[Senate Report 106-457]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

                                                       Calendar No. 904
106th Congress                                                   Report
 2d Session                                                     106-457




October 2 (legislative day, September 22), 2000.--Ordered to be printed


   Mr. Smith of New Hampshire, from the Committee on Environment and 
                 Public Works, submitted the following

                              R E P O R T

                        [to accompany H.R. 2496]

    The Committee on Environment and Public Works, to which was 
referred a bill to reauthorize the Junior Duck Stamp 
Conservation and Design Program Act of 1994, having considered 
the same, reports favorably thereon and recommends that the 
bill do pass.

                           General Statement

    Early America had an abundance of marshes and wetlands that 
provided a home for an astonishing number of wild ducks, geese, 
swans, brants and other waterfowl. As more and more settlers 
arrived on America's shores much of our critical wildlife 
habitat was leveled, plowed or dammed. In addition, frequent 
bouts of extreme weather took its toll. Degradation of 
waterfowl habitat continued throughout the 19th and into the 
20th century. By the late 1920's, hunters, conservationists and 
government officials became concerned at the alarming decrease 
of waterfowl species.
    To address the problem, Congress passed the Migratory Bird 
Conservation Act of 1929. The Act authorized the Department of 
the Agriculture to acquire and preserve wetlands as waterfowl 
habitat. Although the Act was a step in the right direction, it 
did not provide a permanent fund for the purchase of wetlands 
and waterfowl habitat.
    To rectify this situation, Jay ``Ding'' Darling, political 
cartoonist and chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey, 
conceived of an unique idea to raise funds. Ding Darling 
thought that stamps sold to waterfowl hunters would generate 
funds to preserve the habitat. Based on Ding Darling's idea, 
Congress passed and President Roosevelt signed into law the 
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act on March 16, 1934. More 
commonly known as the Duck Stamp Act, it requires that all 
waterfowl hunters 16 years of age and over must annually 
purchase and carry a Federal Duck Stamp. The revenue generated 
from duck stamp sales is earmarked for the Migratory Bird 
Conservation Fund to buy or lease waterfowl sanctuaries.
    The first duck stamp was designed by Ding Darling at 
President Roosevelt's request, and depicts two mallards about 
to land on a marsh pond. Since 1949, a contest has been 
conducted to determine what image will be depicted on the 
stamp. Winners receive no compensation for their work except a 
pane of their stamps.
    The Duck Stamp Program was such a success that in 1994 
Congress created the Junior Duck Stamp Program. This extremely 
successful program allows children from kindergarten through 
the twelfth grade to participate in an integrated art and 
science curriculum designed to teach environmental art and 
science to students. Each student chooses one waterfowl species 
to focus their efforts on throughout their course of study. At 
the culmination of the course they draw that particular 
species. Each state selects a Best-of-Show winner and enters 
the piece of artwork in a national competition. The national 
winning design is used to create the Junior Duck Stamp and the 
artist receives $2,500. The national first, second, and third 
place winning students, one of their parents, and their art 
teacher win a trip to Washington, D.C., to attend the award 
    Last year more than 44,000 thousand students entered the 
State competitions. This program has been particularly 
successful at introducing urban children to nature, encouraging 
children to develop a connection to the environment, and 
motivating students to take an active role in the conservation 
of waterfowl species.
    Authorization for the Act expires in fiscal year 2000.

                     Objectives of the Legislation

    H.R. 2496 would reauthorize the Junior Duck Stamp program 
through 2005 at its current level of authorization of $250,000. 
In addition, this bill would allow the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Somoa, 
Guam, the Virgin Islands, and any other territories or 
possessions of the United States to participate.

                      Regulatory Impact Statement

    In compliance with section 11(b) of rule XXVI of the 
Standing Rules of the Senate, the committee makes an evaluation 
of the regulatory impact of the reported bill. The reported 
bill will have no regulatory impact. This bill will not have 
any adverse impact on the personal privacy of individuals.

                          Mandates Assessment

    In compliance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 
(Public Law 104-4), the committee finds that H.R. 2496 would 
impose no Federal intergovernmental unfunded mandates on State, 
local, or tribal governments. All of its governmental 
directives are imposed on Federal agencies. The bill does not 
directly impose any private sector mandates.

                          Legislative History

    On October 27, 1999, H.R. 2496 was referred to the Senate 
Committee on Environment and Public Works. No hearings were 
held on this bill. The Committee on Environment and Public 
Works held a business meeting to consider this bill on 
September 21; the business meeting was continued on September 
28, 2000. On September 28, 2000, H.R. 2496 was favorably 
reported by the committee on a voice vote.

                          Cost of Legislation

    Section 403 of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment 
Control Act requires that a statement of the cost of the 
reported bill, prepared by the Congressional Budget Office, be 
included in the report. That statement follows:

                                     U.S. Congress,
                               Congressional Budget Office,
                                Washington, DC, September 29, 2000.

Hon. Robert C. Smith, Chairman,
Committee on Environment and Public Works,
U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.

Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has prepared 
the enclosed cost estimate for H.R. 2496, an act to reauthorize 
the Junior Duck Stamp Conservation and Design Program Act of 
    If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be 
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Deborah Reis, 
who can be reached at 226-2860.
                                            Dan L. Crippen.

               Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate

H.R. 2496, An Act to reauthorize the Junior Duck Stamp Conservation and 
        Design Program Act of 1994, as ordered reported by the Senate 
        Committee on Environment Public Works on September 28, 2000
    H.R. 2496 would reauthorize discretionary funding for 
administration of the junior duck stamp program for fiscal 
years 2001 through 2005 at the event authorization level of 
$250,000 annually. Under existing law, this authorization will 
expire after fiscal year 2000. Assuming appropriation of the 
amounts authorized by H.R. 2496, CBO estimates that the Federal 
Government would spend about $250,000 in each of fiscal years 
2001 through 2005. In recent years, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service has spent less than $200,000 to administer the program, 
mostly to conduct the annual competition for the design of 
junior duck stamps.
    H.R. 2496 would not affect direct spending or receipts; 
therefore, pay-as-you-go procedures would not apply. The 
legislation contains no intergovernmental or private-sector 
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and 
would impose no costs on state, local, or tribal governments.
    On October 15, 1999, CBO prepared a cost estimate for H.R. 
2496, as ordered reported by the House Committee on Resources 
on October 6, 1999. Our estimate of the costs of the two 
versions of this legislation is the same.
    The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Deborah Reis, 
who can be reached at 226-2860. This estimate was approved by 
Robert A. Sunshine, Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

                        Changes in Existing Law

    In compliance with section 12 of rule XXVI of the Standing 
Rules of the Senate, changes in existing law made by the bill 
as reported are shown as follows: Existing law proposed to be 
omitted is enclosed in [black brackets], new matter is printed 
in italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown 
in roman:


                          [Public Law 103-340]

    Section 1. Short title.
    This Act may be cited as the ``Junior Duck Stamp 
Conservation and Design Program Act of 1994''.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    Sec. 2. Establishment of program.
    (a) In general.-- * * *

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

    (c) Effort to conduct program in all states--
    (1) In general.--The Secretary shall take appropriate steps 
to seek to conduct the Program in all of the [50 States] 
    (2) Annual report.--The Secretary shall annually submit a 
report to the Congress on the status of the Program in each of 
the [50 States] States.

           *       *       *       *       *       *       *

Sec. 5. Definition of state.
    For the purposes of this Act, the term ``State'' includes 
the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the 
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, 
Guam, the Virgin Islands, and any other territory or possession 
of the United States.
    Sec. [5] 6. Authorization of appropriations.
    There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary 
for administrative expenses of the Program $250,000 [for each 
of the fiscal years 1995 through 2000] for each of the fiscal 
years 2001 through 2005.