[Senate Report 107-311] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office] Calendar No. 699 107th Congress Report SENATE 2d Session 107-311 ====================================================================== NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2002 _______ October 10, 2002.--Ordered to be printed _______ Mr. Hollings, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, submitted the following R E P O R T [To accompany S. 2950] The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to which was referred the bill (S. 2950) a bill to amend title 49, United States Code, to authorize appropriations for the National Transportation Safety Board for Fiscal Years 2003, 2004, and 2005, and for other purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon with amendments and recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass. Purpose of the Bill The purpose of this bill, as reported, is to authorize appropriations for the National Transportation Safety Board for Fiscal Years 2003, 2004, and 2005, and for other purposes. Background and Needs The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), established as an independent agency in 1974 when it was removed from the Department of Transportation (DOT), is charged with determining the probable cause of transportation accidents and promoting transportation safety. The Board investigates accidents, conducts safety studies, and evaluates the effectiveness of other government agencies' programs for preventing transportation accidents. In addition, the NTSB coordinates all Federal assistance to families of victims of catastrophic aviation accidents. When resources allow, the NTSB also provides family assistance for accidents in other transportation modes. The Board also serves as the ``court of appeal'' for airmen, mechanics, and mariners whenever the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or the U.S. Coast Guard takes an adverse certificate action against them. In P.L. 106-181, the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21), Congress expanded the Board's jurisdiction to include review of FAA emergency revocations of pilot licenses. These emergency revocations take effect immediately, and prior to AIR 21, the pilot's only recourse was to take the FAA to court. Most importantly, the NTSB makes safety recommendations, based on its investigations, to Federal, State, and local government agencies and to the transportation industry regarding actions that should be taken to prevent accidents. Since 1967, the Board has investigated more than 114,000 aviation accidents, and at least 10,000 additional accidents in other transportation modes. The NTSB also investigates accidents involving hazardous material transportation and is the sole U.S. accredited representative at foreign aviation accident investigations under the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The NTSB has no authority to issue regulations covering the transportation industry. Therefore, its effectiveness is dependent upon timely and accurate determinations of accident causation and issuing safety recommendations. According to the NTSB, since its inception in 1967, the NTSB has issued almost 12,000 safety recommendations in all modes of transportation. Over 82 percent of those recommendations have been adopted by the regulatory and transportation communities. NTSB OPERATIONS Each year, the NTSB investigates more than 2,000 aviation accidents and incidents, including all fatal aviation accidents, and hundreds of railroad, highway, maritime, and pipeline transportation accidents. To leverage its limited resources, the Board typically designates other government agencies, organizations, corporations, or foreign authorities (in the case of, for example, investigations involving foreign aircraft) as parties to the investigation. According to the NTSB, the participation of these other parties not only greatly multiplies the Board's resources, it also ensures general agreement on the facts developed during an investigation, and allows first-hand access to information so that the parties can take appropriate and timely corrective actions. When the NTSB is notified of a major accident, it launches a ``go-team'' that varies in size depending on the severity of the accident and the complexity of the issues involved. Go- teams consist of Board investigators who are experts in appropriate technical specialties based on the mode of transportation and the nature of the accident. Each NTSB expert manages an investigative group made up of other experts from industry and government organizations that are parties to the investigation in the collection of the facts surrounding the accident. Eventually, each Board expert prepares a factual report that is verified for accuracy by each of the party representatives in the group. These reports are placed in the public docket and, after completion of a formal technical review by the team, they constitute the factual record of the investigation. After investigating an accident, the NTSB determines the probable cause and issues a formal report. Parties do not participate in the analytical or report-writing phases of the NTSB's investigations, although they may submit their proposed findings of probable cause and proposed safety recommendations directly to the Board. The NTSB is statutorily required to make a cause determination for all aviation accidents. Although the NTSB investigates all fatal aviation accidents, the Board may request the FAA to investigate non-fatal aviation accidents. States or other agencies often investigate accidents in other modes of transportation. NTSB REAUTHORIZATION REQUEST On June 25, 2002, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation held a hearing on the reauthorization proposal of the NTSB. At the hearing, the NTSB requested a three-year authorization along with two statutory changes, one regarding investigative priority for major marine accidents, and the other regarding responsibility for family assistance in transportation incidents resulting from intentional criminal acts. The Coast Guard and NTSB reached an agreement on the issue of maritime accident investigations on Friday, September 13, 2002, obviating the need for legislation on that issue. The President's Fiscal Year 2003 budget submission requested $73.8 million for the NTSB, $5.84 million above the Fiscal Year 2002 enacted level. Of the $5.84 million requested increase, $3.36 million is related to the President's proposal to shift employee health benefit and pension costs from the Office of Personnel Management to each individual agency's budget in Fiscal Year 2003. The remaining $2.48 million increase is related to pay raises, benefit cost increases, inflation, and costs associated with the start-up of the NTSB Training Academy. No new program initiatives are funded in the President's request. Appendix A shows the NTSB's Fiscal Year 2002 appropriated level, the Fiscal Year 2003 President's requested level, and the authorization levels that are requested by the NTSB for Fiscal Years 2003-2005. The NTSB is requesting a Fiscal Year 2003 authorization level of $76.7 million, which is $2.8 million higher than the President's budget request. This $2.8 million increase above the President's request would fund: (1) 16 full-time equivalent staff-years ($2.5 million); and (2) a 3.6 percent cost-of- living adjustment (COLA), instead of the 2.6 percent COLA assumed in the President's Budget ($0.3 million). The Fiscal Year 2004 request of $89.9 million includes funding for laboratory equipment and improvements to the Board's information technology infrastructure to enhance the NTSB's investigative tools and technical competence, as well as to improve public access to the NTSB's accident investigation, safety recommendation, and safety promotion information. It also includes five additional Academy positions, as well as 26 positions needed to fill shortages in mostly investigative and technical specialty areas. The $4.8 million increase in funding requested for Fiscal Year 2005 would maintain NTSB operations at the Fiscal Year 2004 level. Summary of Major Provisions S. 2950 would provide a three year authorization for the NTSB's general expenditures of $73.325 million in Fiscal Year 2003, $84.999 million in Fiscal Year 2004, and $89.687 million in Fiscal Year 2005. In addition to this authorization, the bill would allow for enough funding to maintain the NTSB emergency fund at a level of $3 million. The bill also would provide a three year authorization for the NTSB Training Academy of $3.3 million in Fiscal Year 2003, $4.8 million in Fiscal Year 2004, and $4.9 million in Fiscal Year 2005. The total authorization amount provided for the NTSB is $261 million over the next three fiscal years. S. 2950 would also allow the NTSB to collect fees for the use of the Academy which would be credited as offsetting collections and could only be used to cover costs for the activities and services of the Academy. The bill would also require the NTSB to report to Congress on the progress and use of the Academy. S. 2950 also contains a provision requiring the revision of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the NTSB and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) regarding assistance to families of passengers involved in aircraft incidents. As a result, the NTSB would not have to provide assistance to families if the agency to which investigative priority is given is willing and able to do the work. The FBI receives priority in the event of intentional criminal acts and has recently hired over 100 victims assistance staff to be responsive on this issue. The bill further would allow the NTSB relief from competition requirements in contracting laws if it is necessary to expedite an investigation. The NTSB has had several investigations where its work was delayed because competitive bidding was required for unique and specific work, with few capable entities. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Medicare Integrity Program have exemption authority similar to the provision provided in this legislation. The exemption would not cover competitive requirements for non-investigative procurements, and would require an accounting of each contract of $25,000 or more in annual reporting. A letter from the NTSB specifically requesting this change was sent to Senators Hollings and McCain. Legislative History On June 25, 2002, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation held a hearing on the activities of the NTSB and its legislative reauthorization proposal. On September 17, 2002, Senator Hollings introduced S. 2950, a bill to authorize appropriations for the NTSB. The bill was cosponsored by Senators McCain, Rockefeller, Hutchison, Breaux, and Smith of Oregon. On September 19, 2002, the Committee met in open executive session to consider the bill. During the executive session, the Committee approved an amendment offered by Senator Fitzgerald that would provide for the improvement of child safety restraints in passenger motor vehicles. The Committee ordered the amended bill reported favorably by a voice vote. Estimated Costs In compliance with subsection (a)(3) of paragraph 11 of rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee states that, in its opinion, it is necessary to dispense with the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of that subsection in order to expedite the business of the Senate. Regulatory Impact Statement In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the legislation, as reported: Number of Persons Covered S. 2950 would authorize appropriations to fund the operations of the NTSB for Fiscal Years 2003, 2004, and 2005. The funding levels are similar to previous years, and the number of persons covered should be consistent with current levels. Economic Impact No negative impact to taxpayers is expected from the enactment of S. 2950 as it would authorize appropriations for the NTSB at levels similar to previous authorization levels. The NTSB also would be authorized to collect reimbursements for the activities and services of the NTSB Training Academy. These fees are to be credited to the NTSB as offsetting collections. Privacy S. 2950 would not have an adverse effect on the personal privacy of any individuals that would be impacted by this legislation. Paperwork The Committee does not anticipate any significant increase in paperwork burdens as a result of S. 2950. Section-by-section Analysis TITLE I. SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE. The short title of the bill is the ``National Transportation Safety Board Reauthorization Act of 2002.'' SEC. 2. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. This section would authorize appropriations of $73,325,000 for Fiscal Year 2003, $84,999,000 for Fiscal Year 2004, and $89,687,000 for Fiscal Year 2005. It also would authorize $3,000,000 for the NTSB's emergency fund. For the NTSB Academy, this section would authorize $3,347,000 for Fiscal Year 2003, $4,896,0000 for Fiscal Year 2004, and $4,995,000 for Fiscal Year 2005. The Board would be authorized to collect fees for services provided by the Academy, which would be credited as offsetting collections to pay for such services. The Board would be required to transmit annual reports to Congress on the activities and operations of the Academy. SEC. 3. ASSISTANCE TO FAMILIES OF PASSENGERS INVOLVED IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS. In situations when the NTSB relinquishes responsibility for the investigation of an aviation incident, this section would allow the Board to relinquish its statutory responsibility to assist families of passengers involved in such incidents. This transfer is conditioned on the willingness and ability of the other Federal agency to assume the responsibility from the NTSB. Even after relinquishing responsibility, the Board would assist the other Federal agency to the maximum extent practical. This section also would require the NTSB and FBI to revise within one year the 1977 MOU between the two agencies on the investigation of accidents to take into account changes made by this section. A copy of the revised MOU would be provided to the congressional authorizing committees. SEC. 4. RELIEF FROM CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS FOR INVESTIGATIONS SERVICES. This section would allow the NTSB to enter into private contracts or agreements without engaging in competitive bidding if such actions are needed to expedite an investigation. It would further require the NTSB to include an accounting for each contract of $25,000 or more in the annual report for the preceding year. The NTSB has indicated that, in several cases, its investigations were delayed because it had to use competitive bidding for what is usually unique and specific work, with few capable entities. Similar exemption provisions have been provided to the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Medical Integrity Program. The exemption provision would not cover competitive requirements for non-investigative procurements. TITLE II--CHILD PASSENGER SAFETY. Title II contains the text of S. 980, known as ``Anton's Law,'' concerning child passenger safety seats. The text of title II was favorably reported by the Commerce Committee on February 14, 2002 (S. Rpt. 107-937). It was passed by the Senate on February 25, 2002, by unanimous consent. The text of S. 980 included in this bill includes 2 revisions (sections 205 and 206) extending 2 dates by one year to account for the date of passage. Specifically, title II would do the following: (1) encourage State action by providing States with financial incentives to adopt mandatory booster seat laws by 2004; (2) modernize auto safety by requiring automakers to install lap and shoulder belt assemblies in all rear seating positions of passenger cars, including the center seat position; (3) improve testing by expanding booster seat testing to cover kids over 50 pounds; and (4) promote safety education by extending a Federal grant program for States to promote child passenger safety and education. Changes in Existing Law In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the Standing Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill, as reported, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new material is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in roman): TITLE 49. TRANSPORTATION SUBTITLE II. OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES CHAPTER 11. NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD SUBCHAPTER II. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE Sec. 1113. Administrative (a) General Authority.-- (1) The National Transportation Safety Board, and when authorized by it, a member of the Board, an administrative law judge employed by or assigned to the Board, or an officer or employee designated by the Chairman of the Board, may conduct hearings to carry out this chapter, administer oaths, and require, by subpena or otherwise, necessary witnesses and evidence. (2) A witness or evidence in a hearing under paragraph (1) of this subsection may be summoned or required to be produced from any place in the United States to the designated place of the hearing. A witness summoned under this subsection is entitled to the same fee and mileage the witness would have been paid in a court of the United States. (3) A subpena shall be issued under the signature of the Chairman or the Chairman's delegate but may be served by any person designated by the Chairman. (4) If a person disobeys a subpena, order, or inspection notice of the Board, the Board may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to enforce the subpena, order, or notice. An action under this paragraph may be brought in the judicial district in which the person against whom the action is brought resides, is found, or does business. The court may punish a failure to obey an order of the court to comply with the subpena, order, or notice as a contempt of court. (b) Additional Powers.-- (1) The Board may-- (A) procure the temporary or intermittent services of experts or consultants under section 3109 of title 5; (B) make agreements and other transactions necessary to carry out this chapter without regard to section 3709 of the Revised [Statutes (41 U.S.C. 5);] Statutes, and, for investigations conducted under section 1131, enter into such agreements or contracts without regard to any other provision of law requiring competition if necessary to expedite the investigation; (C) use, when appropriate, available services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government on a reimbursable or other basis; (D) confer with employees and use services, records, and facilities of State and local governmental authorities; (E) appoint advisory committees composed of qualified private citizens and officials of the Government and State and local governments as appropriate; (F) accept voluntary and uncompensated services not with standing another law; (G) accept gifts of money and other property; (H) make contracts with nonprofit entities to carry out studies related to duties and powers of the Board; and (I) negotiate and enter into agreements with individuals and private entities and departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governments, and governments of foreign countries for the provision of facilities, accident-related and technical services or training in accident investigation theory and techniques, and require that such entities provide appropriate consideration for the reasonable costs of any facilities, goods, services, or training provided by the Board. (2) The Board shall deposit in the Treasury amounts received under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection to be credited as offsetting collections to the appropriation of the Board. The Board shall maintain an annual record of collections received under paragraph (1)(I) of this subsection. (3) The Board, as a component of its annual report under section 1117, shall include an enumeration of each contract for $25,000 or more executed under this section during the preceding calendar year. (c) Submission of Certain Copies to Congress.--When the Board submits to the President or the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a budget estimate, budget request, supplemental budget estimate, other budget information, a legislative recommendation, prepared testimony for congressional hearings, or comments on legislation, the Board must submit a copy to Congress at the same time. An officer, department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government may not require the Board to submit the estimate, request, information, recommendation, testimony, or comments to another officer, department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government for approval, comment, or review before being submitted to Congress. (d) Liaison Committees.--The Chairman may determine the number of committees that are appropriate to maintain effective liaison with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, State and local governmental authorities, and independent standard-setting authorities that carry out programs and activities related to transportation safety. The Board may designate representatives to serve on or assist those committees. (e) Inquiries.--The Board, or an officer or employee of the Board designated by the Chairman, may conduct an inquiry to obtain information related to transportation safety after publishing notice of the inquiry in the Federal Register. The Board or designated officer or employee may require by order a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government, a State or local governmental authority, or a person transporting individuals or property in commerce to submit to the Board a written report and answers to requests and questions related to a duty or power of the Board. The Board may prescribe the time within which the report and answers must be given to the Board or to the designated officer or employee. Copies of the report and answers shall be made available for public inspection. (f) Regulations.--The Board may prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter. (g) Overtime Pay.-- (1) In general.--Subject to the requirements of this section and notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 5542(a) of title 5, for an employee of the Board whose basic pay is at a rate which equals or exceeds the minimum rate of basic pay for GS-10 of the General Schedule, the Board may establish an overtime hourly rate of pay for the employee with respect to work performed at the scene of an accident (including travel to or from the scene) and other work that is critical to an accident investigation in an amount equal to one and one-half times the hourly rate of basic pay of the employee. All of such amount shall be considered to be premium pay. (2) Limitation on overtime pay to an employee.--An employee of the Board may not receive overtime pay under paragraph (1), for work performed in a calendar year, in an amount that exceeds 15 percent of the annual rate of basic pay of the employee for such calendar year. (3) Limitation on total amount of overtime pay.--The Board may not make overtime payments under paragraph (1) for work performed in any fiscal year in a total amount that exceeds 1.5 percent of the amount appropriated to carry out this chapter for that fiscal year. (4) Basic pay defined.--In this subsection, the term ``basic pay'' includes any applicable locality-based comparability payment under section 5304 of title 5 (or similar provision of law) and any special rate of pay under section 5305 of title 5 (or similar provision of law). (5) Annual report.--Not later than January 31, 2002, and annually thereafter, the Board shall transmit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee a report identifying the total amount of overtime payments made under this subsection in the preceding fiscal year, and the number of employees whose overtime pay under this subsection was limited in that fiscal year as a result of the 15 percent limit established by paragraph (2). Sec. 1118. Authorization of appropriations (a) In General.--There are authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of this chapter $57,000,000 for fiscal year 2000, $65,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, [and] $72,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, [such sums to] $73,325,000 for fiscal year 2003, $84,999,000 for fiscal year 2004, and $89,687,000 for fiscal year 2005. Such sums shall remain available until expended. (b) Emergency Fund.--The Board has an emergency fund of $2,000,000 available for necessary expenses of the Board, not otherwise provided for, for accident investigations. [Amounts equal to the amounts expended annually out of the fund are authorized to be appropriated to the emergency fund.] In addition, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to increase the fund to, and maintain the fund at, a level not to exceed $3,000,000. (c) Academy.-- (1) Authorization.--There are authorized to be appropriated to the Board for necessary expenses of the National Transportation Safety Board Academy, not otherwise provided for, $3,347,000 for fiscal year 2003, $4,896,000 for fiscal year 2004, and $4,995,000 for fiscal year 2005. Such sums shall remain available until expended. (2) Fees.--The Board may impose and collect such fees as it determines to be appropriate for services provided by or through the Academy. (3) Receipts credited as offsetting collections.-- Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, any fee collected under this paragraph-- (A) shall be credited as offsetting collections to the account that finances the activities and services for which the fee is imposed; (B) shall be available for expenditure only to pay the costs of activities and services for which the fee is imposed; and (C) shall remain available until expended. (4) Refunds.--The Board may refund any fee paid by mistake or any amount paid in excess of that required. SUBCHAPTER III. AUTHORITY Sec. 1136. Assistance to families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents (a) In General.--As soon as practicable after being notified of an aircraft accident within the United States involving an air carrier or foreign air carrier and resulting in a major loss of life, the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board shall-- (1) designate and publicize the name and phone number of a director of family support services who shall be an employee of the Board and shall be responsible for acting as a point of contact within the Federal Government for the families of passengers involved in the accident and a liaison between the air carrier or foreign air carrier and the families; and (2) designate an independent nonprofit organization, with experience in disasters and post-trauma communication with families, which shall have primary responsibility for coordinating the emotional care and support of the families of passengers involved in the accident. (b) Responsibilities of the Board.--The Board shall have primary Federal responsibility for facilitating the recovery and identification of fatally-injured passengers involved in an accident described in subsection (a). (c) Responsibilities of Designated Organization.--The organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) shall have the following responsibilities with respect to the families of passengers involved in the accident: (1) To provide mental health and counseling services, in coordination with the disaster response team of the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved. (2) To take such actions as may be necessary to provide an environment in which the families may grieve in private. (3) To meet with the families who have traveled to the location of the accident, to contact the families unable to travel to such location, and to contact all affected families periodically thereafter until such time as the organization, in consultation with the director of family support services designated for the accident under subsection (a)(1), determines that further assistance is no longer needed. (4) To communicate with the families as to the roles of the organization, government agencies, and the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved with respect to the accident and the post-accident activities. (5) To arrange a suitable memorial service, in consultation with the families. (d) Passenger Lists.-- (1) Requests for passenger lists.-- (A) Requests by director of family support services.--It shall be the responsibility of the director of family support services designated for an accident under subsection (a)(1) to request, as soon as practicable, from the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident a list, which is based on the best available information at the time of the request, of the names of the passengers that were aboard the aircraft involved in the accident. (B) Requests by designated organization.-- The organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) may request from the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident a list described in subparagraph (A). (2) Use of information.--The director of family support services and the organization may not release to any person information on a list obtained under paragraph (1) but may provide information on the list about a passenger to the family of the passenger to the extent that the director of family support services or the organization considers appropriate. (e) Continuing Responsibilities of the Board.--In the course of its investigation of an accident described in subsection (a), the Board shall, to the maximum extent practicable, ensure that the families of passengers involved in the accident-- (1) are briefed, prior to any public briefing, about the accident, its causes, and any other findings from the investigation; and (2) are individually informed of and allowed to attend any public hearings and meetings of the Board about the accident. (f) Use of Air Carrier Resources.--To the extent practicable, the organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) shall coordinate its activities with the air carrier or foreign air carrier involved in the accident so that the resources of the carrier can be used to the greatest extent possible to carry out the organization's responsibilities under this section. (g) Prohibited Actions.-- (1) Actions to impede the board.--No person (including a State or political subdivision) may impede the ability of the Board (including the director of family support services designated for an accident under subsection (a)(1)), or an organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2), to carry out its responsibilities under this section or the ability of the families of passengers involved in the accident to have contact with one another. (2) Unsolicited communications.--In the event of an accident involving an air carrier providing interstate or foreign air transportation and in the event of an accident involving a foreign air carrier that occurs within the United States, no unsolicited communication concerning a potential action for personal injury or wrongful death may be made by an attorney (including any associate, agent, employee, or other representative of an attorney) or any potential party to the litigation to an individual injured in the accident, or to a relative of an individual involved in the accident, before the 45th day following the date of the accident. (3) Prohibition on actions to prevent mental health and counseling services.--No State or political subdivision thereof may prevent the employees, agents, or volunteers of an organization designated for an accident under subsection (a)(2) from providing mental health and counseling services under subsection (c)(1) in the 30-day period beginning on the date of the accident. The director of family support services designated for the accident under subsection (a)(1) may extend such period for not to exceed an additional 30 days if the director determines that the extension is necessary to meet the needs of the families and if State and local authorities are notified of the determination. (h) Definitions.--In this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Aircraft accident.--The term ``aircraft accident'' means any aviation disaster regardless of its cause or suspected cause. (2) Passenger.--The term ``passenger'' includes-- (A) an employee of an air carrier or foreign air carrier aboard an aircraft; and (B) any other person aboard the aircraft without regard to whether the person paid for the transportation, occupied a seat, or held a reservation for the flight. (i) Statutory construction.--Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that an air carrier may take, or the obligations that an air carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident. (j) Relinquishment of Investigative Priority.-- (1) General rule.--This section (other than subsection (g)) shall not apply to an aircraft accident if the Board has relinquished investigative priority under section 1131(a)(2)(B) and the Federal agency to which the Board relinquished investigative priority is willing and able to provide assistance to the victims and families of the passengers involved in the accident. (2) Board assistance.--If this section does not apply to an aircraft accident because the Board has relinquished investigative priority with respect to the accident, the Board shall assist, to the maximum extent possible, the agency to which the Board has relinquished investigative priority in assisting families with respect to the accident. TITLE 23, UNITED STATES CODE HIGHWAYS CHAPTER 4. HIGHWAY SAFETY Sec. 412. Grant program for improving child passenger safety programs (a) Standards and Requirements Regarding Child Restraint Laws.--Not later than October 1, 2003, the Secretary shall establish appropriate criteria applicable to child restraint laws for purposes of eligibility for grants under this section. The criteria shall be consistent with the provisions of Anton's Law. (b) Requirement To Make Grants.-- (1) In general.--The Secretary shall make a grant to each State and Indian tribe that, as determined by the Secretary, has a child restraint law in effect on September 30, 2004. (2) Limitation on number of grants.--Not more than one grant may be made to a State or Indian tribe under this section. (3) Commencement.--The requirement in paragraph (1) shall commence on October 1, 2004. (c) Grant Amount.--The amount of the grant to a State or Indian tribe under this section shall be the amount equal to five times the amount provided to the State or Indian tribe, as the case may be, under section 2003(b)(7) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (23 U.S.C. 405 note) in fiscal year 2003. (d) Use of Grant Amounts.-- (1) In general.--A State or Indian tribe shall use any amount received by the State or Indian tribe, as the case may be, under this section to carry out child passenger protection programs for children under the age of 16 years, including programs for purposes as follows: (A) To educate the public concerning the proper use and installation of child restraints, including booster seats. (B) To train and retain child passenger safety professionals, police officers, fire and emergency medical personnel, and educators concerning all aspects of the use of child restraints. (C) To provide child restraint systems, including booster seats and the hardware needed for their proper installation, to families that cannot otherwise afford such systems. (D) To support enforcement of the child restraint law concerned. (2) Limitation on federal share.--The Federal share of the cost of a program under paragraph (1) that is carried out using amounts from a grant under this section may not exceed 80 percent of the cost of the program. (e) Administrative Expenses.--The amount of administrative expenses under this section in any fiscal year may not exceed the amount equal to five percent of the amount available for making grants under this section in the fiscal year. (f) Applicability of Chapter 1.--The provisions of section 402(d) of this title shall apply to funds authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this section as if such funds were highway safety funds authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 402 of this title. (g) Definitions.--In this section: (1) Child restraint law.--The term ``child restraint law'' means a law that-- (A) satisfies standards established by the Secretary under Anton's Law for the proper restraint of children who are over the age of 3 years or who weigh at least 40 pounds; (B) prescribes a penalty for operating a passenger motor vehicle in which any occupant of the vehicle who is under the age of 16 years is not properly restrained in an appropriate restraint system (including seat belts, booster seats used in combination with seat belts, or other child restraints); and (C) meets any criteria established by the Secretary under subsection (a) for purposes of this section. (2) Passenger motor vehicle.--The term ``passenger motor vehicle'' has the meaning given that term in section 405(f)(5) of this title. (3) State.--The term ``State'' has the meaning given in section 101 of this title and includes any Territory or possession of the United States. TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21st CENTURY SEC. 2003. OCCUPANT PROTECTION. * * * * * * * (b) Child Passenger Protection Education Grants.-- (1) In general.--The Secretary may make a grant to a State that submits an application, in such form and manner as the Secretary may prescribe, that is approved by the Secretary to carry out the activities specified in paragraph (2) through-- (A) the child passenger protection program of the State; and (B) at the option of the State, a grant program established by the State to carry out 1 or more of the activities specified in paragraph (2) by a political subdivision of the State or an appropriate private entity. (2) Use of funds. Funds provided to a State as a grant under this subsection shall be used to implement child passenger protection programs that-- (A) are designed to prevent deaths and injuries to children; (B) educate the public concerning-- (i) all aspects of the proper installation of child restraints using standard seatbelt hardware, supplemental hardware, and modification devices (if needed), including special installation techniques; (ii) appropriate child restraint design, selection, and placement; and (iii) harness threading and harness adjustment on child restraints; and (C) train and retrain child passenger safety professionals, police officers, fire and emergency medical personnel, and other educators concerning all aspects of child restraint use. (3) Grant awards.--The Secretary may make a grant under this subsection without regard to whether a State is eligible to receive, or has received, a grant under section 405 of title 23, United States Code (as inserted by subsection (a) of this section). (4) Federal share.--The Federal share of the cost of a program carried out using funds made available from a grant under this subsection may not exceed 80 percent. (5) Report.--Each State that receives a grant under this subsection shall transmit to the Secretary a report for the period covered by the grant that, at a minimum, describes the program activities carried out with the funds made available under the grant. (6) Report to Congress.--Not later than June 1, 2002, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the implementation of this subsection that includes a description of the programs carried out and materials developed and distributed by the States that receive grants under this subsection. (7) Authorization of appropriations.--There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $7,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2000 [and 2001.] through 2004.