[Senate Report 111-369]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]


                                                       Calendar No. 699
111th Congress                                                   Report
                                 SENATE
 2d Session                                                     111-369

======================================================================



 
                 ZIMBABWE TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY AND 
                     ECONOMIC RECOVERY ACT OF 2010

                                _______
                                

               December 15, 2010.--Ordered to be printed

          Mr. Kerry, from the Committee on Foreign Relations,
                        submitted the following

                                 REPORT

                         [To accompany S. 3297]

    The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under 
consideration the bill (S. 3297), to update United States 
policy and authorities to help advance a genuine transition to 
democracy and to promote economic recovery in Zimbabwe, reports 
favorably thereon, with an amendment in the nature of a 
substitute, and recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

                                CONTENTS

                                                                   Page

  I. Purpose..........................................................1
 II. Committee Action.................................................1
III. Discussion.......................................................2
 IV. Cost Estimate....................................................5
  V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact..................................6
 VI. Changes in Existing Law..........................................6

                               I. Purpose

    The purpose of S. 3297 is to amend the 2001 Zimbabwe 
Democracy and Economic Recovery Act (ZDERA) to acknowledge that 
conditions on the ground in Zimbabwe have changed, seize upon 
new opportunities to push for democracy and help lay the 
groundwork for economic recovery, and encourage the work of 
reformers in the government while recognizing the continuing 
role played by Robert Mugabe.

                          II. Committee Action

    Senators Feingold, Isakson, Kerry, Cardin, and Durbin, 
introduced S. 3297 on May 4, 2010. On September 21, 2010, the 
committee considered S. 3297 and ordered it reported favorably, 
with an amendment in the nature of a substitute, by voice vote.

                            III. Discussion

    For decades Zimbabwe's dismal political and economic 
climate has been dictated by President Robert Mugabe and his 
party, the Zimbabwean African National Union-Patriotic Front 
(ZANU-PF). This misrule culminated in economic disaster, the 
collapse of health and educational systems, and extreme 
repression. In September 2008, after strongly contested 
national elections and months of political violence against 
opposition members and their supporters, ZANU-PF and both 
factions of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change 
(MDC), led by Morgan Tsvangirai and Arthur Mutambara signed a 
Global Political Agreement (GPA) as mediated by President Thabo 
Mbeki of South Africa. Under the GPA, the transitional 
government agreed to pursue the restoration of the rule of law, 
economic recovery, land reform, freedom of expression and 
political association, a new constitution, nondiscrimination, 
and free and fair elections. Though fragile and often subject 
to abuse by ZANU-PF, this power-sharing agreement has created 
new opportunities to push for democracy and lay the groundwork 
for economic recovery.
    The new transitional government has shown some tentative 
signs of progress. Under the leadership of Prime Minister 
Morgan Tsvangirai and Minister of Finance Tendai Biti, a series 
of economic reforms have been initiated, including the Short-
Term Economic Recovery Program, that will halt some of the 
destructive activities of the previous administration while 
directing limited resources to the social services and 
infrastructure projects the population urgently needs. On the 
financial front more broadly, Finance Minister Biti has 
succeeded in arresting runaway inflation and helping to restore 
some productive economic activity. Store shelves are no longer 
barren and there has been some progress in restoring health 
services and reopening schools. In a step toward broader 
democratic values, the transitional government has also 
established the Media, Human Rights, and Electoral Commissions.
    However, political and social progress has lagged far 
behind economic advancements. Governance reforms are 
desperately needed, political and human rights abuses continue, 
and unemployment remains as high as 90 percent. The committee 
nonetheless sees a moment of opportunity for constructive 
engagement, with targeted pressure and without the lifting of 
sanctions, which can support reformist elements of the 
government of Zimbabwe. These steps were strongly encouraged by 
a distinguished panel of outside witnesses in a hearing on 
September 30, 2009.
    The goal of this engagement is to reinforce and encourage 
democratic and human rights reforms, poverty reduction, 
humanitarian assistance, establishment of rule of law, economic 
stabilization and infrastructure development. Full re-
engagement with the government of Zimbabwe will only be 
possible when there have been clear advances toward these ends. 
For long term success, it is critical to support non-
governmental organizations and civil society. Regional 
collaboration will also be crucial, particularly through the 
Southern African Development Community and the African Union. 
This legislation provides impetus for these initial steps by 
acknowledging changing political and economic realities and the 
limitations of change to date.
    Section 4 affirms that it is the policy of the United 
States to: support the people of Zimbabwe through the continued 
provision of humanitarian assistance; provide resources to the 
agricultural, economic, education, and health sectors through 
non-governmental entities; promote trade with non-sanctioned 
entities in Zimbabwe; engage with regional governments and 
organizations, international financial institutions, and other 
donors' support for civil society organizations; assist those 
who have demonstrated commitment to the reforms in the GPA; 
continue the ban on the transfer of defense items and direct 
monetary assistance; and, update and renew targeted financial 
sanctions and travel bans against those found to be responsible 
for the breakdown of the rule of law, politically motivated 
violence, hindrance of democracy, and other ongoing illegal 
activities in Zimbabwe.
    Section 5 authorizes the President, in accordance with 
section 531 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended 
(22 U.S.C. 2346), to provide technical assistance to ministries 
of the transitional Government and to the Parliament of 
Zimbabwe to provide the expertise and support necessary to 
ensure progress on economic, political, and security sector 
reforms. As per the amended language, this notwithstanding 
authority will expire on September 30, 2014. The transitional 
Government is expected to work to enact the reforms under the 
GPA and the Parliament should work to make the government 
accountable for its actions. To strengthen the efforts of 
reformers, the committee believes the United States should 
continue to provide technical assistance that will lead to 
capacity building in the ministries and offices that have shown 
commitment to reform and to Parliamentary efforts to address 
legislation that violates democratic principles.
    The committee believes two efforts are particularly 
critical to economic progress: land reform and food 
distribution and production. Given the absence of respect for 
property rights in Zimbabwe, S. 3297 seeks to support efforts 
to conduct a comprehensive and non-partisan land audit that 
will serve as a step toward the establishment of accountability 
and security of tenure. The committee believes that efforts 
related to food distribution and production should be 
supported, including the encouragement of policies that 
incentivize agricultural production and institutions that 
provide support to the agricultural sector. Though existing 
problems with land tenure, including violent seizures of land 
by ZANU-PF and its supporters, may limit some efforts, the 
committee believes support of market-based mechanisms for 
agricultural production and the processing of agricultural 
commodities would be important for further economic progress.
    Section 7 amends Section 4 of the Zimbabwe Democracy and 
Economic Recovery Act of 2001 to reflect the 2008 Global 
Political Agreement and the evolving political conditions that 
require the United States to employ greater flexibility in 
dealing with the International Financial Institutions while 
still maintaining strong conditions on relevant actors. In 
becoming party to the GPA, ZANU-PF and MDC have committed 
themselves to working together to prioritize the restoration of 
economic stability and growth and the creation of conditions 
for a new constitution that respects human rights and 
democratic principles. In amending the previous legislation, S. 
3297 requires the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation 
with the Secretary of State, to gather information on the debt 
incurred by Zimbabwe and the feasibility and advisability of 
restructuring, rescheduling, or eliminating such debt in the 
future. The legislation requires the Secretary of the Treasury 
to instruct U.S. executive directors to each international 
financial institution to oppose any extension of loans, credit, 
or guarantees unless there is sufficient oversight and it can 
be ensured the relevant funds are not administered through 
ministries that have not demonstrated commitment to reform and 
responsible fiscal management or the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, 
unless governance problems within the Reserve Bank have been 
addressed. Section 7 further provides that funds cannot be 
administered by individuals or institutions sanctioned by the 
United States. The legislation does not lift any current 
sanctions. It further requires that the Secretaries of the 
Treasury and State notify appropriate Congressional committees 
if the United States votes in favor of any loan, credit, or 
guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe by an international 
financial institution. The President is able to waive the 
conditions on multilateral financing upon notification that it 
is in the national interest of the United States to do so.
    Section 8 amends the Department of State, Foreign 
Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act of 2010 to 
prohibit assistance to the central government of Zimbabwe 
unless funds are used toward macroeconomic growth, health, and 
education assistance. If the Secretary of State determines and 
reports to the appropriate committees that rule of law has been 
restored in Zimbabwe the underlying prohibition is removed.
    Section 9 directs new attention to ZANU-PF's illegal 
activities in the diamond sector, finding that: armed forces of 
Zimbabwe continue to exert control over diamond mines; the 
Government of Zimbabwe has been non-compliant with the minimum 
standards of the Kimberley Process; there are serious concerns, 
particularly related to smuggling and grave violence in and 
around the Marange diamond fields; and, the army and police 
forces continue to serve ZANU-PF and fuel efforts to undermine 
democratic processes and institutions. The committee is 
seriously concerned about the issue of Zimbabwean diamond 
production and Zimbabwe's certification under the Kimberley 
Process. It also finds that there should be improved regional 
efforts to help stop the flow of illegal diamonds as well as 
efforts to identify and prepare bilateral or other sanctions on 
individuals and entities that are undermining democratic 
processes through illegal activities involving diamonds.
    Section 10 encourages the review and update of targeted 
sanctions related to Zimbabwe, paying attention to the ways 
that individuals or entities support efforts to undermine 
democratic processes, the role and function of these entities 
in activities critical to economic recovery, and how sanctions 
could be strengthened against them.
    Given concerns over fraud and violence during the 2008 
elections and the lack of clarity on upcoming elections, 
Section 11 sets out the sense of Congress that the United 
States develop a coordinated strategy to help prepare for 
future elections. This should be done in concert with 
international partners and regional governments, aiming to 
reduce the likelihood of fraud and the potential for outbreaks 
of violence.
    Section 12 requires the Secretary of the Treasury, the 
Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the U.S. Agency 
for International Development to provide a briefing to 
appropriate congressional committees that is to include (1) A 
description of technical assistance that has been provided to 
ministries of the transitional Government and to the Parliament 
of Zimbabwe, how this has contributed to progress on economic 
and political reforms, and any ways U.S. law are policy should 
be changed to strengthen the likelihood of success for 
democratic and economic reforms; (2) Steps taken to investigate 
and address the connection between illegal activities involving 
diamonds and efforts to undermine democratic processes and 
institutions; (3) Steps taken to review and update targeted 
sanctions, focusing on how specific entities undermine 
democratic processes, the role of these entities to economic 
recovery, and how sanctions can be strengthened against them; 
and, (4) Efforts toward a regional coordinated strategy in 
preparation for future elections in Zimbabwe. This briefing is 
to be provided no later than 180 days after the enactment of 
this legislation.

                           IV. Cost Estimate

    In accordance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(a) of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee provides this 
estimate of the costs of this legislation prepared by the 
Congressional Budget Office.


                            United States Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                  Washington, DC, December 3, 2010.

Hon. John F. Kerry,
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

    Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has 
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 3297, the Zimbabwe 
Transition to Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2010.
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Sunita 
D'Monte.
          Sincerely,
                                      Douglas W. Elmendorf.


Enclosure


cc: Hon. Richard G. Lugar, Ranking Minority Member.

                                ------                                


               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

                                                  December 3, 2010.

                                S. 3297


             Zimbabwe Transition to Democracy and Economic 
                          Recovery Act of 2010


  AS ORDERED REPORTED BY THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS ON 
                           SEPTEMBER 21, 2010

    S. 3297 would authorize the President to use the Economic 
Support Fund (ESF), a Department of State assistance program to 
provide technical assistance to Zimbabwe to support economic, 
political, and security-sector reforms in that country. That 
authority would expire in 2014. Assistance would be provided to 
the Parliament and ministries of the transitional government. 
CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost $19 million 
over the 2011-2015 period, assuming appropriation of the 
necessary amounts. Enacting S. 3297 would not affect direct 
spending or revenues; therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures do 
not apply.
    S. 3297 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    The estimated budgetary impact of S. 3297 is shown in the 
following table. The costs of this legislation fall within 
budget function 150 (international affairs). For this estimate, 
CBO assumes that the estimated authorizations will be 
appropriated each fiscal year and that outlays will follow 
historical spending patterns for similar and existing programs.

                                       Changes in Spending Due to S. 3297
                                     By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       20011     2012      2013      2014      2015    2011-2015
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Estimated Authorization Level......................        6         6         6         6         0         24
Estimated Outlays..................................        1         3         5         5         5         19
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    In 2010, the Department of State received an appropriation 
of $8.8 billion for ESF. Of that amount, almost $6 million was 
allocated for technical assistance to the Parliament of 
Zimbabwe and certain ministries. Based on information from the 
department, CBO estimates that implementing the bill would 
require appropriations of $6 million a year over the 2011-2014 
period. The bill also would expand the potential uses of 
existing appropriated funds by authorizing assistance to the 
central government for health and education programs; however, 
the department has no plans to use such authority.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Sunita D'Monte. 
The estimate was approved by Theresa Gullo, Deputy Assistant 
Director for Budget Analysis.

                   V. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact

    Pursuant to Rule XXVI, paragraph 11(b) of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, the committee has determined that there is 
no regulatory impact as a result of this legislation.

                      VI. Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with Rule XXVI, paragraph 12 of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill, 
as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in 
italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in 
roman).

               ZIMBABWE DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY 
ACT OF 2001, P.L. 107-99

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

    This Act may be cited as the ``Zimbabwe Democracy and 
Economic Recovery Act of 2001''.

SEC. 2. STATEMENT OF POLICY.

    It is the policy of the United States to support the people 
of Zimbabwe in their struggle to effect peaceful, democratic 
change, achieve broad-based and equitable economic growth, and 
restore the rule of law.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


[SEC. 4. SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY.

    [(a) Findings.--Congress makes the following findings:
          [(1) Through economic mismanagement, undemocratic 
        practices, and the costly deployment of troops to the 
        Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Government of 
        Zimbabwe has rendered itself ineligible to participate 
        in International Bank for Reconstruction and 
        Development and International Monetary Fund programs, 
        which would otherwise be providing substantial 
        resources to assist in the recovery and modernization 
        of Zimbabwe's economy. The people of Zimbabwe have thus 
        been denied the economic and democratic benefits 
        envisioned by the donors to such programs, including 
        the United States.
          [(2) In September 1999 the IMF suspended its support 
        under a ``Stand By Arrangement'', approved the previous 
        month, for economic adjustment and reform in Zimbabwe.
          [(3) In October 1999, the International Development 
        Association (in this section referred to as the 
        ``IDA'') suspended all structural adjustment loans, 
        credits, and guarantees to the Government of Zimbabwe.
          [(4) In May 2000, the IDA suspended all other new 
        lending to the Government of Zimbabwe.
          [(5) In September 2000, the IDA suspended 
        disbursement of funds for ongoing projects under 
        previously-approved loans, credits, and guarantees to 
        the Government of Zimbabwe.
    [(b) Support for Democratic Transition and Economic 
Recovery.--
          [(1) Bilateral debt relief.--Upon receipt by the 
        appropriate congressional committees of a certification 
        described in subsection (d), the Secretary of the 
        Treasury shall undertake a review of the feasibility of 
        restructuring, rescheduling, or eliminating the 
        sovereign debt of Zimbabwe held by any agency of the 
        United States Government.
          [(2) Multilateral debt relief and other financial 
        assistance.--It is the sense of Congress that, upon 
        receipt by the appropriate congressional committees of 
        a certification described in subsection (d), the 
        Secretary of the Treasury should--
                  [(A) direct the United States executive 
                director of each multilateral development bank 
                to propose that the bank should undertake a 
                review of the feasibility of restructuring, 
                rescheduling, or eliminating the sovereign debt 
                of Zimbabwe held by that bank; and
                  [(B) direct the United States executive 
                director of each international financial 
                institution to which the United States is a 
                member to propose to undertake financial and 
                technical support for Zimbabwe, especially 
                support that is intended to promote Zimbabwe's 
                economic recovery and development, the 
                stabilization of the Zimbabwean dollar, and the 
                viability of Zimbabwe's democratic 
                institutions.
    [(c) Multilateral Financing Restriction.--Until the 
President makes the certification described in subsection (d), 
and except as may be required to meet basic human needs or for 
good governance, the Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct 
the United States executive director to each international 
financial institution to oppose and vote against--
          [(1) any extension by the respective institution of 
        any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of 
        Zimbabwe; or (2) any cancellation or reduction of 
        indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe to the 
        United States or any international financial 
        institution.
    [(d) Presidential Certification that Certain Conditions are 
Satisfied.--A certification under this subsection is a 
certification transmitted to the appropriate congressional 
committees of a determination made by the President that the 
following conditions are satisfied:
          [(1) Restoration of the rule of law.--The rule of law 
        has been restored in Zimbabwe, including respect for 
        ownership and title to property, freedom of speech and 
        association, and an end to the lawlessness, violence, 
        and intimidation sponsored, condoned, or tolerated by 
        the Government of Zimbabwe, the ruling party, and their 
        supporters or entities.
          [(2) Election or pre-election conditions.--Either of 
        the following two conditions is satisfied:
                  [(A) Presidential election.--Zimbabwe has 
                held a presidential election that is widely 
                accepted as free and fair by independent 
                international monitors, and the president-elect 
                is free to assume the duties of the office.
                  [(B) Pre-election conditions.--In the event 
                the certification is made before the 
                presidential election takes place, the 
                Government of Zimbabwe has sufficiently 
                improved the pre-election environment to a 
                degree consistent with accepted international 
                standards for security and freedom of movement 
                and association.
          [(3) Commitment to equitable, legal, and transparent 
        land reform.--The Government of Zimbabwe has 
        demonstrated a commitment to an equitable, legal, and 
        transparent land reform program consistent with 
        agreements reached at the International Donors' 
        Conference on Land Reform and Resettlement in Zimbabwe 
        held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in September 1998.
          [(4) Fulfillment of agreement ending war in 
        democratic republic of congo.--The Government of 
        Zimbabwe is making a good faith effort to fulfill the 
        terms of the Lusaka, Zambia, agreement on ending the 
        war in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
          [(5) Military and national police subordinate to 
        civilian governmenT.--The Zimbabwean Armed Forces, the 
        National Police of Zimbabwe, and other state security 
        forces are responsible to and serve the elected 
        civilian government.
    [(e) Waiver.--The President may waive the provisions of 
subsection (b)(1) or subsection (c), if the President 
determines that it is in the national interest of the United 
States to do so.]

SEC. 4. SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION AND ECONOMIC RECOVERY.

    (a) Findings.--Congress finds that the parties to the 
September 15, 2008, Global Political Agreement between the 
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and 
the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) committed themselves 
by law to work together to chart a new political direction for 
Zimbabwe, to prioritize the restoration of economic stability 
and growth, and to create conditions for the drafting of a new 
constitution that respects human rights and democratic 
principles.
    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that, 
in order for the United States to most effectively support a 
transition to democratic and economic recovery in Zimbabwe to 
the greatest effect, United States policy should, to the extent 
possible, reflect new political conditions and opportunities 
created by the Global Political Agreement.
    (c) Debt Relief.--The Secretary of the Treasury, in 
consultation with the Secretary of State, shall gather 
information on the debt incurred by Zimbabwe held by 
international financial institutions and private financial 
institutions, and the feasibility and advisability of 
restructuring, rescheduling, or eliminating such debt in the 
future, including by using the resources of the International 
Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development, and other appropriate international financial 
institutions.
    (d) Multilateral Financing Conditions.--The Secretary of 
the Treasury shall instruct the United States executive 
director to each international financial institution to oppose 
any extension by the respective institution of any loan, 
credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe unless the 
proposed extension meets the following conditions:
          (1) There are sufficient controls for transparency 
        and international oversight of the use of relevant 
        funds.
          (2) Relevant funds, in cases where the international 
        financial institutions are providing direct funding to 
        or through the Government of Zimbabwe, will not be 
        administered through or in coordination with--
                  (A) ministries that have not demonstrated a 
                commitment to reform and responsible fiscal 
                management; or
                  (B) the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, unless 
                there are sufficient guarantees and a pattern 
                of evidence that governance problems within the 
                Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe have been addressed 
                such that relevant funds will not be redirected 
                for extra-legal purposes.
                  (3) Relevant funds will not be administered 
                by or directly accessible to individuals or 
                financial institutions sanctioned by the United 
                States.
    (e) Notification.--
          (1) In general.--If the United States votes in favor 
        of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of 
        Zimbabwe by an international financial institution, the 
        Secretary of the Treasury, in coordination with the 
        Secretary of State, shall notify the appropriate 
        congressional committees within 30 days of such vote 
        and provide appropriate information on such vote 
        pertaining to the conditions in subsection (d).
          (2) Appropriate congressional committees defined.--In 
        this subsection, the term ``appropriate congressional 
        committees'' means--
                  (A) the Committee on Foreign Relations, the 
                Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
                Affairs, and the Committee on Appropriations of 
                the Senate; and
                  (B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the 
                Committee on Financial Services, and the 
                Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
                Representatives.
    (f) Waiver.--The President may waive the provisions in 
subsection (d) and (e) if the President determines that it is 
in the national interest of the United States to do so.

     Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs 
Appropriations Act of 2010

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                               Title VII


General Provisions

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *



                                 AFRICA

SEC. 7070. (A) EXPANDED INTERNATIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND 
                    TRAINING.--

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *


    [(i) Zimbabwe.--
          [(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the 
        United States executive director to each international 
        financial institution to vote against any extension by 
        the respective institution of any loans to the 
        Government of Zimbabwe, except to meet basic human 
        needs or to promote democracy, unless the Secretary of 
        State determines and reports in writing to the 
        Committees on Appropriations that the rule of law has 
        been restored in Zimbabwe, including respect for 
        ownership and title to property, freedom of speech and 
        association.
          [(2) None of the funds appropriated by this Act shall 
        be made available for assistance for the central 
        government of Zimbabwe, except for macroeconomic growth 
        assistance, unless the Secretary of State makes the 
        determination pursuant to paragraph (1).]
    (i) Zimbabwe.--None of the funds appropriated by this Act 
may be made available for assistance for the central Government 
of Zimbabwe, except for macroeconomic growth, health, and 
education assistance, unless the Secretary of State determines 
and reports in writing to the Committees on Appropriations that 
the rule of law has been restored in Zimbabwe, including 
respect for ownership and title to property and freedom of 
speech and association.