[House Report 113-548] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office] 113th Congress Report HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 2d Session 113-548 ====================================================================== HONORARY CITIZENSHIP FOR BERNARDO DE GALVEZ Y MADRID _______ July 22, 2014.--Referred to the House Calendar and ordered to be printed _______ Mr. Goodlatte, from the Committee on the Judiciary, submitted the following R E P O R T [To accompany H. J. Res. 105] [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office] The Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was referred the joint resolution (H. J. Res. 105) conferring honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez, having considered the same, report favorably thereon without amendment and recommend that the joint resolution do pass. CONTENTS Page Purpose and Summary.............................................. 1 Background and Need for the Legislation.......................... 2 Hearings......................................................... 3 Committee Consideration.......................................... 3 Committee Votes.................................................. 3 Committee Oversight Findings..................................... 3 New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures........................ 4 Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate........................ 4 Duplication of Federal Programs.................................. 5 Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings.............................. 5 Performance Goals and Objectives................................. 5 Advisory on Earmarks............................................. 5 Section-by-Section Analysis...................................... 5 Purpose and Summary The joint resolution confers honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. Background and Need for the Legislation The purpose of H. J. Res. 105 is to confer honorary United States citizenship upon Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez, in recognition of his many contributions to, and sacrifices for, the cause of American independence. American citizenship is the highest honor that our country can confer upon a person who is a citizen of another land. The granting of honorary citizenship is the admission and welcoming of that person into our national family. As stated by this Committee in the past, any decision to grant honorary citizenship is unique and cannot be treated as a precedent. It should also be noted that ``honorary citizenship'' is a symbolic gesture. It does not grant any additional legal rights in the United States or in international law. It also does not impose additional duties or responsibilities, in the United States or internationally, on the honoree. Honorary citizenship is and should always be an extraordinary honor not lightly conferred and rarely given. Congress has granted honorary citizenship on six occasions to seven individuals. Of the seven recipients of the honor, five received it posthumously (Mother Theresa and Winston Churchill received it during their lifetimes). The last two individuals were also heroes of the Revolutionary War: Casimir Pulaski P.L. 111-94 2009 The Marquis de Lafayette P.L. 107-209 2002 Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu P.L. 104-218 1996 [Mother Teresa] William and Hannah Callowhill P.L. 98-516 1984 Penn Raoul Wallenberg P.L. 97-54 1981 Winston Churchill P.L. 86-6 1963 As they are described in H. J. Res. 105, General Galvez's contributions compare very favorably with the previous two recipients of honorary citizenship who were heroes of the Revolutionary War. In summarizing General Galvez's aid to the American colonies, H.J. Res. 105 states that Galvez ``provided supplies, intelligence, and strong military support to the war effort''. Indeed, the historical record indicates that, due to the British blockade of seaports on the Eastern Seaboard, then- Governor Galvez's secretly-coordinated smuggling operation, and efforts to clear the Mississippi River of British influence, helped ensure that George Washington's Continental Army received necessary weapons and other provisions. H. J. Res. 105 states that ``Galvez recruited an army of 7,500 men made up of Spanish, French, African-American, Mexican, Cuban, and Anglo-American forces and led the effort of Spain to aid the United States' colonists. . . . [He] and his troops seized the Port of New Orleans and successfully defeated the British at battles in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Natchez, Mississippi, and Mobile, Alabama.'' Commentators and historians have uniformly lauded General Galvez's bravery, tenacity, and tactical military skill in rapidly assembling and leading a diverse, multi-ethnic regiment. Galvez's forces were victorious in every battle into which he led them. H. J. Res. 105 states that Galvez ``led the successful 2- month Siege of Pensacola, Florida, where his troops captured the capital of British West Florida and left the British with no naval bases in the Gulf of Mexico.'' The historical narrative surrounding Galvez's actions leading up to and throughout the 2-month-long Battle of Pensacola underscores his heroism and leadership in pursuit of the objective of pinning down the British forces and driving them from the Gulf of Mexico. There is no question that keeping the British occupied on a second front during the war was critical to the success of General Washington's campaign. Some historians have noted that the length and timing of the battle of Pensacola, in particular (the British surrendered in May 1781), impacted the number of forces and ships the British could commit to the battle of Yorktown, the final campaign of the Revolutionary War. H. J. Res. 105 states that ``Galvez's victories against the British were recognized by George Washington as a deciding factor in the outcome of the Revolutionary War.'' Despite his decisive contributions to the Continental Army's success in the American Revolution, General Galvez has not, to date, received the same level of recognition as have other figures, such as Pulaski and Lafayette. As noted in H. J. Res. 105, the State of Florida awarded General Galvez the designation of Great Floridian. Also, the city of Galveston, Texas bears his name. And in 1976, a statue of Galvez was dedicated along with the Statues of the Liberators, located near the Department of State in Washington, DC. The inscription on the statue reads, in part: Bernardo de Galvez the great Spanish soldier carried out a courageous campaign in lands bordering the lower Mississippi. This masterpiece of military strategy heightened the pressure of the English in the war against the American settlers who were fighting for their independence. Hearings The Committee on the Judiciary held no hearings on H. J. Res. 105. Committee Consideration On July 10, 2014, the Committee met in open session and ordered the joint resolution H. J. Res. 105 favorably reported without amendment, by voice vote, a quorum being present. Committee Votes In compliance with clause 3(b) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that there were no recorded votes during the Committee's consideration of H. J. Res. 105. Committee Oversight Findings In compliance with clause 3(c)(1) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the Committee advises that the findings and recommendations of the Committee, based on oversight activities under clause 2(b)(1) of rule X of the Rules of the House of Representatives, are incorporated in the descriptive portions of this report. New Budget Authority and Tax Expenditures Clause 3(c)(2) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives is inapplicable because this legislation does not provide new budgetary authority or increased tax expenditures. Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate In compliance with clause 3(c)(3) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, the Committee sets forth, with respect to the joint resolution, H. J. Res. 105, the following estimate and comparison prepared by the Director of the Congressional Budget Office under section 402 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974: U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC, July 11, 2014. Hon. Bob Goodlatte, Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Washington, DC. Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has prepared the enclosed cost estimate for H. J. Res. 105, a joint resolution conferring honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Mark Grabowicz, who can be reached at 226-2860. Sincerely, Douglas W. Elmendorf, Director. Enclosure cc: Honorable John Conyers, Jr. Ranking Member H. J. Res. 105--A joint resolution conferring honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. As ordered reported by the House Committee on the Judiciary on July 10, 2014. The Congressional Budget Office has reviewed H. J. Res. 105, a joint resolution conferring honorary citizenship of the United States posthumously on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. CBO estimates that enacting H. J. Res. 105 would result in no significant cost to the Federal Government and would not affect direct spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do not apply. H. J. Res 105 contains no intergovernmental or private- sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments. The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Mark Grabowicz. The estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis. Duplication of Federal Programs No provision of H. J. Res. 105 establishes or reauthorizes a program of the Federal Government known to be duplicative of another Federal program, a program that was included in any report from the Government Accountability Office to Congress pursuant to section 21 of Public Law 111-139, or a program related to a program identified in the most recent Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. Disclosure of Directed Rule Makings The Committee estimates that H. J. Res. 105 specifically directs to be completed no specific rule makings within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 551. Performance Goals and Objectives The Committee states that pursuant to clause 3(c)(4) of rule XIII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, H. J. Res. 105 confers honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez. Advisory on Earmarks In accordance with clause 9 of rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives, H. J. Res. 105 does not contain any congressional earmarks, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits as defined in clause 9(e), 9(f), or 9(g) of rule XXI. Section-by-Section Analysis After describing his exploits on behalf of American independence, this joint resolution proclaims Bernardo de Galvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Galvez posthumously to be an honorary citizen of the United States.