[Senate Report 108-247] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office] Calendar No. 460 108th Congress Report SENATE 2nd Session 108-247 ====================================================================== THE STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT ACT OF 2004 _______ March 18, 2004.--Ordered to be printed Filed under the authority of the order of the Senate of March 12, 2004 _______ Mr. Lugar, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted the following R E P O R T [To accompany S. 2127] The Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under consideration a bill (S. 2127) to build operational readiness in civilian agencies, and for other purposes, reports favorably thereon and recommends that the bill do pass. CONTENTS Page I. Purpose..........................................................1 II. Background.......................................................2 III. Committee Action.................................................4 IV. Section-by-Section Analysis......................................4 V. Cost Estimate....................................................9 VI. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact.................................11 VII. Changes in Existing Law.........................................11 I. Purpose The Stabilization and Reconstruction Civilian Management Act of 2004 is designed to strengthen the capacity of civilian foreign affairs agencies to respond quickly and effectively to overseas crises, including post-conflict and other complex emergencies. It creates a new office in the State Department to plan and coordinate civilian efforts and also creates a new civilian Response Readiness Force that includes a Response Readiness Corps and a Reserve component made up of volunteers from the foreign affairs agencies, the other civilian agencies of the U.S. Government, and from State and local governments and the private sector. It also provides for education and training for both the Corps and the Reserve. It authorizes appropriations for emergency funding to be made available following a Presidential determination that it is in the national interest to assist a country that is in, or transitioning from, conflict or civil strife. It also authorizes appropriations to be used to hire new personnel, reimburse other agencies for seconded personnel, and establish new education and training programs. Finally, it recommends the establishment of a new directorate of stabilization and reconstruction activities within the National Security Council, as well as the creation of a standing interagency committee to oversee the formulation and execution of stabilization and reconstruction policy. II. Background Since the end of the cold war, the United States has undertaken several post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction operations that have been important to the national security interests of the United States. Iraq is the sixth major post-conflict effort that the U.S. has mounted in 12 years. In the Balkans, Africa, the Caribbean, Afghanistan, and now in Iraq, the U.S. Government has cobbled together plans, people and resources in an ad hoc fashion, usually with the Defense Department in the lead. Subsequent to U.S. military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and cognizant of the difficulties of the ongoing transitions in those two nations, the committee recognized the need for structural change within the U.S. Government to better plan and carry out the civilian component of stabilization and reconstruction activities. This legislation is intended to improve the capability of U.S. civilian agencies to respond quickly and effectively to post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction crises. It was developed in close consultation with experts from inside and outside of government. At the invitation of the chairman and ranking member, a Policy Advisory Group convened and provided advice on how best to improve the U.S. response to such emergencies. The advisory group held a series of discussions in which committee members, group participants, and invited experts spoke frankly about their ideas, developed over years of experience, to improve U.S. readiness and responsiveness to stabilization and reconstruction crises. The group focused specifically on the response of civilian agencies and their coordination with Department of Defense and other agency efforts. The committee was further informed by hearings and briefings that explored the insight and considered the testimony of administration officials, policy experts, and representatives of non-governmental and international organizations on the unique challenges the United States is facing in Afghanistan and Iraq. In the first congressional visit to post-war Iraq, Senators Lugar, Biden and Hagel traveled to Baghdad and visited the Coalition Provisional Authority in June 2003. This visit informed the discussion of stabilization and reconstruction with timely, first-hand knowledge of the complexity and difficulties of transition in the immediate aftermath of war. Based on these extensive inquiries, the committee has concluded that the foreign affairs agencies (the Department of State and USAID) and other civilian agencies, including the Departments of the Treasury, Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Justice, and Commerce, have often participated in stabilization and reconstruction operations in conflict and post-conflict environments, but they have lacked adequate resources and the organizational structure to undertake the full range of required activities in a timely and comprehensive fashion. Better preparation and improved contingency planning are essential if there is to be a robust civilian partner to the military in the stabilization and reconstruction phase of any conflict. A sustained inter-agency effort, led by the National Security Council, is crucial to its success. This bill is designed to improve the operation of the foreign affairs agencies so that they are better organized to plan, coordinate and execute overseas crisis response in cooperation with other relevant civilian agencies of the government, and with the military, if required. The committee envisions the Secretary of State leading the organizational effort in full consultation with the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, an agency whose technical skills and operational experience are invaluable both in Washington and in the field. The committee intends that the bill will enable the government to identify and have at the ready contingency plans to fill gaps that are often present in various types of reconstruction and stabilization emergencies. Restoring and maintaining public order during and in the aftermath of conflict is one such example. While military police and civil affairs units can serve in emergency situations, there is need for a standing civilian capability to promptly undertake rule of law functions, including such functions as constabulary, police, judicial and corrections. Whether drawing on international capacity or relying on U.S. capacity alone, plans should be in place to meet this and other recurring needs that experience demonstrates will be necessary. This bill recognizes that the international community can play a vital role in this effort. One important function of the new State Department office created by the bill is to develop a clear vision of the comparative advantages, the objectives and strategies, and the corresponding capabilities of all possible international contributors to stabilization and reconstruction missions. The committee recognizes the specific skills that the United Nations and its specialized agencies, as well as non- governmental organizations, and other individual nations can bring to conflict and post-conflict situations. Their expertise ranges from humanitarian response, to support for rule of law efforts and reconstitution of government, to reconstruction of infrastructure and delivery of public services. The committee recommends that the United States make every effort to improve international capabilities and particularly urges NATO and its member states to develop increased capacity. This investment should pay off in enhanced interoperability, increased burden- sharing and quicker reaction time. One proposal that the committee recommends be considered is support for an international rule of law training center in Europe that would focus on the full spectrum of needs in post-conflict situations. III. Committee Action The committee held a public hearing on March 3, 2004, and considered the testimony of three expert witnesses who had participated in the Policy Advisory Group. In this and in previous hearings, the committee examined past experience and considered extensive studies of best practices from the Second World War to the present. At a business meeting on March 4, 2004, the committee considered S. 2127. No amendments were offered. The committee ordered the bill reported by a vote of 19 to 0. Ayes: Senators Lugar, Hagel, Chafee, Allen, Brownback, Enzi, Voinovich, Alexander, Coleman, Sununu, Biden, Sarbanes, Dodd, Kerry, Feingold, Boxer, Nelson, Rockefeller, and Corzine. IV. Section-by-Section Analysis Section 1. Short title This section designates the short title of the bill. Section 2. Finding, Purpose This section lists findings that explain the need for legislation and the purpose of such legislation. Section 3. Definitions This section provides definitions of certain terms in the bill. Section 4. Sense of Congress This section states the sense of Congress on multiple ways to improve stabilization and reconstruction activities; specifically: (1) Strengthening the civilian elements to respond to stabilization and reconstruction crises overseas; (2) Establishing a new system of planning, organization, personnel policies and education and training and the provision of adequate resources; (3) Encouraging the international community, non- governmental organizations, the UN and its specialized agencies to participate; (4) Urging the President to establish a new directorate of stabilization and reconstruction activities within the National Security Council; (5) Urging the President to establish a standing committee to oversee the formulation and execution of stabilization and reconstruction policy, chaired by the National Security Advisor with membership of appropriate agencies; (6) Establishing a personnel exchange program between the Departments of State and Defense and other agencies to enhance the stabilization and reconstruction skills of military and civilian personnel and their ability to undertake joint operations. Personnel exchanges should include exchanges to regional and specialized commands as well as joint and service schools to ensure a broader base of interaction between agencies; (7) Urging other civilian agencies to work with the Department of Defense to establish similar exchange programs. Section 5. Authority to Provide Assistance for Stabilization and Reconstruction Crises This section provides the President with the authority, after consultations with Congress, to determine that it is in the national interest to provide assistance to a country that is in, or transitioning from conflict, and to provide such assistance from the $100 million emergency fund authorized in this section, in addition to amounts otherwise made available for such purposes, as well as from commodities and services from the inventory of Federal agencies. The funding mechanism and the authority to replenish funds in this section are similar to current authorities that are used to respond to refugee and migration crises, but the exercise of the authority has been made subject to certain conditions required by Section 614 of the Foreign Assistance Act, an extraordinary authority that is used sparingly and only after extensive consultations with Congress. The committee intends that this authority be exercised in the same manner as Section 614. The provision authorizes the annual replenishment of the emergency fund without fiscal year limitations. U.S. funding mechanisms for post-conflict operations can lack flexibility and effective mechanisms for emergency contracting and procurement. The funds in this section are intended to provide a quick start on such time-sensitive activities as the restoration of public order, political and civic reorganization, humanitarian aid, infrastructure repair and the re-establishment of basic services. Section 6. Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction This section creates a new ``Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction'' within the State Department to be headed by a Coordinator appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Coordinator will report directly to the Secretary and have the rank of ``Ambassador-at-Large.'' It also states that the President may designate either the Coordinator or another individual to take the lead in particular crises. This section outlines the functions of the Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction in both non- emergency and emergency situations. The committee expects the office to work in coordination with relevant bureaus within the State Department, USAID and other relevant organizations. Specifically, the committee encourages the naming of a USAID official as the Deputy Coordinator. The committee envisions the office to be staffed by no more than 75 officials from the State Department and USAID, as well as officials from other civilian agencies temporarily seconded to provide expertise and inter-agency coordination. In monitoring for potential crises, the office should draw on current intelligence, data collection and monitoring efforts already underway in executive branch agencies. In its planning, the office should also draw on expertise developed at USAID as part of its disaster assistance response function. The office should have the capacity to send assessment teams on very short notice into crisis situations and should also be able to send civilians as part of joint civilian/military teams to help manage the full scope of responses necessary in the early stages of such crises. The committee intends for the Coordinator to plan for and, when designated by the President, to be able to oversee the implementation of activities in a crisis. This legislation is not intended to limit the prerogatives of the President by pre- determining either the agency to lead the effort or the individual to be placed in charge. Section 7. Response Readiness Force This section authorizes the Secretary of State, in coordination with the USAID Administrator, to establish a Response Readiness Force that consists of both active duty and reserve personnel. The Response Readiness Corps, the active duty component of the Force, will consist of up to 250 individuals specially recruited to be the civilian vanguard of stabilization and reconstruction emergency activities. Such a Corps will consist of individuals who are trained and experienced in managing specific needed functions, are able to work with the U.S. military if necessary, and are willing to serve wherever they may be needed. Their areas of expertise could include, but not be limited to, public information and communications, rule of law, governance and civil administration, security and public order, health and education, and construction and engineering. They will also have a range of regional expertise and language skills. The committee envisions a mix of Foreign Service and Civil Service personnel from State Department and USAID to constitute the Corps. When not serving on stabilization and reconstruction missions, members of the Corps will be available to work in Department headquarters in Washington DC, or in embassies and USAID missions to meet requirements as requested by ambassadors or USAID mission directors. This bill also establishes a ``Response Readiness Reserve'' made up of Federal and at least 500 non-federal employees who have volunteered for deployment and have the skills and training to provide assistance in support of stabilization and reconstruction activities overseas. Such a pool of reserves will include specialists in the full spectrum of functions needed, from judicial experts to engineers. The Reserves would draw volunteers from the foreign affairs agencies and other civilian Federal agencies, including the approximately 10,000 Foreign Service Nationals who are locally hired to work in U.S. embassies around the world. Foreign Service Nationals have language skills, cultural sensitivity, and an understanding of how the U.S. Government works abroad--all valuable resources when addressing a variety of stabilization and reconstruction requirements. Non-federal employees could be drawn from the ranks of retired Foreign Service officers, former Peace Corps volunteers, and retired military, as well as State and local governments. Such examples are intended to be illustrative rather than exclusionary, as skills and willingness to serve are spread widely among the American people. The committee envisions the establishment of the Corps and the Reserves as a joint endeavor by the State Department and USAID and intends that the current State-AID Policy Council, co-chaired by the Deputy Secretary and the USAID Administrator, would provide the collaborative venue within which the required coordination and integration can take place in a way in which both agencies can be strengthened to carry out stabilization and reconstruction activities. The committee would like to see within the Washington, D.C. headquarters some of the same operational collaboration and mutual sense of purpose and priorities that Members have witnessed between the two agencies in the field. The section also creates employment authorities and establishes a reporting requirement regarding the establishment of the Corps and Reserves. The committee encourages the Secretary to develop proposals to provide pay and benefit incentives to members of the Corps and Reserves, as well as recommend any legislation that may be necessary to provide job protections to such members when they are called to service under the authority of this Act. Section 8. Stabilization and Reconstruction Training and Education This section gives the Secretary of State, in cooperation with Secretary of Defense, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Secretary of the Army, the authority to develop and establish new stabilization and reconstruction training curricula for use in programs administered by the Foreign Service Institute, the National Defense University, and the Stabilization and Peacekeeping Institute at the Army War College. The committee also recognizes the excellent training programs at the Naval Post Graduate School and the U.S. Institute for Peace and encourages that they be included in the development of a comprehensive training program. Training of civilian government personnel to assist in post-conflict operations has been uneven. Some training opportunities already exist, but it is still the case that the U.S. Government deploys civilians to stabilization and reconstruction operations with little or no specialized training for the post-conflict environment. Even when U.S. personnel receive solid training in their particular skill area, they rarely have had an opportunity to train with their counterparts in other U.S. agencies. This is an important gap to fill. Therefore, the objective of the training curricula required by this section is to prepare participants from the different civilian agencies for the tasks at every phase--from contingency planning, to working with the military if necessary, to the full spectrum of stabilization and reconstruction tasks. Effective war-gaming/scenario training should be part of the course and should prepare participants to work on inter-agency teams in crisis environments. Joint training of civilian and military teams is supported by the committee and the foreign affairs civilian agencies are strongly encouraged to participate in training offered by the Department of Defense or the regional commands. This section also cites illustrative contents of a training curriculum. One particular committee interest is in the area of ``lessons learned.'' The Department of Defense has a ``lessons learned'' or ``After Action Review'' process that could serve as a guide to establishing the same capacity within the State Department and USAID and could be a key component of preparation for future actions. Also needed is training in conflict resolution. Post-conflict situations are dynamic and difficult in the best of circumstances and personnel should be trained with essential conflict and dispute resolution techniques. Training should be available for both the Response Readiness Corps and the Reserves, including volunteers from the private sector who have been accepted into the Reserves. Section 9. Service Related to Stabilization and Reconstruction This section is designed to encourage service in stabilization and reconstruction activities which may fall outside the normal career path of Foreign Service officers and USAID employees. It designates that certain service or assignment in these areas should be considered among the favorable factors for promotion of employees of executive agencies and authorizes the creation of incentives and benefits as appropriate to recognize and reward participants. In terms of training and promotion, this section describes steps that the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator should take to ensure employees are properly trained and identified for deployment in support of the Corps. This training should also be provided to Ambassadors and Deputy Chiefs of Mission. The U.S. Government should place a high premium on developing competency in the skills necessary to anticipate and address crises. Critical to the establishment of an effective cadre of people with special skills, experience, interest, and commitment needed for such challenging missions is the appropriate recognition of such service as professionally rewarding. The environment in which civil servants, Foreign Service officers, and others perform and advance must be flexible enough to allow for success for personnel who follow less traditional career paths and who may not reach executive management positions because of the unpredictable nature of their deployments. Incentives within all agencies must recognize the value of personnel committed to these challenging tasks. Section 10. Authorities Related to Personnel This section provides contracting authority and reimbursement procedures for personnel, outlines procedures for hiring experts and consultants and grants certain authorities to accept and assign details from other executive agencies, members of the uniformed services and employees of State and local governments. The section also provides certain waiver authorities for dual compensation prohibitions for Federal retirees. The Secretary may extend benefits to any individual deployed under this Act as provided in the Foreign Service Act just as they are applicable to members of the Foreign Service. This section also authorizes compensatory time off for individuals assigned, detailed or deployed to carry out stabilization and reconstruction activities under this Act, subject to the consent of the employee. This section also increases the premium pay cap for certain individuals. The section authorizes the acceptance of volunteer services from advisors, experts, consultants and persons performing services in any other capacity determined appropriate by the Secretary and directs the Secretary to supervise such volunteers. Finally, it provides that volunteers are not to be considered Federal employees, except with regard to certain provisions of Federal law, including conflict of interest requirements. Section 11. Authorization of Appropriations This section authorizes appropriations of $80 million for the recruitment of new personnel, education and training, and equipment and travel necessary for carrying out the Act. Of that amount, $8 million is authorized to be appropriated to establish the Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction for salaries, overhead, travel, per diem and related costs. V. Cost Estimate In accordance with rule XXVI, paragraph 11(a) of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee provides the following estimate of the cost of this legislation prepared by the Congressional Budget Office. United States Congress, Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC, March 17, 2004. Honorable Richard G. Lugar, Chairman Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Washington, DC. Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 2127, the Stabilization and Reconstruction Civilian Management Act of 2004. If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Joseph C. Whitehill. Sincerely, Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Director Enclosure. S. 2127--Stabilization and Reconstruction Civilian Management Act of 2004 SUMMARY S. 2127 would authorize the President to provide assistance to stabilize and rebuild a country or region that is in, or emerging from, conflict or civil strife. The bill would authorize assistance to respond to international crises through a new contingency fund and it would establish an Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction within the Department of State to provide civilian management of stabilization and reconstruction efforts. The bill would authorize an initial appropriation of $100 million for the contingency fund plus such sums as may be necessary to replenish funds expended. It also would authorize $80 million for the initial costs of salaries and expenses to establish and manage stabilization and reconstruction efforts. CBO estimates that implementing the bill would cost about $50 million in 2005 and $550 million over the 2005-2009 period, assuming the appropriation of the necessary funds. The bill would not affect direct spending or receipts. S. 2127 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments. ESTIMATED COST TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT The estimated budgetary impact of S. 2127 is shown in the following table. The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 150 (international affairs). The estimated budgetary impact of S. 2127 is shown in the following table. The costs of this legislation fall within budget function 150 (international affairs). ------------------------------------------------------------------------ By Fiscal Year, in Millions of Dollars ------------------------------------- 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SPENDING SUBJECT TO APPROPRIATION Proposed Spending for Stabilization and Reconstruction under S. 2127 Estimated Authorization Level 0 180 101 149 153 156 Estimated Outlays 0 51 98 119 135 145 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ BASIS OF ESTIMATE S. 2127 would provide the President with the authority and capacity to quickly respond to international crises using civilian agencies of the federal government. For this estimate, CBO assumes the bill will be enacted before the end of the current session of the Congress and that the $180 million in funds initially authorized to carry out the bill will be appropriated for 2005. CBO expects that implementing the bill would require additional appropriations in 2006 and each subsequent year. Response Readiness Corps. The bill would establish a new office within the Department of State with responsibility to monitor and assess international crises, to prepare contingency plans for various types of crises, to identify and train personnel with necessary skills for stabilization and reconstruction operations, and to coordinate the U.S. efforts should the President decide to respond to any crisis. The bill also would authorize the establishment of a response readiness corps with up to 250 members to staff the office and for deployment on short notice, plus a readiness reserve from current federal employees and up to 500 non-federal personnel to support operations if needed. Based on information about the cost of operating offices of comparable size within the State Department, CBO estimates that once established, the office would have operating costs of $40 million to $50 million a year. Assuming that it would take a year to recruit and train the members of the readiness corps, CBO estimates the $80 million authorized for salaries and expenses would cover the first two years of operations. In 2007 and each year thereafter, CBO estimates that maintaining the office and the readiness and reserve corps would require the appropriation of $45 million in 2005 dollars, adjusted annually for inflation. We expect outlays would follow spending rates for diplomatic and consular programs. Stabilization and Reconstruction Funding. S. 2127 would authorize the appropriation of $100 million for a contingency fund to respond to international crises should the President determine that it is in the national interest to do so, plus such sums as may be necessary to replenish amounts expended. In addition, the bill would authorize the President to waive the percentage and aggregate dollar limitations in current law regarding various authorities to draw down or to transfer resources to respond to such crises. Given the size of the authorized fund, CBO estimates that the fund would be used for an initial response to an international crisis and not for major reconstruction efforts. Considering the number of regions in the world in conflict or recovering from conflict and that appropriations for the reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan have totaled over $20 billion in 2003 and 2004, reconstruction could require much larger funding levels than the amounts authorized. For this estimate, CBO assumes that the fund would be replenished on an annual basis at the $100 million level, adjusted for inflation, and that it would be used for a mix of activities with an aggregate spending pattern similar to the Economic Support Fund. INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE-SECTOR IMPACT S. 2127 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector mandates as defined in UMRA and would not affect the budgets of state, local, or tribal governments. Estimate prepared by: Federal Costs: Joseph C. Whitehill. Impact on State, Local, and Tribal Governments: Melissa Merrill. Impact on the Private Sector: Paige Piper/Bach. Estimate approved by: Peter H. Fontaine, Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis. VI. Evaluation of Regulatory Impact In accordance with rule XXVI, paragraph 11(b) of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee has concluded that there is no regulatory impact from this legislation. VII. Changes in Existing Law In compliance with paragraph 12 of Rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in roman). Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 PART III CHAPTER 1--GENERAL PROVISIONS * * * * * * * SEC. 617. TERMINATION OF ASSISTANCE. * * * * * * * SEC. 618. ASSISTANCE FOR A STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION CRISIS. (a) Authority.--If the President determines that it is important to the national interests of the United States for United States civilian agencies or non-Federal employees to assist in stabilizing and reconstructing a country or region that is in, or is in transition from, conflict or civil strife, the President may, in accordance with the provisions set forth in section 614(a)(3), notwithstanding any other provision of law, and on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, furnish assistance to respond to the crisis. (b) Special Authorities.--To provide assistance authorized in subsection (a), the President may exercise the authorities contained in sections 552(c)(2), 610, and 614 of this Act without regard to the percentage and aggregate dollar limitations contained in such sections. (c) Authorization of Funding.-- (1) Initial authorization.--There is authorized to be appropriated, without fiscal year limitation, $100,000,000 in funds that may be used to provide assistance authorized in subsection (a). (2) Replenishment.--There is authorized to be appropriated each fiscal year such sums as may be necessary to replenish funds expended as provided under paragraph (1). Funds authorized to be appropriated under this paragraph shall be available without fiscal year limitation for the same purpose and under the same conditions as are provided under paragraph (1). State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 * * * * * * * TITLE I--BASIC AUTHORITIES GENERALLY ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE * * * * * * * SEC. 58. PROHIBITION ON FUNDING THE INVOLUNTARY RETURN OF REFUGEES. * * * * * * * SEC. 59. INTERNATIONAL STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION. (a) Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction.-- (1) Establishment.--The Secretary shall establish within the Department of State an Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction. (2) Coordinator for international stabilization and reconstruction.--The head of the Office shall be the Coordinator for International Stabilization and Reconstruction, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Coordinator shall report directly to the Secretary and shall have the rank and status of Ambassador-at-Large. (3) Functions.-- The functions of the Office of International Stabilization and Reconstruction include the following: (A) Monitoring, in coordination with relevant bureaus within the Department of State, political and economic instability worldwide to anticipate the need for mobilizing United States and international assistance for the stabilization and reconstruction of countries or regions that are in, or are in transition from, conflict or civil strife. (B) Assessing the various types of stabilization and reconstruction crises that could occur and cataloging and monitoring the non-military resources and capabilities of Executive agencies that are available to address such crises. (C) Planning to address requirements, such as demobilization, policing, human rights monitoring, and public information, that commonly arise in stabilization and reconstruction crises. (D) Coordinating with relevant Executive agencies (as that term is defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code) to develop interagency contingency plans to mobilize and deploy civilian personnel to address the various types of such crises. (E) Entering into appropriate arrangements with other Executive agencies to carry out activities under this section and the Stabilization and Reconstruction Civilian Management Act of 2004. (F) Identifying personnel in State and local governments and in the private sector who are available to participate in the Response Readiness Corps or the Response Readiness Reserve established under subsection (b) or to otherwise participate in or contribute to stabilization and reconstruction activities. (G) Ensuring that training of civilian personnel to perform such stabilization and reconstruction activities is adequate and, as appropriate, includes security training that involves exercises and simulations with the Armed Forces, including the regional commands. (H) Sharing information and coordinating plans for stabilization and reconstruction activities with rapid response elements of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other foreign national and international organizations. (I) Coordinating plans and procedures for joint civilian-military operations with respect to stabilization and reconstruction activities. (J) Maintaining the capacity to field on short notice an evaluation team to undertake on-site needs assessment. (b) Response to Stabilization and Reconstruction Crisis.--If the President makes a determination regarding a stabilization and reconstruction crisis under section 618 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, the President may designate the Coordinator, or such other individual as the President may determine appropriate, as the coordinator of the United States response. The individual so designated, or, in the event the President does not make such a designation, the Coordinator for International Stabilization and Reconstruction, shall-- (1) assess the immediate and long-term need for resources and civilian personnel; (2) identify and mobilize non-military resources to respond to the crisis; and (3) coordinate the activities of the other individuals or management team, if any, designated by the President to manage the United States response. (c) Response Readiness Force.-- (1) Response readiness corps.-- (A) Establishment and purpose.--The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development, is authorized to establish a Response Readiness Corps (hereafter referred to in this section as the ``Corps'') to provide assistance in support of stabilization and reconstruction activities in foreign countries or regions that are in, or are in transition from, conflict or civil strife. (B) Composition.--The Secretary and Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development should coordinate in the recruitment, hiring, and training of-- (i) up to 250 personnel to serve in the Corps; and (ii) such other personnel as the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, may designate as members of the Corps from among employees of the Department of State and the United States Agency for International Development. (C) Training.--The Secretary shall train the members of the Corps to perform services necessary to carry out the purpose of the Corps under subparagraph (A). (D) Compensation.--Members of the Corps hired under subparagraph (B)(i) shall be compensated in accordance with the appropriate salary class for the Foreign Service, as set forth in sections 402 and 403 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3962 and 22 U.S.C. 3963), or in accordance with the relevant authority under sections 3101 and 3392 of title 5, United States Code. (2) Response readiness reserve.-- (A) Establishment and purpose.--The Secretary, in consultation with the heads of other relevant Executive agencies, is authorized to establish and maintain a roster of personnel who are trained and available as needed to perform services necessary to carry out the purpose of the Corps under paragraph (1)(A). The personnel listed on the roster shall constitute a Response Readiness Reserve to augment the Corps. (B) Federal employees.--The Response Readiness Reserve may include employees of the Department of State, including Foreign Service Nationals, employees of the United States Agency for International Development, employees of any other Executive agency (as that term is defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code), and employees from the legislative and judicial branches who-- (i) have the training and skills necessary to enable them to contribute to stabilization and reconstruction activities; and (ii) have volunteered for deployment to carry out stabilization and reconstruction activities. (C) Non-federal personnel.--The Response Readiness Reserve should also include at least 500 personnel, which may include retired employees of the Federal Government, contractor personnel, nongovernmental organization personnel, and State and local government employees, who-- (i) have the training and skills necessary to enable them to contribute to stabilization and reconstruction activities; and (ii) have volunteered to carry out stabilization and reconstruction activities. (3) Use of corps and reserve.-- (A) Response readiness corps.--The members of the Corps shall be available-- (i) if responding in support of stabilization and reconstruction activities pursuant to a determination by the President regarding a stabilization and reconstruction crisis under section 618 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, for deployment in support of such activities; and (ii) if not responding as described in clause (i), for assignment in the United States, United States diplomatic missions, and United States Agency for International Development missions. (B) Response readiness reserve.--The Secretary may deploy members of the reserve under paragraph (2) in support of stabilization and reconstruction activities in a foreign country or region if the President makes a determination regarding a stabilization and reconstruction crisis under section 618 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. Foreign Service Act of 1980 CHAPTER 7--CAREER DEVELOPMENT, TRAINING, AND ORIENTATION Sec. 701. Institution for Training.--(a) Institution or Center for Training.-- * * * * * * * * * * (f) * * * * * * * * * * (g) Stabilization and Reconstruction Curriculum.-- (1) Establishment and mission.--The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Army, is authorized to establish a stabilization and reconstruction curriculum for use in programs of the Foreign Service Institute, the National Defense University, and the United States Army War College. (2) Curriculum content.--The curriculum shall include the following: (A) An overview of the global security environment, including an assessment of transnational threats and an analysis of United States policy options to address such threats. (B) A review of lessons learned from previous United States and international experiences in stabilization and reconstruction activities. (C) An overview of the relevant responsibilities, capabilities, and limitations of various Executive agencies (as that term is defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code) and the interactions among them. (D) A discussion of the international resources available to address stabilization and reconstruction requirements, including resources of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, nongovernmental organizations, private and voluntary organizations, and foreign governments, together with an examination of the successes and failures experienced by the United States in working with such entities. (E) A study of the United States interagency system. (F) Foreign language training. (G) Training and simulation exercises for joint civilian-military emergency response operations. [(g)](h) The authorities of section 704 shall apply to training and instruction provided under this section.