[Senate Document 113-14]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

                   TRIBUTES TO HON. OLYMPIA J. SNOWE

                            Olympia J. Snowe

                        U.S. SENATOR FROM MAINE


                           IN THE CONGRESS OF

                           THE UNITED STATES


                                                      S. Doc. 113-14

                                Delivered in Congress

                                  Olympia J. Snowe

                             United States Congresswoman


                                United States Senator



                      U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

                           WASHINGTON : 2014

                            Compiled under the direction

                                       of the

                             Joint Committee on Printing


             Farewell Address......................................
             Proceedings in the Senate:
                Tributes by Senators:
                    Boxer, Barbara, of California..................
                    Cardin, Benjamin L., of Maryland...............
                    Collins, Susan M., of Maine....................
                    Conrad, Kent, of North Dakota..................
                    Enzi, Michael B., of Wyoming...................
                    Harkin, Tom, of Iowa...........................
                    Klobuchar, Amy, of Minnesota...................
                    Landrieu, Mary L., of Louisiana................
                    Leahy, Patrick J., of Vermont..................
                    Levin, Carl, of Michigan.......................
                    McConnell, Mitch, of Kentucky..................
                    Mikulski, Barbara A., of Maryland..............
                                                                  8, 12
                    Murkowski, Lisa, of Alaska.....................
                    Reed, Jack, of Rhode Island....................
                    Reid, Harry, of Nevada.........................


               Olympia J. Snowe was born Olympia Jean Bouchles on 
             February 21, 1947, in Augusta, ME. She is the daughter of 
             the late George Bouchles, a native of Mytilene, Greece, 
             and the late Georgia Goranites Bouchles, whose parents 
             immigrated to America from Sparta. After the death of her 
             parents, she was raised by her aunt and uncle, the late 
             Mary and James Goranites of Auburn, ME. Olympia attended 
             St. Basil's Academy, a Greek Orthodox school in Garrison, 
             NY, and graduated from Edward Little High School in 
             Auburn. She earned a degree in political science from the 
             University of Maine in 1969.
               With her election in 1994 Olympia became only the second 
             woman Senator in history to represent Maine, following the 
             late Senator Margaret Chase Smith, who served from 1949 to 
             1973. In November 2006, she was reelected to a third 6-
             year term in the U.S. Senate with 74 percent of the vote.
               Before her election to the Senate, Olympia represented 
             Maine's Second Congressional District in the U.S. House of 
             Representatives for 16 years. Senator Snowe is only the 
             fourth woman in history to be elected to both Houses of 
             Congress and the first woman in American history to serve 
             in both houses of a State legislature and both Houses of 
             Congress. When first elected to Congress in 1978 at the 
             age of 31, Olympia was the youngest Republican woman, and 
             the first Greek-American woman, ever elected to Congress. 
             She has won more Federal elections in Maine than any other 
             person since World War II. Olympia is the third longest 
             serving woman in the history of the U.S. Congress.
               Olympia's dedicated work in the U.S. Senate has garnered 
             her nationwide recognition as a leading policymaker in 
             Washington. In 2005 she was named the 54th most powerful 
             woman in the world by Forbes magazine. In 2006 Time 
             magazine named her one of the Top 10 U.S. Senators. 
             Calling her ``The Caretaker,'' Time magazine wrote of 
             Senator Snowe:

               Because of her centrist views and eagerness to get 
             beyond partisan point scoring, Maine Republican Olympia 
             Snowe is in the center of every policy debate in 
             Washington, but while Snowe is a major player on national 
             issues, she is also known as one of the most effective 
             advocates for her constituents.

               Focusing her attention on efforts to build bipartisan 
             consensus on key issues that matter to Maine and America, 
             Olympia successfully built a reputation as one of 
             Congress' leading moderates. In 1999, she became cochair 
             of the Senate Centrist Coalition with Senator John Breaux 
             (D-LA), and in that same year, she was cited by 
             Congressional Quarterly for her centrist leadership.
               Olympia has worked extensively on a number of issues, 
             such as budget and fiscal responsibility; education, 
             including education technology; national security; women's 
             issues; health care, including prescription drug coverage 
             for Medicare recipients; welfare reform; oceans and 
             fisheries issues; and campaign finance reform. She co-led 
             the successful fight for a refundable child tax credit, 
             assisting an additional 37 million American families. She 
             has also led efforts important to her home State of Maine, 
             including successfully working to overturn the Department 
             of Defense's recommendations in 2005 to close two of 
             Maine's military installations, a successful push for 
             Federal disaster funds in response to a devastating 1998 
             ice storm and the 2006 flooding in southern Maine, 
             increased funding for the Togus veterans hospital, 
             reauthorization of the Northeast Dairy Compact so critical 
             to the survival of Maine's small family dairy farms, and 
             opposition to a proposed Federal rule that would have 
             devastated the State's lobster fishery.
               In 2001 Olympia became the first Republican woman ever 
             to secure a full-term seat on the Senate Finance 
             Committee, and only the third woman in history to join the 
             panel. The committee is considered one of the most 
             powerful in Congress with jurisdiction over two-thirds of 
             the entire Federal budget, because its members author tax, 
             trade, health care, welfare, Medicaid, Medicare, and 
             Social Security related legislation. Olympia also served 
             as a member of the Subcommittee on Health Care, which 
             oversees matters related to health insurance, Medicare, 
             and the uninsured.
                As former chair, and later ranking member of the Senate 
             Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Olympia 
             fought fiercely for our Nation's small businesses. Through 
             her proactive legislative efforts and strong advocacy on 
             behalf of America's small businesses, she consistently 
             championed affordable and flexible health care options, 
             increased access to capital, a fair share of Federal 
             contracting dollars and opportunities, and reduced tax and 
             regulatory burden, among other issues.
                Also a former member of the Senate Committee on 
             Commerce, Science, and Transportation, she was the former 
             chair and later ranking member of its Subcommittee on 
             Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and the Coast Guard where 
             she worked to pass legislation to allow Maine's fish and 
             fishing communities to thrive. A former member of the 
             Senate Budget Committee, she was a key voice in 
             establishing education as a priority within the context of 
             the first balanced budget since 1969, and in 1999, 2000, 
             and 2001 authored the amendment that for the first time 
             created a reserve fund for a Medicare prescription drug 
             benefit. She also sat on the Senate Select Committee on 
               Prior to her service on the Finance Committee, Senator 
             Snowe had been the fourth woman ever to serve on the 
             Senate Armed Services Committee, where she was the first 
             woman Senator to chair the Subcommittee on Seapower, which 
             oversees the Navy and Marine Corps. Olympia Snowe was a 
             leading voice in the Senate on combating sexual assault in 
             the military, fighting for gender integrated training, and 
             shipbuilding matters.
               During her tenure in the U.S. House of Representatives, 
             she cochaired the Congressional Caucus on Women's Issues 
             for more than 10 years and provided leadership in 
             establishing the Office of Women's Health at the National 
             Institutes of Health. She also served as a member of the 
             House Budget Committee; the House Foreign Affairs 
             Committee, where she was ranking Republican on the 
             Subcommittee on International Operations; and the former 
             House Select Committee on Aging, where she was ranking 
             Republican on the Subcommittee on Human Services.
               In her first term, Olympia helped launch with House 
             Speaker Tip O'Neill the Low Income Home Energy Assistance 
             Program (LIHEAP). Across her combined 30-year tenure on 
             the Foreign Affairs, Foreign Relations, Senate Armed 
             Services, and Senate Intelligence Committees, she fought 
             to keep our Nation safe--authoring the creation of a 
             Diplomatic Security Service to protect our embassies, 
             questioning our broken system of issuing visas even before 
             the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and instituting 
             greater information sharing among our intelligence 
               She served in both houses of the Maine Legislature, 
             first elected to the Maine House--representing her home 
             town of Auburn--in 1973 to the seat left vacant by the 
             death of her first husband, the late Peter Snowe, in an 
             auto accident. She was reelected in 1974, and was elected 
             to the Maine Senate representing Androscoggin County in 
               Senator Snowe is married to former Maine Governor John 
             R. McKernan, Jr., and lives in Falmouth, ME, and 
             Washington, DC. She is a member of the Holy Trinity Greek 
             Orthodox Church in Lewiston, ME.
                               Farewell to the Senate
                             Thursday, December 13, 2012

               Ms. SNOWE. Madam President, I rise today with an 
             infinite appreciation for the institution of the U.S. 
             Senate as well as a profound sense of gratitude as I 
             prepare to conclude my 18 years in the Senate and my 
             nearly 40 years in elective office on behalf of the people 
             of Maine.
               It has been difficult to envision this day when I would 
             be saying farewell to the Senate, just as it was 
             impossible to imagine I would one day become a U.S. 
             Senator as I was growing up in Maine. But such is the 
             miracle of America, that a young girl of Greek immigrants 
             and a first-generation American, who was orphaned at the 
             age of 9, could in time be elected to serve in the 
             greatest deliberative body the world has ever known and 
             become the third longest serving woman in the history of 
             the U.S. Congress.
               So in contemplating how to begin my remarks today, I was 
             reminded of the words of the renowned American poet and 
             son of New England, Ralph Waldo Emerson, who said:

               Cultivate the habit of being grateful for every good 
             thing that comes to you, and to give thanks continuously. 
             And because all things have contributed to your 
             advancement, you should include all things in your 

               That perfectly encapsulates how I am feeling on this 
             day--thankful and blessed. In that light, I first and 
             foremost want to thank the people of Maine for allowing me 
             to be their voice, their vote, and their champion for 16 
             years in the U.S. House of Representatives and for three 
             terms in the U.S. Senate. One of the definitions of the 
             word ``trust'' is ``a charge or duty imposed in faith or 
             confidence.'' To have had the trust of Maine people, who 
             have placed their faith and confidence in me, is an honor 
             of indescribable magnitude. Indeed, serving my magnificent 
             State over the past 34 years in the Halls of Congress has 
             been the greatest privilege of my life.
               I also want to thank my amazing husband, Jock McKernan, 
             who is with us today and who, as you know, was a former 
             Congressman and former Governor of Maine. In fact, when 
             Jock was Governor while I was serving in the House of 
             Representatives, we used to joke that our idea of quality 
             time together was listening to each other's speeches. But 
             truly, we have shared a passion for public service and 
             quite a unique journey together, with 56 years between us 
             in elective office, and we have never regretted a single 
               I am also pleased to say he is joined today by our very 
             wonderful, longtime friends, Dan and Sharon Miller from 
               On this occasion, I also think of my family, without 
             whom none of this would have been possible. I have often 
             joked that the secret to my electoral success is coming 
             from such a large extended family--some of whom we started 
             on campaigns at birth, I might add. They have been a 
             source of boundless love and support over the years, 
             through the struggles as well as the celebrations, and I 
             thank them from the bottom of my heart.
               It is also impossible to serve for this long and at this 
             level without dedicated and exceptional staff, and during 
             my tenure in the House and Senate, I have had nearly 400 
             people on my staff who have helped to make all the 
             difference for me, for Maine, and for Washington. Here we 
             have had tremendous support with the invaluable guidance 
             and efforts on the part of my staff through the 
             extraordinary events of more than three decades, and they 
             have represented the very best and brightest the Nation 
             has to offer. They are here today in the back of the 
             Chamber and up in the gallery, and I applaud them time and 
             time again. In fact, we had a wonderful reunion of all of 
             my staff, and I realize it just simply would not have been 
             possible to have been on this legislative journey without 
               The same is true of my staff in Maine, who have not only 
             been my eyes and ears but also my stalwart surrogates in 
             assisting Mainers with their problems and in navigating 
             the Federal bureaucracies. Like me, they have never been 
             inclined to take no for an answer, and in so doing they 
             have touched literally thousands of lives, helping to 
             soften the hardest days and brighten the darkest.
               I thank and commend the stellar staff of the Senate, 
             from all of those ensuring the operation of the Senate 
             here on the floor, to the Cloakroom staff, the legislative 
             counsel, to all of our pages who are here from all across 
             America, to all those who actually keep the facilities 
             running, and certainly to the officers who are on the 
             frontlines of Capitol security, protecting our visitors 
             and all of us. You have my deepest admiration for your 
             immeasurable contributions to the Senate and to our 
               I want to express my gratitude to the minority leader 
             for his gracious remarks about my service. Senator 
             McConnell has worked tirelessly in leading us through 
             extremely challenging moments for the Senate and for the 
             country. His longevity of legislative experience has made 
             him a true asset to this body, for our Republican caucus, 
             and I have the most heartfelt respect and appreciation for 
             his contributions to his home State of Kentucky and to 
             this country.
               To my friend and colleague Susan Collins, I want to 
             thank her for her very kind and extremely generous words 
             on the floor last week. Public service was imbued in 
             Senator Collins from her earliest days in Caribou, ME, 
             where, incredibly, both her parents, Don and Pat, were 
             former mayors of the city. I happened to have served with 
             her father Don when he was also in the State legislature. 
             For the past 16 years, Senator Collins has provided 
             exemplary representation not only for Maine but for 
             America with her voice of reason, pragmatism, and 
             thoughtfulness, and Maine will truly be in outstanding 
             hands with Susan Collins as our senior Senator.
               I am also indebted to my great friend Senator Mikulski, 
             the dean of the women in the Senate and for all women, for 
             the warm and wonderful comments she made yesterday on the 
             floor. I have known Barbara for more than 30 years, 
             beginning with our mutual service in the House of 
             Representatives. She is truly a dynamo who has always 
             brought to bear an unyielding tenacity that has 
             consistently been reflected in her vigorous advocacy for 
             those she represents.
               As I said, in 2011 she became the longest serving woman 
             in the Senate, and there is no one I would rather have 
             surpassing the length of service of Maine's legendary 
             Senator, Margaret Chase Smith, than Senator Barbara 
             Mikulski. What a reflection on her legislative stature 
             that she has now assumed the mantle of longest serving 
             woman in the history of the U.S. Congress.
               To our Presiding Officer [Mrs. McCaskill], I would say 
             that I have enjoyed serving with her as well in this 
             august Chamber and getting to know her. I know she will do 
             well into the future, and I have enjoyed working with her 
             over the years.
               I see two of my colleagues here: Senator Isakson, who is 
             my neighbor in the Russell Office Building--a gentleman in 
             every way. He has been magnificent to work with. And, of 
             course, my colleague Senator Murkowski from Alaska, who 
             has made some great contributions to the Senate with her 
             consensus-building, her dedication, and her exceptional 
             abilities. I want to thank them because I have certainly 
             enjoyed working with them and getting to know them.
               To all of my Senate colleagues, past and present, this 
             Chamber would simply be another room with fancy walls 
             without the lifeblood of passionate service and dedication 
             you bring to this institution and our Nation.
               We all have our stories about where we came from, about 
             what shaped our values and aspirations and why we care so 
             much about public service as a vehicle for securing for 
             others the American dream, for all who seek to embrace it. 
             In my instance, my own legislative journey commenced when 
             I was elected to fill my late husband's seat in the Maine 
             House of Representatives. I felt then, as I have 
             throughout my career, that our role as public servants, 
             above all else, is to solve problems. I have often 
             reflected on my 6 years in the State house and the State 
             senate in Augusta, ME, because that is where I found 
             politics and public life to be positive and constructive 
             endeavors. Once the elections were over, my colleagues and 
             I would put the campaigns and the party labels behind us 
             to enact laws that genuinely improved the lives of 
               I also inherited a legacy of bipartisanship and 
             independence from Senator Margaret Chase Smith, who is 
             best remembered for her remarks made during only her 
             second year of her first term in the U.S. Senate when, 
             with truly uncommon courage and principled independence, 
             she telegraphed the truth about McCarthyism during the Red 
             Scare of the 1950s with her renowned ``Declaration of 
             Conscience'' speech on the Senate floor. In 15 minutes she 
             had done what 94 of her colleagues--male colleagues, I 
             might add--had not dared to do, and in so doing slayed a 
             giant of demagoguery.
               So when people ask me why I may be challenging a 
             particular party position or why I don't simply go with 
             the flow, I tell them: ``Please don't take it personally. 
             I can't help it, I am from Maine.'' That is what Maine 
             people truly expect from their elected officials--they 
             expect you to do what you believe is right for the right 
             reasons and in the right way. We have seen that reflected 
             time and again, not only with Margaret Chase Smith but in 
             the distinguished service of great Senators who have 
             preceded me from Maine, from Ed Muskie to Bill Cohen and 
             the former majority leader of the Senate, George Mitchell.
               Throughout my tenure, I have borne witness to 
             government's incredible potential as an instrument for 
             that common good. I have also experienced its capacity for 
             serial dysfunction. Indeed, as I stated in announcing I 
             would not seek a fourth term in the Senate, it is 
             regrettable that excessive political polarization in 
             Washington today is preventing us from tackling our 
             problems in this period of monumental consequences for our 
               As I prepare to conclude my service in elective office, 
             let me be abundantly clear: I am not leaving the Senate 
             because I have ceased believing in its potential or I no 
             longer love the institution, but precisely because I do. I 
             am simply taking my commitment to the Senate in a 
             different direction.
               I intend to work from the outside, to help build support 
             for those in this institution who will be working to 
             reestablish the Senate's roots as a place of refuge from 
             the passions of politics, as a forum where the political 
             fires are tempered, not stoked--as our Founding Fathers 
             intended. Because the Senate in particular is our 
             essential legislative mechanism for distilling the vast 
             diversity of ideologies and opinions in America, so that 
             we might arrive at solutions to the challenges we face.
               The fact is, we are a can-do country, infused with an 
             irrepressible can-do spirit. It is in our blood, and in 
             the very fiber of who we are. It is in our hard-working 
             families, and in the limitless entrepreneurship and 
             innovation of our people. It is profoundly reflected in 
             our heroic men and women in uniform--whose unflagging 
             bravery and professionalism I have been privileged to 
             witness first hand throughout my tenure in Congress as 
             they answer the call in places like Iraq and Afghanistan, 
             with many having made the ultimate sacrifice so that we 
             may live and that freedom may always ring.
               Here in this Chamber, I have spoken with many of you who 
             came here to get things done, to solve problems and 
             achieve great things for our Nation. I have heard you 
             lament the inability to accomplish more in today's 
             polarized atmosphere. As I have traveled throughout Maine 
             and America--even overseas, people ask me, has it always 
             been this way?
               I tell them, I am so passionate about changing the tenor 
             in Congress because I have seen that it can be different. 
             It has not always been this way. And it absolutely does 
             not have to be this way.
               I have been in the Congress long enough to have 
             experienced first hand what can be accomplished when 
             individuals from various political backgrounds are 
             determined to solve a problem. For instance, when I first 
             came to the House of Representative in 1979, I joined the 
             bipartisan Congressional Caucus on Women's Issues, which I 
             ultimately cochaired for 10 years with Democratic 
             Congresswoman Pat Schroeder. We certainly did not agree on 
             everything, but with only 17 women in the House and 
             Senate, we simply could not afford to draw political lines 
             in the sand when it came to matters of importance to 
               So when we spoke on these issues, we spoke as women, not 
             as Republicans or Democrats. That is what drove our 
             agendas at the caucus--and, together, we started to make a 
             real difference for women. That was a time in America when 
             child support enforcement was viewed as strictly a woman's 
             problem, a time when pensions were canceled without a 
             spouse's approval, a time when family and medical leave 
             wasn't the law of the land, and a time when, incredibly, 
             women were systematically excluded from clinical medical 
             trials at the National Institutes of Health--trials that 
             made the difference between life and death.
               As Senator Mikulski eloquently described yesterday in 
             this Chamber, she was waging a battle for equity in 
             women's health research in the Senate while Pat Schroeder, 
             Connie Morella, and I were fighting in the House. At a 
             pivotal juncture, Senator Mikulski launched a key panel to 
             explore this shocking discriminatory treatment which 
             further galvanized national attention. In the end, 
             together, we produced watershed policy changes that, to 
             this day, are resulting in life-saving medical discoveries 
             for America's women.
               In the House, we often worked across party lines to 
             craft our Federal budgets, in sharp contrast to today's 
             broken process where we cannot pass a budget in 3 years, 
             even with unprecedented deficits and debt. When President 
             Reagan was elected in 1980, he knew he had to build 
             coalitions to pass budgets that would address the 
             tumultuous economy. The result was that the moderate 
             northeast Republican group called the Gypsy Moths and the 
             conservative-to-moderate Democratic group called the 
             ``Boll Weevils'' negotiated budgets together, to help 
             reconcile our political and regional differences and in a 
             model for bipartisanship, all of us spent days and weeks 
             fashioning budgets, literally going through function by 
               Arriving at compromise was not easy by any means. It 
             never is. But the point is, we can undertake the difficult 
             work, if we choose to do so.
               I was able to make a difference even as a member of the 
             minority throughout my entire tenure in the House, by 
             reaching across the political aisle. In 1995, when the 
             voters of Maine entrusted me to be their voice and their 
             vote in the U.S. Senate and I was finally serving in the 
             majority, I believed this kind of cooperative disposition 
             would remain an indispensable commodity in meeting the 
             challenges of the times.
               That is why I joined the Senate Centrist Coalition 
             shortly after arriving in the Senate, which had been 
             formed by Senators John Chafee and John Breaux during the 
             1994 health reform debate to bridge the political divide. 
             After Senator Chafee passed away in 1999, Senator Breaux 
             and I thought it was an imperative that we revive the 
             coalition to help foster bipartisanship following the 
             divisiveness of the Senate impeachment trial. Following 
             the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Bush v. Gore that 
             adjudicated the Presidential election, and an evenly split 
             Senate with 50 Republicans and 50 Democrats, Senate 
             leaders Lott and Daschle joined with nearly one-third of 
             the Senate at a meeting of the coalition to explore how to 
             move forward in a bipartisan fashion.
               It is precisely this kind of approach that is crucial, 
             because it is only when we minimize the political barriers 
             that we can maximize the Senate, allowing it to become an 
             unparalleled incubator for results that truly matter to 
             the American people.
               It was a cross-aisle alliance that produced the so-
             called E-Rate Program in 1996. This was a landmark law 
             ensuring every library and classroom in America would be 
             wired to the revolutionary resources of the Internet, 
             which one publication has ranked as fourth in a list of 
             innovations and initiatives that have helped shape 
             education technology over the past generation.
               My good friend and colleague Senator Rockefeller, with 
             whom I have been privileged to work on so many issues, was 
             doggedly determined to enact this benchmark initiative. In 
             typical fashion, Jay was not going to take no for an 
             answer--which made us perfect partners and coauthors, as I 
             was equally determined. By working with Members of both 
             parties who were willing to hear the facts and judge on 
             the merits, we overcame the hurdles and the E-Rate Program 
             was born.
               During the 2001 tax debates, Senator Blanche Lincoln and 
             I as members of the Finance Committee joined together to 
             increase the amount of the child tax credit and make it 
             refundable, so that low-income families who didn't earn 
             enough to pay Federal taxes could still benefit from the 
             credit. Ultimately, our measure was enacted, becoming only 
             the second refundable tax credit ever, and ensuring the 
             child tax credit would assist an additional 13 million 
             more children and lift 500,000 of those children out of 
               I also think of how my friend, Senator Landrieu who is 
             sitting here in the Chamber as well, and I formed the 
             Senate Common Ground Coalition in 2006, to rekindle cross-
             party relations. Not only have Mary and I made history as 
             the first women to serve simultaneously as chair and 
             ranking on a standing committee, but we have worked 
             together on numerous measures that are assisting America's 
             greatest jobs generators, our small businesses.
               In a shining example of what is possible with civility 
             and bipartisan teamwork, Senator Ted Kennedy and I 
             coauthored the landmark Genetic Nondiscrimination Act--to 
             stop insurance companies and employers from denying or 
             dropping coverage based on genetic tests, so individuals 
             would not forgo those potentially life-saving tests. At 
             that juncture, Democrats were in the majority--and 
             traditionally, the chair of a committee takes the lead 
             name on legislation. But Ted approached me and said 
             essentially that, because my work on GINA had made it 
             possible, it should be ``Snowe-Kennedy'' not ``Kennedy-
             Snowe''--a magnanimous legislative gesture from the 
             legislative lion of the U.S. Senate. I am proud to say 
             GINA passed in 2008 and has been referred to as ``the 
             first major civil rights act of the 21st century.''
               So there are templates for working together effectively 
             in the U.S. Senate on behalf of the American people. On 
             occasion, it is the very institution of the Senate itself 
             that is preserved when we stake out common ground.
               Even in the highly charged atmosphere of the 
             Presidential impeachment trial, we made the process work. 
             During a gathering of the Republican Caucus, I advocated 
             that we hold a bipartisan meeting in the Old Senate 
             Chamber, to generate agreement between the parties on the 
             conduct of the trial. The Senate had been about to decide 
             the guidelines of the trial on a purely partisan basis, 
             but by convening both parties, we were able to chart a 
             logical, reasonable, and judicious course.
               In 2005, I joined the so-called ``Gang of 14,'' 
             comprised of 7 Republicans and 7 Democrats and spearheaded 
             largely by Senators John Warner, John McCain, Robert Byrd, 
             and Ben Nelson. The group was formed to avert an 
             institutional crisis as a result of repeated, systematic 
             filibuster of President Bush's judicial nominees that had 
             been a corrosive force on the Senate. In response, the 
             Republican majority was seeking to break the logjam by 
             exercising the so-called ``nuclear option,'' that would 
             have jettisoned long-standing rules requiring 60 votes to 
             end a filibuster.
               That 60 vote threshold had always been a bulwark 
             protecting the rights of the minority, but would have 
             become just a simple majority vote. Yet, just as we were 
             about to cross this political Rubicon, the Gang of 14 
             forged a pact based on mutual trust, that we would only 
             support a filibuster of judicial nominees under what we 
             labeled ``extraordinary circumstances,'' and we would 
             oppose the ``nuclear option,'' an agreement that embodied 
             the very manifestation of the power of consensus building.
               So as this body contemplates changes to its rules in the 
             next Congress, I would urge all of my colleagues who will 
             return next year to follow the Gang of 14 template and 
             exercise a similar level of caution and balance. Because 
             what makes the Senate unique, what situates this 
             institution better than any other to secure the continued 
             greatness of our Nation, is that balance between 
             accommodation of the minority and primacy of the majority. 
             Regardless of who is in the minority, any suppression of 
             the ability to debate and shape legislation is tantamount 
             to silencing millions of voices and ideas--which are 
             critical to developing the best possible solutions.
               I have mentioned all these examples as illustrations of 
             the boundless potential of the Senate--and that our 
             problems are not insurmountable, if we refuse to be 
             intractable. It is not about what is in the best interests 
             of a single political party, but what is in the best 
             interests of our country.
               As far back as the fledgling days of our Nation, our 
             Founding Fathers warned of the dangers of undue allegiance 
             to political parties--a potential that Alexander Hamilton 
             and James Madison specifically cited in the Federalist 
             Papers. Now, one study by three political scientists pegs 
             Congress at its highest level of polarization since the 
             end of Reconstruction in 1877. It is true that, in the 
             intervening years, we have had no duels to settle 
             disagreements and no canings on the Senate floor as 
             occurred in the earlier years of the Senate--although 
             there was a physical brawl on the Senate floor in 1902. 
             Yet, the fact we are still more polarized now than at any 
             moment in 140 years speaks volumes.
               So instead of focusing on issues as the Senate was 
             uniquely established to do, we've become more like a 
             parliamentary system where we simply vote in political 
             blocs. We have departed and diverged from the Senate's 
             traditional rules and norms in a manner that is entirely 
             contradictory to the historical purpose of the Senate and 
             the role the Founding Fathers intended for the Senate to 
               The very name of our institution, the Senate, derives 
             from the Latin root senatus, or council of elders, where 
             the council of elders represented the qualities of 
             experience and wisdom and not just some experience and 
             some wisdom in a deliberative body, but more experience 
             and more wisdom in the highest deliberative body.
               For thousands of years, and for the Greeks and our 
             Framers alike, the Senate has stood as an assembly where 
             the lessons of individual experiences were translated by 
             measured wisdom into stable collective judgments. 
             Therefore, understanding through patience, appreciation 
             through tolerance, and consensus through moderation are 
             all required to reach such judgments and to do the work of 
             the people. Indeed, I would argue it is only by 
             recognizing and striving to meet the institutional ideals 
             of the Senate that we can aspire to fill our obligations 
             to those we represent.
               We all take an oath to support and defend the 
             Constitution of the United States and to bear true faith 
             and allegiance to the same. I have always believed this 
             oath necessarily included a duty to support and defend the 
             Senate as an institution and the integrity of its 
             deliberative process. That requires the ability to listen 
             before judging, to judge before advocating, and to 
             advocate without polarizing. It also includes a capacity 
             to differ with one's own party, and even to reach 
             agreement and compromise with another party when one's own 
             party is unable to prevail. Such leadership necessarily 
             requires all Members to recognize their individual duty to 
             serve the people best by serving our Chamber with the 
             highest standards of consideration, deliberation, and 
               Former Supreme Court Justice Souter once said, and I am 
             paraphrasing: All of the Court's hard cases are divisive 
             because one set of values is truly at odds with another, 
             and the Constitution gives no simple rule of decision. 
             For, in truth, we value liberty as well as order, we value 
             freedom as well as security, and we value fairness as well 
             as equality.
               So in the tough cases judges have a hard job of choosing 
             not between those things that are good and those that are 
             evil, but between the many, and often competing, good 
             things that the Constitution allows. Justice Souter could 
             have been talking about the work of the Senate and the 
             often difficult choices we too are required to make. This 
             observation accepts the intrinsic competition that defines 
             these difficult choices but resolves to rely on reason, 
             meaning, and the reputational integrity of the process to 
             make and explain the ultimate decisions.
               Indeed, the Justice concluded his remarks by saying he 
             knew of ``no other way to make good on the aspirations 
             that tell us who we are--and who we mean to be--as the 
             people of the United States.''
               We have witnessed the heights the Senate is capable of 
             reaching when it adheres to its founding precepts. Just 
             think about how we came together in the aftermath of the 
             catastrophic events of 9/11 to secure our country and to 
             help heal our Nation. Just think about the major debates 
             of the 20th century on such watershed issues as the 
             establishment of Social Security, Medicare, and the Civil 
             Rights Act. None of these profound advancements would have 
             been woven into the fabric of our society today if they 
             had been passed simply on party-line votes rather than the 
             solidly bipartisan basis on which each of them was 
               I am not claiming there was some kind of golden age of 
             bipartisanship where everyone all sang from the same 
             legislative hymn book, and I am not advocating 
             bipartisanship as some kind of an end unto itself. That is 
             not the point. What I am saying is we have seen how 
             cooperation in the past has resulted in great 
             achievements, which likely never would have occurred if 
             bipartisanship had not intervened as a means to attaining 
             those most worthy ends.
               Our grandest accomplishments in the Congress were also a 
             reflection of the particular compromises and level of 
             urgency required by the times in which they were forged. 
             Recently, New York Times columnist David Brooks summarized 
             this concept well when he wrote that there are policies 
             that are not permanently right and that:

               [S]ituations matter most. Tax cuts might be right one 
             decade but wrong the next. Tighter regulations might be 
             right one decade, but if sclerosis sets in then 
             deregulation might be in order.

               As we confront the impending confluence of issues known 
             as the fiscal cliff, we are at a moment of major 
             significance that requires the application of the 
             principle that Brooks describes. For the sake of the 
             country, we must demonstrate to the American people that 
             we are, in fact, capable of making the big decisions by 
             putting in place an agreement and a framework to avoid the 
             fiscal cliff before we adjourn this year.
               We are surrounded by history perpetually in the Senate 
             as well as throughout the Capitol. How could we not be 
             inspired by it to rise to this occasion? Indeed, if you 
             know history, you understand the very story of America's 
             most formative days was defined by an understanding that 
             effective governance requires the building of consensus, 
             and such consensus is achievable even after the exercise 
             of passionate advocacy, which, in conclusion, brings us 
             back to the creation of a document we all cherish and 
             revere; that is, our U.S. Constitution.
               Madam President, 225 years ago, 55 leaders from 
             divergent geographic and philosophical backgrounds 
             converged on the city of Philadelphia to draft a new 
             structure of government to strengthen our fledgling 
             country. These were no shrinking violets. They had risked 
             their lives and fortunes to establish a new nation under 
             God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.
               They were strong willed and unabashedly opinionated. 
             They disagreed and argued about a great many matters, both 
             petty and consequential. Thomas Jefferson even considered 
             Virginia, and not the United States, as his country. Yet 
             by September of that year, 39 of the original delegates 
             signed the most enduring and ingenious governing document 
             the world has ever known, the Constitution of the United 
               It didn't happen because 55 people who shared identical 
             viewpoints gathered in a room and rubber-stamped their 
             unanimous thinking. It happened because these visionaries 
             determined that the gravity and the enormity of their 
             common goal necessitated the courage to advance 
             decisionmaking through consensus.
               I worry that we are losing the art of legislating. When 
             the history of this chapter in the Senate is written, we 
             don't want it to conclude it was here that it became an 
             antiquated practice. So as I depart the Senate that I 
             love, I urge all of my colleagues to follow the Founding 
             Fathers' blueprint in order to return this institution to 
             its highest calling of governing through consensus. For it 
             is only then that the United States can ascend to fulfill 
             the demands of our time, the promise of our Nation, and 
             the rightful expectations of the American people.
               Thank you, Madam President. May God bless you, and may 
             God bless the United States of America.




                                  OLYMPIA J. SNOWE
                              Proceedings in the Senate
                                             Thursday, December 6, 2012
               Ms. COLLINS. Mr. President, many of our colleagues will 
             be leaving us at the end of this Congress, and I wish to 
             take time this morning to pay tribute to some of my 
             colleagues, particularly those with whom I have worked 
             most closely. Of course, I must start with my colleague 
             and friend from Maine, Olympia Snowe.
               In ancient Sparta, there was a saying that roughly 
             translates as this: It seems all the world knows what is 
             the right thing to do, but it is only the Spartans who 
             will do anything about it.
               As my friend, colleague, and senior Senator from Maine, 
             Olympia Snowe, ends her service in the Senate, I rise to 
             pay tribute to this descendant of that legendary 
             civilization. Olympia is a true leader who has always 
             devoted her considerable intellect, energy, and commitment 
             to doing what was right for Maine and for America. Olympia 
             Snowe has dedicated her life to public service: 18 years 
             in the Senate, preceded by 16 representing Maine's Second 
             Congressional District, plus 5 in the Maine Legislature 
             adds up to a remarkable record of commitment to our Nation 
             and the great State of Maine.
               That span of nearly four decades tells us only part of 
             the story, for Olympia has truly set the gold standard for 
             public service. From the State house to the U.S. Capitol, 
             Olympia has built an outstanding reputation as an 
             informed, thoughtful, and effective legislator. She can 
             always be counted on as a leader with integrity who 
             pursued solutions and who had no interest in just scoring 
             partisan political points. It is Olympia's character that 
             has made all the difference.
               The private acts of public figures can tell us a lot 
             about their character, so I wish to share with my 
             colleagues this morning a story about Olympia Snowe that I 
             witnessed personally. There was a Republican fundraiser 
             going on one night and I was arriving late, driving up in 
             a car. People were streaming out of the fundraiser and 
             each of them was passing by a man who was on crutches, 
             with only one leg, clearly destitute, clearly down on his 
             luck, who was asking for money. Everybody but Olympia 
             Snowe passed him by without a word, as if he were 
             invisible. Olympia went over to this destitute man on 
             crutches, with one leg, and she not only handed him some 
             money but she took the time to talk with him. I think that 
             tells us so much about who Olympia Snowe is--her kindness 
             to this individual, when everyone else was passing him by, 
             her kindness to him when no one was watching, her kindness 
             to him was a private act that told all of us so much about 
             her character.
               With her retirement from the Senate, Olympia Snowe will 
             join the pantheon of great leaders our State has produced: 
             Margaret Chase Smith, Ed Muskie, George Mitchell, and Bill 
             Cohen. All of them, similar to Olympia, exemplify the 
             principle that public office is a sacred trust.
               Olympia's inspiring record of service is but part of an 
             even more inspiring life story. Several times, from 
             childhood on, Olympia has been visited by tragedy that 
             would have caused most people to become discouraged, 
             disheartened, and negative. Each time Olympia rose, 
             transcended her personal tragedy, and was more determined 
             than before to succeed and to contribute to a better life 
             for others. Her well-deserved popularity among Maine 
             people transcends party lines and is testament to her 
             strength and her spirit.
               The people of Maine and America are grateful for her 
             many years of service. I am grateful for her leadership 
             and her friendship. I know Olympia Snowe will continue to 
             influence national policy for many years to come.
                                           Wednesday, December 12, 2012
               Mr. McCONNELL. ... This morning I would like to say a 
             few words about my friend and longtime colleague, Senator 
               She has devoted the last 40 years of her life to serving 
             the people of Maine. It has been an honor to work 
             alongside this remarkable woman for the last 18 years and 
             to see up close her tenacity and tough-mindedness in the 
             service of her constituents. Some have described Senator 
             Snowe's advocacy for Mainers as ferocious, and I think 
             there are few better examples of that than the fight she 
             waged on behalf of Maine after the BRAC recommendations of 
               When the list of targeted facilities came out, Senator 
             Snowe mounted what has been described as a relentless 
             months-long campaign akin to a defense at a trial. She 
             marshaled all the data and the best arguments. When 
             decision day finally arrived, not only were two of the 
             three Maine facilities told to remain open, one of them 
             was actually expanded. It is stories such as this that 
             help explain why Olympia's constituents keep sending her 
             back to Washington by such wide margins and why so many 
             were shocked to hear that she would be leaving at the end 
             of the year.
               As one shipyard worker in Portsmouth whose job she 
             helped save put it: ``We love her, and she loves us. I 
             can't recall ever saying that publicly about a U.S. 
             Senator, but truly she's such a wonderful person.''
               As Senator Snowe will tell you, many of her political 
             views solidified during her modest Maine upbringing. Her 
             parents ran a diner near Augusta. While they didn't have 
             much, her father was adamant she receive a good education. 
             So much so that he was dismayed to learn her kindergarten 
             only lasted half the day. ``He was convinced,'' she once 
             said, ``that I was getting off on the wrong foot.''
               It was at school that Olympia first discovered her 
             passion for politics. At St. Basil's Academy, a Greek 
             Orthodox girls' school she attended until she was 15, she 
             won her first election--as dorm president. She later 
             graduated from Edward Little High School in Auburn, ME, 
             and subsequently attended the University of Maine where, 
             in 1969, she earned a degree in political science. It was 
             also in college that she met Peter Snowe. Peter shared 
             Olympia's passion for politics. They married shortly after 
             graduation. In 1972 Peter was elected to the State 
             legislature, while Olympia went to work as a legislative 
             staffer for Maine Congressman Bill Cohen.
               The young couple seemed well on their way to building a 
             life together, but in 1973, in the midst of a winter 
             snowstorm, tragedy struck. Peter was killed in a car 
             crash, and at a still young age Olympia was left to build 
             a life for herself.
               What could have marked the end of her political 
             aspirations became a new beginning instead. As Olympia 
             once put it, she resolved to ``make a positive out of a 
             terrible negative.'' She ran for office in the special 
             election held to fill her late husband's seat, and she 
             won. It was the start of a long and distinguished career 
             in public service.
               Olympia was subsequently reelected to the Maine House in 
             1974 and elected to the Maine Senate in 1976. In 1978, 
             when Bill Cohen, her friend and former boss, ran for the 
             U.S. Senate, she ran for his seat in the House of 
             Representatives and won again.
               At the age of 31, she was at the time the youngest 
             Republican woman ever elected to Congress and 1 of just 16 
             women in the House. Olympia served eight terms in the 
             House. She was a member of the House Budget Committee, the 
             House Foreign Affairs Committee, and the former House 
             Select Committee on Aging. Working with an Arizona lawyer 
             named Jon Kyl and a Mississippi whip named Trent Lott, she 
             helped turn minority Republicans into a potent legislative 
             force, ensuring some of the biggest legislative victories 
             of the Reagan era.
               It was while serving in the House that Olympia met Jock 
             McKernan, who was a rising political star in his own 
             right. Elected as Maine's second Congressman in 1982, Jock 
             served alongside Olympia in the House and was later 
             elected Governor of Maine. The two were married in 1989, 
             and they have been a great team since. As Olympia puts it: 
             ``I have a wonderful partner in life. We've been able to 
             ride the waves together.''
               When George Mitchell announced his retirement in 1994, 
             Olympia threw her hat into the ring and won by a landslide 
             with 60 percent of the vote against her opponent's 36 
             percent and carrying every county in the State. Believe it 
             or not, it was the smallest margin of victory she has 
             enjoyed in three Senate races. With this victory, Olympia 
             became the only woman in history to serve in both houses 
             of her State legislature and both Houses of Congress.
               In the Senate, Olympia has worked tirelessly as a member 
             of the Finance Committee, the Armed Services Committee, 
             the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 
             the Select Committee on Intelligence, and as chair of the 
             Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship.
               A lot of people like to focus on Olympia's independent 
             streak, but my experience is that she herself has always 
             cared most deeply about the people of Maine. She has gone 
             through great efforts over the years to talk to her 
             constituents directly. She once said, ``I've made main 
             street tours across this State a hallmark of my tenure in 
             public office. They are like my secret poll.''
               It is through these tours that Olympia decides which 
             problems to fix--whether it was storm relief after the 
             1998 ice storm, the fight I already mentioned to keep 
             Maine's military facilities open, or reauthorization of 
             the Northeast Dairy Compact on behalf of Maine's dairy 
               Of course, this isn't to downplay Olympia's penchant for 
             independence or for joining gangs. Senator Snowe's 
             maternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from 
             Sparta, which may help explain her fighting spirit. Just 
             like the Spartan King Leonidas, she has never been afraid 
             of a fight--even with members of her own party.
               She headed the Centrist Coalition with Senator Breaux. 
             She cochaired the Common Ground Coalition with Senator 
             Landrieu. In 1999 she was one of five Republicans to vote 
             to acquit President Clinton of both articles of 
             impeachment. And in 2005 she joined the bipartisan Gang of 
             14, which helped defuse an earlier dispute about threats 
             to change the Senate rules.
               Yet what many fail to mention is that despite her 
             vaunted independence, Olympia has always been a very proud 
             Republican. She recently said:

               We believe as Republicans that the individual is more 
             important than the State. We believe that the great days 
             of our past can be a steppingstone to an even greater 
             future. We believe a job is preferential to a handout and 
             independence is better than dependence. We believe that 
             the private sector is more productive than big government 
             will ever be.

               When it comes to a balanced budget--a top priority for 
             the party--Senator Snowe has been a true leader. She has 
             been a longtime supporter of a balanced budget amendment. 
             As far back as 1993, when she was still serving in the 
             House, she was one of four initial sponsors of the 
             legislation that would have mandated a balanced budget. 
             One of her first acts as a Senator was to deliver a speech 
             before a Senate committee in support of a balanced budget 
               Olympia's many accomplishments have attracted broad 
             notice outside of Washington. In 2004 Forbes named her 
             ``One of the 100 Most Powerful Women in the World,'' 
             rating her even more influential than J.K. Rowling or 
             Oprah. In 2006 Time named her one of the ``Ten Best 
             Senators,'' noting that she is ``in the center of every 
             policy debate in Washington.''
               I do not think anything compares with the honor that was 
             bestowed on Senator Snowe by the townspeople of Bethel, 
             ME, who, in 1999, created the ``Olympia SnowWoman,'' a 
             122-foot tall snowman that still ranks as the tallest 
             snowman--or woman--ever built. It required 13 million 
             pounds of snow, took more than 1 month to build, wore a 
             100-foot-long scarf, had 2 entire 27-foot evergreen trees 
             for arms, and required 16 pairs of skis for eyelashes.
               ``It's just my luck,'' Senator Snowe said of the 
             monument, ``I'd have a world record breaking monument 
             named after me, and it will be gone by summer.''
               Olympia, you have had a truly remarkable career. We 
             thank you for your service to this Chamber and most 
             especially to the people of the great State of Maine. We 
             wish you all the best in the next phase of your life and, 
             as you think of what to put in your memoir, I would only 
             ask one thing: Please, go easy on us.

               Ms. MIKULSKI. Madam President, I rise during this 
             morning business hour to speak--particularly during this 
             time of tension as we are looking at the fiscal cliff--to 
             really use a few minutes to pay a tribute to two 
             wonderful, outstanding Senators with whom I have served 
             and who will be leaving us at the end of this term. They 
             are wonderful women named Senator Olympia Snowe of Maine 
             and Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison of Texas, dear friends 
             across the aisle. Although they were on the other side of 
             the aisle, there was no great divide between us. We have 
             known each other for many years.
               I would like to say a few words about my very dear 
             friend, Senator Olympia Snowe. I served with Senator 
             Olympia Snowe in the U.S. House of Representatives and 
             then in the U.S. Senate. Wow. What an outstanding Senator 
             and Congressperson she has been, and I know we will 
             continue to see Senator Snowe in some type of role in 
             public service because that is just the kind of person she 
             is. She is deeply, in her DNA, a public servant.
               Senator Snowe has served her State of Maine and our 
             Nation so well. She is one of our most respected Members 
             of Congress, known for her civility, her sensibility, and 
             her mastery of the issues. I might add that she brings 
             that New England sense of a more frugal government but at 
             the same time shows that you can do it in a compassionate, 
             smart way.
               I know her as a cherished friend, a dear colleague, and 
             a crucial partner on so many issues. As I said, we served 
             in the House and the Senate together. We worked on those 
             issues I talk about, the macro-issues and the macaroni-
             and-cheese issues. We fought for a better economy, 
             particularly in the area of small business; a safer 
             country, as we worked on the Intelligence Committee 
             together; and a more efficient government. Also, we worked 
             together on many issues pertaining to women. In the area 
             of small business, she is currently the ranking member on 
             the Small Business Committee, with our other colleague, 
             Senator Mary Landrieu. She knows the backbone of Maine's 
             economy is small business, and she also knows it is the 
             backbone of the American economy.
               I have watched her day in and day out being concerned 
             about her fishermen who were out there working in the cold 
             waters off of Georges Bank for lobsters and the small shop 
             owners on Main Street. From the potato fields and lumber 
             yards to L.L. Bean, Olympia Snowe has stood for them but 
             also for the big issues in terms of jobs in the Bath 
               In national security, we have worked together to look 
             out for our troops over there and to protect our 
             communities from predators back here. She has been 
             steadfast and true. It is a committee that meets often 
             behind closed doors, but I will tell you, this is a 
             Senator who continually looks after the safety of the 
             American people.
               One of the areas in which I have worked the closest with 
             her is the area of women's health. You might be interested 
             to know that Senator Snowe and I received the Good 
             Housekeeping Outstanding Achievement Award for what we did 
             to advance the cause of finding a cure for breast cancer. 
             Now, when I called my sisters and told them I was getting 
             a Good Housekeeping award, they thought it was the 
             funniest thing they had ever heard. When I told them I was 
             getting it with Olympia Snowe, they knew it had 
             credibility. I say that because what we did in working 
             together was in medical research and in clinical trials.
               You might be interested to know that when I came to the 
             Senate, the only other woman Senator was Nancy Kassebaum--
             another wonderful person across the aisle. Women were not 
             included in the protocols at NIH. Can you believe that? 
             That famous study--take an aspirin a day, keep a heart 
             attack away--was done with 10,000 male medical students. 
             Not one woman was there. They regarded including women in 
             research as presenting deviant results. We were known as 
             the deviant results. Well, Pat Schroeder; Olympia Snowe; 
             another Republican Congresswoman, Connie Morella from 
             Maryland--we said this couldn't continue. So we organized 
             across the dome, across the aisle, and we went across the 
             beltway to NIH. We pulled up and we demanded answers, 
             scientific answers, on why we weren't included.
               The day we pulled up in our cars on a bipartisan basis, 
             George Bush the elder appointed Bernadine Healey to head 
             NIH. Then, again working together across the aisle and 
             across the dome, working with Senators Kennedy and Harkin, 
             we established the Office of Research on Women's Health at 
             NIH. The famous hormonal replacement therapy study was 
             done. It resulted in massive change in the way doctors 
             treated women, and it has reduced breast cancer rates 15 
               So I say to all, when you ask, what did Olympia Snowe 
             do, she would say: ``I worked on a bipartisan basis.'' And 
             because of what she did, we did, we all did working 
             together, men and women, House and Senate, we have saved 
             the lives of women 1 million at a time. I think that is a 
             terrific accomplishment. No matter what Senator Snowe 
             does, she can cherish in her heart that she did that.
               While we were busy doing the big picture, she helped me 
             with an individual picture. We went to the refugee camps 
             of Cambodia together, along with the Congresswomen. It was 
             when the killing fields were at that time the highest. We 
             saw the horrible consequences of war. We worked together 
             to feed and care for the children.
               I met a young girl in a refugee camp, in the Catholic 
             Relief feeding camp. Working with Senator Snowe, we 
             brought that little girl to the United States of America. 
             She is alive here today, married and living as an American 
               So what did Olympia Snowe do? She saved jobs and she 
             saved lives. I am proud to work with her, and we are going 
             to miss her. ...
               I am pretty emotional, actually, when I think about 
             Olympia and Kay. We have been together a long time. We 
             welcome the Acting President pro tempore and your 
             generation, but for those of us who maybe didn't build the 
             Pyramids--and I hope Senator Hutchison can say the same--
             there is a lot of meaning in a Latin phrase I learned in 
             Catholic girls school many years ago: Exegi monumentum 
             aere perennius: We will build a monument more lasting than 
               When Senator Hutchison returns to Texas again to find a 
             new way to serve the people of this country, she will know 
             that here in this institution, along with Senator Olympia 
             Snowe, they built monuments to last far longer than any 
             statues made of bronze. They made a difference in the 
             lives of people, and they have done it in a way they can 
             be proud of and for which we can all be grateful.
                                            Thursday, December 13, 2012
               Ms. LANDRIEU. Madam President, for those of us in the 
             Chamber, and those of us listening, that [Ms. Snowe's 
             farewell speech] was one of those beautifully crafted and 
             beautifully deliberated and eloquent statements not only 
             about a Member's service as a Member of the U.S. Senate, 
             but a vision of the world we created and what we can be 
             again. It is so appropriate for the parting words of the 
             Senator, who is truly among the great who has served here.
               I have had the great pleasure of working with the 
             Senator from Maine. As she very graciously pointed out, we 
             served together on the Small Business Committee. We were 
             the first of two women to chair a major committee for an 
             entire Congress.
               There are Members here--Senator Mikulski and others--who 
             served for many years with Senator Snowe. For the minute 
             that I have before others speak, I just wanted to say that 
             she has served for over 34 years in public office. Her 
             integrity is beyond reproach. She served with intelligence 
             and grace that is widely admired, not just on Capitol Hill 
             and in her home State of Maine, but broadly throughout the 
             United States and the world. Her capacity for hard work 
             and tedious negotiations on important matters is inspiring 
             to us all. She has been a clear and clarion voice for 
             women and girls in Maine, the United States, and around 
             the world, for their legal rights, their economic 
             advancement, and their social advancement.
               Above all, as we just heard, she has been a clarion call 
             for common sense and common ground. She was literally 
             involved in every major effort in the last 30 years to 
             find common sense and common ground in a place that is 
             getting harder and harder to find those two qualities 
             every day. So it is with a deep sense of regret that I, 
             for one, am going to have to say goodbye to her as a 
             colleague and a Member of the Senate.
               I want her to know that I will continue--and I know many 
             of my colleagues feel this way--to work as closely with 
             her in any capacity of her choice to continue to be a 
             great voice for compassion, compromise, and common sense.
               The people of Maine are losing a great Senator. The 
             United States is losing a unique talent that has served 
             this country and this institution so magnificently. We 
             wish her the best, and we say a respectful goodbye.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Maryland.

               Ms. MIKULSKI. Madam President, yesterday I had the honor 
             of addressing the full Senate to pay a more amplified 
             tribute to the gentlelady from Maine. I will miss her 
             dearly and deeply. We have served both in the House and 
             the Senate together. We have done real good things, 
             including one of our finest bipartisan efforts in the area 
             of women's health in getting women included in the 
             protocols appropriately, the scientific way at NIH when we 
             were excluded. We helped to advance the whole issue of 
             more money for research for breast cancer and other 
             diseases that are generally specific to women.
               I will never forget the day when Good Housekeeping 
             called and said that Senator Snowe and I were going to get 
             an award. I immediately called my family and told my 
             sisters that I had won the Good Housekeeping Award. Well, 
             they thought that was hilarious. I have many awards for 
             speaking, longest serving, but not Good Housekeeping. When 
             I told them I was getting the award with Senator Snowe, 
             they knew it had integrity, credibility, and was well 
               So I just want to, from the bottom of my heart, thank 
             the people of Maine, who will express their gratitude for 
             her service. She has a duty-driven approach, an uncommon 
             sense to get the job done in a way that is inclusive and 
             has benefited our entire country whether they be small 
             business or the little people whose voices are never 
               So we wish her God bless, Godspeed, and we hope to see 
             her speaking out exactly on what she did today, a call 
             toward citizenship and more bipartisanship and less 
               God bless you, Senator Snowe.

               Mr. CONRAD. Mr. President, I also pay tribute to my 
             friend and colleague, Senator Olympia Snowe, who is 
             retiring from the Senate after 18 years of exemplary 
             service representing the people of Maine.
               Though thousands of miles apart, Maine and North Dakota 
             face similar challenges. In particular, we share very 
             similar climates. Our States' residents must endure long 
             winters, and, for the most vulnerable, keeping their homes 
             warm is sometimes a challenge. Senator Snowe has always 
             understood how difficult it can be for some families to 
             pay their utility bills and keep their heat on through 
             harsh winters and has been a tireless supporter of the Low 
             Income Home Energy Assistance Program, which provides 
             struggling families in our States with the certainty of a 
             warm home.
               Senator Snowe's constant attention to constituent 
             concerns have made her one of the most popular Senators in 
             the Nation, and her dedication to her State and country 
             has not gone unrecognized. Throughout her 37 years of 
             public service, Senator Snowe has earned many honors and 
             distinctions. In 2005, Forbes rated her as the 54th most 
             powerful woman in the world. Later, in 2006, Time magazine 
             recognized her as one of America's Best Senators. She was 
             also recognized as one of eight female politicians that 
             could run and be elected President of the United States.
               Senator Snowe is a true statesman and public servant, 
             never hesitating to put people over politics and fiercely 
             representing the values and needs of her constituents. 
             Throughout all her years of service, her steady resolve, 
             moderate voice, and willingness to work across the aisle 
             have been a force in Washington. It has truly been an 
             honor working with her to find practical solutions to our 
             Nation's most pressing issues. In a time of partisan 
             excess, Senator Snowe's ability to reach compromises with 
             Members on both sides of the aisle was extremely valuable 
             to this venerable institution. She will be sorely missed.
               I thank Senator Snowe for her service to her country in 
             the U.S. Senate and wish her the very best in the future.
                                             Tuesday, December 18, 2012
               Mr. HARKIN. Mr. President, I come to the floor now to 
             bid farewell to one of the Senate's most respected 
             Members, Senator Olympia Snowe from the great State of 
             Maine. She chose to retire this year after a distinguished 
             career in public service spanning nearly four decades, 
             first in the Maine Legislature, 6 years in the U.S. House, 
             and the last 18 years here in the U.S. Senate.
               Throughout this remarkable career, she has been 
             respected for her independence, always putting her values 
             and country ahead of party and partisanship. She can, of 
             course, be a very persuasive advocate for the conservative 
             causes she holds dear, but, as we all know and appreciate, 
             she is willing to buck party loyalty when she believes it 
             is in error or when she believes in what is better for our 
             country. Our future depends on bipartisanship. I cite, for 
             example, when she voted in favor of the Recovery Act and 
             the Dodd-Frank reform of Wall Street.
               I especially admire Senator Snowe's talent for reaching 
             across the aisle and building bridges in order to get 
             things done. On that score, she has represented the United 
             States and her State of Maine at her very best, and that 
             is just one of the many reasons why we are sad that she 
             has chosen, voluntarily, to retire.
               Olympia Snowe has been a wonderful colleague and friend, 
             always congenial, always willing to listen, always willing 
             to examine different sides of an issue. What more could we 
             ask of any U.S. Senator? We have been fortunate to have 
             had a Senator of her high caliber, intelligence, and 
             character in this body for the last 18 years. I join with 
             the entire Senate family in wishing her and John the very 
             best in the years ahead.
                                            Thursday, December 20, 2012
               Mr. REED. Madam President, at this time I wish to take a 
             few minutes to salute my colleagues who are retiring at 
             the end of this year with the conclusion of the 112th 
             Congress: Daniel Akaka of Hawaii, Jeff Bingaman of New 
             Mexico, Scott Brown of Massachusetts, Kent Conrad of North 
             Dakota, Jim DeMint of South Carolina, Kay Bailey Hutchison 
             of Texas, Herb Kohl of Wisconsin, Jon Kyl of Arizona, 
             Joseph Lieberman of Connecticut, Richard Lugar of Indiana, 
             Ben Nelson of Nebraska, Olympia Snowe of Maine, and Jim 
             Webb of Virginia. They have all worked ceaselessly to give 
             their constituents the best representation and give the 
             country the benefit of their views, their wisdom, and 
             their experience. They are men and women who are committed 
             to the Nation, and they have every day in different ways 
             contributed to this Senate and to our great country.
               I wish to thank them personally for their service, and, 
             in so many cases, their personal kindness to me; for 
             listening to my points and for, together, hopefully, 
             serving this Senate and this Nation in a more positive and 
             progressive way.
               In particular, let me say a few words about some of the 
             Members with whom I have had the privilege to work more 
             closely. ...
               I have also had the privilege to work closely with 
             another Member of this body, my colleague and friend, 
             Olympia Snowe of Maine. Her willingness to reach across 
             the partisan divide to advance legislation to benefit the 
             Nation and the Senate and her State of Maine is, in my 
             view, legendary. I was pleased to work with her when it 
             came to supporting our fishermen and lobstermen, who are 
             critical to our local economies. She and I have worked 
             closely together on a host of other issues, including 
             supporting strong investments in LIHEAP and our Nation's 
             libraries. ...
               I could go on with all of my colleagues, just thanking 
             them for their friendship, for their camaraderie, and for 
             their commitment to the Nation and the Senate. As they 
             depart, they have left an extraordinary legacy. Now it is 
             our responsibility to carry on in so many different ways, 
             and I hope we measure up to what they have done. If we do, 
             then we can go forward confidently.
               With that, I yield the floor.
                                              Friday, December 21, 2012
               Mr. LEVIN. Mr. President, it is an unfortunate reality 
             that the number of people in Washington working for 
             bipartisan solutions is significantly smaller than the 
             number of people claiming to do so or proclaiming the need 
             to do so. Nearly everyone seeks the ``bipartisan'' label; 
             fewer wear it comfortably or practice bipartisanship 
               That is one reason I am sad to see Olympia Snowe leave 
             the Senate. Over three terms, Senator Snowe has 
             represented the people of Maine with intelligence and, 
             yes, moderation. Here's how Time magazine put it in 2006, 
             in naming Senator Snowe one of the Nation's 10 Best 
             Senators: ``Because of her centrist views and eagerness to 
             get beyond partisan point scoring, Maine Republican 
             Olympia Snowe is in the center of every policy debate in 
             Washington.'' I've been lucky to observe her work in those 
               Start with her work on the Senate Small Business and 
             Entrepreneurship Committee, where she has served both as 
             chairman and ranking member. As a member of the committee, 
             I have appreciated her dedicated advocacy for small 
             business. She has worked hard to support SBA's Microloan 
             Program and programs for women-owned businesses. She has 
             helped improve SBA's trade and export finance programs; 
             elevated the SBA's Office of International Trade and added 
             export finance specialists to the SBA's trade and 
             counseling programs; and established the State Export 
             Promotion Grant Program, designed to increase the number 
             of small businesses that export goods and services.
               Senator Snowe also has been an enthusiastic supporter of 
             our Nation's manufacturers. As a former cochair of the 
             Senate Task Force on Manufacturing, she has worked to 
             strengthen programs such as the Manufacturing Extension 
             Partnership, which helps American manufacturers research 
             and develop new technologies, increase efficiency, improve 
             supply chains and out-innovate our overseas competitors. 
             American workers from Maine to Michigan and beyond are 
             better off for her support of this vital sector of the 
             American economy.
               Beyond manufacturing, our States are linked in another 
             way: the historical lighthouses that dot our shores. I was 
             pleased that Senator Snowe joined me in offering the 
             National Lighthouse Stewardship Act, which would help 
             local governments or nonprofit groups preserve these 
             prized structures for the appreciation of generations to 
               I was also fortunate to serve with her on the Armed 
             Services Committee, where she served as chair of the 
             Seapower Subcommittee. She was a strong advocate for the 
             men and women of the Navy and Marine Corps, and worked 
             diligently to ensure that the Department of the Navy had 
             the people and hardware the Navy needs to defend our 
             Nation's interests.
               On these and other issues, Senator Snowe has worked 
             across party lines for the good of her constituents and 
             our Nation. I can think of no issue that better 
             demonstrates her ability to reach beyond partisan interest 
             than one of the most controversial issues of our time 
             together here: the Iraq war.
               I worked with Senator Snowe and a bipartisan group of 
             Senators who believed the status quo in Iraq was no longer 
             acceptable and who worked together to chart a new course.
               We joined together to advance our collective view that 
             the primary purpose of U.S. strategy in Iraq should be to 
             pressure the Iraqi political leadership to make the 
             compromises necessary to end the violence in Iraq while 
             accelerating the training of Iraqi troops to take 
             responsibility for their own security.
               We made clear that the open-ended commitment of U.S. 
             forces to Iraq was over, thereby undermining the Al Qaeda 
             narrative that we were there as occupiers and signaling to 
             the people and Government of Iraq that the time for 
             political reconciliation had come.
               As Senator Snowe rightly pointed out at the time:

               The Iraqi Government needs to understand that our 
             commitment is not infinite. Americans are losing patience 
             with the failure of the leadership in Baghdad to end the 
             sectarian violence and move toward national 

               She continued:

               It is imperative that Congress understands the 
             importance of placing the future of Iraq's independence in 
             the hands of those who should want it most--the Iraqi 
             people and their government.

               As members of the Senate Select Committee on 
             Intelligence, Senator Snowe and I also worked as part of 
             the committee's effort to investigate the misuse of pre-
             war Iraq intelligence by policymakers.
               Senator Snowe's support for the investigation and its 
             findings, in the face of strong criticism from some in her 
             own party, was important to bring transparency to the 
             decision to go to war in Iraq and will help to ensure the 
             American public is not similarly misled in the future.
               Senator Snowe recently took another principled stand, in 
             what will likely be her last vote as a member of the 
             Intelligence Committee, when she was the only Republican 
             member to vote to adopt the committee's report on the 
             CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. That report 
             definitively shows that torture is not effective in 
             eliciting intelligence and will hopefully significantly 
             influence how our Nation deals with the detention and 
             interrogation of those we capture in the future.
               Olympia Snowe's service has been of enormous benefit to 
             the people of her State. She is rightly respected in this 
             Chamber, and around this country, as a leader who has not 
             just talked a good game when it comes to bipartisanship, 
             but has followed words with action, often at the cost of 
             no little political discomfort for her. To the very end of 
             her tenure here, she has fought, as she put it just last 
             week on this, ``to return this institution to its highest 
             calling of governing through consensus.''
               I want to thank her for the many ways in which she has 
             supported programs important to Michigan, and for the 
             thoughtful approach she has brought to the many challenges 
             we have faced together. As she returns to Maine, I wish 
             Olympia and Jock every success in whatever endeavors may 
             come. And I hope we can take to heart Senator Snowe's wise 
             words as we seek to answer the challenges before us.

               Mr. ENZI. Mr. President, it has long been a Senate 
             tradition to take a moment as the current session of 
             Congress draws to a close to express our appreciation and 
             acknowledge the many contributions each retiring Senator 
             has made to our legislative deliberations both on the 
             floor and in committee. We will miss them when the gavel 
             brings to a close the 112th Congress--especially Senators 
             like Olympia Snowe who have made an important difference 
             during their service.
               With Olympia's retirement Maine has lost a very powerful 
             and effective legislator and our Nation's small business 
             community has lost the support of a great champion. 
             Throughout her service in the Senate Olympia has shown her 
             great understanding of our economy and her commitment to 
             keeping our small businesses strong and vibrant. She knows 
             that our small businesses are truly the backbone of our 
             economies--on the local, State, and national level and 
             everything we can do to keep them going strong will have 
             the greatest impact on our efforts to keep our American 
             dream alive and available to the people of our great 
               Olympia has very strong roots in Maine, and she has an 
             in-depth understanding of the priorities of the people of 
             her home State and what they expect her to work on here in 
             Washington. That is why she has a well-deserved reputation 
             for being a thoughtful and careful legislator, one who 
             looks closely at all the details of a bill before making 
             her decision, based on its merits.
               I don't think I've ever met a Senator who was a more 
             avid reader than Olympia. Whenever the Senate takes up an 
             issue, she is always looking for more materials to read 
             that will help her develop creative and innovative 
             solutions to our Nation's problems.
               Then, when the matter comes up for our review in 
             committee or on the floor, she has at the ready several 
             articles that will drive home and anchor the point she is 
             making. No one is better at researching an issue than 
             Olympia and then, when the matter is up for debate, making 
             it clear what she believes to be the best way to tackle 
             the problem. No matter the topic, it's always a plus to 
             have her on your side.
               In the years to come, I will always remember Olympia's 
             dedication and firm resolve to get things done. As we 
             worked together on several issues, it was clear she had a 
             wealth of knowledge about how each provision of a bill 
             would play out. She brought some very good ideas to the 
             process and her input helped to make each bill better.
               Olympia had always been known as a powerful and 
             effective speaker. Someone with the ability to not only 
             present her position with clarity and precision, but who 
             could also persuade others to her point of view with her 
             commonsense approach to problem solving. Those skills and 
             so many more helped her to make a difference throughout 
             her home State of Maine during her career in public 
             service. In the end, that is why she was so successful in 
             the politics of her home State. The people of Maine know 
             Olympia and they appreciate her efforts on their behalf. 
             Over the years Olympia has compiled a record of success of 
             which she can truly be proud.
               I know I join with the people of Maine in telling 
             Olympia how much we appreciate her willingness to serve. 
             She could have followed so many different career paths, 
             but she was determined to make Maine a better place for 
             our children and our grandchildren. Thanks, too, for her 
             friendship and her support on the issues on which we 
             worked together. Olympia is an individual of great 
             strength and firm convictions and will be missed in the 
             months to come.
               I don't know what the Senator has planned for the next 
             great adventure in her life, but whatever it is I am 
             certain we haven't heard the last from her. We will always 
             be pleased to hear her thoughts about the issues we have 
             before us here in the Senate.
                                            Thursday, December 27, 2012
               Mr. LEAHY. Mr. President, in today's U.S. Senate, 
             moderates are few. At the end of this Congress, we will 
             lose another: Senator Olympia Snowe, who has served the 
             State of Maine in the U.S. Senate for nearly two decades. 
             She has spent nearly her entire adult life in public 
             service, and the people of Maine have revered her 
             dedication to her home State and to civic engagement.
               Just the 23d woman to serve in the U.S. Senate, Senator 
             Snowe has risen through the ranks in her tenure in this 
             body, most recently serving as the top Republican on the 
             Small Business and Entrepreneurship Committee. There she 
             has focused on promoting women in small business. She was 
             instrumental in establishing Women's Business Centers 
             through the Small Business Administration, a network of 
             nearly 100 centers designed to level the playing field for 
             women looking to start a small business. Most recently, 
             she has worked to advance legislation to establish a task 
             force specifically devoted to women entrepreneurs.
               Senator Snowe has been a great friend to the environment 
             as well. She has worked closely with me to protect our 
             national forests and environment. She has partnered with 
             me to strengthen the Forest Legacy Program--important to 
             both Vermont and Maine--as well as the Land and Water 
             Conservation Fund. She has been a stalwart advocate for 
             the Community Development Block Grant Program, and for 
             years, she and I teamed together to protect this important 
             community development program. Senator Snowe has been a 
             strong supporter of the Low Income Home Energy Assistance 
             Program, LIHEAP. The shared challenges of our States--
             rural, New England States--have given us many reasons to 
             work together, and our partnership in these issues is one 
             that I will miss.
               Notably, Senator Snowe, at a time when so many simply 
             tow the party line, never feared voting her conscience 
             over her political affiliation. Her support for the 
             American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which spurred 
             development amid the worst economic crisis since the Great 
             Depression, was instrumental in funneling necessary 
             resources to the States. She supported advancing 
             comprehensive health care reform legislation to the Senate 
             floor, so the Senate as a whole could debate the issue. 
             And she has stood up for women in important health care 
               When Senator Snowe announced earlier this year that she 
             intended to retire, she lamented the partisan shift she 
             has seen in Congress. During her long career in public 
             service, Senator Snowe put her State and the Nation first. 
             It's a lesson we can all follow. I wish Olympia the best 
             in her retirement and I will truly miss serving with her. 
             Her farewell speech to the Senate should be required 
             reading in every high school and college civics and 
             government class.
                                              Friday, December 28, 2012
               Mr. CARDIN. Mr. President, I would like to pay tribute 
             to the Senators who will not be returning when the 113th 
             Congress commences next month. I have already spoken about 
             Senator Kyl and about Senator Inouye, one of the truly 
             great Americans and giants of this institution. At the 
             time of his death, Senator Inouye was just a few weeks 
             short of celebrating 50 years of Senate service. Only 
             Senator Byrd served in this institution longer.
               Turnover is a natural occurrence, but it's important to 
             acknowledge that the Senators who are departing have 
             served in the Senate for a combined total of 237 years, or 
             nearly 20 years per Senator, on average. Add Senator 
             Inouye, and the total is close to 300 years. That service 
             represents an enormous amount of expertise on issues 
             ranging from national defense and foreign affairs to the 
             Federal budget to energy policy. The departing Senators 
             will also take with them vast institutional knowledge and 
             bipartisan friendships and working relationships that will 
             leave a void we will need to fill. ...
               Mr. President, few people have faced the personal 
             adversity Senator Olympia Snowe has overcome on her way to 
             becoming the youngest Republican woman ever elected to the 
             U.S. House of Representatives; the first woman to have 
             served in both houses of a State legislature and both 
             Houses of the U.S. Congress, and the first Greek-American 
             Congresswoman. Senator Snowe, a first-generation American, 
             was orphaned at a young age and then her uncle, who was 
             raising her with his family, died a few years later. Her 
             first husband was killed in a car accident when she was 
             just 26 and, later, her 20-year-old stepson died from a 
             heart ailment. And yet, Senator Snowe didn't just 
             persevere. She ran for her late husband's seat in the 
             Maine House of Representatives at the age of 26 and won. 
             She was reelected to the State house in 1974 and, in 1976, 
             won election to the Maine Senate. She was elected to the 
             U.S. House of Representatives in 1978, and represented 
             Maine's Second Congressional District from 1979 to 1995.
               Senator Snowe successfully ran for the seat vacated by 
             former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell in 1994, 
             winning 60 percent of the vote. She was reelected in 2000 
             and 2006, winning 69 percent and 74 percent of the vote, 
             respectively. In nearly 40 years of holding elective 
             office, Senator Snowe has never lost an election.
               During her time in office, Senator Snowe has been a 
             quintessential Yankee Republican, putting her constituents 
             and the Nation ahead of political party. While she served 
             in the House, she was a member of the moderate wing of the 
             Republican Party known as Gypsy Moths, working with 
             southern Democrats known as Boll Weevils to forge 
             bipartisan budgets. Here in the Senate, she was a member 
             of the Gang of 14. Prior to that, during the Senate's 1999 
             impeachment trial of then-President Bill Clinton, she 
             worked with her Maine colleague, Senator Susan Collins, to 
             find a middle ground approach, drafting a motion that 
             would have allowed the Senate to vote separately on the 
             charges, and the remedy a ``finding of fact'' resolution. 
             When the motion failed, Senator Snowe and Senator Collins 
             demonstrated the courage of their convictions by voting to 
             acquit the President on the grounds that his actions 
             didn't warrant his removal from office.
               During consideration of the 2001 tax cuts, Senator Snowe 
             worked with former Senator Blanche Lincoln, a Democrat 
             from Arkansas, to increase the amount of the child tax 
             credit and make it refundable, so that low-income families 
             who don't earn enough to pay Federal taxes could still 
             benefit from the credit, ensuring that it would assist an 
             additional 13 million more children and lift 500,000 of 
             those children out of poverty. But 2 years later, she 
             joined Senators Lincoln Chafee and John McCain as the only 
             Republicans to oppose the 2003 tax cuts. Pragmatism, not 
             fealty to a rigid political ideology, has been her guiding 
               Senator Snowe was one of eight Republican Senators to 
             vote to repeal the ``don't ask, don't tell'' policy. 
             Although she represents a largely rural, pro-hunting 
             State, she has supported sensible gun control measures. 
             She teamed with our former colleague, Senator Ted Kennedy, 
             to coauthor the landmark Genetic Nondiscrimination Act, 
             which prevents insurance companies and employers from 
             denying or dropping coverage based on genetic tests. I 
             have been proud to work with Senator Snowe on a number of 
             small business initiatives, including our legislation to 
             increase the cap on surety bonds.
               Senator Snowe has stated repeatedly that she inherited a 
             legacy of bipartisanship and independence from former 
             Maine Senator Margaret Chase Smith, who delivered her 
             seminal ``Declaration of Conscience'' speech against the 
             bullying tactics, smear campaigns, and intimidation of 
             former Senator Joe McCarthy. As Senator Snowe remarked in 
             her farewell speech the other day, Senator Smith's stand 
             demonstrated truly uncommon courage and principled 
             independence. Senator Snowe has been a worthy heir and 
             guardian of Senator Smith's legacy. We will miss her 
             common sense, her pragmatic approach to governing, and her 
             ability to promote bipartisan consensus. ...
               Mr. President, these men and women who will be leaving 
             the Senate soon have made extraordinary sacrifices to 
             serve our Nation. We are fortunate that they have chosen 
             to spend significant parts of their lives in public 
             service. All Americans owe them a debt of gratitude. Those 
             of us who will be in the Senate next month when the 113th 
             Congress convenes can best honor the legacy of our 
             departing colleagues by reaching across the aisle as they 
             have done so many times to forge bipartisan consensus and 
             solutions to our Nation's most vexing problems. The men 
             and women who will be leaving the Senate at the end of 
             this Congress understand that compromise isn't a dirty 
             word; it is the genius at the heart of our political 
             system. We will miss them.
                                              Sunday, December 30, 2012
               Ms. MURKOWSKI. Mr. President, I rise to recognize my 
             colleague and friend, Senator Olympia Snowe, as she plans 
             to retire from the U.S. Senate. Her nearly four-decade 
             career in Congress has been one of distinction and 
             unwavering public service to Maine and the United States.
               Senator Snowe's achievements are numerous. In 1978 she 
             became the youngest Republican and first Greek-American 
             woman to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. 
             In 1994 when she was first elected to the U.S. Senate, she 
             became the fourth woman to serve in both Houses of 
             Congress. She also has the distinction of being the first 
             Republican woman to secure a full-term seat on the Senate 
             Finance Committee. In total, she has won more Federal 
             elections in Maine than any other person since World War 
             II--a testament to how loved she is by her constituency.
               Senator Snowe has worked extensively on a number of 
             issues, including budget and fiscal responsibility, 
             veterans, education, national security, welfare reform, 
             oceans and fisheries issues, and campaign finance reform. 
             It has been my pleasure to work with Senator Snowe on the 
             Senate Oceans Caucus, where together we have stressed the 
             importance of ocean policy and the crucial role our oceans 
             play in all aspects of life in our respective States and 
             across America.
               I also appreciate Senator Snowe's leadership on the 
             Small Business Committee, where she has been a strong 
             advocate for small businesses in Maine and across the 
               I know that I speak for all the female Senators in the 
             U.S. Senate when I say it is sad to see such a well-
             respected female colleague retire. Senator Snowe deserves 
             the highest accolades for her service to this Nation. This 
             is a woman who has done remarkably well by the American 
             people, by her constituents in Maine, and by her 
             colleagues in the U.S. Senate.
               I personally admire her efforts to always work in a 
             bipartisan manner. Her moderation and willingness to 
             listen to all sides of an issue are examples for us all. I 
             am encouraged that she intends to continue her efforts to 
             advance good public policy by working to help elect those 
             who are unafraid to stand in the middle and work to build 
               On behalf of the U.S. Senate, I thank Senator Snowe for 
             her dedication to her country, and I congratulate her on 
             her retirement. I also want to recognize her husband Jock, 
             who has also been an amazing public servant.
                                              Monday, December 31, 2012
               Ms. KLOBUCHAR. Mr. President, I wish to recognize my 
             colleague Olympia Snowe for her many years of 
             distinguished service and leadership on behalf of our 
             country and the great State of Maine.
               Olympia has long been a friend and mentor to me. In 
             fact, she was assigned to be my official Republican mentor 
             in the Senate, and she has been a great one.
               That was almost 6 years ago. So much has happened in 
             that time, but throughout it all I have continued to be 
             impressed with Olympia's grace, composure, and unfailing 
             ability to find commonsense solutions. Time and again, she 
             has reached across the aisle to put politics aside and get 
             things done for the good of her State and the country.
               In addition to being a voice for bipartisanship, Olympia 
             has earned a reputation as one of the Senate's most 
             masterful policymakers. I've seen this first hand, while 
             working with her on a number of different issues over the 
             years. Olympia cosponsored my very first major bill in the 
             Senate, ``Carbon Counter'' legislation to reduce carbon 
             emissions and combat global climate change.
               I also had the pleasure of working with her to create an 
             airline passengers bill of rights, which was included in 
             the 2011 FAA reauthorization bill and has led to a 
             significant decrease in tarmac delays. We joined forces 
             again this year, on legislation aimed at addressing sexual 
             assault in our military by improving the process for 
             tracking and reviewing claims.
               Working with Olympia these last 6 years has been an 
             incredible privilege for me. I've respected her as a 
             policymaker, particularly for her work on national 
             security and small business issues. I've admired her for 
             her outspoken leadership and commonsense approach to 
             legislating. And maybe most important, I've genuinely 
             enjoyed her as a friend and a colleague--for her kindness, 
             her wisdom, and her unfailing good nature.
               Olympia has been a truly outstanding voice for the State 
             of Maine and a great leader for the people of this 
             country. To say that she will be missed would be a 
             tremendous understatement, but I know she will continue to 
             find ways to improve our great country and give back to 
             the State she loves so much. Thank you, Senator Snowe. I 
             wish you the best.
                                             Wednesday, January 2, 2013
               Mrs. BOXER. Mr. President, I rise today to pay tribute 
             to my colleagues, Senators Kay Bailey Hutchison and 
             Olympia Snowe.
               We have served together in the Senate for two decades 
             and I will dearly miss their grace and their friendship. I 
             know that whatever the next chapter brings, both Senator 
             Hutchison and Senator Snowe will leave a lasting and 
             important legacy.
               Both of these Senators are true pioneers. When she first 
             entered Congress, Senator Snowe was the youngest 
             Republican woman ever to serve in the House of 
             Representatives. Senator Hutchison graduated law school in 
             1967 as one of only 5 women in a class of 445 men. When 
             she arrived in the Senate in 1993, she became the first 
             woman to represent Texas in this Chamber.
               Throughout her career, Senator Snowe has been a strong 
             advocate for the people of Maine. Whether they were 
             children, families, consumers, or small business owners--
             the people of Maine knew they had a great champion in 
             Senator Snowe.
               Senator Snowe always worked across party lines to get 
             things done for the American people. During her time in 
             the House, she worked with Senator Mikulski to lead the 
             fight to end the exclusion of women in health trials at 
             the National Institutes of Health. She worked with Senator 
             Rockefeller to help bring the Internet to America's 
             libraries and classrooms. She worked with Senator Ted 
             Kennedy to pass the Genetic Nondiscrimination Act.
               Senator Snowe and I worked together on many bills over 
             the years, but I will especially remember our work on the 
             passengers' bill of rights to provide basic protections 
             for airline passengers. I will also remember the many 
             times we fought together to ensure equality for women 
             around the world.
               Senator Snowe was a true leader and her presence in the 
             Senate will be greatly missed. ...
               I will miss my colleagues, both on the Senate floor and 
             at our monthly women Senators dinners.
               I wish them both well in all their future endeavors.
                                             Thursday, February 7, 2013
                            ORDER FOR PRINTING OF TRIBUTES
               Mr. REID. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that 
             there be printed as a Senate document a compilation of 
             materials from the Congressional Record in tribute to the 
             retiring Members of the 112th Congress.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so