitle B--U.S. Customs and Border Protection

SEC. 411. ESTABLISHMENT OF U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION; 
                    COMMISSIONER, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER, AND OPERATIONAL 
                    OFFICES.

  (a) In General.--There is established in the Department an 
agency to be known as U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
  (b) Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.--
          (1) In general.--There shall be at the head of U.S. 
        Customs and Border Protection a Commissioner of U.S. 
        Customs and Border Protection (in this section referred 
        to as the ``Commissioner'').
          (2) Committee referral.--As an exercise of the 
        rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination for the 
        Commissioner submitted to the Senate for confirmation, 
        and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the 
        Committee on Finance.
  (c) Duties.--The Commissioner shall--
          (1) coordinate and integrate the security, trade 
        facilitation, and trade enforcement functions of U.S. 
        Customs and Border Protection;
          (2) ensure the interdiction of persons and goods 
        illegally entering or exiting the United States;
          (3) facilitate and expedite the flow of legitimate 
        travelers and trade;
          (4) direct and administer the commercial operations 
        of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the 
        enforcement of the customs and trade laws of the United 
        States;
          (5) detect, respond to, and interdict terrorists, 
        drug smugglers and traffickers, human smugglers and 
        traffickers, and other persons who may undermine the 
        security of the United States, in cases in which such 
        persons are entering, or have recently entered, the 
        United States;
          (6) safeguard the borders of the United States to 
        protect against the entry of dangerous goods;
          (7) ensure the overall economic security of the 
        United States is not diminished by efforts, activities, 
        and programs aimed at securing the homeland;
          (8) in coordination with U.S. Immigration and Customs 
        Enforcement and United States Citizenship and 
        Immigration Services, enforce and administer all 
        immigration laws, as such term is defined in paragraph 
        (17) of section 101(a) of the Immigration and 
        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)), including--
                  (A) the inspection, processing, and admission 
                of persons who seek to enter or depart the 
                United States; and
                  (B) the detection, interdiction, removal, 
                departure from the United States, short-term 
                detention, and transfer of persons unlawfully 
                entering, or who have recently unlawfully 
                entered, the United States;
          (9) develop and implement screening and targeting 
        capabilities, including the screening, reviewing, 
        identifying, and prioritizing of passengers and cargo 
        across all international modes of transportation, both 
        inbound and outbound;
          (10) in coordination with the Secretary, deploy 
        technology to collect the data necessary for the 
        Secretary to administer the biometric entry and exit 
        data system pursuant to section 7208 of the 
        Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 
        2004 (8 U.S.C. 1365b);
          (11) enforce and administer the laws relating to 
        agricultural import and entry inspection referred to in 
        section 421;
          (12) in coordination with the Under Secretary for 
        Management of the Department, ensure U.S. Customs and 
        Border Protection complies with Federal law, the 
        Federal Acquisition Regulation, and the Department's 
        acquisition management directives for major acquisition 
        programs of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;
          (13) ensure that the policies and regulations of U.S. 
        Customs and Border Protection are consistent with the 
        obligations of the United States pursuant to 
        international agreements;
          (14) enforce and administer--
                  (A) the Container Security Initiative program 
                under section 205 of the Security and 
                Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 (6 
                U.S.C. 945); and
                  (B) the Customs-Trade Partnership Against 
                Terrorism program under subtitle B of title II 
                of such Act (6 U.S.C. 961 et seq.);
          (15) conduct polygraph examinations in accordance 
        with section 3(1) of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 
        2010 (Public Law 111-376; 124 Stat. 4105);
          (16) establish the standard operating procedures 
        described in subsection (k);
          (17) carry out the training required under subsection 
        (l);
          (18) implement a staffing model that includes 
        consideration for essential frontline operator 
        activities and functions, variations in operating 
        environments, present and planned infrastructure, 
        present and planned technology, and required operations 
        support levels for the U.S. Border Patrol, Air and 
        Marine Operations, and the Office of Field Operations, 
        to manage and assign personnel of such entities to 
        ensure field and support posts possess adequate 
        resources to carry out duties specified in this 
        section;
          (19) develop standard operating procedures for a 
        workforce tracking system within the U.S. Border 
        Patrol, Air and Marine Operations, and the Office of 
        Field Operations, train the workforce of each of such 
        entities on the use, capabilities, and purpose of such 
        system, and implement internal controls to ensure 
        timely and accurate scheduling and reporting of actual 
        completed work hours and activities;
          [(18)] (20) carry out section 418, relating to the 
        issuance of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business 
        Travel Cards; and
          [(19)] (21) carry out other duties and powers 
        prescribed by law or delegated by the Secretary.
  (d) Deputy Commissioner.--There shall be in U.S. Customs and 
Border Protection a Deputy Commissioner who shall assist the 
Commissioner in the management of U.S. Customs and Border 
Protection.
  (e) U.S. Border Patrol.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection the U.S. Border Patrol.
          (2) Chief.--There shall be at the head of the U.S. 
        Border Patrol a Chief, who shall--
                  (A) be at the level of Executive Assistant 
                Commissioner within U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection; and
                  (B) report to the Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--The U.S. Border Patrol shall--
                  (A) serve as the law enforcement office of 
                U.S. Customs and Border Protection with primary 
                responsibility for interdicting persons 
                attempting to illegally enter or exit the 
                United States or goods being illegally imported 
                into or exported from the United States at a 
                place other than a designated port of entry;
                  (B) deter and prevent the illegal entry of 
                terrorists, terrorist weapons, persons, and 
                contraband; and
                  (C) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
  (f) Air and Marine Operations.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection an office known as Air and Marine 
        Operations.
          (2) Executive assistant commissioner.--There shall be 
        at the head of Air and Marine Operations an Executive 
        Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the 
        Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--Air and Marine Operations shall--
                  (A) serve as the law enforcement office 
                within U.S. Customs and Border Protection with 
                primary responsibility to detect, interdict, 
                and prevent acts of terrorism and the unlawful 
                movement of people, illicit drugs, and other 
                contraband across the borders of the United 
                States in the air and maritime environment;
                  (B) conduct joint aviation and marine 
                operations with U.S. Immigration and Customs 
                Enforcement;
                  (C) conduct aviation and marine operations 
                with international, Federal, State, and local 
                law enforcement agencies, as appropriate;
                  (D) administer the Air and Marine Operations 
                Center established under paragraph (4); and
                  (E) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
          (4) Air and marine operations center.--
                  (A) In general.--There is established in Air 
                and Marine Operations an Air and Marine 
                Operations Center.
                  (B) Executive director.--There shall be at 
                the head of the Air and Marine Operations 
                Center an Executive Director, who shall report 
                to the Executive Assistant Commissioner of Air 
                and Marine Operations.
                  (C) Duties.--The Air and Marine Operations 
                Center shall--
                          (i) manage the air and maritime 
                        domain awareness of the Department, as 
                        directed by the Secretary;
                          (ii) monitor and coordinate the 
                        airspace for unmanned aerial systems 
                        operations of Air and Marine Operations 
                        in U.S. Customs and Border Protection;
                          (iii) detect, identify, and 
                        coordinate a response to threats to 
                        national security in the air domain, in 
                        coordination with other appropriate 
                        agencies, as determined by the 
                        Executive Assistant Commissioner;
                          (iv) provide aviation and marine 
                        support to other Federal, State, 
                        tribal, and local agencies; and
                          (v) carry out other duties and powers 
                        prescribed by the Executive Assistant 
                        Commissioner.
  (g) Office of Field Operations.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection an Office of Field Operations.
          (2) Executive assistant commissioner.--There shall be 
        at the head of the Office of Field Operations an 
        Executive Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to 
        the Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--The Office of Field Operations shall 
        coordinate the enforcement activities of U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection at United States air, land, and 
        sea ports of entry to--
                  (A) deter and prevent terrorists and 
                terrorist weapons from entering the United 
                States at such ports of entry;
                  (B) conduct inspections at such ports of 
                entry to safeguard the United States from 
                terrorism and illegal entry of persons;
                  (C) prevent illicit drugs, agricultural 
                pests, and contraband from entering the United 
                States;
                  (D) in coordination with the Commissioner, 
                facilitate and expedite the flow of legitimate 
                travelers and trade;
                  (E) administer the National Targeting Center 
                established under paragraph (4);
                  (F) coordinate with the Executive Assistant 
                Commissioner for the Office of Trade with 
                respect to the trade facilitation and trade 
                enforcement activities of U.S. Customs and 
                Border Protection; and
                  (G) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
          (4) National targeting center.--
                  (A) In general.--There is established in the 
                Office of Field Operations a National Targeting 
                Center.
                  (B) Executive director.--There shall be at 
                the head of the National Targeting Center an 
                Executive Director, who shall report to the 
                Executive Assistant Commissioner of the Office 
                of Field Operations.
                  (C) Duties.--The National Targeting Center 
                shall--
                          (i) serve as the primary forum for 
                        targeting operations within U.S. 
                        Customs and Border Protection to 
                        collect and analyze traveler and cargo 
                        information in advance of arrival in 
                        the United States to identify and 
                        address security risks and strengthen 
                        trade enforcement;
                          (ii) identify, review, and target 
                        travelers and cargo for examination;
                          (iii) coordinate the examination of 
                        entry and exit of travelers and cargo;
                          (iv) develop and conduct commercial 
                        risk assessment targeting with respect 
                        to cargo destined for the United 
                        States;
                          (v) coordinate with the 
                        Transportation Security Administration, 
                        as appropriate;
                          (vi) issue Trade Alerts pursuant to 
                        section 111(b) of the Trade 
                        Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act 
                        of 2015; and
                          (vii) carry out other duties and 
                        powers prescribed by the Executive 
                        Assistant Commissioner.
          (5) Annual report on staffing.--
                  (A) In general.--Not later than 30 days after 
                the date of the enactment of the Trade 
                Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, 
                and annually thereafter, the Executive 
                Assistant Commissioner shall submit to the 
                Committee on Homeland Security and the 
                Committee on Ways and Means of the House of 
                Representatives and the Committee on Homeland 
                Security and Governmental Affairs and the 
                Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on 
                the staffing model for the Office of Field 
                Operations, including information on how many 
                supervisors, front-line U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection officers, and support personnel are 
                assigned to each Field Office and port of 
                entry.
                  (B) Form.--The report required under 
                subparagraph (A) shall, to the greatest extent 
                practicable, be submitted in unclassified form, 
                but may be submitted in classified form, if the 
                Executive Assistant Commissioner determines 
                that such is appropriate and informs the 
                Committee on Homeland Security and the 
                Committee on Ways and Means of the House of 
                Representatives and the Committee on Homeland 
                Security and Governmental Affairs and the 
                Committee on Finance of the Senate of the 
                reasoning for such.
  (h) Office of Intelligence.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection an Office of Intelligence.
          (2) Assistant commissioner.--There shall be at the 
        head of the Office of Intelligence an Assistant 
        Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--The Office of Intelligence shall--
                  (A) develop, provide, coordinate, and 
                implement intelligence capabilities into a 
                cohesive intelligence enterprise to support the 
                execution of the duties and responsibilities of 
                U.S. Customs and Border Protection;
                  (B) manage the counterintelligence operations 
                of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;
                  (C) establish, in coordination with the Chief 
                Intelligence Officer of the Department, as 
                appropriate, intelligence-sharing relationships 
                with Federal, State, local, and tribal agencies 
                and intelligence agencies;
                  (D) conduct risk-based covert testing of U.S. 
                Customs and Border Protection operations, 
                including for nuclear and radiological risks; 
                and
                  (E) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
  (i) Office of International Affairs.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection an Office of International 
        Affairs.
          (2) Assistant commissioner.--There shall be at the 
        head of the Office of International Affairs an 
        Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the 
        Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--The Office of International Affairs, in 
        collaboration with the Office of Policy of the 
        Department, shall--
                  (A) coordinate and support U.S. Customs and 
                Border Protection's foreign initiatives, 
                policies, programs, and activities;
                  (B) coordinate and support U.S. Customs and 
                Border Protection's personnel stationed abroad;
                  (C) maintain partnerships and information-
                sharing agreements and arrangements with 
                foreign governments, international 
                organizations, and United States agencies in 
                support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection's 
                duties and responsibilities;
                  (D) provide necessary capacity building, 
                training, and assistance to foreign customs and 
                border control agencies to strengthen border, 
                global supply chain, and travel security, as 
                appropriate;
                  (E) coordinate mission support services to 
                sustain U.S. Customs and Border Protection's 
                global activities;
                  (F) coordinate with customs authorities of 
                foreign countries with respect to trade 
                facilitation and trade enforcement;
                  (G) coordinate U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection's engagement in international 
                negotiations;
                  (H) advise the Commissioner with respect to 
                matters arising in the World Customs 
                Organization and other international 
                organizations as such matters relate to the 
                policies and procedures of U.S. Customs and 
                Border Protection;
                  (I) advise the Commissioner regarding 
                international agreements to which the United 
                States is a party as such agreements relate to 
                the policies and regulations of U.S. Customs 
                and Border Protection; and
                  (J) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
  (j) Office of Professional Responsibility.--
          (1) In general.--There is established in U.S. Customs 
        and Border Protection an Office of Professional 
        Responsibility.
          (2) Assistant commissioner.--There shall be at the 
        head of the Office of Professional Responsibility an 
        Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the 
        Commissioner.
          (3) Duties.--The Office of Professional 
        Responsibility shall--
                  (A) investigate criminal and administrative 
                matters and misconduct by officers, agents, and 
                other employees of U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection;
                  (B) manage integrity-related programs and 
                policies of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;
                  (C) conduct research and analysis regarding 
                misconduct of officers, agents, and other 
                employees of U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection; and
                  (D) carry out other duties and powers 
                prescribed by the Commissioner.
  (k) Standard Operating Procedures.--
          (1) In general.--The Commissioner shall establish--
                  (A) standard operating procedures for 
                searching, reviewing, retaining, and sharing 
                information contained in communication, 
                electronic, or digital devices encountered by 
                U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel at 
                United States ports of entry;
                  (B) standard use of force procedures that 
                officers and agents of U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection may employ in the execution of their 
                duties, including the use of deadly force;
                  (C) uniform, standardized, and publicly-
                available procedures for processing and 
                investigating complaints against officers, 
                agents, and employees of U.S. Customs and 
                Border Protection for violations of 
                professional conduct, including the timely 
                disposition of complaints and a written 
                notification to the complainant of the status 
                or outcome, as appropriate, of the related 
                investigation, in accordance with section 552a 
                of title 5, United States Code (commonly 
                referred to as the ``Privacy Act'' or the 
                ``Privacy Act of 1974'');
                  (D) an internal, uniform reporting mechanism 
                regarding incidents involving the use of deadly 
                force by an officer or agent of U.S. Customs 
                and Border Protection, including an evaluation 
                of the degree to which the procedures required 
                under subparagraph (B) were followed; and
                  (E) standard operating procedures, acting 
                through the Executive Assistant Commissioner 
                for Air and Marine Operations and in 
                coordination with the Office for Civil Rights 
                and Civil Liberties and the Office of Privacy 
                of the Department, to provide command, control, 
                communication, surveillance, and reconnaissance 
                assistance through the use of unmanned aerial 
                systems, including the establishment of--
                          (i) a process for other Federal, 
                        State, and local law enforcement 
                        agencies to submit mission requests;
                          (ii) a formal procedure to determine 
                        whether to approve or deny such a 
                        mission request;
                          (iii) a formal procedure to determine 
                        how such mission requests are 
                        prioritized and coordinated; and
                          (iv) a process regarding the 
                        protection and privacy of data and 
                        images collected by U.S. Customs and 
                        Border Protection through the use of 
                        unmanned aerial systems.
          (2) Requirements regarding certain notifications.--
        The standard operating procedures established pursuant 
        to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) shall require--
                  (A) in the case of a search of information 
                conducted on an electronic device by U.S. 
                Customs and Border Protection personnel, the 
                Commissioner to notify the individual subject 
                to such search of the purpose and authority for 
                such search, and how such individual may obtain 
                information on reporting concerns about such 
                search; and
                  (B) in the case of information collected by 
                U.S. Customs and Border Protection through a 
                search of an electronic device, if such 
                information is transmitted to another Federal 
                agency for subject matter assistance, 
                translation, or decryption, the Commissioner to 
                notify the individual subject to such search of 
                such transmission.
          (3) Exceptions.--The Commissioner may withhold the 
        notifications required under paragraphs (1)(C) and (2) 
        if the Commissioner determines, in the sole and 
        unreviewable discretion of the Commissioner, that such 
        notifications would impair national security, law 
        enforcement, or other operational interests.
          (4) Update and review.--The Commissioner shall review 
        and update every three years the standard operating 
        procedures required under this subsection.
          (5) Audits.--The Inspector General of the Department 
        of Homeland Security shall develop and annually 
        administer, during each of the three calendar years 
        beginning in the calendar year that begins after the 
        date of the enactment of the Trade Facilitation and 
        Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, an auditing mechanism to 
        review whether searches of electronic devices at or 
        between United States ports of entry are being 
        conducted in conformity with the standard operating 
        procedures required under subparagraph (A) of paragraph 
        (1). Such audits shall be submitted to the Committee on 
        Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and 
        the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental 
        Affairs of the Senate and shall include the following:
                  (A) A description of the activities of 
                officers and agents of U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection with respect to such searches.
                  (B) The number of such searches.
                  (C) The number of instances in which 
                information contained in such devices that were 
                subjected to such searches was retained, 
                copied, shared, or entered in an electronic 
                database.
                  (D) The number of such devices detained as 
                the result of such searches.
                  (E) The number of instances in which 
                information collected from such devices was 
                subjected to such searches and was transmitted 
                to another Federal agency, including whether 
                such transmissions resulted in a prosecution or 
                conviction.
          (6) Requirements regarding other notifications.--The 
        standard use of force procedures established pursuant 
        to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall require--
                  (A) in the case of an incident of the use of 
                deadly force by U.S. Customs and Border 
                Protection personnel, the Commissioner to 
                notify the Committee on Homeland Security of 
                the House of Representatives and the Committee 
                on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
                of the Senate; and
                  (B) the Commissioner to provide to such 
                committees a copy of the evaluation pursuant to 
                subparagraph (D) of such paragraph not later 
                than 30 days after completion of such 
                evaluation.
          (7) Report on unmanned aerial systems.--The 
        Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Homeland 
        Security of the House of Representatives and the 
        Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
        of the Senate an annual report, for each of the three 
        calendar years beginning in the calendar year that 
        begins after the date of the enactment of the Trade 
        Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, that 
        reviews whether the use of unmanned aerial systems is 
        being conducted in conformity with the standard 
        operating procedures required under subparagraph (E) of 
        paragraph (1). Such reports--
                  (A) shall be submitted with the annual budget 
                of the United States Government submitted by 
                the President under section 1105 of title 31, 
                United States Code;
                  (B) may be submitted in classified form if 
                the Commissioner determines that such is 
                appropriate; and
                  (C) shall include--
                          (i) a detailed description of how, 
                        where, and for how long data and images 
                        collected through the use of unmanned 
                        aerial systems by U.S. Customs and 
                        Border Protection are collected and 
                        stored; and
                          (ii) a list of Federal, State, and 
                        local law enforcement agencies that 
                        submitted mission requests in the 
                        previous year and the disposition of 
                        such requests.
  (l) Training.--The Commissioner shall require all officers 
and agents of U.S. Customs and Border Protection to participate 
in a specified amount of continuing education (to be determined 
by the Commissioner) to maintain an understanding of Federal 
legal rulings, court decisions, and departmental policies, 
procedures, and guidelines.
  (m) Short-term Detention Standards.--
          (1) Access to food and water.--The Commissioner shall 
        make every effort to ensure that adequate access to 
        food and water is provided to an individual apprehended 
        and detained at a United States port of entry or 
        between ports of entry as soon as practicable following 
        the time of such apprehension or during subsequent 
        short-term detention.
          (2) Access to information on detainee rights at 
        border patrol processing centers.--
                  (A) In general.--The Commissioner shall 
                ensure that an individual apprehended by a U.S. 
                Border Patrol agent or an Office of Field 
                Operations officer is provided with information 
                concerning such individual's rights, including 
                the right to contact a representative of such 
                individual's government for purposes of United 
                States treaty obligations.
                  (B) Form.--The information referred to in 
                subparagraph (A) may be provided either 
                verbally or in writing, and shall be posted in 
                the detention holding cell in which such 
                individual is being held. The information shall 
                be provided in a language understandable to 
                such individual.
          (3) Short-term detention defined.--In this 
        subsection, the term ``short-term detention'' means 
        detention in a U.S. Customs and Border Protection 
        processing center for 72 hours or less, before 
        repatriation to a country of nationality or last 
        habitual residence.
          (4) Daytime repatriation.--When practicable, 
        repatriations shall be limited to daylight hours and 
        avoid locations that are determined to have high 
        indices of crime and violence.
          (5) Report on procurement process and standards.--Not 
        later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of 
        the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 
        2015, the Comptroller General of the United States 
        shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of 
        the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
        Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the 
        Senate a report on the procurement process and 
        standards of entities with which U.S. Customs and 
        Border Protection has contracts for the transportation 
        and detention of individuals apprehended by agents or 
        officers of U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Such 
        report should also consider the operational efficiency 
        of contracting the transportation and detention of such 
        individuals.
          (6) Report on inspections of short-term custody 
        facilities.--The Commissioner shall--
                  (A) annually inspect all facilities utilized 
                for short-term detention; and
                  (B) make publicly available information 
                collected pursuant to such inspections, 
                including information regarding the 
                requirements under paragraphs (1) and (2) and, 
                where appropriate, issue recommendations to 
                improve the conditions of such facilities.
  (n) Wait Times Transparency.--
          (1) In general.--The Commissioner shall--
                  (A) publish live wait times for travelers 
                entering the United States at the 20 United 
                States airports that support the highest volume 
                of international travel (as determined by 
                available Federal flight data);
                  (B) make information about such wait times 
                available to the public in real time through 
                the U.S. Customs and Border Protection website;
                  (C) submit to the Committee on Homeland 
                Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of 
                the House of Representatives and the Committee 
                on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs 
                and the Committee on Finance of the Senate, for 
                each of the five calendar years beginning in 
                the calendar year that begins after the date of 
                the enactment of the Trade Facilitation and 
                Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, a report that 
                includes compilations of all such wait times 
                and a ranking of such United States airports by 
                wait times; and
                  (D) provide adequate staffing at the U.S. 
                Customs and Border Protection information 
                center to ensure timely access for travelers 
                attempting to submit comments or speak with a 
                representative about their entry experiences.
          (2) Calculation.--The wait times referred to in 
        paragraph (1)(A) shall be determined by calculating the 
        time elapsed between an individual's entry into the 
        U.S. Customs and Border Protection inspection area and 
        such individual's clearance by a U.S. Customs and 
        Border Protection officer.
  (o) Other Authorities.--
          (1) In general.--The Secretary may establish such 
        other offices or positions of Assistant Commissioners 
        (or other similar officers or officials) as the 
        Secretary determines necessary to carry out the 
        missions, duties, functions, and authorities of U.S. 
        Customs and Border Protection.
          (2) Notification.--If the Secretary exercises the 
        authority provided under paragraph (1), the Secretary 
        shall notify the Committee on Homeland Security and the 
        Committee on Ways and Means of the House of 
        Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security 
        and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance 
        of the Senate not later than 30 days before exercising 
        such authority.
  (p) Reports to Congress.--The Commissioner shall, on and 
after the date of the enactment of the Trade Facilitation and 
Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, continue to submit to the 
Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and 
Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on 
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on 
Finance of the Senate any report required, on the day before 
such date of enactment, to be submitted under any provision of 
law.
  (q) Other Federal Agencies.--Nothing in this section may be 
construed as affecting in any manner the authority, existing on 
the day before the date of the enactment of the Trade 
Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015, of any other 
Federal agency or component of the Department.
  (r) Definitions.--In this section, the terms ``commercial 
operations'', ``customs and trade laws of the United States'', 
``trade enforcement'', and ``trade facilitation'' have the 
meanings given such terms in section 2 of the Trade 
Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015.

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