(a)

(1) We designate angular speed,

(2) We designate brake-specific emissions in grams per kilowatt-hour (g/(kW · hr)), rather than the SI unit of grams per megajoule (g/MJ). In addition, we use the symbol hr to identify hour, rather than the SI convention of using h. This is based on the fact that engines are generally subject to emission standards expressed in g/kW · hr. If we specify engine standards in grams per horsepower · hour (g/(hp · hr)) in the standard-setting part, convert units as specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) We generally designate temperatures in units of degrees Celsius ( °C) unless a calculation requires an absolute temperature. In that case, we designate temperatures in units of Kelvin (K). For conversion purposes throughout this part, 0 °C equals 273.15 K. Unless specified otherwise, always use absolute temperature values for multiplying or dividing by temperature.

(b)

(1) For ideal gases, µmol/mol, formerly ppm (volume).

(2) For all substances, cm

(3) For all substances, mg/kg, formerly ppm (mass).

(c)

(d)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(e)

(1) If the first (left-most) digit to be removed is less than five, remove all the appropriate digits without changing the digits that remain. For example, 3.141593 rounded to the second decimal place is 3.14.

(2) If the first digit to be removed is greater than five, remove all the appropriate digits and increase the lowest-value remaining digit by one. For example, 3.141593 rounded to the fourth decimal place is 3.1416.

(3) If the first digit to be removed is five with at least one additional non-zero digit following the five, remove all the appropriate digits and increase the lowest-value remaining digit by one. For example, 3.141593 rounded to the third decimal place is 3.142.

(4) If the first digit to be removed is five with no additional non-zero digits following the five, remove all the appropriate digits, increase the lowest-value remaining digit by one if it is odd and leave it unchanged if it is even. For example, 1.75 and 1.750 rounded to the first decimal place are 1.8; while 1.85 and 1.850 rounded to the first decimal place are also 1.8. Note that this rounding procedure will always result in an even number for the lowest-value digit.

(5) This paragraph (e)(5) applies if the regulation specifies rounding to an increment other than decimal places or powers of ten (to the nearest 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100,

(6) The following tables further illustrate the rounding procedures specified in this paragraph (e):

(7) This paragraph (e)(7) applies where we specify a limit or tolerance as some percentage of another value (such as ±2% of a maximum concentration). You may show compliance with such specifications either by applying the percentage to the total value to calculate an absolute limit, or by converting the absolute value to a percentage by dividing it by the total value.

(i) Do not round either value (the absolute limit or the calculated percentage), except as specified in paragraph (e)(7)(ii) of this section. For example, assume we specify that an analyzer must have a repeatability of ±1% of the maximum concentration or better, the maximum concentration is 1059 ppm, and you determine repeatability to be ±6.3 ppm. In this example, you could calculate an absolute limit of ±10.59 ppm (1059 ppm × 0.01) or calculate that the 6.3 ppm repeatability is equivalent to a repeatability of 0.5949008498584%.

(ii) Prior to July 1, 2013, you may treat tolerances (and equivalent specifications) specified in percentages as having fixed rather than infinite precision. For example, 2% would be equivalent to 1.51% to 2.50% and 2.0% would be equivalent to 1.951% to 2.050%. Note that this allowance applies whether or not the percentage is explicitly specified as a percentage of another value.

(8) You may use measurement devices that incorporate internal rounding, consistent with the provisions of this paragraph (e)(8). You may use devices that use any rounding convention if they report six or more significant digits. You may use devices that report fewer than six digits, consistent with good engineering judgment and the accuracy, repeatability, and noise specifications of this part. Note that this provision does not necessarily require you to perform engineering analysis or keep records.

(f) Interpretation of ranges. Interpret a range as a tolerance unless we explicitly identify it as an accuracy, repeatability, linearity, or noise specification. See § 1065.1001 for the definition of tolerance. In this part, we specify two types of ranges:

(1) Whenever we specify a range by a single value and corresponding limit values above and below that value (such as X ±Y), target the associated control point to that single value (X). Examples of this type of range include “±10% of maximum pressure”, or “(30 ±10) kPa”. In these examples, you would target the maximum pressure or 30 kPa, respectively.

(2) Whenever we specify a range by the interval between two values, you may target any associated control point to any value within that range. An example of this type of range is “(40 to 50) kPa”.

(g)