[Senate Document 111-14]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

Robert C. Byrd

                          LATE A SENATOR FROM

                             WEST VIRGINIA



                           MEMORIAL ADDRESSES

                           AND OTHER TRIBUTES

                          hon. robert c. byrd




                          hon. robert c. byrd






Robert C. Byrd

                               Memorial Addresses and

                                   Other Tributes

                                 HELD IN THE SENATE

                            AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                                OF THE UNITED STATES

                           TOGETHER WITH MEMORIAL SERVICES

                                     IN HONOR OF

                                   ROBERT C. BYRD

                   Late a Senator from West Virginia

                     One Hundred Eleventh Congress

                             Second Session




                            Compiled under the direction

                                       of the

                             Joint Committee on Printing
             Proceedings in the Senate:
                Tributes by Senators:
                    Akaka, Daniel K., of Hawaii....................
                    Alexander, Lamar, of Tennessee 
                                                                17, 130
                    Barrasso, John, of Wyoming.....................
                    Baucus, Max, of Montana........................
                    Begich, Mark, of Alaska........................
                    Bennett, Robert F., of Utah....................
                    Bond, Christopher S., of Missouri..............
                    Boxer, Barbara, of California 
                                                                47, 122
                    Brown, Scott, of Massachusetts.................
                    Brown, Sherrod, of Ohio........................
                    Brownback, Sam, of Kansas......................
                    Bunning, Jim, of Kentucky......................
                    Burris, Roland W., of Illinois.................
                    Cardin, Benjamin L., of Maryland...............
                    Carper, Thomas R., of Delaware.................
                    Casey, Robert P., Jr., of Pennsylvania.........
                    Chambliss, Saxby, of Georgia...................
                    Cochran, Thad, of Mississippi..................
                    Conrad, Kent, of North Dakota..................
                    Cornyn, John, of Texas.........................
                    Dodd, Christopher J., of Connecticut 
                                                                14, 101
                    Dorgan, Byron L., of North Dakota..............
                    Durbin, Richard, of Illinois...................
                                                                 37, 55
                    Enzi, Michael B., of Wyoming...................
                    Feingold, Russell D., of Wisconsin.............
                    Feinstein, Dianne, of California...............
                    Graham, Lindsey, of South Carolina.............
                    Harkin, Tom, of Iowa...........................
                    Hatch, Orrin G., of Utah.......................
                    Hutchison, Kay Bailey, of Texas 
                                                                71, 135
                    Inouye, Daniel K., of Hawaii...................
                    Isakson, Johnny, of Georgia....................
                    Johnson, Tim, of South Dakota..................
                    Kaufman, Edward E., of Delaware................
                                                                 78, 94
                    Kerry, John F., of Massachusetts...............
                    Kyl, Jon, of Arizona...........................
                    Landrieu, Mary L., of Louisiana 
                                                           57, 113, 129
                    Lautenberg, Frank R., of New Jersey............
                    Leahy, Patrick J., of Vermont..................
                                                                 33, 34
                    LeMieux, George S., of Florida.................
                    Levin, Carl, of Michigan.......................
                    Lincoln, Blanche L., of Arkansas...............
                    McCain, John, of Arizona.......................
                    McConnell, Mitch, of Kentucky..................
                    Mikulski, Barbara A., of Maryland..............
                    Murkowski, Lisa, of Alaska.....................
                    Murray, Patty, of Washington...................
                    Nelson, Bill, of Florida.......................
                    Reed, Jack, of Rhode Island....................
                    Reid, Harry, of Nevada 
                                                             3, 82, 124
                    Rockefeller, John D., IV, of West Virginia.....
                    Schumer, Charles E., of New York...............
                    Snowe, Olympia J., of Maine....................
                    Specter, Arlen, of Pennsylvania................
                    Stabenow, Debbie, of Michigan..................
                    Tester, Jon, of Montana........................
                    Udall, Tom, of New Mexico......................
                    Webb, Jim, of Virginia.........................
                    Whitehouse, Sheldon, of Rhode Island...........
             Proceedings in the House of Representatives:
                Tributes by Representatives:
                    Boccieri, John A., of Ohio.....................
                    Capito, Shelley Moore, of West Virginia........
                    Dicks, Norman D., of Washington................
                    Frank, Barney, of Massachusetts................
                    Gohmert, Louie, of Texas.......................
                    Holt, Rush D., of New Jersey...................
                    Hoyer, Steny H., of Maryland...................
                    Jackson Lee, Sheila, of Texas..................
                    Johnson, Eddie Bernice, of Texas...............
                    Kaptur, Marcy, of Ohio.........................
                    Lewis, Jerry, of California....................
                    Mollohan, Alan B., of West Virginia............
                    Obey, David R., of Wisconsin...................
                    Pelosi, Nancy, of California...................
                    Rahall, Nick J., II, of West Virginia 
                                                          146, 156, 159
             Memorial Services
                Charleston, West Virginia..........................
                Memorial Baptist Church............................
                U.S. Capitol.......................................

               In the Halls of Congress, Robert C. Byrd will be best 
             known for his fierce defense of the Constitution and the 
             institution of the Senate. The Almanac of American 
             Politics stated that Robert Byrd ``may come closer to the 
             kind of senator the Founding Fathers had in mind than any 
             other.'' Senators from both parties have paid tribute to 
             Robert Byrd's devotion to the Constitution. He endeavored 
             to make sure that the wisdom of the Constitution's Framers 
             was not forgotten and that the people's liberties were 
               On June 12, 2006, Robert Byrd became the longest-serving 
             U.S. Senator in the history of our Nation and, in November 
             2006, he was elected to an unprecedented ninth full term 
             in the Senate. But it was on November 18, 2009, that 
             Senator Byrd became the longest-serving Member of Congress 
             in the history of our great Republic, surpassing the 
             record of the late Senator Carl Hayden's service of 20,773 
             days. Senator Byrd went on to serve 20,996 days, setting a 
             new record of service in the Congress.
               During his tenure, which spanned 12 administrations, his 
             colleagues elected him to more leadership positions than 
             any other Senator in history--secretary of the Senate 
             Democratic Conference; Senate majority whip; chairman of 
             the Senate Democratic Steering Committee; chairman of the 
             Senate Democratic Policy Committee; chairman of the Senate 
             Democratic Conference; Senate minority leader; twice as 
             Senate majority leader; President pro tempore emeritus; 
             and President pro tempore--a position third in line of 
             succession to the Presidency, and the second highest 
             ranking official in the U.S. Senate and the highest 
             ranking Senator in the majority party. He was President 
             pro tempore at the time of his death in June 2010.
               But the post that gave him the most satisfaction was 
             chairman of the Appropriations Committee, with its power 
             of the purse--a post he held during five Congresses, 
             longer than any other Senator, and which he gave up only 
             in 2009 as his health declined. He continued to serve as 
             the senior member of the powerful Senate Appropriations 
             Committee, and was the chairman of the Senate 
             Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security. Robert 
             Byrd also served on the Senate Budget, Armed Services, and 
             Rules and Administration Committees.
               Throughout his career, Senator Byrd cast 18,689 roll 
             call votes--more votes than any other Senator in American 
             history--compiling an amazing 97 percent attendance record 
             in his more than five decades of service in the Senate.
               Born Cornelius Calvin Sale, Jr., in North Wilkesboro, 
             North Carolina, Robert Byrd's natural mother, Ada Kirby 
             Sale, died in the great influenza epidemic of 1918 when he 
             was barely a year old. Her dying wish to her husband 
             Cornelius was to give the baby to his sister Vlurma Sale 
             Byrd and her husband, Titus Dalton Byrd. They renamed the 
             baby Robert Carlyle Byrd after their only son who had 
             died, and raised him in the coal camps of West Virginia 
             where his adopted father was a coal miner.
               Growing up in the West Virginia coalfields, Robert Byrd 
             not only learned the values that guided him in his life, 
             but that is where he also met his life's love, Erma Ora 
             James. They both attended Mark Twain High School and 
             married shortly after graduation in 1937. For nearly 69 
             years, the Byrds were inseparable, traveling the hills and 
             hollows of West Virginia and crossing the globe together. 
             Mrs. Byrd passed away on March 25, 2006.
               Robert Byrd was the valedictorian of his high school 
             class at the age of 16, and after 10 years of classes at 
             night at the American University while serving as a U.S. 
             Senator, Senator Byrd earned his law degree in 1963. He 
             was profoundly self-educated and well read. His Senate 
             speeches sparkled with citations from Shakespeare, the 
             King James Version of the Bible, and the histories of 
             England, Greece, and Rome.
               Knowing the importance of education, Senator Byrd helped 
             thousands of young people earn their own college diploma. 
             Through the Scholastic Recognition Award, which the 
             Senator started in 1969, the valedictorian at each West 
             Virginia public and private high school receives a savings 
             bond and a special congratulations from the Senator. Then, 
             in 1985, Senator Byrd launched the first and only Federal 
             merit-based scholarship, the Robert C. Byrd Honors 
             Scholarship Program. Since its inception, tens of 
             thousands of students across the country have helped to 
             pay their tuition bills through this unique initiative.
               At an early age, Robert Byrd learned to play the fiddle, 
             and he carried it with him everywhere. He played in 
             churches, homes, and hamlets throughout southern West 
             Virginia. While campaigning for political office he made 
             his fiddle case his briefcase. His skill with the 
             instrument helped to get people's attention on the stump, 
             and eventually led to performances at the Kennedy Center 
             and on national television. Senator Byrd even recorded his 
             own album, Mountain Fiddler. And, in October 2008, Robert 
             Byrd was on the stage of the Grand Ole Opry as he was 
             presented with the Dr. Perry F. Harris Distinguished 
             Fiddler Award for his fiddle-playing passion.
               If his West Virginia values defined Senator Byrd, then 
             the Constitution of the United States gave him a 
             foundation to fight for liberty and freedom. Always close 
             to his heart, the Constitution guided Robert Byrd. Its 
             words and wisdom served as the foundation for his fierce 
             defense of principle and of the people's liberties. It did 
             not matter from where the danger came. If the people's 
             freedoms were jeopardized, if the Constitution's delicate 
             balance was threatened, one would find Senator Robert Byrd 
             leading the defense. Some considered his finest hour, 
             leading the charge against the invasion of Iraq. He 
             denounced the 2002 congressional resolution authorizing 
             the President to make war on Iraq. It ``amounted to a 
             complete evisceration of the Congressional prerogative to 
             declare war,'' he wrote in Losing America.
               From his humble beginnings to the halls of power, Robert 
             Byrd never forgot where he came from or where he was 
             going. He was a statesman, a patriot, a defender of the 
             Constitution, a proud son of West Virginia, and one of the 
             most important leaders in America.
               Senator Byrd was blessed with a loving family, including 
             two daughters, Mrs. Mohammad (Mona Byrd) Fatemi and Mrs. 
             Jon (Marjorie Byrd) Moore; six grandchildren: Erik, 
             Darius, and Fredrik Fatemi; Michael Moore (deceased), Mona 
             Byrd Moore Pearson, and Mary Anne Moore Clarkson; five 
             great granddaughters: Caroline Byrd Fatemi, Kathryn James 
             Fatemi, and Anna Cristina Honora Fatemi; Emma James 
             Clarkson and Hannah Byrd Clarkson; and two great 
             grandsons, Michael Yoo Fatemi and James Matthew Fatemi.
               Senator Byrd was the author of five books: The Senate, 
             1789-1989, consisting of four volumes; The Senate of the 
             Roman Republic: Addresses on the History of Roman 
             Constitutionalism; Losing America: Confronting A Reckless 
             and Arrogant Presidency; Robert C. Byrd: Child of the 
             Appalachian Coalfields; and coauthor with Steve Kettmann, 
             Letter to a New President.


                                 MEMORIAL ADDRESSES


                                   OTHER TRIBUTES


                                   ROBERT C. BYRD
                              Proceedings in the Senate
                                                  Monday, June 28, 2010
               The Chaplain, Dr. Barry C. Black, offered the following 
               Let us pray.
               Immortal, invisible God only wise, the fountain of every 
             blessing, we thank You for the life and legacy of Senator 
             Robert C. Byrd, our friend and colleague whose death we 
             grieve today. We praise You for his more than five decades 
             of exemplary service to our Nation and the citizens of 
             West Virginia, for the way he carried out his duties with 
             integrity and faithfulness. We are grateful that he knew 
             when to ask the tough questions, and to challenge the 
             status quo.
               Lord, You gave him courage to make course corrections 
             both privately and publicly and empowered him to oppose 
             without bitterness, to compromise with wisdom, and to 
             yield without being defeated. I thank You that he was my 
               Lord, we pray for his loved ones, our Senate family, and 
             all who mourn his passing. May his many contributions to 
             our Nation not be forgotten by this and succeeding 
             generations. May all of us who had the privilege of 
             knowing our Nation's longest serving legislator emulate 
             his passion, patience, and perseverance. Give him a crown 
             of righteousness and permit him to hear You say, ``Well 
             done, good and faithful servant.''
               We pray in Your merciful Name. Amen.

               Mr. REID. I ask that the Senate observe a moment of 
             silence for Senator Byrd.
               (Moment of silence.)
               Mr. President, our Senate family grieves today with the 
             Byrd family over the loss of one of the most dedicated 
             Americans ever to serve this country; one of the most 
             devoted men ever to serve his State; one of the most 
             distinguished Senators ever to serve in the Senate.
               Robert Byrd's mind was among the greatest the world has 
             ever seen. As a boy, he was called upon, when he was in 
             elementary school, to stand before the class and recite 
             not paragraphs from the assignment of the night before but 
             pages of the night before. He did this from memory.
               From his graduation as valedictorian of his high school 
             class at the age of 16 to his death this morning as the 
             Senate's President pro tempore at age 92, he mastered 
             everything he touched with great thoughtfulness and skill. 
             This good man could drive from his home here in Washington 
             to West Virginia and back--it took 8 hours--reciting 
             classic poetry the entire time, and not recite the same 
             poem twice.
               I was asked by Senator Byrd to travel to West Virginia 
             to do an exchange with the British Parliament. There were 
             a number of us there, eight or nine Senators, and a like 
             number of British Parliamentarians. I can remember that 
             night so well. We had the music up there he liked the 
             best--bluegrass music--and they played. It was a festive 
               Then it came time for the program. Senator Byrd said, 
             ``I am going to say a few things.'' And he passed out 
             little notebooks. He had notebooks passed out to everyone 
             there with a little pencil. He wanted to make sure 
             everything was just right; that people, if they had 
             something to write, had something to write on and write 
             with. And he proceeded, standing there without a note, to 
             pronounce the reign of the British monarchs, from the 
             beginning to the end. He would give the dates they served. 
             On some of the more difficult spellings, he would spell 
             the name. And he would, as I indicated, if it was 
             something he really wanted to talk about that they had 
             accomplished that he thought was noteworthy, he would tell 
             us about that. That took about an hour and a half to do 
             that. The British Parliamentarians were stunned. They had 
             never heard anyone who could do anything like that, an 
             American talking about the reign of the British monarchs. 
             Those of us who were Senators, nothing surprised us that 
             he could do from memory.
               I can remember when he decided he was no longer going to 
             be the Democratic leader, Senator Dole did an event for 
             him in the Russell Building, and all the Senators were 
             there, Democratic and Republican Senators. He told us a 
             number of things he did not do, and he told us a number of 
             things he did do. For example, he read the Encyclopedia 
             Britannica from cover to cover twice. He studied the 
             dictionary. He read that from cover to cover during one of 
             our breaks.
               I have told this story on an occasion or two, but to 
             give the depth of this man's memory--I had been to Nevada, 
             and when I came back, he asked me, ``What did you do?''
               I said, ``Senator Byrd, I pulled a book out of my 
             library on the way back. I didn't have anything to read. 
             It was a paperback. I read the Adventures of Robinson 
               And as those of us who can remember him, he looked at me 
             and he held his head back a little bit and his eyes rolled 
             back and he said, Robinson Crusoe. He proceeded to tell 
             me--I had just read the book--how long he had been on that 
             island: 28 years, 3 months, 1 week, and 2 days, or 
             whatever it was. I was stunned. I did not know. I went 
             back and pulled the book out to see if he was right, and 
             he was right. He probably had not read that book in 35 or 
             40 years, but he knew that. What a mind. It was really 
             stunning, the man's memory.
               The head of the political science department at the 
             University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Andy Tuttle, taught a 
             graduate course, based on Senator Byrd's lectures on the 
             Roman Empire.
               He gave 10 lectures here on the Senate floor on the fall 
             of the Roman Empire. He gave a lecture because he was 
             concerned because of the line-item veto, and he felt the 
             line-item veto would be the beginning of the end of the 
             Senate. He proceeded to give 10 lectures on that on the 
             Senate floor, every one of them from memory. Timed just 
             perfectly. They ended in 1 hour. That is how much time he 
             had been given. The original Roman Emperors served for 1 
             year. He could do it from memory. He knew who they were, 
             how long they served, knew how to spell their names--truly 
             an unbelievably brilliant man.
               He is the only person who earned his law degree while he 
             was a Member of Congress. His thirst for knowledge was 
             simply without equal.
               Senator Byrd once observed that the longer he lived, the 
             better he understood how precious the gift of our time on 
             Earth was.
               I quote Senator Byrd, ``As you get older, you see time 
             running out. It is irretrievable and irreversible. But one 
             should never retire from learning and growth.'' Robert 
             Byrd never retired from anything. He served in the Senate 
             for more than half a century and in the House of 
             Representatives for 6 years before that, and he dedicated 
             every one of those days to strengthening the State and the 
             Nation he loved so dearly. He never once stopped fighting 
             for the good people of West Virginia and for the 
             principles in our founding documents. He was forever 
             faithful to his constituents, his Constitution, and his 
             country. He fought for what he thought was right, and when 
             he was wrong, he was wise enough to admit it, and he did 
             admit it a few times.
               Senator Byrd's ambition was legendary. He took his oath 
             in this Chamber on January 3, 1959, the same day Alaska 
             became our 49th State. He told the Charleston Gazette 
             newspaper in that freshman year, ``If I live long enough, 
             I'd like to be Chairman of the Senate Appropriations 
             Committee.'' Thirty years later, he was, and then he lived 
             and served for 21 more years. His legislative 
             accomplishments are many, and those achievements fortify 
             his incomparable legacy. But he is perhaps best known in 
             this Chamber as the foremost guardian of the Senate's 
             complex rules, procedures, and customs. He did not concern 
             himself with such precision as a pastime or mere hobby; he 
             did so because of the unyielding respect he had for the 
             Senate--a reverence the Senate always returned to him and 
             now to his memory.
               With Robert Byrd's passing, America has lost its 
             strongest defender of its most precious traditions. It now 
             falls to each of us to keep that flame burning.
               Throughout one of the longest political careers in 
             history, no one in West Virginia ever defeated Robert Byrd 
             in a single election. In Washington, his fellow Democrats 
             twice elected him to lead us when we were in the majority 
             and once more when we were in the minority. Having seen 
             both sides, he knew better than most that legislating is 
             the art of compromise. Many years ago, in this Chamber 
             where he served longer than any other Senator, Senator 
             Byrd taught a heartfelt history lesson to guide our 
             future. It was a lesson about both the Constitution and 
             this institution. He said:

               This very charter of government under which we live was 
             created in a spirit of compromise and mutual concession. 
             And it is only in that spirit that continuance of this 
             charter of government can be prolonged and sustained.

               In his tenure he saw partisanship and bipartisanship, 
             war and peace, recession and recovery. His perspective and 
             legacy are invaluable to the way we carry ourselves as 
             U.S. Senators. It is instructive that the man who served 
             the longest and saw the most concluded we must work 
             together as partners, not partisans, for the good of our 
             States and our country.
               In 1996, Robert Byrd spoke to a meeting of incoming 
             Senators and reminded them that the Senate is still the 
             anchor of the Republic. Senator Byrd was the anchor of the 
             Senate. There will never be another like him.
               He was a Member of this Nation's Congress for more than 
             a quarter of the time it has existed, and longer than a 
             quarter of today's sitting Senators and the President of 
             the United States have been alive. His political career 
             spanned countless American advances and achievements. A 
             dozen men called the Oval Office his own while Senator 
             Byrd called the Capitol Building his office--and he would 
             be the first to remind us that those two branches are 
             equal in the eyes of the Constitution. I have heard him 
             say so many times that we work with the President, not 
             under the President.
               The nine times the people of his State sent him to the 
             Senate and the more than 18,500 votes he cast here will 
             never be matched.
               As the President pro tempore and I, and each of us 
             fortunate enough to be here, have the privilege of knowing 
             first hand, it was an incomparable privilege to serve with 
             him and learn from this giant. By virtue of his endurance, 
             Robert Byrd knew and worked with many of the greats of the 
             Senate. Because of his enduring virtue, he will be forever 
             remembered as one of them.

               Mr. McCONNELL. Mr. President, I too wish to say a few 
             words about our departed colleague. The first thing to say 
             is that we are sorry, first and foremost, to the family 
             and also to the staff of Senator Byrd for their loss. The 
             next thing to say is that it is a sad day for the Senate. 
             Everybody who has been here for a while has a few Robert 
             Byrd stories. A couple come to mind I thought I would 
               Along with Senator Reid and Senator Dodd, Senator Byrd, 
             in the early part of the decade, responded to my request 
             to come down to the University of Louisville, my alma 
             mater, to speak to the students and to a broader audience. 
             At his age and particularly given the fact that I was a 
             member of the opposition party, there was, frankly, no 
             particular reason for him to do that. But he did and made 
             an extraordinary impression on the students and 
             inconvenienced himself on my behalf, which I always 
               My second--and really my favorite--recollection of 
             Senator Byrd, I found myself a few years ago in a curious 
             position, at variance with virtually everybody on my side 
             of the aisle. I had reflexively, as I think many Members 
             had, responded negatively to a decision of the U.S. 
             Supreme Court in the late 1980s essentially holding that 
             flag burning was a permissible First Amendment expression 
             of political speech. The first time that amendment came 
             before the Senate, I voted for it. Then I began to have 
             some pangs of discomfort about my position. Having spent a 
             good portion of my political career focusing on political 
             speech and the First Amendment, I, frankly, decided I was 
             wrong and in subsequent votes have opposed it.
               A few years ago, it became clear it was going to be 
             defeated in the Senate by the narrowest of margins. I 
             remembered that Senator Byrd was always carrying around a 
             Constitution in his pocket and had a feeling that upon 
             reflection, he might reach the same conclusion I did. So I 
             lobbied Senator Byrd. I thought initially it would be a 
             futile act, but he reexamined his position. As a result, 
             he too changed his position, and as it turns out, there 
             was not a vote to spare the last time the Senate 
             considered whether it would be appropriate to amend the 
             First Amendment for the first time in the history of the 
             country to kind of carve a niche out of it to make it 
             possible to punish an act we all find despicable. But, 
             nevertheless, the most unfortunate of speech is probably 
             what the First Amendment was all about initially. So 
             Senator Byrd did change his position. There was not a vote 
             to spare, and the amendment was defeated. And from my 
             point of view, the First Amendment was saved on that 
             important occasion.
               We will all remember Senator Byrd for a variety of 
             different things. As the majority leader pointed out, he 
             was a unique individual in so many different ways. Those 
             are two of my favorite stories about Robert Byrd.
               More than anyone else in any of our lifetimes, Robert 
             Byrd embodied the Senate. He not only wrote the book on 
             it, he was a living repository of its rules, its customs, 
             and its prerogatives. So it would be a mistake to think 
             that Senator Byrd became synonymous with the Senate simply 
             because he served in it longer than anybody else. Rather, 
             it was a fitting coincidence that a man who cherished and 
             knew this place so well would become its longest serving 
               Yet it is probably true that he will be remembered above 
             all for his longevity.
               Everyone seems to have a different way of communicating 
             just how long a time he spent here. For me, it is enough 
             to note that Robert Byrd had already spent nearly 12 years 
             serving in elected office in West Virginia and in the 
             House of Representatives before he was elected to the U.S. 
             Senate during the Eisenhower administration.
               Over the years, he would walk the floor with 4 future 
             Presidents, 4 of the 12 he would serve alongside in a 57-
             year career in Congress. I won't enumerate all the 
             legislative records Senator Byrd held, but I would venture 
             to say that the figure that probably made him proudest of 
             all was the nearly 70 years of marriage he spent with a 
             coal miner's daughter named Erma.
               If he was synonymous with the Senate, he was no less 
             synonymous with West Virginia. Here is how popular Robert 
             Byrd was in his home State: In the year Robert Byrd was 
             first elected to the U.S. Senate, 1958, he won with 59 
             percent of the vote, a margin that most people around here 
             would consider a landslide. In a record nine Senate 
             elections, it was the smallest margin of victory he would 
             ever get.
               Members will offer tributes of their own in the coming 
               I will close with this. Last year, in becoming the 
             longest serving Member of Congress in history, Senator 
             Byrd surpassed another legendary figure, Carl Hayden of 
             Arizona. Hayden was known to many as the ``silent 
             Senator,'' a phrase few would use to describe Senator 
               But what the two men shared was a devotion to the United 
             States and, in particular, to the legislative branch of 
             our Government, which the founders envisioned and 
             established as coequal with the other two.
               A few years ago, Senator Byrd's official portrait was 
             unveiled at an event in the Old Senate Chamber. And I 
             think that portrait pretty well sums up the image Senator 
             Byrd wanted to leave of himself. It is the image of a 
             dignified man, in the classical mold, supported by three 
             things: the Bible, the U.S. Constitution, and his wife. A 
             lot of people looked at Senator Byrd's record-long tenure 
             in Congress, his immense knowledge of poetry, history, and 
             the Senate, and wondered where he got the strength. With 
             this painting, he gave us the answer. He showed us the 
               As I noted at that ceremony, Senator Byrd once wrote 
             that if the question was whether to be loved or respected, 
             he always chose to be respected. Yet his real 
             accomplishment is that, in the end, he managed to be both.
               So I join my colleagues, my fellow Americans, the people 
             of West Virginia, and the Byrd family today in remembering 
             our colleague. We will surely miss him.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from West Virginia.

               Mr. ROCKEFELLER. Mr. President, on this day, West 
             Virginia has lost probably its most prominent son and the 
             Senate has lost probably its most able statesman. For 
             myself, I have lost an admired colleague and a treasured 
             friend. More than nine decades of a remarkable life and 
             five decades as an accomplished public servant in the 
             Senate only serve as one form of proof that Robert C. Byrd 
             was and always will be an icon, particularly in his own 
             State. A man of great character, faith, and intellect, who 
             rose to the heights of power, yet never forgot where he 
             came from, his story holds a profoundly significant place 
             in both West Virginia and American history. But it was in 
             the coalfields of southern West Virginia where a young 
             Robert C. Byrd first gained the skills, the moral 
             character, the toughness, and the shrewdness that would 
             make him a truly great man.
               After his mother passed away, he was raised by his aunt 
             and uncle, a coal miner, he movingly called ``the most 
             remarkable man I have ever been privileged to know.'' From 
             them Senator Byrd learned early in life what it meant to 
             be loyal, to have a ferocious work ethic, really almost 
             beyond imagination, and possess a deep faith in God. And 
             it was these values--these innately West Virginia values, 
             I argue--that guided his every action and made him such a 
             unique and strong fighter for our State and who got such 
             joy in doing that fight.
               He was proud of West Virginia. He was proud of his 
             ideals. He was proud of the service he could render to the 
             people from whom he came. He believed with all his heart 
             that our breathtaking mountains, our rivers, and our deep 
             valleys, and especially our well-rooted people, who face 
             adversity always and face it with strength and courage, 
             make our State a place like none other in the world.
               He loved the music of the mountains and played his 
             fiddle, in fact, very brilliantly. He was a master violin 
             player. He loved to quote the ancients, lending depth to 
             his analysis and observations, with knowledge of history 
             and philosophy to rival any professor. Just as easily as 
             he could quote Cicero from memory, he could sing every 
             verse of ``Amazing Grace'' from memory, too, and often 
               Everything about Senator Byrd was a testament to his 
             faith in God. This man, who wrote and debated countless 
             laws, lived with 10 clear Commandments in his heart. His 
             aunt and uncle kept the King James Bible in their home and 
             instilled in him an enduring reverence for God. He always 
             remembered that as important as the Senate and our 
             constitutional government might be, there was always a 
             higher law that took precedence.
               He started his career humbly by any definition--as a 
             butcher, a welder, other things too--and then campaigned 
             by playing his foot-stomping music, the fiddle, to get 
             elected to the West Virginia Legislature--that is how he 
             did it--the very same body that decades later would deem 
             him the ``West Virginian of the 20th Century.''
               It was at Mark Twain High School where a lifetime of 
             love first began for Robert C. Byrd and his future wife, 
             Erma Ora James. Calling her the ``wind beneath this Byrd's 
             wings,'' as he put it, Senator Byrd was never shy to tell 
             you that Erma--a beloved coal miner's daughter herself--
             was the reason he reached all of his goals. He believed 
             that with all of his heart. So from the fiddle-playing 
             young man to a history-making American icon, she loved and 
             supported him every step of the way until her passing in 
               I know and I observed maybe earlier than some that 
             Senator Byrd lost just a bit when Erma died. Watching him 
             hurting was painful. His wife died from the same disease 
             my mother died from; that is, Alzheimer's, and we talked 
             about it, especially a few years ago when he was talking 
             more frequently. I always felt bad that I could not give 
             him comfort and that I could not say something to him that 
             would relinquish his pain, which was evident and obvious--
             very obvious in private. But I could not do that because 
             you cannot do that for diseases like that one. There were 
             not words to describe the difficulty such a devastating 
             loss can bring, and I commend my friend for continuing on 
             so strongly--as he did--for so long.
               Erma was his soulmate, his best friend, and trusted 
             counselor. Their marriage was something to behold. My wife 
             Sharon and I loved watching them together. He became a 
             different person. They radiated an extraordinary faith in 
             God, in each other, and in the beautiful family they built 
             together, which in the end was what he loved the most. 
             Indeed, it was the time Robert Byrd spent with Erma; their 
             daughters, Mona and Marjorie, their husbands, and their 
             grandchildren and great-grandchildren that brought sheer 
             joy, pure unadulterated joy, to his life. So with sadness 
             in my heart, I also have joy at the thought of my friend 
             united with his precious Erma and with his dear grandson 
             he lost at a young age. We all know, those of us who have 
             been here for several years, the agony he went through at 
             the death of that young man, setting up a shrine in his 
             office. It affected him deeply. It was interesting that a 
             man who could be so oriented toward policy could be so 
             utterly moved by sadness in his own life and I think in 
             the lives of others.
               It was in the Halls of the U.S. Senate where Robert C. 
             Byrd became known as the ``Soul of the Senate,'' a fierce 
             defender of the Constitution, a respected historian, and 
             an absolutely fearless legislator. He held, as has been 
             said many times before, more leadership posts than any 
             other Senator, cast more votes than any other Senator, and 
             served longer than any other Senator. And one could go on 
             in many ways in that theme. He literally wrote the 
             authoritative book on the rules and procedures of the 
             Senate. He taught all of us who were freshmen in this body 
             about that in classes which he would conduct standing in 
             the well of the Senate. He loved and he revered this 
             institution. Everybody says that. It is true.
               Some people pass through this institution. They 
             experience this institution. He lived this institution. 
             Yet, still, his entire career was fundamentally an act of 
             commitment to the State of West Virginia and its people, a 
             day-in and day-out effort to do the best he possibly could 
             for the people of the Mountain State; always put upon, 
             often looked down upon, even disdained by others who did 
             not understand where they came from, what their lives were 
             like, and, for example, what it was like to be a coal 
             miner. People do not understand West Virginia well. Most 
             people do not go there. Senator Byrd sprung from West 
             Virginia and, yes, was an intensely devoted statesman.
               He put himself through law school while also serving in 
             Congress. I know a few others have done that, but I just 
             sort of deny that. I think it is amazing that Senator Byrd 
             did that; therefore, any others who did it do not get my 
               He understood that people with the fortitude to ask 
             questions and to debate and to dissent one from another 
             makes America stronger. He had that courage himself, 
             standing up time and time again to defend the ideals upon 
             which our Nation was founded. And often those ideas were 
             very different from those of others. No matter with 
             Senator Byrd; he always spoke for what he felt was 
               As the minority leader has pointed out, the Senator 
             always had the Constitution in his pocket, close to his 
             heart. And he outlasted Presidents and Supreme Court 
             Justices. He served with an absolute insistence on the 
             equality of the three branches of government as envisioned 
             by our Founding Fathers, and he, therefore, helped us as a 
             body be more than our separate parts. He spread the words 
             of our Constitution to young children and his colleagues 
             alike. His patriotism was strong and confident, infusing 
             his every action with deep devotion for our Nation and its 
               A Senator from a State that has sent legions of sons and 
             daughters to war--out of courage, out of love of country, 
             sometimes just out of a need to get work--he supported our 
             troops whether he agreed with their cause or not, fought 
             for our veterans, and worked hard to make sure those who 
             served our country got the respect, the support, the 
             supplies they needed and they deserved.
               He also earned the loyalty of West Virginians with a 
             record of support for education and economic opportunity 
             that few Senators, at any time, in any State, in my 
             judgment, could ever match. To him, every school building 
             or education grant was a chance for a better life for some 
             West Virginia child or maybe quite a lot of children. He 
             cared about that, and he helped that become true.
               Every overpass, every road represented an opportunity 
             for a more dynamic economy for our cities and towns, which 
             might be taken casually in some places but not in West 
             Virginia because only 4 percent of our land is flat, and 
             unless there is a road or a bridge, you cannot build 
             anything anywhere or virtually do anything anywhere. Every 
             business park or government office meant the possibility 
             of a better job for West Virginians trying to raise their 
             families--people he fought for all his life.
               Senator Byrd also believed health care is one of the 
             most important ways to strengthen a community, and his 
             support for medical research resulted in breakthrough 
             medical opportunities. He spread this research all across 
             West Virginia, to West Virginia University, to Marshall 
             University, to institutions of all kinds. He believed in 
             medical research and did more than most of our colleagues 
             even know.
               So in a State with rugged terrain, full of people like 
             the family who raised him, doing their best for their 
             family, for their country, for their God, Robert C. Byrd 
             decided that somebody needed to do the best for them, and 
             he did so each and every day of his life.
               To me, he was a perfect colleague and a reliable friend, 
             a walking example of the kind of America I believe in, and 
             a living testament to the values that made West Virginia 
             my own home forever. It has been my greatest privilege to 
             serve with Robert C. Byrd in the U.S. Senate. I respected 
             him and I fought side by side with him for causes we both 
             believed in, and obviously I am profoundly saddened that 
             he is gone.
               So in closing, Mr. President, I think he leaves a void 
             that probably cannot be filled. But I am lifted by the 
             knowledge of his deep and abiding faith and that he is in 
             the hands of the One who inspired these words in ``Amazing 

               Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail,
               And mortal life shall cease,
               I shall possess within the veil,
               A life of joy and peace.

               I think that gives all of us some comfort. It certainly 
             does me.
               So peace and Godspeed, Senator Byrd, and peace to your 
             family, your loyal staff, and to the loving people of West 
             Virginia, who held you high for so long and will continue 
             to do so.
               I thank the Chair and yield my time.

               Mr. DODD. Mr. President, let me begin by expressing my 
             deep sorrow and my condolences to Robert C. Byrd's family. 
             And that family includes, obviously, not only his direct, 
             immediate family but obviously the literally legions of 
             people who worked for Robert C. Byrd--worked with him in 
             both the House of Representatives and this body for the 
             more than five decades he served in the U.S. Congress.
               I suspect I am one of a handful of people left who 
             remember the day when I was 8 years old, in the gallery of 
             the House of Representatives, watching my father be sworn 
             in as a new Congressman, watching my father and a young 
             35-year-old West Virginian named Robert C. Byrd be sworn 
             in as a Member of the House on January 3, 1953. Six years 
             later, at the age of 14, I was in the gallery of this 
             Chamber when I watched my father and his great friend be 
             sworn in together on January 3, 1959, as Members of the 
             Senate. Two-and-a-half years later, as a 17 year old 
             sitting on the very steps where these young pages sit 
             today, in the summer of 1961, I worked with Robert C. 
             Byrd. In fact, with his departure and his death, he is now 
             the last remaining Member of the Senate who was there that 
             day when I first arrived as a page in summer 1961 when all 
             these chairs were filled by 100 Senators. For the last 25 
             years, I have sat next to him at this very seat to be the 
             recipient of his good counsel, his advice, his humor, his 
             contributions in so many ways to me, as he was to so many 
             others with whom he served during his tenure in the 
               So this is a very poignant day, one that begins, in a 
             sense, a sense of bookmarks to me and a sense of public 
             life. It won't be the same for the remaining 6 or 7 months 
             of my tenure here to not have this wonderful human being, 
             Robert C. Byrd, as my seatmate in the Senate.
               So I rise today to mark the passing and to celebrate the 
             prolific life of Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia. As I 
             have said to his family and to his staff, and, of course, 
             to the people of West Virginia, for whom he has been such 
             a champion throughout his public life, Robert Byrd loved 
             three things above all else during the 30 years we spent 
             together in this Chamber. He loved his wife Erma, he loved 
             the State of West Virginia, and he loved deeply the 
             Senate. I might say that each in turn loved him back.
               Our sadness at his passing is tempered by our joy that 
             he now joins his beloved Erma. What a love story it was. 
             They met in high school. They married in 1937, well before 
             I was even born. They spent nearly 70 years on an 
             incredible journey together, and even after passing a few 
             years ago, his love for her was apparent in everything he 
               In 1946, when Robert Byrd first ran for office, West 
             Virginia ranked at the bottom in nearly every economic 
             indicator you could possibly think of. It was a bleak 
             landscape pockmarked by coalfields and populated by hard-
             working people from hardscrabble backgrounds and 
             communities struggling to make ends meet.
               Then a young grocer from the town of Sophia arrived on 
             the scene, asking his neighbors in those communities 
             around Sophia for their votes in his race for the West 
             Virginia House of Delegates. As the Washington Post noted 
             in its obituary this morning, Robert C. Byrd met nearly 
             every person--I would suspect every person--in his 
             district, campaigning alone, with no one else, talking 
             about the issues he cared about and those that would 
             affect and did affect the people he wanted to represent; 
             and when all else failed, wowing potential voters with his 
             fiddle prowess.
               He won that election, as he would every single 
             election--every single election for which he ever ran. The 
             people of West Virginia never could say no to Robert C. 
             Byrd, and he could never say no to them. As a State 
             legislator, a Congressman, and as a Senator, Robert C. 
             Byrd fought for West Virginians, and our Nation, I might 
             add, at every single turn.
               If you travel the State of West Virginia today, you will 
             see his name on schools and bridges and highway signs. You 
             will perceive his influence when you see the government 
             buildings and research laboratories he brought to West 
             Virginia--investments that contributed to the State, to 
             our national economy, and to our Nation. But don't just 
             look for his name on the sides of buildings or overpasses. 
             Listen for it in the appreciative words of his 
             constituents, his extended family, and of a grateful 
             Nation for his service.
               No State has ever had such a deep appreciation for the 
             Senate Appropriations Committee because no State has ever 
             had such an effective appropriator and fighter. Robert C. 
             Byrd came to Congress with my father, as I pointed out, in 
             January 1953, and they both arrived in the Senate on the 
             same day as they had in the House, on January 3, 1959. In 
             summer 1961, I mentioned I was a Senate page sitting on 
             the Senate floor. I still remember the eloquent speeches 
             of the freshman Senator from West Virginia.
               It is incredible to imagine that he was once a freshman 
             Senator. Even then, he had the same gentlemanly manner; he 
             was kind to pages, as I recall, the same knack for 
             triumphant oratory, and the same respect for the rules and 
             traditions of the Senate. But he soon became a fixture and 
             a mentor to new Senators as well. I expect that over the 
             next few days many Senators will take this floor with a 
             Constitution in their pockets, as I do, that they received 
             from Robert C. Byrd. Here is my tattered and rather worn 
             copy signed by Robert C. Byrd: ``To my friend, Chris Dodd, 
             with great personal esteem. Sincerely, Robert C. Byrd.'' I 
             have carried this with me every day of my life for the 
             last quarter of a century, given to me by my colleague in 
             this Chamber, along, I might add, with a stern but kind 
             lecture about Senate protocol. I have mine right here, as 
             I said. It is a tattered and withered copy after this many 
               For the past quarter of a century I have occupied some 
             prime real estate on the floor of the Senate. This desk 
             right next to me today, adorned with these flowers and 
             this black cape, marks the seat Robert C. Byrd sat in for 
             many years. As have all of us, I have been awed by his 
             deep knowledge of this institution and his deeper 
             commitment to preserving its place in our legislative 
               So, in many ways, Robert Byrd's story is one of 
             constancy, of preservation, and of tradition. You could 
             define his life by longevity, I suppose--his 69 years of 
             marriage, his more than 51 years of service in the Senate, 
             his 64 years of public service to the people of West 
             Virginia. But he wouldn't have wanted it that way. This 
             country has changed over the many years in which Robert C. 
             Byrd helped to lead it and to shape it, and he grew and 
             changed with it, I might add. His story in so many ways 
             parallels the American story over these many years--the 
             story of a Nation on a long and difficult journey, always 
             trying to seek that more perfect union that our Founders 
             described more than two centuries ago.
               He wouldn't have wanted us to forget about the positions 
             and affiliations that marked the early part of his life 
             and career, and he did not as well. We should learn from 
             our mistakes, as he did, draw inspiration from his 
             journey, and credit him, I might add, for being willing to 
             admit wrong and embrace right when he had the opportunity 
             to do so, because, like our country, Robert C. Byrd grew 
             wiser as he grew older.
               So we can remember him not only as a tremendously 
             effective legislator, not only as a powerful speaker, not 
             only as a parliamentary wizard, but also as a human being 
             who fought for equality with the true sense of urgency of 
             a convert. He was a man unafraid of reflection, a man who 
             voted to make Martin Luther King's birthday a Federal 
             holiday because, as he put it--I remember him saying it so 
             well--``I'm the only one who must vote for this bill.''
               Here was a man unafraid of progress, a man who, in one 
             of his final acts in the Senate, voted to overturn the 
             ``don't ask, don't tell rule'' in our military. Here was a 
             man unafraid of conscience, a man who, as the guns of war 
             prepared to fire in 2003, delivered one of history's most 
             courageous and memorable pleas for peace.
               So let us not remember Robert C. Byrd for how much he 
             stayed the same throughout his life. Let us remember him 
             for how the years changed him, and how he changed America 
             for the better through so many years of his service.
               Let us remember him as West Virginia's greatest 
             champion, the Senate's gentlemanly scholar, Erma's 
             husband, and above all, a true friend to each and every 
             one of us who knew and loved him so well.
               Mr. President, I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Tennessee.

               Mr. ALEXANDER. Mr. President, in 1981, after a 
             surprising election, the Republican leader, Howard Baker, 
             became the majority leader of the Senate, and the 
             Democratic leader, Robert C. Byrd, became the minority 
               According to Senator Baker, he walked to Senator Byrd's 
             office and said to him, ``Bob, I will never know the 
             Senate rules as well as you do, so I will make you an 
             offer. I will not surprise you if you will never surprise 
               Senator Byrd looked at Senator Baker and said, ``Let me 
             think about it.''
               The next morning, Senator Byrd called Senator Baker and 
             said, ``It is a deal.'' And that is the way they operated 
             the Senate in those 4 years when Senator Baker was the 
             majority leader and Senator Byrd was the minority leader. 
             They operated the Senate during that time under an 
             agreement where Senator Byrd was careful to try to give 
             every Senator the right of amendment. He thought that was 
             very important. In return, Senator Byrd was able to get 
             unanimous consent agreements on amendments that many 
             Senators thought were frivolous or unnecessary or not 
             germane, which permitted him and Senator Baker to have a 
             fairly orderly management of the Senate during that time.
               Senator McConnell a few minutes ago talked about the 
             time Senator Byrd reexamined the Constitution and changed 
             his mind on the First Amendment and flag burning. Senator 
             Byrd and Senator Baker during that time both read David 
             McCullough's book and changed their minds on the Panama 
             Canal Treaty, at great political cost to both of them. I 
             bring this up today because I never saw Senator Byrd, 
             after I was elected to the Senate a few years ago, when he 
             did not ask me about his friend and colleague Howard 
               We will miss Senator Byrd's fiddling and his love of 
             mountain music. He campaigned in Tennessee a long time ago 
             for Albert Gore, Sr., who was running for the Senate and 
             who also played the fiddle. Senator Byrd played the fiddle 
             at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville and came back to 
             Nashville in October 2008 and sang along with a group of 
             fiddlers who were playing songs at his request. I went 
             over there with him. He knew all the songs and all the 
             fiddlers knew him. A few days later I came to him on the 
             Senate floor and talked to him about an old mountain song 
             called ``Wreck on the Highway'' that Roy Acuff made famous 
             in the 1930s or 1940s, and Senator Byrd began to sing the 
             song--he knew all the words--so loudly that the staff was 
             afraid the galleries would all notice it.
               We will miss his love of U.S. history, not just any U.S. 
             history, but in his words ``traditional American 
             history.'' He was the sponsor of the Teaching Traditional 
             American History Program, which is part of the Elementary 
             and Secondary Education Act. He has provided nearly $600 
             million to 1,000 local school districts to improve the 
             professional development of American history teachers. He 
             and the late Senator Kennedy and I were working on a piece 
             of legislation which we have introduced to consolidate all 
             the Federal programs that support the teaching of U.S. 
             history, hoping that our children can grow up learning 
             what it means to be an American.
               Senator Byrd is also responsible for the celebration of 
             September 17 as Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.
               Senator Byrd had no time for revisionists who didn't 
             believe America was exceptional. He believed this is one 
             country, unified by a common language and a few 
             principles. He did not want our country to become a United 
             Nations, but always to be the United States of America. He 
             wanted us to be proud of where we came from, but prouder 
             to be American.
               We will especially miss Senator Byrd's love of and 
             understanding of the Senate. One of the most special 
             occasions I ever experienced was the opportunity as a 
             freshman Senator in 2003 to attend an indoctrination, one 
             might say--or orientation would be the proper 
             description--on what it means to be a Senator. Senator 
             Byrd began by saying, ``You are presently occupying what I 
             consider to be hallowed ground.''
               I wish to ask unanimous consent to have printed in the 
             Record following my remarks the remarks of Senator Byrd at 
             the orientation of new Senators on December 3, 1996.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
               (See exhibit 1, next page.)

               Mr. ALEXANDER. Senator Byrd served long enough to know 
             that, as he put it, ``As long as the Senate retains the 
             power to amend and the power of unlimited debate, the 
             liberties of the people will remain secure.'' He believed 
             that when he was lecturing Republicans in 2005 who were 
             trying to change the rules when there was a controversy 
             about President Bush's appointees to the Federal 
             judiciary, and he said the same thing to young Democrats 
             who grew impatient this year and wanted to change the 
             rules to limit unlimited amendment and unlimited debate.
               Perhaps his last Senate appearance was before the Rules 
             Committee on May 19, 2010, where his opening statement on 
             the filibuster and its consequences warned against a rules 
               I ask unanimous consent to have that statement printed 
             in the Record following my remarks.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
               (See exhibit 2, page 24.)

               Mr. ALEXANDER. Mr. President, I was 12 years old when 
             Senator Robert Byrd was elected to the House of 
             Representatives. I was a senior in Maryville, TN, when he 
             was elected to the Senate. When I came here as a Senate 
             aide 42 years ago, he had just been elected to his second 
             term and was working his way up the party leadership.
               He was an imposing man. He had a wonderful photographic 
             memory. But, after one got to know him especially, he was 
             a kind man.
               All of us can be replaced, but it is fair to say the 
             Senate will never be the same place without Robert C. 
               I yield the floor.
                                      Exhibit 1
             Remarks by U.S. Senator Robert C. Byrd at the Orientation 
                          of New Senators, December 3, 1996
               Good afternoon and welcome to the U.S. Senate Chamber. 
             You are presently occupying what I consider to be 
             ``hallowed ground.''
               You will shortly join the ranks of a very select group 
             of individuals who have been honored with the title of 
             U.S. Senator since 1789 when the Senate first convened. 
             The Creator willing, you will be here for at least 6 
               Make no mistake about it, the Office of U.S. Senator is 
             the highest political calling in the land. The Senate can 
             remove from office Presidents, members of the Federal 
             judiciary, and other Federal officials, but only the 
             Senate itself can expel a Senator.
               Let us listen for a moment to the words of James Madison 
             on the role of the Senate.

                  These [reasons for establishing the Senate] were 
                first to protect the people against their rulers: 
                secondly to protect the people against the transient 
                impression into which they themselves might be led 
                [through their representatives in the lower house]. 
                A people deliberating in a temperate moment, and 
                with the experience of other nations before them, on 
                the plan of government most likely to secure their 
                happiness, would first be aware, that those charged 
                with the public happiness, might betray their trust. 
                An obvious precaution against this danger would be 
                to divide the trust between different bodies of men, 
                who might watch and check each other ... . It would 
                next occur to such a people, that they themselves 
                were liable to temporary errors, through want of 
                information as to their true interest, and that men 
                chosen for a short term [House members], ... might 
                err from the same cause. This reflection would 
                naturally suggest that the Government be so 
                constituted, as that one of its branches might have 
                an opportunity of acquiring a competent knowledge of 
                the public interests. Another reflection equally 
                becoming a people on such an occasion, would be that 
                they themselves, as well as a numerous body of 
                Representatives, were liable to err also, from 
                fickleness and passion. A necessary fence against 
                this danger would be to select a portion of 
                enlightened citizens, whose limited number, and 
                firmness might seasonably interpose against 
                impetuous councils. [emphasis added]

               Ladies and gentlemen, you are shortly to become part of 
             that all-important, ``necessary fence,'' which is the U.S. 
             Senate. Let me give you the words of Vice President Aaron 
             Burr upon his departure from the Senate in 1805. ``This 
             house,'' said he, ``is a sanctuary; a citadel of law, of 
             order, and of liberty; and it is here--it is here, in this 
             exalted refuge; here, if anywhere, will resistance be made 
             to the storms of political phrensy and the silent arts of 
             corruption; and if the Constitution be destined ever to 
             perish by the sacrilegious hand of the demagogue or the 
             usurper, which God avert, its expiring agonies will be 
             witnessed on this floor.'' Gladstone referred to the 
             Senate as ``that remarkable body--the most remarkable of 
             all the inventions of modern politics.''
               This is a very large class of new Senators. There are 15 
             of you. It has been 16 years since the Senate welcomed a 
             larger group of new Members. Since 1980, the average size 
             class of new members has been approximately 10. Your 
             backgrounds vary. Some of you may have served in the 
             executive branch. Some may have been staffers here on the 
             Hill. Some of you have never held Federal office before. 
             Over half of you have had some service in the House of 
               Let us clearly understand one thing. The Constitution's 
             Framers never intended for the Senate to function like the 
             House of Representatives. That fact is immediately 
             apparent when one considers the length of a Senate term 
             and the staggered nature of Senate terms. The Senate was 
             intended to be a continuing body. By subjecting only one-
             third of the Senate's membership to reelection every 2 
             years, the Constitution's Framers ensured that two-thirds 
             of the membership would always carry over from one 
             Congress to the next to give the Senate an enduring 
               The Senate and, therefore, Senators were intended to 
             take the long view and to be able to resist, if need be, 
             the passions of the often intemperate House. Few, if any, 
             upper Chambers in the history of the Western World have 
             possessed the Senate's absolute right to unlimited debate 
             and to amend or block legislation passed by a lower House.
               Looking back over a period of 208 years, it becomes 
             obvious that the Senate was intended to be significantly 
             different from the House in other ways as well. The 
             constitutional Framers gave the Senate the unique 
             executive powers of providing advice and consent to 
             Presidential nominations and to treaties, and the sole 
             power to try and to remove impeached officers of the 
             government. In the case of treaties, the Senate, with its 
             longer terms, and its ability to develop expertise through 
             the device of being a continuing body, has often performed 
             invaluable service.
               I have said that as long as the Senate retains the power 
             to amend and the power of unlimited debate, the liberties 
             of the people will remain secure.
               The Senate was intended to be a forum for open and free 
             debate and for the protection of political minorities. I 
             have led the majority and I have led the minority, and I 
             can tell you that there is nothing that makes one fully 
             appreciate the Senate's special role as the protector of 
             minority interests like being in the minority. Since the 
             Republican Party was created in 1854, the Senate has 
             changed hands 14 times, so each party has had the 
             opportunity to appreciate first hand the Senate's role as 
             guardian of minority rights. But, almost from its earliest 
             years the Senate has insisted upon its Members' right to 
             virtually unlimited debate.
               When the Senate reluctantly adopted a cloture rule in 
             1917, it made the closing of debate very difficult to 
             achieve by requiring a super majority and by permitting 
             extended post-cloture debate. This deference to minority 
             views sharply distinguishes the Senate from the 
             majoritarian House of Representatives. The Framers 
             recognized that a minority can be right and that a 
             majority can be wrong. They recognized that the Senate 
             should be a true deliberative body--a forum in which to 
             slow the passions of the House, hold them up to the light, 
             examine them, and, through informed debate, educate the 
             public. The Senate is the proverbial saucer intended to 
             cool the cup of coffee from the House. It is the one place 
             in the whole government where the minority is guaranteed a 
             public airing of its views. Woodrow Wilson observed that 
             the Senate's informing function was as important as its 
             legislating function, and now, with televised Senate 
             debate, its informing function plays an even larger and 
             more critical role in the life of our Nation.
               Many a mind has been changed by an impassioned plea from 
             the minority side. Important flaws in otherwise good 
             legislation have been detected by discerning minority 
             Members engaged in thorough debate, and important 
             compromise which has worked to the great benefit of our 
             Nation has been forged by an intransigent Member 
             determined to filibuster until his views were accommodated 
             or at least seriously considered.
               The Senate is often soundly castigated for its 
             inefficiency, but in fact, it was never intended to be 
             efficient. Its purpose was and is to examine, consider, 
             protect, and to be a totally independent source of wisdom 
             and judgment on the actions of the lower House and on the 
             executive. As such, the Senate is the central pillar of 
             our constitutional system. I hope that you, as new Members 
             will study the Senate in its institutional context because 
             that is the best way to understand your personal role as a 
             U.S. Senator. Your responsibilities are heavy. Understand 
             them, live up to them, and strive to take the long view as 
             you exercise your duties. This will not always be easy.
               The pressures on you will, at times, be enormous. You 
             will have to formulate policies, grapple with issues, 
             serve the constituents in your State, and cope with the 
             media. A Senator's attention today is fractured beyond 
             belief. Committee meetings, breaking news, fundraising, 
             all of these will demand your attention, not to mention 
             personal and family responsibilities. But, somehow, amidst 
             all the noise and confusion, you must find the time to 
             reflect, to study, to read, and, especially, to understand 
             the absolutely critically important institutional role of 
             the Senate.
               May I suggest that you start by carefully reading the 
             Constitution and the Federalist Papers. In a few weeks, 
             you will stand on the platform behind me and take an oath 
             to ``support and defend the Constitution of the United 
             States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; to bear 
             true faith and allegiance to the same; and take this 
             obligation freely, without any mental reservation or 
             purpose of evasion; and to well and faithfully discharge 
             the duties of the office on which you are about to enter: 
             So help you God.''
               Note especially the first 22 words, ``I do solemnly 
             swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of 
             the United States against all enemies, foreign and 
             domestic ...''
               In order to live up to that solemn oath, one must 
             clearly understand the deliberately established inherent 
             tensions between the three branches, commonly called the 
             checks and balances, and separation of powers which the 
             Framers so carefully crafted. I carry a copy of the 
             Constitution in my shirt pocket. I have studied it 
             carefully, read and reread its articles, marveled at its 
             genius, its beauty, its symmetry, and its meticulous 
             balance, and learned something new each time that I 
             partook of its timeless wisdom. Nothing will help you to 
             fully grasp the Senate's critical role in the balance of 
             powers like a thorough reading of the Constitution and the 
             Federalist Papers.
               Now I would like to turn for a moment to the human side 
             of the Senate, the relationship among Senators, and the 
             way that even that facet of service here is, to a degree, 
             governed by the Constitution and the Senate's rules.
               The requirement for super majority votes in approving 
             treaties, involving cloture, removing impeached Federal 
             officers, and overriding vetoes, plus the need for 
             unanimous consent before the Senate can even proceed in 
             many instances, makes bipartisanship and comity necessary 
             if Members wish to accomplish much of anything. Realize 
             this. The campaign is over. You are here to be a Senator. 
             Not much happens in this body without cooperation between 
             the two parties.
               In this now 208-year-old institution, the positions of 
             majority and minority leaders have existed for less than 
             80 years. Although the positions have evolved 
             significantly within the past half century, still, the 
             only really substantive prerogative the leaders possess is 
             the right of first recognition before any other Member of 
             their respective parties who might wish to speak on the 
             Senate floor. Those of you who have served in the House 
             will now have to forget about such things as the Committee 
             of the Whole, closed rules, and germaneness, except when 
             cloture has been invoked, and become well acquainted with 
             the workings of unanimous consent agreements. Those of you 
             who took the trouble to learn Deschler's Procedure will 
             now need to set that aside and turn in earnest to 
             Riddick's Senate Procedure.
               Senators can lose the floor for transgressing the rules. 
             Personal attacks on other Members or other blatantly 
             injudicious comments are unacceptable in the Senate. Again 
             to encourage a cooling of passions, and to promote a calm 
             examination of substance, Senators address each other 
             through the Presiding Officer and in the third person. 
             Civility is essential here for pragmatic reasons as well 
             as for public consumption. It is difficult to project the 
             image of a statesmanlike, intelligent, public servant, 
             attempting to inform the public and examine issues, if one 
             is behaving and speaking in a manner more appropriate to a 
             poolroom brawl than to U.S. Senate debate. You will also 
             find that overly zealous attacks on other Members or on 
             their States are always extremely counterproductive, and 
             that you will usually be repaid in kind.
               Let us strive for dignity. When you rise to speak on 
             this Senate floor, you will be following in the tradition 
             of such men as Calhoun, Clay, and Webster. You will be 
             standing in the place of such Senators as Edmund Ross of 
             Kansas and Peter Van Winkle of West Virginia, 1868, who 
             voted against their party to save the institution of the 
             Presidency during the Andrew Johnson impeachment trial.
               Debate on the Senate floor demands thought, careful 
             preparation and some familiarity with Senate rules if we 
             are to engage in thoughtful and informed debate. 
             Additionally, informed debate helps the American people 
             have a better understanding of the complicated problems 
             which besiege them in their own lives. Simply put, the 
             Senate cannot inform American citizens without extensive 
             debate on those very issues.
               We were not elected to raise money for our own 
             reelections. We were not elected to see how many press 
             releases or TV appearances we could stack up. We were not 
             elected to set up staff empires by serving on every 
             committee in sight. We need to concentrate, focus, debate, 
             inform, and, I hope, engage the public, and thereby forge 
             consensus and direction. Once we engage each other and the 
             public intellectually, the tough choices will be easier.
               I thank each of you for your time and attention and I 
             congratulate each of you on your selection to fill a seat 
             in this august body. Service in this body is a supreme 
             honor. It is also a burden and a serious responsibility. 
             Members' lives become open for inspection and are used as 
             examples for other citizens to emulate. A Senator must 
             really be much more than hard working, much more than 
             conscientious, much more than dutiful. A Senator must 
             reach for noble qualities--honor, total dedication, self-
             discipline, extreme selflessness, exemplary patriotism, 
             sober judgment, and intellectual honesty. The Senate is 
             more important than any one or all of us--more important 
             than I am; more important than the majority and minority 
             leaders; more important than all 100 of us; more important 
             than all of the 1,843 men and women who have served in 
             this body since 1789. Each of us has a solemn 
             responsibility to remember that, and to remember it often.
               Let me leave you with the words of the last paragraph of 
             volume II, of The Senate: 1789-1989: ``Originally 
             consisting of only twenty-two members, the Senate had 
             grown to a membership of ninety-eight by the time I was 
             sworn in as a new senator in January 1959. After two 
             hundred years, it is still the anchor of the Republic, the 
             morning and evening star in the American constitutional 
             constellation. It has had its giants and its little men, 
             its Websters and its Bilbos, its Calhouns and its 
             McCarthys. It has been the stage of high drama, of comedy 
             and of tragedy, and its players have been the great and 
             the near-great, those who think they are great, and those 
             who will never be great. It has weathered the storms of 
             adversity, withstood the barbs of cynics and the attacks 
             of critics, and provided stability and strength to the 
             nation during periods of civil strife and uncertainty, 
             panics and depressions. In war and in peace, it has been 
             the sure refuge and protector of the rights of the states 
             and of a political minority. And, today, the Senate still 
             stands--the great forum of constitutional American 


                                      Exhibit 2
               Statement of Senator Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.), Senate 
                  Rules and Administration Committee, May 19, 2010
                         The Filibuster and Its Consequences
               On September 30, 1788, Pennsylvania became the first 
             State to elect its U.S. Senators, one of whom was William 
             Maclay. In his 1789 journal Senator Maclay wrote, ``I gave 
             my opinion in plain language that the confidence of the 
             people was departing from us, owing to our unreasonable 
             delays. The design of the Virginians and of the South 
             Carolina gentlemen was to talk away the time, so that we 
             could not get the bill passed.''
               Our Founding Fathers intended the Senate to be a 
             continuing body that allows for open and unlimited debate 
             and the protection of minority rights. Senators have 
             understood this since the Senate first convened.
               In his notes of the Constitutional Convention on June 
             26, 1787, James Madison recorded that the ends to be 
             served by the Senate were ``first, to protect the people 
             against their rulers, secondly, to protect the people 
             against the transient impressions into which they 
             themselves might be led ... They themselves, as well as a 
             numerous body of Representatives, were liable to err also, 
             from fickleness and passion. A necessary fence against 
             this danger would be to select a portion of enlightened 
             citizens, whose limited number, and firmness might 
             seasonably interpose against impetuous councils.'' That 
             ``fence'' was the U.S. Senate.
               The right to filibuster anchors this necessary fence. 
             But it is not a right intended to be abused.
               During this 111th Congress in particular, the minority 
             has threatened to filibuster almost every matter proposed 
             for Senate consideration. I find this tactic contrary to 
             each Senator's duty to act in good faith.
               I share the profound frustration of my constituents and 
             colleagues as we confront this situation. The challenges 
             before our Nation are far too grave, and too numerous, for 
             the Senate to be rendered impotent to address them, and 
             yet be derided for inaction by those causing the delay.
               There are many suggestions as to what we should do. I 
             know what we must not do.
               We must never, ever, tear down the only wall--the 
             necessary fence--this Nation has against the excesses of 
             the executive branch and the resultant haste and tyranny 
             of the majority.
               The path to solving our problem lies in our thoroughly 
             understanding it. Does the difficulty reside in the 
             construct of our rules or in the ease of circumventing 
               A true filibuster is a fight, not a threat or a bluff. 
             For most of the Senate's history, Senators motivated to 
             extend debate had to hold the floor as long as they were 
             physically able. The Senate was either persuaded by the 
             strength of their arguments or unconvinced by either their 
             commitment or their stamina. True filibusters were 
             therefore less frequent, and more commonly discouraged, 
             due to every Senator's understanding that such 
             undertakings required grueling personal sacrifice, 
             exhausting preparation, and a willingness to be criticized 
             for disrupting the Nation's business.
               Now, unbelievably, just the whisper of opposition brings 
             the ``world's greatest deliberative body'' to a grinding 
             halt. Why?
               Because this once highly respected institution has 
             become overwhelmingly consumed by a fixation with money 
             and media.
               Gone are the days when Senators Richard Russell and 
             Lyndon Johnson, and Speaker Sam Rayburn gathered routinely 
             for working weekends and couldn't wait to get back to 
             their Chambers on Monday morning.
               Now every Senator spends hours every day, throughout the 
             year and every year, raising funds for reelection and 
             appearing before cameras and microphones. Now the Senate 
             often works 3-day weeks, with frequent and extended recess 
             periods, so Senators can rush home to fundraisers 
             scheduled months in advance.
               Forceful confrontation to a threat to filibuster is 
             undoubtedly the antidote to the malady. Most recently, 
             Senate Majority Leader Reid announced that the Senate 
             would stay in session around the clock and take all 
             procedural steps necessary to bring financial reform 
             legislation before the Senate. As preparations were made 
             and cots rolled out, a deal was struck within hours and 
             the threat of filibuster was withdrawn.
               I heartily commend the majority leader for this 
             progress, and I strongly caution my colleagues as some 
             propose to alter the rules to severely limit the ability 
             of a minority to conduct a filibuster. I know what it is 
             to be majority leader, and wake up on a Wednesday morning 
             in November, and find yourself a minority leader.
               I also know that current Senate rules provide the means 
             to break a filibuster. I employed them in 1977 to end the 
             post-cloture filibuster of natural gas deregulation 
             legislation. This was the roughest filibuster I have 
             experienced during my 50-plus years in the Senate, and it 
             produced the most bitter feelings. Yet some important new 
             precedents were established in dealing with post-cloture 
             obstruction. In 1987, I successfully used rules VII and 
             VIII to make a non-debatable motion to proceed during the 
             morning hour. No leader has attempted this technique 
             since, but this procedure could be and should be used.
               Over the years, I have proposed a variety of 
             improvements to Senate rules to achieve a more sensible 
             balance allowing the majority to function while still 
             protecting minority rights. For example, I have supported 
             eliminating debate on the motion to proceed to a matter 
             (except for changes to Senate rules), or limiting debate 
             to a reasonable time on such motions, with Senators 
             retaining the right to unlimited debate on the matter once 
             before the Senate. I have authored several other proposals 
             in the past, and I look forward to our committee work 
             ahead as we carefully examine other suggested changes. The 
             committee must, however, jealously guard against efforts 
             to change or reinterpret the Senate rules by a simple 
             majority, circumventing rule XXII where a two-thirds 
             majority is required.
               As I have said before, the Senate has been the last 
             fortress of minority rights and freedom of speech in this 
             Republic for more than two centuries. I pray that Senators 
             will pause and reflect before ignoring that history and 
             tradition in favor of the political priority of the 

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Pennsylvania.

               Mr. SPECTER. Mr. President, since hearing this morning 
             about the passing of Senator Byrd--he died shortly after 5 
             a.m.--I have been reflecting on the man I knew.
               Those who have the great privilege to serve in the 
             Senate have occasion to meet and interact with great 
             people. The expression ``giant'' is used not too 
             frequently about Senators. It certainly would apply to 
             Senator Byrd, but I believe it is insufficient. Searching 
             my own mind for a more apt term, ``colossus'' might better 
             fit Robert Byrd.
               His career in the Congress of the United States was 
             extraordinary, really astounding. To think that he was 
             elected in 1952 and was sworn in while Harry Truman was 
             still President of the United States and has served since 
             that time, with many things that happened, during the 
             administrations of President Eisenhower, President 
             Kennedy, President Johnson, President Nixon, President 
             Ford, President Carter, President George H.W. Bush, 
             President Ronald Reagan before, President George W. Bush, 
             President Clinton, and now President Obama.
               One of the distinctions he made early on was the fact 
             that in the Senate, we serve with Presidents; we do not 
             serve under Presidents. I think that was a calling card by 
             Senator Byrd as a constitutionalist on the separation of 
             powers. He was a fierce fighter for that separation of 
               When the line-item veto was passed, he took up the 
             battle to have it declared unconstitutional, as an 
             encroachment on article I powers in the U.S. Congress on 
             appropriations. The bills which we present to the 
             President have a great many provisions, and Senator Byrd 
             was looking upon the factor of the President perhaps 
             taking some provisions he did not like too well in order 
             to take the whole bill. I am sure on Senator Byrd's mind 
             was the largess which came to the State of West Virginia. 
             That is part of our Federal system, part of our democracy, 
             part of our Constitution of the advantage of seniority, 
             where Senator Byrd had been elected and reelected on so 
             many occasions.
               I recall Senator Byrd and his swift action shortly after 
             the 1986 election. I was on the Intelligence Committee at 
             that time. Senator Byrd stepped into the picture to see to 
             it that the witnesses who testified on what was later 
             known as the Iran Contra controversy were placed under 
             oath. He had a sense that there was a problem that had to 
             be investigated by Congress, again, under the doctrine of 
             separation of powers.
               I recollect his position on the impeachment proceeding 
             as he stood at this chair and recited the provisions of 
             the Constitution, about the impeachment for high crimes 
             and misdemeanors, and then started to talk about the 
             action of the respondent in the case, President Clinton, 
             and the charges which were levied. He came to the 
             conclusion that the constitutional standard had been met 
             and then voted not guilty--with a sweep on the conclusion, 
             a judgment of a higher principle involved that President 
             Clinton had not lost the capacity to govern, and he ought 
             to stay in office.
               I recall in October 2002 we debated the resolution 
             authorizing the use of force for President Bush. The 
             resolution did not say force would be used but gave the 
             President the authority to use force as he decided it 
               I was concerned about that. The scholars who had written 
             on the subject for the most part said it would be an 
             inappropriate delegation of constitutional authority for 
             the Congress to say to the President: You may start a war 
             at some future date.
               The starting of a war depended on the facts and 
             circumstances at hand when the decision was made. Senator 
             Byrd and I discussed that at some length and finally 
             concluded there ought to be some flexibility. Both of us 
             voted for that resolution on the ground that empowering 
             the President without authority, we might have the 
             realistic chance of avoiding a war.
               While serving with Senator Byrd on the Appropriations 
             Committee, I recall one year when he chaired the 
             Appropriations Committee--I think in the late 1980s--the 
             allocations made were not in accordance with the budget 
             resolution which had been passed. Some of us on the 
             Appropriations Committee thought we ought to have those 
             allocations in accordance with what Congress had set in 
             the budget resolution. Senator D'Amato, Senator Kasten, 
             and I staged a minor revolution. It did not last too long. 
             The vote was 26 to 3. But we expressed ourselves.
               I recall hearing Senator Byrd and participated in a 
             discussion with him on the Senate floor about the right to 
             retain the floor, whether you could yield to someone or 
             whether you had to have an order of consent before you 
             retained your right to the floor. Discussing or debating 
             Senator Byrd on procedural issues was indeed an education. 
             He was always regarded as the foremost expert on Senate 
             procedure and the rules of this body.
               His service--most recently in coming in ill, in a 
             wheelchair for a series of cloture votes at 1 a.m.--
             historians, I think, will write about the passage of the 
             comprehensive health care bill and the cloture votes and 
             passage in the Senate on Christmas Eve early in the 
             morning--finally, we had a concession we would not vote at 
             11:59 on Christmas but would vote earlier in the day. Even 
             the objectors wanted to leave town. Senator Byrd came here 
             performing his duty, although he certainly was not well 
             and it was a tremendous strain on him. He came and made 
             the 60th vote.
               It is a sad occasion to see a black drape on Senator 
             Byrd's desk and flowers. I am sure in days to come there 
             will be many comments, many eulogies about Senator Byrd. 
             He leaves a great void. But reflecting on the experiences 
             I have had with him, there is much to celebrate in his 
             life. He was a great American, a great Senator. We will 
             all miss him very much.

               Mr. BURRIS. Mr. President, early this morning, our 
             country lost an icon and a national treasure. Our friend 
             and colleague, Senator Robert C. Byrd, became a legend in 
             his own time. And in many ways, he came to embody the 
             institution of the Senate.
               As a leader, and as a guardian of Senate procedure and 
             tradition, Senator Byrd was without equal. For more than 
             half a century, he helped shape Federal policy, and guided 
             the course of a Nation.
               But on the day he was born, in 1917, this unique place 
             in history was far from assured.
               Raised in the coal country of West Virginia, few could 
             have predicted that this intelligent but unassuming young 
             man would rise to the very highest levels of our 
             democracy. He was an avid fiddle player, and valedictorian 
             of his high school class. But he could not afford to go to 
             college until many years later. So as a young man, he 
             found work as a meatcutter, a gas station attendant, and a 
             store owner. And the store owner is very dear to me 
             because our family were store owners, and I know how tough 
             that business is. He welded Liberty and Victory ships 
             during the Second World War, and several years later 
             entered politics at the State level.
               That is where Robert Byrd found his true calling: public 
               He was first elected to the House of Representatives in 
             1952, and has served the people of West Virginia in this 
             Chamber since 1959. Over the course of his extraordinary 
             career, he worked alongside 12 Presidents. He served in 
             Congress longer than anyone in American history, cast more 
             than 18,000 votes, and was elected to more leadership 
             positions than any other Senator.
               Most recently, he assumed the role of President pro 
             tempore of the Senate, ranking him third in the line of 
             Presidential succession. At every turn, he dedicated 
             himself to the sanctity of our Constitution, and fought to 
             uphold its principles and the weight of Senate tradition.
               It is difficult to measure the vast impact he has had on 
             the lives of every single American.
               No, he was not right on every issue. His past was not 
             without mistakes and errors in judgment. But it is a 
             credit to Senator Byrd that, over the years, he gained the 
             wisdom to recognize the moments when he strayed from the 
             right path. It is the mark of greatness that he worked 
             hard to overcome these errors and set America on course 
             for a more prosperous, more inclusive future.
               In recent years, Senator Byrd raised his voice against 
             the unilateral invasion of Iraq.
               He fought to preserve the filibuster, ensuring that the 
             voice of the minority will always have a place in this 
             august Chamber. He offered his support to a young Senator 
             from Illinois named Barack Obama, as he fought to become 
             the first African-American President of the United States.
               Senator Byrd's historic tenure spanned 12 
             administrations, thousands of bills, and more than half a 
             century. Thanks to his leadership, and the leadership of 
             others he has inspired and mentored over the years, we 
             live in a very different world today.
               The year he launched his first campaign for the House of 
             Representatives, gas cost about 25 cents a gallon, Winston 
             Churchill was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and I 
             was only 15 years old.
               Senator Byrd has left an indelible mark on this Nation, 
             and for that we will be forever grateful.
               But today, as we remember and celebrate the 
             contributions he has made, we also offer our condolences 
             to his friends and loved ones in this time of mourning. We 
             offer our sympathies to the people of West Virginia, who 
             have lost a staunch advocate. We offer our fervent hope 
             that a new generation of Americans, Liberal and 
             Conservative; Black and White; from all races and 
             religions and backgrounds, will take up the legacy of 
             patriotism and service that was left to us by Senator 
             Byrd; that today's young people will inherit his fierce 
             loyalty to the Constitution, and recognize their 
             responsibility to confront every challenge we face.
               So I ask my colleagues to join with me in honoring the 
             life of our dear friend, Senator Robert Byrd.
               And I call upon every American to learn from the example 
             set by this son of the West Virginia hills who overcame 
             poverty, lack of education, and the prejudice of his times 
             to become one of the greatest public servants in our 

               Mr. DORGAN. Madam President, today I rise on the floor 
             of the Senate recognizing that we have white roses and a 
             black drape adorning the desk of the late Senator Robert 
             C. Byrd.
               I had told him personally in the past that when my 
             service is done I will have considered it a great 
             privilege to have served in this body at the same time 
             that Robert Byrd served in this body. He was a lot of 
             things. He was smart and tough and honest. Because he 
             legislated and because of his career here, this is a 
             better country, I am convinced of that.
               All of us know Senator Byrd grew old here and became 
             someone with health problems in recent years and yet even 
             last week would come to this Chamber and cast his vote. In 
             recent weeks I had several visits with him on the floor of 
             the Senate.
               All of us know as well that he loved his country. He, 
             most of all, loved the Senate. He wrote a four-volume book 
             of history on this body, and I say to anybody listening, 
             if they enjoy history and enjoy knowing anything about the 
             wonderful history of this body, read what Senator Byrd has 
             written. It is extraordinary.
               He loved the Constitution of the United States, and he 
             never appeared on the floor of the Senate without having a 
             copy of that Constitution in his suit pocket. He always 
             had a copy of the Constitution with him.
               He was also someone who did not just love the history of 
             the Senate but loved Roman history. I recall sitting on 
             the floor of the Senate many years ago when I first came 
             here, listening to Senator Byrd talk about Roman history 
             and the lessons in it for us.
               I learned a lot listening to Senator Byrd on the floor 
             of the Senate about a lot of things, including Roman 
               I also learned that he had one of the most extraordinary 
             memories you have ever known. And I thought today--because 
             we are saddened but also mourning the loss of a friend and 
             someone who served this country so well--I would read 
             something he read on the floor of the Senate a couple of 
             times, but he read the preamble to it and then recited it 
             from memory, this great story. He did it because he was 
             talking about a crime that occurred with respect to a dog, 
             an animal. He talked a lot about his dog Billy, that he 
             loved very much, and then he told us the story about a man 
             named Vest, George G. Vest, who was to become a Senator 
               I will read what Senator Byrd said. He said:

               At the turn of the century, George G. Vest delivered a 
             deeply touching summation before the jury in the trial 
             involving the killing of a dog, ``Old Drum.'' This 
             occurred, I think, in 1869. There were two brothers-in-
             law, both of whom had fought in the Union Army. They lived 
             in Johnson County, Missouri. One was named Leonidas 
             Hornsby. The other was named Charles Burden.
               Burden owned a dog, and he was named ``Old Drum.'' He 
             was a great hunting dog. Any time that dog barked one 
             could know for sure that it was on the scent of a raccoon 
             or other animal.
               Leonidas Hornsby was a farmer who raised livestock and 
             some of his calves and lambs were being killed by animals. 
             He, therefore, swore to shoot any animal, any dog that 
             appeared on his property.
               One day there appeared on his property a hound. Someone 
             said, ``There's a dog out there in the yard.'' Hornsby 
             said, ``Shoot him.''
               The dog was killed. Charles Burden, the owner of the 
             dog, was not the kind of man to take something like this 
             lightly. He went to court.

               This was Old Drum that was killed.

               He won his case and was awarded $25. Hornsby appealed, 
             and, if I recall, on the appeal there was a reversal, 
             whereupon the owner of the dog decided to employ the best 
             lawyer that he could find in the area.
               He employed a lawyer by the name of George Graham Vest. 
             This lawyer gave a summation to the jury.

               Senator Byrd recited the summation to the jury, and he 
             did it without a note. It so reminded me of all the things 
             I heard on the floor from Senator Byrd--yes, The Ambulance 
             Down in the Valley, a piece of lengthy prose without a 
             note, and this without a note. He recited the summation to 
             the jury by George Vest:

               Gentlemen of the jury. The best friend a man has in the 
             world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son 
             or daughter whom he has reared with loving care may prove 
             ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those 
             whom we trust with our happiness and our good name, may 
             become traitors to their faith. The money that a man has 
             he may lose. It flies away from him perhaps when he needs 
             it most. A man's reputation may be sacrificed in a moment 
             of ill-considered action. The people who are prone to fall 
             on their knees to do us honor when success is with us may 
             be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure 
             settles its cloud upon our heads. The one absolutely 
             unselfish friend that a man can have in this selfish 
             world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never 
             proves ungrateful or treacherous, is the dog.
               Gentlemen of the jury, a man's dog stands by him in 
             prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He 
             will sleep on the cold ground when the wintry winds blow 
             and the snow drives fiercely, if only he can be near his 
             master's side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to 
             offer, he will lick the wounds and sores that come in 
             encounter with the roughness of the world. He guards the 
             sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince.
               When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches 
             take wings and reputation falls to pieces, he is as 
             constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the 
             heavens. If fortune drives the master forth an outcast 
             into the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog 
             asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to 
             guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies. 
             And when the last scene of all comes, and death takes his 
             master in its embrace and his body is laid in the cold 
             ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, 
             there by his graveside will the noble dog be found, his 
             head between his paws and his eyes sad but open, in alert 
             watchfulness, faithful and true, even unto death.

               Well, I read this summation to the jury in the case of 
             Old Drum. But Senator Byrd recited it, as he did in all of 
             these similar circumstances, completely from memory.
               Senator Byrd came to the floor, and he had a way with 
             words that does not so much exist in the Senate anymore. I 
             was sitting on the floor one day when another Senator came 
             to the floor and said some very disparaging things about a 
             President of the United States. They referred to the 
             President in a way that was very disparaging. Senator Byrd 
             did not like that, no matter who the President was. He 
             came to the floor, and I am sure the person who was 
             disparaging the President at that point never understood 
             what had happened to him after Senator Byrd was done.

               Mr. LEAHY. I remember that.

               Mr. DORGAN. But Senator Byrd came to the floor, and he 
             stood up, and he said this, ``I have served here long 
             enough to see pygmies strut like Colossus.'' And he said, 
             very like the fly in Aesop's fable, sitting on an axle of 
             a chariot, ``My, what dust I do raise.''
               And it occurred to me he had just told someone what they 
             had done was unbelievably foolish. I am not sure they 
             understood it. But he wrapped it in such elegant language, 
             as he always did.
               In addition to serving at a time early on in his career 
             when things were different, when there was perhaps less 
             anger and less partisanship and committee chairmen and 
             ranking members got together and decided what we needed to 
             do for the country and did it together and came to the 
             floor together, he was also, on the floor of the Senate, 
             someone who knew the rules. He studied the rules because 
             he understood that knowing the rules to this Chamber and 
             how this process works was also important to be successful 
               Aside from that, he was a skillful legislator--very 
             skillful. I watched him walk out of this Chamber from that 
             door and very often stop as a bunch of Senate pages--high 
             school kids who serve in the Senate--would gather around 
             and then he would spend 15, 20 minutes telling them a 
             story about the Senate, about the history of this great 
             place. Too many of us walk back and forth around here, 
             walking very briskly because we are late to go here or 
             there and we are working on a lot of things. Senator Byrd 
             always took time to talk to the pages--not just talk to 
             them but tell them stories about what this great Senate 
             has meant to this great country.
               He also loved very much his late wife Erma and talked 
             about her a lot to many of us.
               He loved to play the fiddle. Early on when I came to the 
             Senate, if you expressed even the least interest in music, 
             he would get you down to his office and put a tape in his 
             recording device to show us that he played the fiddle on 
             the program Hee Haw. He was so proud of that. He was 
             someone who loved West Virginia, loved his country, and 
             was a friend to all of us.
               Today is a very sad day for those of us who see a desk 
             that was occupied by a great U.S. Senator for so many 
             decades, now occupied with a dozen roses and a black 
             cloth, signifying that we have lost this great man. 
             America has lost a great public servant. As one Member of 
             the Senate, I say it has been a great privilege--my great 
             privilege--to serve while Senator Byrd served in this 
               Madam President, I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Vermont.

               Mr. LEAHY. Madam President, I appreciate the words of 
             the Senator from North Dakota. I recall sitting here on 
             the floor, I tell my friend from North Dakota, who may 
             well have been here at that time when Senator Byrd spoke 
             of the pygmies strutting like a Colossus. We both know who 
             he meant and we both know the effect it had, and I thank 
             him for reminding us of that.
               I believe all of us who served with him and knew Senator 
             Byrd were saddened by the news of his passing. No Senator 
             came to care more about the Constitution or was a more 
             effective defender of our constitutional government than 
             the senior Senator from West Virginia. How many times did 
             we see him reach into his jacket pocket and hold up the 
             Constitution? He would say, ``This is what guides me.''
               I said in the Judiciary Committee today that many of us 
             carry the Constitution and we can turn to it and read from 
             it. Senator Byrd, if asked, would recite it verbatim from 
             memory from page 1 straight through.
               Senator Byrd was a Senator's Senator. During the time 
             before he stopped playing, some of us would be at an event 
             with him where he would play the fiddle. I recall one of 
             those times when he played the fiddle, and now his 
             successor as President pro tempore, Senator Inouye, played 
             the piano, playing compositions only requiring one hand, 
             and the two of them played in the caucus room now named 
             after our late Senator Ted Kennedy. I heard him play in 
             the happy times and the enjoyable times when he would try 
             to bring Senators of both parties together and act like 
             human beings.
               I have also sat here with him when he reminded Senators 
             of what the Constitution stood for, what our role was in 
             the Constitution, when he spoke against going to war in 
             Iraq without reason and without a declaration of war. It 
             was one of the most powerful speeches I have heard him 
             give. In over 36 years of serving with him, I heard many 
               Others will speak of his records for time served in the 
             Senate and in Congress and the number of votes he cast. I 
             think of him more as a mentor and a friend. I recall in 
             fall 1974 becoming the Senator-elect and coming down here 
             to talk to Senators and meeting with Senator Byrd and 
             Senator Mansfield, Senator Mansfield being the leader, 
             Senator Byrd the deputy leader. I recall one of the things 
             he told me--both of them did. ``Always keep your word.'' 
             Robert Byrd, Robert Carlyle Byrd, if he gave you his word, 
             you could go to the bank with it, but he would expect the 
             same in return, as he should. That is something all of us 
             should be reminded of and all of us should seek to 
               I was honored to sit near him on the Senate floor. 
             Sitting near him in the same room we would engage in many 
             discussions about the Senate and the rules or about the 
             issues of the moment, or about our families. But now I sit 
             here and I look at the flowers on his desk; I look at the 
             drape on that desk. Over the many years I have had the 
             privilege of representing the State of Vermont in this 
             body, I have had to come on the floor of the Senate to see 
             the traditional drapery and the flowers on either side of 
             the aisle when we have lost dear colleagues; more than 
             that, we have lost dear friends. Party is irrelevant. The 
             friendship is what is important. It tugs at your heart and 
             it tugs at your soul to see it. Walking in here and 
             looking down the row where I sit and seeing that, I don't 
             know when I have felt the tug so strong.
               Marcelle and I were privileged to know Bob and Erma, his 
             wonderful Erma. We would see them in the grocery store in 
             Northern Virginia. Our wives would drive in together for 
             Senate matters. I recall sitting with him in his office 
             one day when we spoke of the death of his grandson and how 
             it tore him apart to have lost him in an accident. He had 
             his portrait in his office with a black drapery. We sat 
             there--this man who could be so composed--we sat and held 
             hands while he cried about his grandson. At that time I 
             did not have the privilege of being a grandfather. Today, 
             I think I can more fully understand what he went through. 
             I remember the emotion and the strength of it. This was 
             not just the person whom we saw often as the leader of the 
             Senate, the chairman of a major committee, ready and in 
             control, but a human being mourning somebody very dear to 
               He was a self-educated man. He learned much throughout 
             his life, but then he had much to teach us all. It has 
             been spoken about how he talked to the pages, but he would 
             talk to anybody about his beloved Senate. He did more than 
             that. He wrote the definitive history of the Senate. We 
             all learned from him. He was a symbol of West Virginia. He 
             was an accomplished legislator. He was an extraordinary 
               As a form of tribute I suspect Senator Byrd himself 
             would appreciate--let me quote from Pericles' funeral 
             oration from Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War 
             about the inherent strength of democracy. Senator Byrd was 
             well familiar with this passage, and with its relevance to 
             our Constitution and our form of government. I heard him 
             use it before. Pericles is said to have spoken this:

               Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with 
             the institutions of others. Our government does not copy 
             our neighbors, but is an example to them. It is true that 
             we are called a democracy, for the administration is in 
             the hands of the many and not of the few. But while there 
             exists equal justice to all and alike in their private 
             disputes, the claim of excellence is also recognized; and 
             when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is 
             preferred to the public service, not as a matter of 
             privilege, but as a reward of merit. Neither is poverty an 
             obstacle, but a man may benefit his country whatever the 
             obscurity of his condition.

               Senator Byrd believed in this country. He believed that 
             a youngster who had been adopted, who lived in a house 
             without running water, who had to work for every single 
             thing he obtained, could also rise to the highest 
             positions in this body, a body he loved more than any 
             other institution in our government, save one: the 
             Constitution. The Constitution was his North Star and his 
             lone star. It was what guided him.
               Senator Byrd was such an extraordinary man of merit and 
             grit and determination who loved his family. I recall him 
             speaking of his grandchildren and great-grandchildren and 
             he would proudly tell you about each of them. I remember 
             even after he was a widower walking by and leaning over 
             and saying, ``How are you?'' He would say, ``I am fine. 
             How is Marcelle?'' And Senators from both sides of the 
             aisle would come just to talk with him.
               He drew strength from his deep faith. He took to heart 
             his oath to support and defend the Constitution of the 
             United States. The arc of his career in public service is 
             an inspiration to us all, and it will inspire Americans of 
             generations to come.
               So, Robert, I say goodbye to you, my dear friend. I am 
             not going to forget your friendship. I am not going to 
             forget how you mentored me. But, especially, I will not 
             forget, and I will always cherish even after I leave this 
             body, your love of the Senate.
               Senator Byrd, you are one of a kind.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Illinois.

               Mr. DURBIN. Madam President, Members of the Senate are 
             coming to the floor today from both sides of the aisle to 
             acknowledge a moment in our history: the passing of Robert 
             C. Byrd of West Virginia. Senator Byrd was the longest 
             serving Senator in the history of the United States of 
             America; a man who cast more than 18,000 votes; a man who 
             served as majority leader, as chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee, as President pro tempore. He 
             was, in fact, the Senate. He embodied the Senate in his 
             life. It was his life.
               Each of us, before we can become a Senator, takes a walk 
             down this aisle and goes over to the side here where the 
             Vice President of the United States swears us in. You put 
             your hand on a Bible and you take an oath to uphold and 
             defend the Constitution of the United States. You have to 
             say that or you can't be a Senator. For many people, it is 
             a formality. For Robert C. Byrd, it was a commitment, a 
             life commitment to a document, the Constitution of the 
             United States. He used to carry one in his pocket every 
             day of his life. That is the kind of commitment most 
             people will not make because they think: Well, maybe I 
             will change my mind. For Robert C. Byrd, there was no 
             changing his mind. He was committed to that Constitution.
               For him, it was the North Star, it was the guiding 
             light, it was the document that created this Nation, and 
             he had sworn on his Bible to uphold and defend it, and he 
             meant it. That is why he was so extraordinary.
               He understood this Constitution because he understood 
             what our government is about. He made a point of saying 
             whenever a new President would come in, even a President 
             of his own party: I will work with the President but as a 
             Senator; I do not work for the President. We are equal to 
             the President because we are an equal branch of 
             government. I will be glad to work with the President, but 
             I have a responsibility as a Senator.
               I remember so well in what I consider to be the finest 
             hour I witnessed when it came to Robert C. Byrd. It was in 
             October 2002. It was a little over a year after 9/11. 
             President George W. Bush was asking this Senate to vote 
             for a resolution to invade Iraq. At the time, the pressure 
             was building. Public sentiment was strongly in favor. 
             Remember, there was talk about weapons of mass 
             destruction, nuclear weapons, attacks on our allies and 
             friends, even on the United States if we did not move, and 
             move quickly. There was a prevailing growing sentiment to 
             go to war.
               But the Senator from West Virginia stood up, took out 
             his Constitution, and said, ``This is a mistake. We should 
             not be going to war.''
               He proceeded day after day, week after week, and month 
             after month to stand there at that desk and lead the 
             charge against the invasion of Iraq. It was an amazing 
             display of his talent, which was prodigious, and his 
             commitment to this Constitution as he saw it, and the fact 
             that he was politically fearless.
               I agreed with him on that issue. I was inspired by him 
             on that issue. I can recall when my wife and I went to a 
             Mass in Old St. Patrick's Church in Chicago, we were in 
             the pew kneeling after Communion. The church was quiet as 
             people were returning from Communion. An older fellow, 
             whom I did not know, stood next to me in the aisle and 
             looked down at me and said in a voice that could be heard 
             across the church, ``Stick with Bob Byrd.''
               I came back and told him that story, and he just howled 
             with laughter. I said, ``Senator Byrd, your reach is 
             beyond West Virginia and beyond the Senate. It is in 
             Chicago and across the country. What you are saying is 
             resonating with a lot of people.''
               In the end, 23 people voted against that war--1 
             Republican and 22 Democrats. For a while, we were not 
             popular. Over time I think that vote became more 
             respected. Robert C. Byrd was our leader, and he used this 
             Constitution as his inspiration.
               He had such a sense of history. My favorite story 
             related to about 16 or 18 years ago. I was a Member of the 
             House of Representatives then on the Appropriations 
             Committee, and Robert C. Byrd was the chairman of the 
             Senate Appropriations Committee. He was a powerful man. We 
             were supposed to meet downstairs in a conference 
             committee, House and Senate, the conferees from both 
             Appropriations Committees, on a transportation bill.
               To no one's surprise and without any apology, Senator 
             Byrd had quite a few West Virginia projects in that bill. 
             Congressman Frank Wolf of Virginia, a Republican, sat on 
             the committee on the House side. When he looked at the 
             West Virginia projects, he got upset. He said it publicly 
             in the Washington Post and other places that he had 
             thought Senator Byrd had gone too far.
               That was a pretty bold move by Congressman Wolf to make 
             those statements in the minority about the chairman of the 
             Senate Appropriations Committee. I could not wait for that 
             conference committee because the two of them would 
             literally be in the same room. In fact, it turned out to 
             be even better. They were not just in the same room, but 
             Senator Byrd's staff had reserved a chair directly across 
             the table from Congressman Wolf.
               The place was packed, waiting for this confrontation. 
             Senator Byrd came in last and sat down very quietly in his 
             chair and waited his turn. Congressman Wolf at some point 
             asked for recognition and went after the Byrd West 
             Virginia projects. Frank is a passionate man. I served 
             with him and agreed with him on many issues and disagreed 
             on others. I respected him. He was passionate and 
             committed and made it clear he thought this was unfair and 
               Senator Byrd, in his three-piece suit, sat across from 
             him with hands on the table showing no emotion until after 
             15, 20 minutes, Congressman Wolf was exhausted by his 
             protests about these Byrd projects, at which point Senator 
             Byrd leaned over and said to whomever was presiding at 
             that moment, ``May I speak?'' And they said, ``Of 
               Then he said--and I am going to paraphrase this. I think 
             it is pretty close to what he said. There was no video 
             camera there. I wish there had been. He said, ``In 1830, 
             in January of 1830, January 19, 1830, which, if my memory 
             serves me, was a Thursday, Daniel Webster and Mr. Hayne 
             engaged in one of the most famous debates in American 
             history.'' And off he went.
               For the next 15 minutes, without a note, Robert C. Byrd 
             tried to explain a very basic principle, and it was this: 
             The Senate is created to give every State the same number 
             of Senators--two Senators. The House is elected by popular 
             vote. A small State such as West Virginia does not have 
             much of a chance in the House of Representatives. It is 
             small in a body of 435 Members. But in the Senate, every 
             State, large and small--Virginia and West Virginia, 
             Illinois, New York, California--each has two Senators.
               The point Senator Byrd was making was: If I do not put 
             the projects in in the Senate, we will never get them in 
             in the House. That is what the Great Compromise, the 
             Constitution, and the Senate and the House are all about.
               It was a masterful presentation, which led to a 
             compromise, one might expect, at the end of the day in 
             which Senator Byrd did quite well for his State of West 
               Years passed, and I was elected to this body. I came 
             here and I saw Senator Byrd sitting in that seat one day, 
             and I said, ``I want to tell you the most famous debate I 
             can ever remember--there was not a camera in the room, and 
             I do not think anyone recorded it.'' I recalled his debate 
             with Frank Wolf.
               I said, ``What I remember particularly is when you said, 
             `January 19, 1830, which was a Thursday, if I recall.'''
               He said, ``Yes, I think it was a Thursday.''
               I said, ``I don't doubt it was a Thursday, but that 
             little detail was amazing.''
               He kind of smiled. He did not say anything more. About 
             an hour passed before the next roll call, and he called me 
             over to that desk. He had brought out a perpetual calendar 
             and found January 19, 1830, and said, ``Mr. Durbin, it was 
             a Thursday.''
               I said, ``I didn't dispute it, Senator.''
               It was an example in my mind of a man who understood 
             this Constitution, understood his use of that Constitution 
             for his State--some would say he overused it, but he was 
             fighting for his State every day he was here--his command 
             of history and his command of the moment.
               That was Robert C. Byrd. They do not make them like that 
             anymore. There just are not many people in our generation 
             who can even claim to be in that position.
               I recall it and I remember very well another 
             conversation I had with him. You see, history will show 
             that in his early life, Robert C. Byrd was a member of the 
             Ku Klux Klan. Many of his detractors and enemies would 
             bring that up. He would be very open about it, not deny 
             it, but say that he had changed, and his votes reflected 
               I once said to him, ``Of all these thousands and 
             thousands of votes you have cast, are there any you would 
             like to do over?''
               ``Oh, yes,'' he said. ``Three. There was one for an 
             Eisenhower administration appointee which I voted against, 
             and I wish I voted for him. I think that was a mistake.'' 
             ``And,'' he said, ``I was wrong on the civil rights 
             legislation. I voted the wrong way in the 1960s.'' 
             ``And,'' he said, ``I made a mistake and voted for the 
             deregulation of the airline industry which cut off airline 
             service to my State of West Virginia.'' Those were three.
               If you have been in public life or even if you have been 
             on this Earth a while, I think you have learned the value 
             of redemption. Robert C. Byrd, in his early life, made a 
             mistake with his membership in the Ku Klux Klan. He was 
             open about it, and he demonstrated in his life that he was 
             wrong and would do better in the future. That is 
             redemption--political redemption--and, in my mind, it was 
             total honesty.
               There were so many other facets to this man too. Senator 
             Leahy talked about him playing the fiddle. That is the 
             first time I ever saw him in person. He came to 
             Springfield, Illinois, in 1976, when he was aspiring to 
             run for President of the United States. He stood out from 
             the rest of the crowd because he got up and said a few 
             words about why he wanted to be President. Then he reached 
             in and grabbed his fiddle and started playing it.
               I tell you, it brought the house down. I don't remember 
             who else was there. I think Jimmy Carter was there. But I 
             do remember that Bob Byrd was there.
               When I came to the Senate, I thought: I cannot wait to 
             see or hear him play that fiddle again. I learned that 
             after his grandson died in an automobile accident, he 
             said, ``I will never touch it again, in memory of my 
             grandson.'' That is the kind of family commitment he made 
             as well. He would sing and occasionally have a Christmas 
             party downstairs, and a few of us would be lucky enough to 
             get invited. He would sing. He was a man who had gone 
             through some life experiences and family experiences that 
             were very meaningful to him.
               I remember another day when I was on the floor of the 
             Senate and there was a debate about the future of the 
             National Endowment for the Arts. Senator Ashcroft of 
             Missouri wanted to eliminate the National Endowment for 
             the Arts and take away all its money. I stood up to debate 
             him. I was brand new here, not smart enough to know when 
             to sit down and shut up. I started debating: I thought it 
             was wrong, the arts are important, so forth.
               Through the door comes Bob Byrd. He walks in here and 
             asks if he could be recognized. Everything stopped when he 
             had asked for recognition. They said, ``Of course.''
               He said, ``I want to tell you what music meant to me. I 
             was an orphan, and I was raised in a loving family. Early 
             in life, they went out and bought me a fiddle. Music has 
             always been a big, important part of my life.'' Out of 
             nowhere, this man gives this beautiful speech, and then he 
             quotes poetry during the course of the speech.
               As one can tell, all of us who served with him are great 
             fans of Robert C. Byrd and what he meant to this Senate 
             and what he meant to this Nation. West Virginia has lost a 
             great servant who was so proud of his home State. Time and 
             again that was always the bottom line for him: Is this 
             going to be good for the future of my little State of West 
             Virginia? He fought for them and put them on the map in 
             some regards and some projects. He was respected by his 
             colleagues because of the commitment to the people who 
             honored him by allowing him to serve in the Senate.
               There may be a debate as to whether there is a heaven. 
             If there is a heaven and they have a table for the greats 
             in the Senate, I would ask Daniel Webster to pull up a 
             chair for Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia.
               Madam President, I yield the floor.

               Mr. TESTER. Madam President, I have a short speech to 
             give today about a giant of a man. I rise today out of 
             deep respect for our colleague, Senator Robert C. Byrd. 
             Sharla and I extend our condolences to the Byrd family and 
             to all the people of West Virginia. We join you in 
             mourning but also in a celebration of his life and his 
             successes as a public servant.
               Senator Byrd liked to call me ``the Mountain Man,'' and 
             when somebody from the Mountain State calls you that, it 
             is an incredible compliment.
               Senator Byrd and I had a few things in common: We were 
             both from very small towns, we both married our high 
             school sweethearts, and we both made a living at one time 
             as meatcutters. He must have had an eye for the butchering 
             business because he liked to guess my weight. And wouldn't 
             you know, he always came within 3 pounds. You could say 
             Senator Byrd convinced me to spend a little more time in 
             the gym.
               Senator Byrd was elected to Congress 4 years before I 
             was even born, and he always shared his wisdom with those 
             of us who admired it. I am honored to call Senator Byrd a 
             respected teacher and a trusted friend.
               I was Presiding Officer on the day the farm bill came 
             before the Senate. Instead of signing the farm bill 
             himself, Senator Byrd let me sign the bill. Although it 
             went unspoken, I know it was because he saw me as the 
             farmer in the Senate. It was truly an honor for me to be 
             able to do that.
               Another thing Senator Byrd and I had in common was our 
             upbringing in rural America. He was always proud to fight 
             for folks making a living off the land and in the 
             mountains and in the woods. He was a powerful advocate, 
             and he represented West Virginia with tireless passion. He 
             valued hard work and common sense. Those values are a 
             matter of survival in America. They are values you take 
             with you as you go to Congress, and Senator Byrd showed us 
               Madam President, we will miss Senator Byrd very much. 
             His work over the decades on the Hill has made the entire 
             country a better place for us and for our kids and 
               Before I came to Capitol Hill 3\1/2\ years ago, many 
             folks came up to me and said, ``You are going to have an 
             experience of a lifetime. You will meet some incredible 
             people.'' And I will tell you that one of the most 
             incredible men I have met since I have been here was 
             Senator Byrd.
               We miss you.
               I yield the floor.

               Mr. AKAKA. Madam President, I rise to pay tribute to 
             Senator Robert C. Byrd, my mentor, supporter, and good 
               Senator Byrd was the dean of the Senate, our foremost 
             constitutional scholar. No one in the history of our 
             country served longer in Congress.
               For more than a half century, Robert C. Byrd kept the 
             Senate in line. He always kept a copy of the Constitution 
             in his jacket pocket, close to his heart. He was 
             meticulous, a master of the rules of this historic 
             institution. Through hard work and dedication, Senator 
             Byrd became an institution himself.
               When I joined the Senate 20 years ago, to my great 
             fortune, Senator Byrd took me under his wing. He guided me 
             through procedural rules and taught me how to preside over 
             the floor. I still have the notes he gave me when I was a 
             freshman Senator. He was adamant that the Presiding 
             Officer should always be respectful of the speakers, while 
             maintaining strict adherence to the rules of the Senate.
               Senator Robert C. Byrd was a patriot who cared for and 
             loved this country, the United States of America. He 
             worked hard for the people of West Virginia, who showed 
             their support for him election after election.
               Senator Robert C. Byrd was a spiritual man. Each week a 
             number of Senators got together for a morning prayer 
             breakfast. Senator Byrd was a regular participant when he 
             was well. His favorite hymn was ``Old Rugged Cross.'' I 
             enjoyed singing it with him many times.
               We shared a love for music and the arts. His fiddle 
             playing was legendary.
               He loved his family. He loved his children and 
             grandchildren. He loved his dogs. Closest always was his 
             wife Erma who was always by his side until her death in 
             2006. They spent many wonderful years together, and now 
             they are together again.
               My thoughts and prayers are with the Byrd family.
               Senator Byrd, we love you and we miss you.
               Thank you very much, Madam President.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Pennsylvania.

               Mr. CASEY. Mr. President, I wish to offer a few words in 
             remembrance of Senator Byrd.
               We do mourn his passing. We see at his desk today a 
             reminder of his passing. To say that Robert Byrd was a 
             towering figure in the history of the Senate does not 
             begin to describe his impact, his influence and, indeed, 
             the memory he leaves behind, the legacy he leaves behind 
             for those of us in the Senate, for his home State of West 
             Virginia, and I know for millions of Americans.
               He was a strong advocate for not just his point of view 
             but, more important, for the people of West Virginia. He 
             arrived in the Senate in 1959--before I was born. I was 
             pleased to have the opportunity and honor, the chance to 
             serve with him for a couple of years.
               He was a strong advocate. He was also a remarkable 
             orator. Even in the last couple years of his life when 
             some thought he might have been slowing down a little, 
             when he got the microphone, he could deliver a speech like 
             no other. He was a tremendous orator who believed in what 
             he was saying, believed in the traditions of the Senate, 
             but mostly, and most importantly, believed in fighting for 
             the working men and women and the families of West 
               We also knew him as a scholar--a scholar of not just 
             this institution, maybe the leading scholar of all time 
             when it comes to the institution of the Senate, but also 
             as well as a constitutional scholar.
               His was a life of commitment, of real fidelity, first 
             and foremost I believe to his family. He spoke often of 
             his wife Erma. In the portrait that is just outside the 
             door, there are three items in his area of control in the 
             picture. He has his hand on the Bible, the Scriptures, he 
             has a copy of the Constitution, and a picture of his 
             beloved wife Erma, about whom he spoke so often.
               He was committed and had a life of commitment to his 
             family and his faith. But he was also committed to the 
             people of West Virginia for so many years, so many battles 
             on their behalf and especially the families of West 
               Of course, he also led a life of commitment and fidelity 
             to the Constitution and knew it better than anyone I have 
             ever met and certainly better than some of our more 
             renowned constitutional scholars.
               Of course, we know of his commitment to this 
             institution, to the Senate. He loved this institution and 
             wrote volume after volume about the Senate. We know that 
             the multivolume work he did, the one volume in and of 
             itself--hundreds of pages on the history of the Senate--is 
             a compilation of speeches he gave on the floor of the 
             Senate, some of them written out, but some of them he 
             could give by memory.
               We know of his capacity to extemporaneously talk about 
             so many topics, whether it was history or poetry or 
             Scripture or the history of the Senate.
               We will miss his scholarship, we will miss his service, 
             and we will miss his fidelity to his country and to his 
             home State. I, along with others here, am honored to have 
             served with him in this body. For me it was 3\1/2\ years. 
             To be in his presence, to listen to him, to learn from him 
             is a great gift. We mourn his passing. I do not think any 
             of us will believe there will ever be a Senator quite like 
             him. He served 50 years in this body, in addition to 
             serving the people of West Virginia in the House of 
             Representatives, as well as in the legislature in West 
               We say farewell and God bless and Godspeed to Robert 
             Byrd and his memory. We are praying for and thinking this 
             day and I know many future days about his legacy and his 
               Mr. REID (for himself, Mr. McConnell, Mr. Rockefeller, 
             Mr. Akaka, Mr. Alexander, Mr. Barrasso, Mr. Baucus, Mr. 
             Bayh, Mr. Begich, Mr. Bennet, Mr. Bennett, Mr. Bingaman, 
             Mr. Bond, Mrs. Boxer, Mr. Brown of Massachusetts, Mr. 
             Brown of Ohio, Mr. Brownback, Mr. Bunning, Mr. Burr, Mr. 
             Burris, Ms. Cantwell, Mr. Cardin, Mr. Carper, Mr. Casey, 
             Mr. Chambliss, Mr. Coburn, Mr. Cochran, Ms. Collins, Mr. 
             Conrad, Mr. Corker, Mr. Cornyn, Mr. Crapo, Mr. DeMint, Mr. 
             Dodd, Mr. Dorgan, Mr. Durbin, Mr. Ensign, Mr. Enzi, Mr. 
             Feingold, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Franken, Mrs. Gillibrand, 
             Mr. Graham, Mr. Grassley, Mr. Gregg, Mrs. Hagan, Mr. 
             Harkin, Mr. Hatch, Mrs. Hutchison, Mr. Inhofe, Mr. Inouye, 
             Mr. Isakson, Mr. Johanns, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Kaufman, Mr. 
             Kerry, Ms. Klobuchar, Mr. Kohl, Mr. Kyl, Ms. Landrieu, Mr. 
             Lautenberg, Mr. Leahy, Mr. LeMieux, Mr. Levin, Mr. 
             Lieberman, Mrs. Lincoln, Mr. Lugar, Mr. McCain, Mrs. 
             McCaskill, Mr. Menendez, Mr. Merkley, Ms. Mikulski, Ms. 
             Murkowski, Mrs. Murray, Mr. Nelson of Nebraska, Mr. Nelson 
             of Florida, Mr. Pryor, Mr. Reed, Mr. Risch, Mr. Roberts, 
             Mr. Sanders, Mr. Schumer, Mr. Sessions, Mrs. Shaheen, Mr. 
             Shelby, Ms. Snowe, Mr. Specter, Ms. Stabenow, Mr. Tester, 
             Mr. Thune, Mr. Udall of Colorado, Mr. Udall of New Mexico, 
             Mr. Vitter, Mr. Voinovich, Mr. Warner, Mr. Webb, Mr. 
             Whitehouse, Mr. Wicker, and Mr. Wyden) submitted the 
             following resolution; which was considered and agreed to:
                                     S. Res. 572
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd served the people 
             of his beloved state of West Virginia for over 63 years, 
             serving in the West Virginia House of Delegates, the West 
             Virginia Senate, the United States House of 
             Representatives, and the United States Senate;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd is the only West 
             Virginian to have served in both Houses of the West 
             Virginia Legislature and in both Houses of the United 
             States Congress;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served for 
             fifty-one years in the United States Senate and is the 
             longest serving Senator in history, having been elected to 
             nine full terms;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has cast more than 
             18,680 roll call votes--more than any other Senator in 
             American history;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served in the 
             Senate leadership as President pro tempore, Majority 
             Leader, Majority Whip, Minority Leader, and Secretary of 
             the Majority Conference;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served on a 
             Senate committee, the Committee on Appropriations, which 
             he has chaired during five Congresses, longer than any 
             other Senator; and
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd is the first 
             Senator to have authored a comprehensive history of the 
             United States Senate;
               Whereas, the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has played an 
             essential role in the development and enactment of an 
             enormous body of national legislative initiatives and 
             policy over many decades; and
               Whereas his death has deprived his State and Nation of 
             an outstanding lawmaker and public servant: Now therefore, 
             be it
               Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
             and deep regret the announcement of the death of the 
             Honorable Robert C. Byrd, Senator from the State of West 
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives and 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
               Resolved, That when the Senate adjourns today, it stand 
             adjourned as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the deceased Senator.

               Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, my heart is heavy with 
             sadness following the passing of a dear friend, Robert C. 
             Byrd, Senator from West Virginia.
               We have been friends for nearly 50 years and I am 
             overcome with memories. Nearly 48 years ago Senator Byrd 
             was one of the first to greet me in the Chamber of the 
             U.S. Senate.
               Since that first moment of friendship we have worked 
             together on many projects. And since those early days, I 
             have called him ``my leader.''
               He was my mentor. Over the years he provided me 
             countless opportunities and tasked me with positions of 
             critical national oversight while guiding my actions with 
             the temperance he learned as the longest serving Senator 
             in history.
               He was a Senator's Senator. His many accomplishments 
             were historic and he fought tirelessly to improve the 
             lives of working families in West Virginia. We shared the 
             belief that we must provide for the people who trust us to 
             represent their communities in Washington.
               I owe much to my leader, Senator Byrd. He will forever 
             have my gratitude and respect and I will miss him dearly. 
             My thoughts and prayers are with the Byrd family during 
             this difficult time.
               Mr. President, as America mourns, I ask my colleagues to 
             join me in paying tribute to Senator Byrd.

               Mrs. BOXER. Mr. President, I know several colleagues 
             have come to the floor today to note the passing of a 
             giant among us, Robert Byrd. I want to take a moment here 
             to speak straight from the heart about Robert Byrd and my 
             experience working with him. As we look at his desk with 
             the flowers there, we of course think back to not too long 
             ago when we lost another giant, Ted Kennedy. I think what 
             distinguishes these two from others is their unbelievable, 
             undying commitment to the people they represented and to 
             this country.
               I think, when all is said and done, that is what it is 
             about. It is not about how long you serve. Of course, in 
             the case of both Senator Kennedy and Senator Byrd, it was 
             very long. Senator Byrd made history as the longest 
             serving Senator, and that should be duly noted. But it is 
             well beyond that. It is about this fierce sense of ``fight 
             for your people'' that they both had.
               When I came to the Senate, of course Robert C. Byrd was 
             a legend for sure. He always met with the incoming 
             Senators, to give them the rules of the road about 
             procedure, about how to conduct yourself when you were in 
             the chair, about the dignity of the Senate, and most of 
             all about reverence for the Constitution. As many know and 
             many saw, the image I will always have of Robert C. Byrd 
             is of him reaching inside his suit pocket and bringing out 
             the Constitution--which, along with the Bible, was what he 
             cherished most. He taught us that everything we do here 
             comes from the Founders, and he taught us to love and 
             respect the Constitution and he did it in a way that was 
             truly inspiring.
               I can tell you, coming from the largest State in the 
             Union, we have our share of problems. We have floods and 
             fires and droughts, we have pests in our agricultural 
             industry, we have problem after problem--earthquakes, need 
             I say that? Every single time we had one of these 
             disasters, Senator Feinstein and I knew we had to go to 
             our colleagues and say: Please understand, California 
             needs the help of the U.S. Government because the damage 
             is so massive. Of course, we all do that whenever our 
             State has a problem, because we are the United States of 
               However, there are times when you do not have an ear 
             that is listening. Senator Byrd, as the chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee, opened his doors to us, opened 
             his heart to us, opened his experience to us, and was 
             always there for us. I so remember that, time after time.
               I went to see him about our water problems. We have lots 
             of water problems. We have cities and suburbs that need 
             the water. We have fishermen who need the water. We have 
             agriculture that needs the water. All the stakeholders 
             have very difficult debates over water. Senator Feinstein 
             and I again have teamed up on this and we have always had 
             a willing listener in Robert C. Byrd, who understood and 
             helped us get the stakeholders to the table to find ways 
             to preserve, to conserve, and increase the supply in a 
             smart way for all those stakeholders.
               These things are very big to the people of California, 
             who probably have not connected Robert Byrd to California. 
             But in all of these cases where we were so in need, he was 
             there for us.
               I remember his leadership in trying to bring the troops 
             home from Iraq. Twenty-three of us stood up and said no to 
             that war because we thought it meant taking our eye off 
             Osama bin Laden and what was happening in Afghanistan and 
             turning around and going into Iraq. We worried very much 
             about what would happen with our troops and that it would 
             be a very long war and there was no exit strategy.
               Senator Byrd organized us and he opened his office here 
             in the Capitol and said we need to talk about ways that we 
             can bring this war to an end. We need to talk about what 
             is happening to our troops. He cared so much. For me, to 
             have been in his presence and to watch him work has been 
             an amazing experience. So I rise to pay tribute to him.
               He has so many wonderful family members who care so much 
             about him. When he lost his wife, it took a huge toll on 
             Robert Byrd, and you saw it in his face. A light went out 
             inside. His grandchildren and children stepped up, but 
             that hole in his heart was there. It was evident to all of 
             us. He stayed here through thick and thin, came in--
             wheeled in, in a wheelchair, fading, suffering, to be in 
             this place that he loved so much; that he respected so 
               I say, and I know, there is not a Member on either side 
             of the aisle who did not respect Robert C. Byrd for his 
             brilliance, for his strength, for his fierce 
             representation of his State and, by the way, for his 
             extraordinary life, coming up the way he did. Talk about 
             the American dream--a child of dire poverty, close to the 
             mines. He always fought for those miners. What a legacy he 
               I don't have any notes in front of me. I am speaking 
             from the heart today. I will have a more complete 
             statement, but I did want to make my views known today and 
             send my condolences to the family. It is a great loss for 

               Mr. CARDIN. Mr. President, I rise with a heavy heart to 
             pay tribute to our friend and colleague who died early 
             this morning, Senator Robert C. Byrd, the longest serving 
             Member in the illustrious history of the U.S. Congress, 
             the longest serving Senator, and the only Senator in U.S. 
             history elected to nine full terms. Considering that 
             Senator Byrd won his first election to the West Virginia 
             House of Delegates in 1946, it may be that he was the 
             longest serving elected official in history. His passing 
             is a profound loss to all Americans, to his beloved 
             constituents in West Virginia, and particularly to the 
             institution of the U.S. Senate and those of us who serve 
             here. The Senate had no greater champion than Robert Byrd, 
             no one with his understanding of the Senate's unique 
             character, role, promise, history, and parliamentary 
               When Robert Byrd was elected to the Senate in 1958, 
             after serving in the House for 6 years, he was part of a 
             large, distinguished class that included such future 
             giants as Hugh Scott, Gene McCarthy, Edmund Muskie, and 
             Philip Hart. He surpassed them all.
               According to the Senate Historical Office, Robert Byrd 
             was the 1,579th person to become a U.S. Senator. Since he 
             was elected to the Senate, another 335 individuals have 
             become U.S. Senators. All in all, Robert Byrd served with 
             over 400 other Senators. And I am certain that each one of 
             them held their colleague, as I do, in the highest esteem.
               Senator Byrd's modest beginnings in the hardscrabble 
             coalfields of Appalachia are well known. After his mother 
             died during the 1918 flu pandemic, Senator Byrd went to 
             live with an aunt and uncle who adopted him and raised him 
             in a house without running water or electricity. He pumped 
             gas and butchered hogs. During World War II, he was a 
             welder and built cargo ships in Baltimore and Tampa Bay. 
             After the war, he successfully ran for the West Virginia 
             House of Delegates and, 4 years later, the State's senate, 
             before entering Congress in 1953. All in all, he ran for 
             and was elected to office 15 times--not counting 
             primaries--without suffering a single defeat. Suffice it 
             to say that his life is the quintessential American 
             success story. I think every young American should learn 
             about Senator Byrd's life as an example of what hard work 
             and persistence and devotion can accomplish in this 
             country. He understood better than most people the 
             importance of being educated, not just for embarking on a 
             successful career, but as an end to itself. He was well 
             read and could recite from memory long passages from the 
             Bible and from great poets and authors. He was a fine 
             historian, not just of the Founding Fathers and the U.S. 
             Senate, but of ancient Greece and Rome and England.
               Senator Byrd married his high school sweetheart, Erma 
             Ora James, shortly after they both graduated from Mark 
             Twain High School--where he was valedictorian--in 1937. He 
             was too poor to afford college right away and wouldn't 
             receive his degree from Marshall University until 60 years 
             later--when he was 77. In between, he did something no 
             other Member of Congress has ever done: he enrolled in law 
             school--at American University--and in 10 years of part-
             time study while serving as a Member of Congress, he 
             completed his law degree, which President John Kennedy 
             presented to him. Senator Byrd was married to his beloved 
             Erma for nearly 69 years, and was blessed with two 
             daughters, six grandchildren, and seven great-
               During his Senate tenure, Robert Byrd was elected to 
             more leadership positions than any other Senator in 
             history, including majority and minority leader, whip, and 
             President pro tempore. He cast 18,689 roll call votes. 
             Only 29 other Senators in the history of the Republic have 
             cast more than 10,000 votes; Strom Thurmond is the only 
             other Senator to cast more than 16,000 votes. Senator 
             Byrd's attendance record over five decades--97 percent--is 
             as impressive as the sheer number of votes he cast.
               Senator Byrd's legislative accomplishments, from 
             economic development and transportation to education and 
             health care, are legendary. He steered the Panama Canal 
             Treaty through the Senate and waged a lonely battle 
             against the war in Iraq, leading an unsuccessful 
             filibuster against the resolution granting President 
             George W. Bush broad power to wage a preemptive war 
             against Iraq. He claimed that his vote against the Iraq 
             war resolution was the vote of which he was most proud for 
             having cast over the course of his career. When U.S. 
             military strikes on Iraq commenced on March 19, 2003, he 

               Today I weep for my country. I have watched the events 
             of recent months with a heavy heart. No more is the image 
             of America one of strong, yet benevolent peacekeeper. The 
             image of America has changed. Around the globe, our 
             friends mistrust us, our word is disputed, our intentions 
             are questioned. Instead of reasoning with those with whom 
             we disagree, we demand obedience or threaten 

               Senator Byrd was unabashedly determined to use his power 
             as a Senator and as the chairman or ranking member of the 
             Appropriations Committee to help lift his State out of 
             grinding poverty. And he delivered for his constituents. 
             It is no surprise, then, that he won 100 percent of the 
             vote of West Virginians in one election--1976--or 
             frequently carried all 55 of West Virginia's counties. And 
             while he fervently supported the coal industry, he 
             recognized the devastating environmental and social impact 
             of mountaintop removal mining techniques and he called for 
             an end to that practice.
               In the meantime, he wrote five books, including the 
             definitive history of the U.S. Senate.
               Perhaps the highest tribute to Senator Byrd can be found 
             in his biographical section of the Almanac of American 
             Politics, which states: ``Robert Byrd ... may come closest 
             to the kind of senator the Founding Fathers had in mind 
             than any other.'' His fealty to the U.S. Senate and to the 
             Constitution has served as an inspiration, a lesson, and a 
             guiding light to all of us who have been privileged to 
             follow him in this Chamber.
               In the last 10 months, we have lost two towering figures 
             here in the Senate: Ted Kennedy and Robert Byrd--one of 
             the Senate's greatest legislators and without doubt its 
             greatest defender. Former Senator Paul Sarbanes, whose 
             seat I am privileged to hold, remarked that Senator Byrd 
             liked to say that he never served under any President, but 
             was honored to serve with many Presidents. We can honor 
             these twin giants by carrying on their legacies, by 
             fighting to make America a better place for all Americans, 
             and by defending the Senate's role as a coequal, not 
             subservient, branch of government.
               When Senator Byrd became the longest serving Member of 
             Congress last November, I quoted Robert E. Lee in my floor 
             statement. Lee said, ``Duty is the most sublime word in 
             our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do 
             more. You should never wish to do less.'' Senator Robert 
             C. Byrd has done his duty in all things--to the Senate, to 
             himself, to his family, to his State, to his Nation, and 
             to God.
               I am honored to join his and my colleagues here in the 
             Senate, West Virginians, and all Americans in mourning the 
             death, celebrating the life, and paying tribute to this 
             great Senator and this great man.

               Mr. BROWN of Ohio. Mr. President, I ask unanimous 
             consent the resolution be agreed to, the preamble be 
             agreed to, the motions to reconsider be laid upon the 
             table, with no intervening action or debate.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
               The resolution (S. Res. 572) was agreed to.
               The preamble was agreed to.
                         ADJOURNMENT UNTIL 10 A.M. TOMORROW
               Mr. BROWN of Ohio. If there is no further business to 
             come before the Senate, I ask unanimous consent that it 
             adjourn under the provisions of S. Res. 572 as a further 
             mark of respect to the memory of Senator Robert C. Byrd.
               There being no objection, the Senate, at 7:13 p.m., 
             adjourned until Tuesday, June 29, 2010, at 10 a.m.
                                                 Tuesday, June 29, 2010
               Mrs. MURRAY. Madam President, I come to the floor this 
             morning to pay my respects to a most amazing man who the 
             Senate Chamber has lost, Senator Robert C. Byrd. It 
             certainly is a sad day for the Senate, for all the people 
             of West Virginia who loved this man so much, and for the 
             entire country, as we mourn the loss of the Nation's 
             longest serving Senator.
               Robert C. Byrd was a historian, a poet, and he truly was 
             a master of the Senate. We have heard a lot about this 
             remarkable man. A lot of it bears repeating today. He was 
             the longest serving Member in the history of this 
             institution. He had courage. He had humility. He had 
             intelligence. He had a vision that helped lead the Senate 
             for many years. But he also showed us that one can change 
             over time and admit their wrongs and move on and fight for 
             what they believe is right.
               His principled stands are what I will remember most 
             about him. I was so proud, back in 2002, to stand with him 
             and a total of 23 Senators who voted against the Iraq war. 
             I will not forget how strong he was, reminding us that as 
             a country we do not have to act out of fear. I was proud 
             to stand with him many times since then, when he would 
             knowingly wink at me and remind us of the 23 who stood 
             tall in the Chamber that day.
               His floor speeches were legendary. I remember so many 
             times throughout my tenure with him as he railed on the 
             floor about whatever passion he had at the moment, whether 
             it was his little dog he would tell us a story about or 
             some part of history he wanted to remind us of, always 
             with a point at the end. I remember his compassion as he 
             spoke, and his flailing arms. He always reminded us that 
             we are human beings here. He had a true way with words, 
             and he literally wrote the book on the Senate. Most 
             important, he protected this institution from every 
               To his very last days here he was weighing in on 
             proposed changes to the filibuster rule, a rule he played 
             a central part in reforming three decades ago.
               But the true honor of serving with Senator Byrd came 
             from his personal touch. I personally remember my very 
             first meeting many years ago with Senator Byrd. I came 
             here as a brandnew Senator in 1993. I wanted to serve on 
             the Appropriations Committee, the committee he chaired. It 
             is a very powerful committee. It was a big ask for a 
             freshman Senator coming in. I was told that in order to 
             get that seat, I would have to call him up and ask for a 
             personal meeting. That was pretty intimidating, coming 
             here brand new and asking for a meeting with the chair of 
             the entire Appropriations Committee.
               He granted the meeting. I remember walking over to the 
             Capitol to his office and not knowing what to expect. I 
             couldn't have known what to expect because, when I walked 
             in, I found this warm, wonderful, cordial human being. He 
             regaled me with stories from his youth and talked about 
             being a coal miner's son and the poverty he grew up in. He 
             showed me his fiddle he was so proud of but that he played 
             no more. He recited poetry from memory. I remember sitting 
             in his office and thinking: I can't believe I am sitting 
             here with a part of history. Then, of course, he grilled 
             me on my stance on the balanced budget amendment and the 
             line-item veto before he said, ``Yes, I would like you to 
             serve on my committee.''
               I have been so proud to serve on that committee with him 
             ever since. He taught me so much about protocol, about 
             managing legislation, about the rules of the Senate, about 
             respect. Yes, respect was what I think I learned from him 
             most. He was a taskmaster. He believed passionately in the 
             rules of the Senate, but he also believed in working 
             together for the common good.
               In the first year I was here, Senator Hatfield, 
             Republican from Oregon, and Senator Byrd were the chair 
             and ranking member on the Appropriations Committee. 
             Senator Byrd called and asked me to come to lunch in his 
             office with a small group of Senators, with Senator 
             Hatfield and myself and several Democrats and Republicans. 
             I was so honored to be asked, and I came over not knowing 
             what to expect. Senator Byrd and Senator Hatfield, a 
             Republican and Democrat, a chair and a ranking member of 
             the most powerful committee, the Appropriations Committee, 
             sat and talked to us about what they felt was being lost 
             from the Senate and that, as new Members, it was our 
             responsibility to return the Senate to. That was respect 
             and listening to each other. They told us in words about 
             how ``one year I might be chair,'' said Senator Byrd, 
             ``but I know full well an election will change things and 
             Senator Hatfield will become chair. So we better work 
             together, and we better respect each other, as we put our 
             bills together. Because you never know when you are going 
             to be in the minority or the majority.''
               Their words were powerful. But even more powerful was 
             sitting there listening to these two gentlemen, a 
             Republican and Democrat, listen to each other, laugh 
             together, have lunch together, and pass on a lesson to 
             those following us about what we all need to be when we 
             call ourselves U.S. Senators.
               Senator Byrd earned many titles over the years: majority 
             whip, majority leader, chairman of the Appropriations 
             Committee. But I know the title he cherished the most was 
             husband. His love of his family trumped everything else.
               I so remember one time my husband, who lives out in the 
             State of Washington--as my colleagues know, I travel home 
             every weekend to be with my family--one weekend my husband 
             came out here to be with me. Why? Because it was our 
             anniversary. I was going to be here voting so he traveled 
             here from Washington State and came into the Capitol. As 
             he was coming in, I met him. Senator Byrd happened to be 
             leaving the Senate Chamber. He saw my husband and he 
             welcomed him and said, ``What are you doing out here in 
             the other Washington?'' My husband said, ``It is our 
             anniversary.'' Senator Byrd said, ``Well, which 
             anniversary is it?''
               Rob said to him, ``It is our 32d.'' Senator Byrd paused 
             and nodded, and he said, ``That is a good start.''
               He had been married for 67 years. He was going home to 
             be with his wife. That is a moment I will cherish, because 
             it sets in perspective all that I know about Senator Byrd. 
             He taught by example. He taught by words. He knew humor 
             and how to use it. But most of all, he had respect for 
             every one of us here.
               He was a gentleman. He certainly was tough, but he 
             treated everyone with dignity and respect. Everyone here 
             on this floor has been molded by his presence. We have 
             learned so much from him, and he will be missed.
               But I know for certain his work and his passion and his 
             spirit will never be gone from this Senate he loved so 
             much, and I know as I walk on this Senate floor, I will 
             try and remember, as he taught me so well, respect of 
             others above all.
               Madam President, I yield the floor.

               The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. The Senator from 

               Mr. DURBIN. Thank you very much.
               Madam President, yesterday I joined Senator Murray and 
             others in giving my tribute to Senator Byrd, and I will 
             not repeat my remarks. But I look forward to other Members 
             coming to the floor with their own memories and 
             reminiscences of this great man who served this Nation and 
             the State of West Virginia so honorably for so long and 
             the fact that I was honored to serve with him for 14 years 
             in the Senate.
               Madam President, I know an issue that was always 
             important to Robert Byrd was the working men and women of 
             West Virginia. If there was one thing that innervated him 
             and inspired him, it was the memory of his youth and 
             growing up in the most impoverished circumstances where he 
             could not attend college and had to go to work straight 
             out of high school. It was not until many years later that 
             he completed college and law degrees as a Member of 
             Congress. It was an extraordinary feat to be able to 
             achieve that. ...

               Mr. ISAKSON. Mr. President, I come to my seat today on 
             the floor of the Senate to take a few minutes to share my 
             thoughts on the late Senator Robert Byrd and his tragic 
             death a few days ago. I come with a perspective different 
             than those who served with him for decades because this is 
             my first term in the Senate. I was elected in 2004.
               In our caucus, which then was in the majority, we were 
             asked to take responsibility for presiding, just as the 
             current Presiding Officer is doing today. The day I picked 
             was Friday mornings, not knowing we would not be here on a 
             lot of Friday mornings except for a normal business 
             session. But I did it on every Friday morning. For 2 years 
             I presided over the Senate from about 10 in the morning 
             until about 12:30 in the afternoon.
               Friday morning is the day Robert Byrd would come to the 
             floor of the Senate and share and reshare some of his 
             great speeches. I was here to listen to the entire speech 
             on the tribute to mothers on Mother's Day. I heard him, 
             oftentimes, talk so wonderfully about his lovely wife. I 
             heard him talk about the Roman Empire, its rise and its 
             fall. I heard him make speeches on the rules of the 
             Senate, the details that no one in this room could ever 
             come close to.
               But, for me, the most important contribution of the 
             Senator from West Virginia was the fact it didn't matter 
             how experienced you were or what your party was, if you 
             had a question on the rules of the Senate, you could go to 
             the seat of Senator Byrd and you could get an answer that 
             you could put in the bank. He loved sharing his knowledge. 
             He loved the institution of the Senate. He never saw it 
             from a partisan standpoint, he always saw it from a 
             traditional and an institutional standpoint.
               There will be a lot of great tributes paid to Senator 
             Byrd over the next few days and they will all be well 
             deserved. I certainly share in the sympathy that all 
             extend to his extended family for this tragic loss. But 
             many in this Senate today and many who served in the years 
             since he was first elected have benefited from the wisdom 
             and ``gentleman-ness'' that Robert Byrd represented. He is 
             a tradition in the Senate. He is a tradition in the State 
             of West Virginia. He will be missed, but I will be forever 
             thankful to Robert Byrd for what he took the time to share 
             with me, to help me understand the ways of the Senate. He 
             truly was a Senator's Senator and I extend my sympathy to 
             his family and the people of West Virginia on the tragic 
             loss of this great Senator.
               I yield the floor.

               Ms. LANDRIEU. Mr. President, as we continue the 
             important work of the Senate this week on a number of 
             important bills, one of them being the small business 
             package that is before this body now, we are always 
             mindful, as we come to the floor with the beautiful 
             flowers on Senator Byrd's desk, of the great loss we are 
             all experiencing. His colleagues here and in his home 
             State of West Virginia, the Nation, and, as you know, many 
             people around the world are mourning the death of a great 
             Senator, a very well-known Senator, a very well-respected 
             Senator, and a very historic figure.
               So as we all do our work today, it is with heavy hearts 
             that we work. I told my staff today walking into the 
             building, it seems so empty and particularly quiet, and it 
             is because of the great respect this Senator enjoyed in 
             his life and now enjoys in his death.
               But as even Senator Byrd would say if he were here, the 
             work of the Senate, which he loved very much, needs to go 
             on because it is the work of the people in a very special 
             way. ...

               Ms. MIKULSKI. Mr. President, I stand today with my 
             colleagues with a very heavy heart to express my 
             condolences to the Byrd family and to the people of West 
             Virginia for losing a great American patriot. It is a very 
             sad day for America, for West Virginia, and for the 
               For all of us who knew Senator Byrd, we knew he had five 
             great loves: this country, the Constitution, the Senate, 
             the people of West Virginia, and his beloved wife Erma.
               Senator Byrd was my mentor and my teacher. When I 
             arrived in the Senate, I was the first Democratic woman 
             elected to the Senate in her own right. He took me under 
             his wing and taught me the rules of the Senate.
               He said to me, ``Senator Mikulski, he or she who knows 
             the rules will rule. And you will know how to do it.''
               His advice to me--when I asked him how to be successful 
             in the Senate--was this, ``Senator Mikulski, stay loyal to 
             the Constitution and stay loyal to your constituents and 
             you will do okay.'' From the very first day, he wanted me 
             to succeed. He was so welcoming. He made sure I became a 
             member of the Appropriations Committee, and he helped me 
             learn how to use my position to meet the day-to-day needs 
             of my constituents and the long-term needs of our Nation.
               Senator Byrd's career was remarkable. We all know the 
             facts: the longest serving Member of Congress in history, 
             the majority leader in the Senate, chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee, President pro tempore of the 
             Senate, elected nine times to the Senate. Yet he never, 
             ever forgot where he came from. He represented the people 
             of West Virginia.
               Raised in poverty in the coalfields of West Virginia by 
             an aunt and uncle, he was born with four great gifts: a 
             deep faith, a love of learning, a strong work ethic, and 
             the fact that he was born in the United States of America, 
             where someone who was, by all intents and purposes, an 
             orphan, could become a U.S. Senator. He worked as a gas 
             station attendant, a meat butcher, and a welder--I might 
             add, a welder in the Baltimore shipyards. He went to night 
             school for college and law school while he was in the 
               Senator Byrd wrote and passed many laws, but most 
             important to him was that he was an appropriator. He used 
             his position to help the people of West Virginia, and he 
             did not apologize for that. He brought jobs, roads, and 
             opportunity to one of the poorest States in the Nation. He 
             did not call it pork; he called it opportunity. And this 
             Senator would certainly agree with him.
               But Senator Byrd also voted his conscience and 
             encouraged other Members to do the same. In his more than 
             18,000 votes, he was most proud of his vote against the 
             Iraq war. He was 1 of 23 Senators, and I joined him in 
             that vote. At that time, it was deeply unpopular. Those of 
             us who voted against the war were vilified. But we did the 
             right thing, though it was not easy.
               If you love the Senate, you love Bob Byrd. He often 
             reminded us that the legislative branch is a coequal part 
             of the government. He fought hard against those who wanted 
             to give up Senate prerogatives, such as the line-item 
             veto. No one understood Senate procedure better and no one 
             protected Senate traditions more than Senator Bob Byrd.
               He wanted to pass it on. With the new Senators, he gave 
             each one of us a lecture on the Constitution and gave us a 
             copy of the Constitution. He wanted us to know it and to 
             love it in the way he did. He also taught us the decorum 
             of the Senate--yes, the decorum of the Senate--and how, 
             through our processes and procedures, it was meant to 
             promote civility among us.
               To me, as I said, he was a wonderful teacher. I remember 
             going to him when I was ready to offer my first amendment 
             on the floor, and I asked for his advice on how I could 
             present it and how I could not, quite frankly, be rolled. 
             He gave me good, concrete advice. On the day I offered my 
             first amendment, there was Senator Byrd in the background. 
             He was always there. As I said, Senator Byrd always had my 
             back. I was so grateful for having his advice and having 
             his encouragement.
               He lived an extraordinary life and left an extraordinary 
             legacy. He stood for citizenship, not partisanship. And 
             maybe that is what we should all do. Follow the 
             Constitution. Stay loyal to our Constitution and our 
             constituents. Use the rules of the Senate to promote 
             civility and good government. Make sure that at the end of 
             the day, we respect the opportunity and greatness of the 
             United States of America.
               I mourn the passing of Senator Byrd, but his legacy will 
             live on in the rules and the traditions and the many bills 
             he sponsored.
               The people of West Virginia have had great Senators. 
             Senator Rockefeller is a great Senator. And Senator Byrd 
             will always be remembered, that he built a ``bridge to 
             somewhere'' for all of the people of West Virginia.

               Mr. ENZI. Mr. President, I am here today to pay respects 
             to Senator Byrd, whose desk is now adorned with a black 
             cloth and flowers. I know we will all long remember Monday 
             as the day we received some very sad news, for on that 
             day, as the morning began, we each learned in our own way 
             that our good friend and colleague Robert Byrd had passed 
             away just a few hours earlier. It should not have been a 
             sudden shock. We all had time to prepare for this moment. 
             We knew he had been having a period of ill health, but it 
             still seemed as if he would be here forever. That is the 
             kind of man Robert Byrd was.
               A man of great gifts, he loved the written word and 
             could recite his favorite poems from memory--at length. It 
             was amazing how many speeches, reflections, and famous 
             quotations were there at his command, in his quiver, ever 
             ready and waiting for him to recite so he could emphasize 
             an important point about an issue that needed to be made. 
             That is the kind of man Robert Byrd was.
               While it is true he was the longest serving Member of 
             Congress in history, he was so much more than that. He was 
             the historian of the Senate who knew more about our roots 
             as a legislative body than anyone else. He was a master 
             legislative craftsman, and whenever he spoke, we all 
             listened carefully to see what he had to say about the 
             matter we had taken up for deliberation. That is the kind 
             of man Robert Byrd was.
               No one had more respect and regard for the Senate and 
             our legislative traditions and procedures than he did. He 
             knew the rules, he knew why they were crafted that way, 
             and he knew how to make good use of them to further the 
             agenda he believed to be in the best interests of the 
             people of our Nation. Once again, that is the kind of man 
             Robert Byrd was. That is why it is so difficult to sum up 
             his life in just a few well-chosen words.
               There is no greater tribute we can pay to Robert Byrd 
             than for the spirit of friendship and camaraderie, which 
             were staples of his Senate service, to bring us all to the 
             Senate floor to express our regrets and send our 
             condolences to his family. It will also give us a chance 
             to share our memories of someone we will never forget.
               I will always remember the orientation he organized for 
             the incoming class of new Senators each session for as 
             long as he was able. Besides a strong historical welcome, 
             he presented each of us with one volume of his four-volume 
             history of the Senate. If we read it and were able to 
             answer questions about it, then--and only then--would we 
             get the other three volumes. I remember asking him how he 
             wrote them. He said he presented all of it as a series of 
             floor speeches delivered without any notes, with most 
             corrections made simply to clear up what the floor 
             reporters thought they heard. He had a photographic 
             memory, and that made it all possible. Perhaps it came 
             from his years of study of the violin. In any event, it 
             made him a better speaker because he spoke slowly and 
             deliberately, carefully editing his sentences as he spoke. 
             His style created a natural bond between himself and the 
             listener, and that is what made him such a styled and 
             gifted communicator.
               It may be a cliche, but he was a southern gentleman 
             through and through. He had no tolerance for any rude or 
             impolite conduct on the floor. He instructed and expected 
             all of us to be courteous and respectful--not because of 
             politics but because of the great institution of which we 
             are a part. He knew what a great honor and a privilege it 
             is to serve in the Senate, and he expected everyone else 
             to realize it as well and to act accordingly.
               When you presided over the Senate, he expected you to 
             pay attention to each speaker. Sometimes, the Presiding 
             Officer is the only one in the Chamber. There was a time 
             when there was a telephone under the Presiding Officer's 
             desk. As the story goes, Senator Byrd was speaking when 
             the phone under the desk rang. When the Presiding Officer 
             answered it, Senator Byrd made sure to make him aware of 
             the importance of courtesy in such a situation. The 
             Presiding Officer then said, ``Senator Byrd, the phone is 
             for you.'' That is when the phone was taken out and a rule 
             went into effect that no electronic devices were to be 
             used on the Senate floor.
               Then there were his special speeches. He always 
             commemorated each holiday the evening before a recess 
             would begin. Each speech was very poetic and, in fact, 
             usually had some poem he had memorized years before that 
             would come to mind and be recited from memory. He was good 
             at it, so good that we looked forward to his poetic 
             observations on the passing of time.
               That unique speaking style of his also helped him to 
             build a good relationship with our pages. His ``going 
             away'' speech for each graduating class often left many of 
             them in tears. Their fondness for him only grew when they 
             learned that if the Senate was in session after 10 p.m., 
             they had no early morning classes the next day. They were 
             always delighted, therefore, when the hour grew late and 
             Senator Byrd rose to speak. They knew he could easily add 
             the 10 or 15 or even 30 minutes needed to get them past 10 
             o'clock and a welcome reprieve from the early morning 
               My favorite speech Senator Byrd gave happened when I was 
             presiding. Over the previous weekend, he had visited some 
             of his grandkids and asked about their studies. He was a 
             firm believer in education and was an example of lifelong 
             learning himself. One of his grandkids had shared a math 
             experience with him. He was so surprised, he asked to see 
             the math book. He brought the book to the floor to read 
             parts of it to us. He was distressed at how math had 
             migrated into a social textbook. He pointed out that you 
             had to get to page 187 to find anything that resembled the 
             math he had learned. The parts prior to that were social 
             discourse. Anyone who heard the speech would remember his 
               I remember being at an interparliamentary trip held in 
             West Virginia hosting the British Parliament. We went to a 
             mountain retreat for dinner. Senator Byrd welcomed them 
             and then got out his violin and shared some fiddle music 
             he thought was appropriate for the occasion. He was very 
               Senator Byrd was an expert on the rules of the Senate. 
             At our orientation, he encouraged us to learn the rules. 
             Because of his encouragement and as a way to learn the 
             rules, I volunteered often to chair the Senate floor. 
             Following his instructions, I brought a list of questions 
             with me since during the quorum calls you can ask 
             questions of the captive-audience Parliamentarian.
               I once saw a Senator come to the floor to debate an 
             amendment, and Senator Byrd was there to debate against 
             it. The Senator wanted to revise his amendment. For half 
             an hour, the Senator tried different tactics to change his 
             amendment, and Senator Byrd thwarted every attempt. The 
             Senator was frustrated, asked for a quorum call, and left 
             the floor.
               At that point, I asked the Parliamentarian if there was 
             any way the Senator could have changed his amendment. The 
             Parliamentarian explained that all he had to do was 
             declare his right to revise his amendment. I asked why the 
             Parliamentarian did not tell him that. What I learned is 
             the Parliamentarian can only give advice when asked. My 
             first stop at the Senate floor often is at the 
             Parliamentarian as a result.
               During much of Senator Byrd's career, he was either the 
             chairman of the Appropriations Committee or the ranking 
             member. He was very good about taking care of orphan 
             miners. Those are primarily coal miners whose companies 
             have gone out of business owing benefits. After a couple 
             of lessons from the Senator, I worked with him to take 
             care of the orphan miner health problem in a bill that 
             speeded up mine reclamation in many States, extended an 
             expiring tax on coal companies with their guarded 
             permission, and then released impounded trust fund money 
             promised by law to the States impacted, to produce the 
             Nation's energy, as well as take care of the orphan 
               At another time, Senator Isakson and I worked with 
             Senators Byrd, Rockefeller, and Kennedy to make the first 
             changes in mine safety law in 28 years. He was very proud 
             of the difference he was able to make in the lives of coal 
             miners back home, and he never forgot them whenever we 
             were debating an issue that might have an impact on their 
               In the days and weeks to come, I can think of no greater 
             compliment we could pay another Senator or greater tribute 
             we can pay to Senator Byrd than to watch someone in action 
             on the Senate floor who develops and implements a well-
             drawn strategy and say: That is the way Robert Byrd would 
             have done it.
               For my part, I will always remember the great love 
             Senator Byrd had for our Constitution. I do not think 
             anyone knew it better or more detailed than he did. When I 
             was mayor of Gillette, I began a habit of carrying around 
             a copy of the Constitution with me. I discovered that a 
             lot of us knew what it said but not too many of us had a 
             grasp for the details. It had a lot of meaning for me 
             right from the start because it represents the blueprint 
             from which our Nation and system of government were 
             constructed. Then when I came to the Senate, I came to 
             know the Constitution in a completely different way. It 
             was now my job description, as Senator Byrd put it. So I 
             always kept it handy.
               I have no doubt that Senator Byrd had a similar reaction 
             years before my own. I am sure he knew the better he 
             understood our Constitution and the procedures of the 
             Senate, the more effective he would be as a Senator. He 
             knew the importance of understanding the rules of our 
             legislative process in every detail. The better he became 
             at mastering the process by which our laws were made, the 
             better he knew he would be at producing the outcome he was 
             committed to achieving for the people of West Virginia and 
             the Nation. I am sure that is why he always carried a copy 
             with him.
               The line-item veto was passed before I got to the 
             Senate, but Senator Byrd had sued to have it stricken. 
             Most of his Senate career had been as chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee or the ranking member. He pointed 
             out that Congress, according to the Constitution, is 
             supposed to make spending decisions, not the President. He 
             always pointed out that we do not work for the President 
             of the United States; we work with the President as a 
             separate but equal branch of government. He would guard us 
             against infringement by the President using the third 
             branch of government, and he was successful.
               Although his life was marked by many triumphs, he was 
             not without his personal tragedies. I have always believed 
             that the work we do begins at home, and that is why I will 
             never forget the strength of his marriage and what a 
             tremendous loss it was for him when his wife passed away. 
             No one knew him better than she did, and without her by 
             his side life became ever more difficult. His health began 
             to fail.
               I remember going to his wife's funeral. It was very well 
             done. When my wife and I were on our way home, we 
             commented that the endearing and astounding thing about 
             the funeral was that it was about her. He made sure her 
             achievements, her family, her efforts and successes were 
             the focus. As famous as Senator Byrd was, the comments 
             that were made that day were about her and not about him. 
             That says a lot about the relationship they had.
               Although his health was declining, he was here as often 
             as he was able, an active part of the day-to-day workings 
             of the Senate. He would not and could not take it easy, no 
             matter what anyone told him. His heart was in the Senate; 
             his soul was in West Virginia. To stop what he loved to do 
             was for him and the people back home unthinkable.
               One of Senator Byrd's favorite quotations comes to mind 
             today. He loved the Bible and quoted from it often. When 
             going through a difficult time in his life, he remembered 
             the words from the Book of Ecclesiastes: ``To everything 
             there is a season and a time for every purpose under 
             heaven.'' Now Senator Byrd has come to another time, as he 
             has reached the end of his seasons on God's green Earth. 
             He will be greatly missed, and he will never be forgotten.
               I cannot conclude my remarks without paying a final 
             tribute to Senator Byrd by recalling his love of poetry 
             and the written word. We can all remember the way he would 
             enjoy sharing a favorite verse with us, much like this 
             one. Although the author is unknown, I am certain Senator 
             Byrd would not only recall it but know it well:

             Life is but a stopping place,
             A pause in what's to be,
             A resting place along the road,
             To sweet eternity.

             We all have different journeys,
             Different paths along the way,
             We all were meant to learn some things,
             But never meant to stay.

             Our destination is a place,
             Far greater than we know.
             For some the journey's quicker,
             For some the journey's slow.

             And when the journey finally ends,
             We'll claim a great reward,
             And find an everlasting peace,
             Together with the Lord.

               My wife Diana joins in sending our heartfelt sympathy to 
             his family and many friends and for all the people who 
             worked for him and with him over the years. We will miss 
             him--the knowledge he had, the institutional memory he 
             had, the experiences and history he had been a part of and 
             in many instances was the main participant--the leader. 
             Probably only once in the history of a country does 
             someone like this come along. If he were here, he would 
             deny it but be pleased if we noted the similarity of what 
             he had done to what had been done in the ancient Roman 
             Senate about which he often talked.
               In the end for Senator Byrd it was never about how much 
             time he spent in the Senate or on Earth but how well he 
             used the time he was given.
               I yield the floor.

               Mr. CONRAD. Mr. President, I rise to talk about the loss 
             of our senior colleague, Senator Robert C. Byrd. I had the 
             privilege and honor of serving with Senator Byrd for over 
             24 years in the Senate. I believe this body has lost a 
               For more than five decades, Robert C. Byrd served his 
             country, fought to protect the institution of the Senate, 
             and worked tirelessly for the people of West Virginia. The 
             people of West Virginia were never very far from the mind 
             of Robert C. Byrd. I know because I worked with him every 
             day for 24 years. Senator Byrd and his passing leave a 
             tremendous void for this body and for the Nation. He will 
             be greatly missed.
               Senator Byrd was a great man, an exceptional person, 
             somebody who had lost his parents and, through sheer will, 
             made himself into a great man. He was a legend in the 
             Senate, the longest serving Senator in the history of the 
             United States and the longest serving lawmaker in 
             congressional history. The people of West Virginia elected 
             him to the Senate an amazing nine times and three times 
             before that to the House of Representatives. He served in 
             almost every leadership post in the Senate, including 
             twice as majority leader and for almost two decades as 
             chairman of the Appropriations Committee. He took an 
             incredible 18,500+ votes, a record which will never be 
             broken. At least that is my forecast. I do not know how 
             anybody will ever break a record of more than 18,500 
               Senator Byrd may be remembered most as the protector of 
             the institution of the Senate. This is an institution he 
             loved. More than that, this is an institution he revered 
             as part of the constitutional structure of this country. 
             He believed it had a special place in defending the 
             Constitution of the United States. He believed it played a 
             special role in preventing unwise legislation from 
             becoming law, and he believed it deeply.
               He knew more about Senate history and Senate rules and 
             procedures than any other Member, and he used that 
             knowledge skillfully to defend this institution and to 
             ensure it continued to function in a manner consistent 
             with what the Founding Fathers intended. Senator Byrd did 
             not come to those beliefs lightly. He came to those 
             beliefs after the most thorough and very rigorous study of 
             our history. He was a master orator. How many of us can 
             remember Senator Byrd coming to this floor and having 
             Members come to the floor to listen to him because very 
             often his speeches were a history lesson--and not just 
             drawn from American history but from world history, going 
             back to the Roman Empire? When he was in really high 
             excitation, he loved to go through the various Roman 
             emperors and what brought them down, what led to the 
             decline of the Roman Empire, and what lessons we could 
             draw from that.
               His speeches were riddled with quotes from great 
             leaders, references to American history and law, and 
             descriptions of that ancient Roman Senate--much of it from 
             memory. How many times did I hear Senator Byrd stand in 
             that spot or in the leader's spot and recite from memory a 
             lengthy poem or a speech from history? What a remarkable 
             man. The extent and the breadth of his knowledge was truly 
               Senator Byrd was also an expert on budget matters. In 
             fact, he was one of the principal authors of the 1974 
             Budget Act which established the congressional budget 
             process. He created and vigorously defended the Byrd rule, 
             which bears his name--a budget rule designed to stop the 
             abuse of the fast-track reconciliation process.
               Let me just remind my colleagues of something Senator 
             Byrd did during the Clinton administration when the 
             administration had a health care proposal that was bogged 
             down. It could not pass because it would require 60 votes 
             in the Senate, and there were not 60 votes to be had. The 
             administration wanted to use the reconciliation process, 
             the fast-track process that allows legislation to be 
             passed with only a simple majority. Senator Byrd said no, 
             under no circumstances would he permit that to happen 
             because he believed that was a violation of the whole 
             basis of the reconciliation process which he had been 
             involved in and which he had helped design and which was 
             put in law solely for deficit reduction, in his view. He 
             believed any other use was an abuse of the process--the 
             process of reconciliation. So he said no to the President 
             of his own party on that President's No. 1 domestic 
               There is a lesson in that for all of us. When we were in 
             the midst of the consideration of using the reconciliation 
             process for that purpose during the Clinton administration 
             years, Senator Byrd told me, as a member of the Budget 
             Committee, ``Senator, always remember partisanship can go 
             too far. Our obligation, our first obligation, is to the 
             Nation and to this institution. If that means we have to 
             disagree with the President of our own party, so be it.''
               I hope colleagues learn from that lesson as well. 
             Partisanship can go too far.
               As the Budget Committee chairman, I had the privilege 
             and honor of working particularly close with Senator Byrd 
             after he joined the committee in 2001. The original idea 
             of the Budget Committee was that the chairman of the 
             Finance Committee would serve there, the chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee would serve there, and the 
             chairmen of other relevant major committees would serve 
             there so that the Budget Committee would put together the 
             priorities of the United States. Senator Byrd had an acute 
             understanding of that history.
               But also Senator Byrd never forgot who sent him to 
             Washington. He tenaciously fought for West Virginia 
             throughout his career and ensured his small, rural State 
             had a powerful voice in the Halls of the Capitol. He never 
             forgot where he came from. I remember well his exchange at 
             a Budget Committee hearing in 2002 with then-Treasury 
             Secretary Paul O'Neill, and Senator Byrd proudly and 
             emotionally described his own humble upbringing because 
             Senator Byrd came from very straightened circumstances. He 
             came from a very modest background. He was an orphan. In 
             fact, he carried a name which was not his birth name. His 
             birth name was a different name than Robert C. Byrd. But 
             when relatives took him in, they gave him their family 
               Robert C. Byrd remembered those earliest days. He 
             remembered what it was to struggle. He remembered what it 
             was to have very little. He remembered what it was to 
             wonder where your next meal was coming from and whether 
             you were going to have a roof over your head. Senator Byrd 
             remembered, and he was faithful to those memories.
               Senator Byrd loved his wife Erma. He loved his daughters 
             Mona and Marjorie and his grandchildren and great-
               I want to say to the members of the family, Senator Byrd 
             was intensely proud of you. I hope the children and 
             grandchildren will get that message, that Senator Byrd was 
             intensely proud of each and every one of you. He spoke 
             about you often and in loving terms, and you should know 
               Of course, we all know he loved his little dog Billy, 
             and he loved his dog Trouble. In fact, I think he had 
             multiple dogs named Trouble.
               Senator Byrd loved West Virginia, he loved this 
             institution, and he loved our country. I am deeply 
             saddened by the passing of Senator Byrd. His immense 
             knowledge and his spirit will be missed. His values will 
             be missed. But I am comforted in knowing that our friend 
             Robert is now reunited with his beloved wife Erma. I know 
             his legacy will live on in this body and this Nation 
               I thank the Chair and yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Arizona is 

               Mr. KYL. Mr. President, during a recordbreaking six 
             decades of public service, Senator Byrd served this Nation 
             with diligence and spirit. As a legislator, Senator Byrd 
             had many notable qualities, particularly his legendary 
             oratory skills and his masterful knowledge of Senate 
             procedure. Having authored a four-volume history of this 
             Chamber, he understood its nuances and intricacies, and he 
             was an articulate spokesman for protecting procedural 
               Senator Byrd kept a copy of the Constitution in his 
             pocket, and he could recite it from memory. He was always 
             first to remind us that the Framers intended the Senate to 
             be different from the House of Representatives and to 
             stand as a bastion of individual and minority rights. He 
             celebrated these distinctions serving as they do the 
             fundamental principle of checks and balances within the 
             legislative branch.
               At a recent Rules Committee hearing, Senator Byrd said:

               The Senate is the only place in government where the 
             rights of a numerical minority are so protected. The 
             Senate is a forum of the States, where regardless of size 
             or population, all States have an equal voice. ... Without 
             the protection of unlimited debate, small States like West 
             Virginia might be trampled. Extended deliberation and 
             debate--when employed judiciously--protect every Senator, 
             and the interests of their constituency, and are essential 
             to the protection of the liberties of a free people.

               Senator Byrd's insights, expertise, and constitutional 
             scholarship will truly be missed. They are a great part of 
             his legacy, one that I hope will be honored for 
               On a personal note, I will mention that while Senator 
             Byrd and I did not share a perspective on many matters of 
             public policy, we had a common appreciation for bluegrass 
             music. I always enjoyed talking with him about that 
             subject. He was a talented fiddler, playing on stage, on 
             television, and while campaigning for office. He even 
             recorded an album entitled Mountain Fiddler. He gave me a 
             copy, and I was very impressed with his skill.
               Robert Byrd's knowledge, his hard work, his high spirit, 
             and dedication to the people of West Virginia will always 
             be remembered. My wife Caryll and I extend our thoughts 
             and prayers to his family.

               Mr. BAUCUS. Mr. President, I, too, wish to say some 
             words on the passing of our good friend and former leader, 
             Robert C. Byrd.
               It is difficult to sum up in words the thoughts and 
             feelings one has for a departed friend whom one has known 
             so long. I had the pleasure of serving with Senator Byrd 
             my entire career in the Senate. I knew, I liked, and I 
             respected Robert C. Byrd for more than 30 years.
               It is doubly difficult to put into words thoughts that 
             adequately reflect such a presence in the Senate. Robert 
             C. Byrd was a singular Senator. He was a Senator's 
             Senator. There was no title he prized more than that of 
               When I came to the Senate, Robert C. Byrd had succeeded 
             my mentor, Mike Mansfield, as majority leader. As Robert 
             Byrd was fond of noting, he served as majority leader and 
             then minority leader and then back as majority leader. He 
             saw the leadership of the Senate from both sides, and his 
             experience seasoned his leadership.
               As proud as he was to earn the title of ``Senator,'' he 
             was even more proud that as a Senator he represented the 
             people of his State. I deeply believe that is one of the 
             finest things one can say about a fellow Senator. For more 
             than 50 years, he was a strong voice for the people of 
             West Virginia.
               Robert Byrd was a strong voice for democracy. He knew 
             the rules of the Senate better than any person alive. He 
             fought to preserve the traditions and customs of what he 
             truly believed is the world's greatest deliberative body.
               As my colleagues know, Robert Byrd cast more votes than 
             any other Senator in the history of our Republic. I can 
             recall when he cast his 18,000th vote. That vote just 
             happened to have been on a motion to invoke cloture on an 
             amendment offered by this Senator. The Senate did not 
             invoke cloture that day. That is the way the Senate's 
             rules often work. No matter the outcome, Senator Byrd was 
             foremost in the defense of those rules. And Senator Byrd 
             was foremost in the defense of the Constitution of the 
             United States.
               Senator Byrd was a student of history more than any 
             other Senator. Those of us who were here will not soon 
             forget Senator Byrd's series of addresses on the history 
             of the Senate. And those of us who were here will not soon 
             forget his series of addresses on the Senate of the Roman 
             Republic. He knew that Senate too.
               Senator Byrd was a teacher. I can recall meeting with 
             Senator Byrd on a highway bill. He and I both long 
             believed passionately in the importance of our Nation's 
             highways. At this one occasion, I recall being impatient 
             about enacting the highway bill on which we were working. 
             I can also recall the sage advice Senator Byrd gave me 
             about the process, about the procedures, and about the 
             personalities of how to get that bill through the Senate. 
             As I look back on that meeting, I think of all the 
             occasions Senator Byrd took the time to teach others of us 
             about the Senate. He taught his fellow Senators. He taught 
             visiting dignitaries from other countries.
               I might add parenthetically that it was not too many 
             years ago when he was visiting Great Britain with some 
             Senators and meeting with some Parliamentarians in Great 
             Britain, and the subject of British monarchs came up, and 
             it was only Senator Byrd who knew them all. He stood up, 
             and he gave the name of every British monarch and the 
             dates they served, up to the present. No other person in 
             the room, including the members of the British Parliament, 
             could do so. Robert C. Byrd did.
               He taught class after class of Senate pages.
               Robert Byrd will leave a legacy in the laws of the 
             United States. He will leave a legacy in the rules and 
             precedents of the Senate, and he will leave a living 
             legacy in all the people who learned about the Senate at 
             the knee of this great master.
               Robert Byrd was an orator. One might say he was the last 
             of a breed. He spoke in a style that recalled his roots 
             before microphones and amplification. He spoke memorably. 
             He spoke like orators used to speak.
               Many of us recall celebrated speeches of Robert C. Byrd. 
             I will read an extended quotation from one speech that 
             sums up Robert Byrd's strong feelings for the Constitution 
             and the Senate he loved so well.
               On October 13, 1989, many of us gathered to hear Robert 
             C. Byrd speak. This is what he said:

               Mr. President, I close by saying, as I began, that human 
             ingenuity can always find a way to circumvent a process 
             ... . But I have regained my faith. We are told in the 
             Scriptures: ``Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy 
             fathers have set.''
               The Constitution is the old landmark which they have 
             set. And if we do not rise to the call of the moment and 
             take a stand, take a strong stand against our own personal 
             interests or against party interests, and stand for the 
             Constitution, then how might we face our children and 
             grandchildren when they ask of us as Caesar did to the 
             centurion, ``How do we fare today?'' And the centurion 
             replied, ``You will be victorious. As for myself, whether 
             I live or die, tonight I shall have earned the praise of 

               And Robert C. Byrd concluded:

               As [Aaron] Burr bade goodbye to the Senate over which he 
             had presided for 4 years, this is what he said. And I 
             close with his words because I think they may well have 
             been written for a moment like this. He said, ``This House 
             is a sanctuary; a citadel of law, of order, and of 
             liberty, and it is here--it is here--in this exalted 
             refuge--here, if anywhere, will resistance be made to the 
             storms of political phrensy and the silent arts of 
             corruption; and if the Constitution be destined ever to 
             perish by the sacrilegious hands of the demagogue or the 
             usurper, which God averts, its expiring agonies will be 
             witnessed on this floor.''

               So today, Mr. President, I will close my words for my 
             friend, Robert C. Byrd, noting that in life he was 
             victorious. As for myself, whether I succeed or not, 
             whether I live or die, today I can count no greater praise 
             than to say I served with Robert C. Byrd.
               Mr. President, I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Texas is 

               Mrs. HUTCHISON. Mr. President, I think the remarks that 
             were given by my colleague from Montana about Senator Byrd 
             were certainly appropriate, and I know anytime we lose one 
             of our Members who has been sitting with us for so long, 
             there is a void to fill.
               What I appreciated about Senator Byrd is how much he 
             respected the Senate itself and protected the rights of 
             the Senate against anyone who he believed overstepped the 
             rights of the Senate and the decorum and protocol of the 
             Senate. He was truly a defender of this body. He loved it, 
             and I think we all respected him for that.

               Mr. BOND. Mr. President, I rise to say a few words about 
             our departed colleague.
               This week the Senate lost its longest serving Member not 
             only of the Senate but of the Congress. More than that, 
             the Nation lost a true servant of the people.
               From humble beginnings, Senator Byrd was, first and 
             foremost, a champion for the people of West Virginia. 
             Throughout his many years of service, there has been no 
             greater student, teacher, and protector of the Senate 
             institution. Senator Byrd was not only a guardian of the 
             Senate institution, he was a guardian of the rights our 
             Nation holds dear, which is why his most constant 
             companion was the Constitution of the United States in his 
               I had the opportunity, when I first arrived in the 
             Senate in 1990, to work on the acid rain trading 
             provisions in the Clean Air Act. It was known as the Byrd-
             Bond amendment. We called it the Bond-Byrd amendment back 
             in Missouri. The acid rain trading system has worked 
             because there was technology available. The cost enabled 
             the equitable sharing of the major utilities which had to 
             install expensive equipment that provided more benefit 
             than they needed so they could sell off the other parts of 
             their credits to smaller companies that could not afford 
             to install expensive equipment. That was just a small 
             success for Senator Byrd.
               He was a true champion. He will be missed on the Senate 
             floor. My thoughts and prayers are with Senator Byrd's 
             family, his staff, and the people of West Virginia.

               Mr. LeMIEUX. Mr. President, I see the roses on the desk 
             of our colleague from West Virginia, as I did in the Armed 
             Services Committee meeting I left a few minutes ago and 
             will return to shortly. It makes me think that what we do 
             here on a day-to-day basis seems very small compared to 
             the legacy Senator Byrd has left us over his many years as 
             the longest serving Member of Congress. We will do our 
             best in the time we have to honor his legacy and thank him 
             today and every day going forward for what he has done for 
             this institution. He kept the flame. He understood the 
             importance of this body constitutionally, and he 
             understood that the rules and procedures of this body were 
             its lifeblood and really understood them and recognized 
             them more than anyone else who has served in this Chamber 
             and spent his life's work protecting them and 
             memorializing them. To him, we owe a great commendation.

               Ms. STABENOW. Mr. President, I rise today to pay tribute 
             to a great Senator and a friend and mentor of mine, 
             Senator Robert C. Byrd. When I look at his desk, a place 
             from which he spoke such powerful words so many times, it 
             is hard to believe he will not be on the floor of the 
             Senate speaking powerfully about what he believed in--the 
             people of West Virginia and the great issues of our day. 
             He will be sorely missed.
               He was orphaned as a child and grew up poor. He often 
             told us about his foster father, who was a coal miner, who 
             had to work hard to scrape together food and shelter for 
             their family. He always spoke of working men and women and 
             those who were working hard and having a hard time making 
             ends meet. I know his heart was always with them.
               From a young age, Senator Byrd learned the importance of 
             hard work, dedication, and perseverance--skills that would 
             serve him well throughout his long and very distinguished 
               After graduating from high school at the top of his 
             class in 1934, he married his high school sweetheart Erma. 
             Many of us knew her, and those who didn't knew of her 
             because he would speak continually about the love of his 
             life, his sweetheart Erma. After school, he went on to 
             work at a number of odd jobs. He worked as a butcher 
             during the Great Depression, earning less than $15 a week. 
             He worked as a gas station attendant. During World War II, 
             he was a welder in a shipyard in Baltimore. But he never 
             forgot his childhood and where he came from. He knew how 
             education had transformed his own life, and he never 
             stopped trying to give every American that same 
               After high school he couldn't afford to go to college. 
             But after he was elected to the House of Representatives 
             in 1952, he put himself through law school--the only 
             Member of Congress ever to do that while in office. He 
             joked that Erma put three children through school--himself 
             and their two daughters.
               His wife was the most important person in the world to 
             him, and I know he was deeply saddened when Erma died in 
             2006, as were all of us who served in the Senate with him 
             at that time.
               He was a great mentor, a great friend, a great advocate 
             for working families of Michigan and of America. I was 
             proud to join with him many times as we fought for 
             American workers, whether they were mine workers in West 
             Virginia or auto workers in Michigan.
               He loved West Virginia, the people and the landscape. 
             One of his favorite Bible verses was from Psalms: ``I will 
             lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my 
             help.'' In my office I proudly display a painting that 
             Senator Byrd gave to me, which he painted himself while 
             working in Baltimore so he could remember those hills and 
             mountains of his childhood. Today, when I see that 
             painting, I remember that Senator who gave so much for the 
             people of West Virginia and the people of America. I was 
             proud to stand with him as one of the 23--as he reminded 
             me frequently--the 23 who opposed the original war in Iraq 
             and stood up for our men and women who have bravely served 
             us around the world as well.
               Senator Robert C. Byrd--the Senate is a better place 
             because of him and he will be sorely missed.

               Mr. NELSON of Florida. Mr. President, 10 years ago I 
             gave my maiden speech on the floor of the Senate. I was at 
             a desk on the far side of the Chamber. In the course of 
             that speech, I happened to mention that it was my maiden 
             speech. I had been here about a month. I went on. I can 
             even remember the subject. It was the deficit, since we 
             were in a unique position that we actually had a surplus 
             in the Federal Government and I did not want to see that 
             surplus piddled away. I started talking about the budget 
             and why it was necessary to keep the surplus, to utilize 
             the surplus to pay down the national debt over a 10-year 
               Some minutes later, after I had said this was my maiden 
             speech, all of a sudden the doors to the Chamber flung 
             open and in came Senator Robert Byrd. As I was giving this 
             first speech on the floor of the Senate, the greatest 
             deliberative body in the world, he went over to his desk--
             the one that is draped with black cloth, and upon it sits 
             the vase of flowers to note his passing--he sat there and 
             he looked at me and listened to the rest of that oration.
               As I concluded, the Senator from West Virginia rose and 
             said, ``Will the Senator from Florida yield?''
               And I said, ``Of course I yield.''
               He proceeded, off the top of his head, from that 
             incredible, detailed memory, to lay out the history of 
             maiden speeches on the floor of the Senate. He had been 
             back in his office, and he had heard me, in the course of 
             the audio from the television, say this was my maiden 
             speech. He came up and went into this long discourse about 
             the importance of maiden speeches and who were the ones 
             who had given them and how long into their service as a 
             new Senator they had waited to give them.
               Later on, as we were debating that budget, the great 
             orator from West Virginia took the floor and began talking 
             about a tax cut the Senate was considering; a tax cut he 
             voted against, and so did this Senator from Florida. The 
             Senator from West Virginia talked about this tax cut that 
             was going to be a staggering $1.6 trillion. This is what 
             the great senior Senator from West Virginia said. ``That 
             is $1,600 for every minute since Jesus Christ was born,'' 
             Senator Byrd declared. He went on to say, ``If we go for 
             this big tax cut ... that money ... is gone.''
               We all like tax cuts, but what we have to have is a 
             balance of tax cuts and spending cuts, given the position 
             then that we had a surplus, and how to responsibly use 
             that surplus to pay down the national debt. What we have 
             is a reversal of that. We, of course, have a huge deficit 
             because the revenues are not coming in to match the 
             expenditures and, thus, additional problems that have 
             accrued from not listening to the Senator who sat in that 
             black-draped desk. No one else spoke like Senator Byrd or 
             was as original as he was.
               As we mark the passing of our dear colleague who, it has 
             been said many times, was the longest serving Federal 
             lawmaker since the founding of the Republic, as we mourn 
             his passing, many will remember the Senator from West 
             Virginia by the numbers and by the records he set. He made 
             history. He brought depth and grace to the Senate. He is 
             forever enshrined as a major part of its history.
               I can tell you that 10 years ago, we freshmen had the 
             blessing of being tutored--no, more than tutored; we were 
             students, we were pupils of the master teacher. He taught 
             us the rules, so important to the conduct of business in 
             this body. But he taught us something more. He taught us 
             decorum. He taught us how to preside as the Presiding 
             Officer. He taught us to be respectful, that when you are 
             presiding, you absolutely listen to the speaker. He taught 
             us so much.
               He was elected to no fewer than nine terms in the 
             Senate. He served first in the House for 6 years. He had 
             cast over 18,000 votes. He presided over both the longest 
             session of the Senate and the shortest. We had no fewer 
             than 12 Presidents since he first took office.
               But the numbers do not tell the full story. Robert Byrd 
             was one of the greatest advocates for just plain folks and 
             especially if they came from West Virginia. He gave them 
             his all, after his first and foremost love, his devotion 
             to his wife Erma. In the spirit of Thomas Jefferson, 
             Robert Byrd always put public service ahead of personal 
               On my desk in my Senate office, as I would suspect on 
             many other Senators' desks, are copies of Senator Byrd's 
             addresses on the history of the Senate--more than 100 of 
             those speeches delivered over a 10-year period. Those are 
             the only books that are set on my personal desk with book 
             ends of two American eagles. That study has been called 
             the most ambitious study of the Senate ever undertaken. 
             Every day, those books remind me of the living history of 
             this institution and its vital role in our democracy.
               Senator Byrd made rare and noble contributions to his 
             family, his friends, his State, his country, and to this 
             Senate. He was, in a living person, the walking history 
             book of the Senate, which he could recite. Now, as he has 
             gone on to the ages, he will be known as the historian of 
             the Senate. And now forever for history, he will be one of 
             the major parts of the Senate's history.
               We mourn his passing, we miss him personally, we grieve 
             for his family, and we are thankful there was a public 
             servant who surely the Lord would say: Well done, thy good 
             and faithful servant.

               Mr. UDALL of New Mexico. Mr. President, I rise today to 
             join my colleagues as we mourn the death and celebrate the 
             life of a man who touched all of ours; a man who loved his 
             country, loved the Senate, and dedicated his life to 
             preserving its traditions; a man who above all cherished 
             his State and who every day considered it his highest 
             honor to represent her people.
               On Monday morning, Senator Robert Byrd took his rightful 
             place in our history books as a titan of the Senate. On 
             Thursday we will honor him as his body lies in state in 
             this Chamber where he served longer than any other Senator 
             in our history. Today, we grieve his loss with his family 
             and with the entire country.
               My family's history with Senator Byrd goes back many 
             years. My father, before he became Secretary of the 
             Interior, served with Senator Byrd, then Congressman Byrd, 
             in the House of Representatives. A half century later, my 
             father's honor became my own. I am proud to have had the 
             privilege of serving in this Chamber with Senator Byrd, of 
             experiencing first hand his distinguished service and 
             remarkable career.
               Senator Byrd will be remembered for many things. He will 
             be remembered for his historic length of service; for his 
             rise from humble roots to the pinnacles of political 
             power; for his encyclopedic knowledge of Senate rules and 
             procedure; and for his love of his wife of 68 years, Erma.
               What I will remember Senator Byrd for is his willingness 
             to stand up and fight for what he believed in. Two of the 
             most pressing issues of the past decade are perfect 
             examples--the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. From the very 
             beginning, Senator Byrd was a voice of opposition to the 
             Iraq war. He delivered what will become one of his most 
             memorable speeches in the days leading up to the Senate's 
             vote to authorize its funding. He spoke out against a war 
             at a time when any opposition to the President's path 
             meant putting his own political future in jeopardy. But he 
             did not waiver.
               Here is part of what he said:

               No one supports Saddam Hussein. If he were to disappear 
             tomorrow, no one would shed a tear around the world. I 
             would not. My handkerchief would remain dry. But the 
             principle of one government deciding to eliminate another 
             government, using force to do so, and taking that action 
             in spite of world disapproval is a very disquieting thing. 
             I am concerned that it has the effect of destabilizing the 
             world community of nations. I am concerned that it fosters 
             a climate of suspicion and mistrust in U.S. relations with 
             other nations. The United States is not a rogue nation, 
             given to unilateral action in the face of worldwide 

               Eight years and thousands of American lives lost later, 
             his words read as prophetic.
               But he didn't stop there. Last year--this time with his 
             party holding the reins of power in both the White House 
             and the Congress--he did the same thing. Seven years had 
             passed, and Senator Byrd was older and more fragile than 
             ever before. None of that stopped him from getting to the 
             Senate floor that day. How did I know this? I had a front 
             row seat as the Presiding Officer of the Senate that day.
               This time, he questioned the proposed buildup of troops 
             in Afghanistan--a proposal I myself had questioned many 
             times as well. Here is what Senator Byrd said:

               I have become deeply concerned that in the 8 years since 
             the September 11 attacks, the reason for the U.S. military 
             mission in Afghanistan has become lost, consumed in some 
             broader scheme of nation-building which has clouded our 
             purpose and obscured our reasoning.

               He continued:

               ... President Obama and the Congress must reassess and 
             refocus on our original and most important objective--
             namely emasculating a terrorist network that has proved 
             its ability to inflict harm on the United States.

               Time will tell if Senator Byrd's concerns about 
             Afghanistan prove as prescient as those he expressed about 
             Iraq almost a decade ago. Time also will tell if we heed 
             those concerns.
               What is clear is that Senator Byrd understood the 
             importance of asking the tough questions, regardless of 
             their impact on himself personally or professionally. In 
             this regard, we could all learn a little bit from Senator 
               I know my Senate colleagues will agree with me when I 
             say this institution, this country, this democracy lost a 
             powerful advocate this week, and all of us in this Chamber 
             lost a good friend.
               Today I join with my colleagues in expressing my deepest 
             sympathy to Senator Byrd's family for their loss and 
             remembering a man whose legend and legacy will endure 
             beyond us all.

               Mr. KAUFMAN. Mr. President, I wish to spend a few 
             minutes talking about a truly great Federal employee, and 
             that is Senator Robert C. Byrd.
               He personified all the things I try to talk about once a 
             week, because Robert Byrd was a Federal employee. Robert 
             Byrd was a creature of the U.S. Senate. Robert Byrd had 
             his family, and he was a great family man, but the Senate 
             was also his family, and he cared about everybody here.
               I remember the first time I ever had contact with 
             Senator Byrd was in 1972. On election day in 1972, Joe 
             Biden, a 29-year-old candidate for the U.S. Senate, was 
             elected to the Senate running against one of the most 
             popular officials we ever had in the State of Delaware, a 
             wonderful public servant and Federal employee, Caleb 
             Boggs, who had been a Congressman and Governor before he 
             became a Senator.
               Just 6 weeks later, on December 18, when his wife and 
             two sons and daughter were bringing their Christmas tree 
             home, the car was hit by a tractor trailer and Senator 
             Biden's wife and daughter were killed.
               Shortly after that, my church, St. Mary Magdalen in 
             Wilmington, Delaware, had a memorial service for his wife 
             and daughter. I will never forget, it was a dark night. It 
             was in December. It was just an ugly night out. The church 
             was full, and it was a very moving ceremony. After it was 
             over, I found out that Senator Robert Byrd had driven 
             himself to Wilmington, Delaware, come into the church, 
             stood in the back of the church for the entire service, 
             and then turned around and drove home. And there are 
             hundreds of stories like that where Robert Byrd 
             demonstrated his great love for the Senate and for the 
             people of the Senate.
               There are traditions he instilled in the Senate and 
             traditions he kept alive in the Senate. I remember when he 
             was majority leader, I will tell you what, there were lots 
             of things that just never happened because Senator Byrd 
             was going to make sure we stuck to the traditions of the 
             Senate. So I wish to recognize Senator Robert Byrd as a 
             great Federal employee.

               Mr. FEINGOLD. Mr. President, I join all Americans in 
             mourning the passing of Senator Robert C. Byrd. For more 
             than five decades, Senator Robert Byrd served his home 
             State, his beloved West Virginia, with a dedication that 
             is unsurpassed in our Nation's history.
               Senator Byrd was legendary for that commitment to his 
             State, for his outstanding service as both the Senate's 
             majority and minority leader, and for his staunch defense 
             of the U.S. Constitution throughout his many years of 
             public service.
               When I arrived in the Senate, Senator Byrd was in the 
             midst of his sixth term, President pro tempore of the 
             Senate, chairman of the Appropriations Committee and 
             already a giant of the institution. It was an honor to 
             work beside him in this body.
               Senator Byrd was the longest serving Member of Congress 
             in our Nation's history, elected to an unprecedented ninth 
             term in the Senate in 2006. It was a long road from his 
             humble beginnings in rural West Virginia to his long and 
             distinguished service here. Along the way, Senator Byrd's 
             life was characterized by hard work and a steely 
               And of all the things he was determined to do, perhaps 
             the most significant was his determination to get an 
             education. Senator Byrd prized education, and fought to 
             get one for himself despite difficult odds. That long 
             effort culminated in Senator Byrd earning his law degree, 
             after 10 years of night classes as he served in Congress 
             by day. He was 46 years old when he graduated, and 
             President John F. Kennedy presented him with the diploma.
               He shared that love of learning as a champion of 
             continuing education, and through the establishment of the 
             Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program, which provides 
             scholarships to high school seniors who show promise of 
             continued excellence in postsecondary education.
               Senator Byrd was dedicated to the Senate and served an 
             invaluable role as a historian of the institution. He 
             wrote a distinguished multivolume history of the Senate, 
             and also authored several other books. In fact when I 
             drafted my proposed constitutional amendment on Senate 
             vacancies, I consulted one of his volumes on Senate 
             history. He had written a chapter on the 17th Amendment to 
             the Constitution that was very helpful in putting the 
             issue of Senate vacancies in a historical context.
               As a student of Senate history, both the U.S. Senate and 
             the Roman Senate, he was also a passionate defender of the 
             powers of the legislative branch. One would expect no less 
             of a man so devoted to our Constitution. Senator Byrd was 
             eloquent as he spoke about the need to stand up for our 
             Constitution and its principles here in the Senate, and 
             faithfully carried a copy of the Constitution with him 
             every day. He was very proud of his efforts to encourage 
             students to learn more about this document and our great 
               In Senator Byrd's lifetime of leadership, he worked on 
             many important issues. As the Senate's majority leader, he 
             helped to lead the fight against the undue influence of 
             money in politics in an effort with then-Senator David 
             Boren of Oklahoma. Together they sponsored campaign 
             finance legislation and worked to pass it in what has been 
             described as ``one of the most extraordinary exhibitions 
             of perseverance on the Senate floor, as Byrd led the 
             Senate through eight unsuccessful votes to end a 
             filibuster.'' While that legislation stalled, it was one 
             of the efforts that paved the way for later reforms, and I 
             am grateful for his efforts.
               I respected him for that, and for so many of the 
             principled stands he took during our service together, 
             including his opposition to the Iraq war. He brought 
             tremendous wisdom and insight to our work here and I know 
             how much those gifts will be missed.
               Robert C. Byrd was a man who sought to learn every day 
             of his life, and in turn taught all of us a great deal. He 
             taught us about our Nation's history, about the people he 
             represented, and about the institution of the Senate he 
             loved. While Senator Byrd's passing is a loss for the 
             Nation, his legacy of innumerable achievements will live 
             on for many years to come. My thoughts are with his family 
             and many friends today.

               Mr. JOHNSON. Mr. President, on Monday we lost a 
             colleague and dear friend with the passing of Senator 
             Robert C. Byrd. My deepest sympathy goes out to his 
             family, friends, dedicated staff, and the people of West 
             Virginia. Senator Byrd was truly a giant among Senators. 
             His presence will be greatly missed.
               Few have had the command of history that Senator Byrd 
             possessed, and I suspect none have matched his knowledge 
             of the U.S. Constitution and the Senate in which he 
             served. Senator Byrd never passed up the opportunity to 
             give a history lesson, delivering impassioned speeches 
             peppered with poetry, lessons from ancient Rome, and his 
             unique understanding of the workings of this Chamber. He 
             also never forgot to remind us of the importance of 
             Mother's Day, the beauty of the first day of spring, or 
             how devoted he was to his beloved wife Erma.
               Senator Byrd held fiercely to his beliefs. Yet, he had 
             the humility and wisdom to change beliefs he realized were 
             wrong. History will remember Senator Byrd, not only for 
             his numerous records of service, but for his unwavering 
             commitment to education, public infrastructure, and the 
             State of West Virginia.
               This year, 19 outstanding high school students from my 
             home State of South Dakota joined the ranks of thousands 
             of Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship recipients that are 
             furthering their education, in part because of Senator 
             Byrd's belief in the value of higher education. He 
             embodied that belief in his own life, earning a law degree 
             while serving in Congress and striving to continue 
             learning each day.
               Senator Byrd also understood the value of investing in 
             the small, sometimes overlooked communities of his State. 
             Where others saw ``pork,'' he saw jobs, opportunities, and 
             hope for hard-working Americans. He understood--better 
             than most--that without roads, clean water, and reliable 
             utilities, rural communities will struggle to reach their 
             full potential.
               Though he would later ``walk with Kings, meet Prime 
             Ministers and debate with Presidents,'' Senator Byrd never 
             forgot his roots in the hills of West Virginia. West 
             Virginia lost a true champion, but his mark on the State 
             will last far longer than even his half century in 
               I am honored to have served with Senator Byrd. This 
             institution is a better place for his time here.
               Mr. REID (for himself and Mr. McConnell) submitted the 
             following resolution; which was considered and agreed to:
                                     S. Res. 574
               Whereas, The Senate has heard with profound sorrow and 
             deep regret the announcement of the death of the Honorable 
             Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from the State of West 
             Virginia: Now, therefore, be it
               Resolved, That the memorial observances of the Honorable 
             Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from the State of West 
             Virginia be held in the Senate Chamber on Thursday, July 
             1, 2010, beginning at 10:00 a.m., and that the Senate 
             attend the same.
               Resolved, That paragraph 1 of Rule IV of the Rules for 
             the Regulation of the Senate Wing of the United States 
             Capitol (prohibiting the taking of pictures in the Senate 
             Chamber) be temporarily suspended for the sole and 
             specific purpose of permitting the Senate Photographic 
             Studio to photograph this memorial observance.
               Resolved, That the Sergeant at Arms be directed to make 
             necessary and appropriate arrangements in connection with 
             the memorial observances in the Senate Chamber.
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives, 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
             deceased, and invite the House of Representatives and the 
             family of the deceased to attend the memorial observances 
             in the Senate Chamber.
               Resolved, That invitations be extended to the President 
             of the United States, the Vice President of the United 
             States, and the members of the Cabinet, the Chief Justice 
             and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
             States, the Diplomatic Corps (through the Secretary of 
             State), the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval 
             Operations of the Navy, the Major General Commandant of 
             the Marine Corps, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and 
             the Commandant of the Coast Guard to attend the memorial 
             observances in the Senate Chamber.
                               STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA
               Mr. REID (for himself and Mr. McConnell) submitted the 
             following concurrent resolution; which was considered and 
             agreed to:
                                   S. Con. Res. 65
               Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives 
             concurring), That the Architect of the Capitol is 
             authorized and directed to transfer the catafalque which 
             is situated in the Exhibition Hall of the Capitol Visitor 
             Center to the Senate Chamber so that such catafalque may 
             be used in connection with services to be conducted there 
             for the Honorable Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from the 
             State of West Virginia.
                           ORDER FOR PRINTING OF TRIBUTES
               Mr. REID. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that 
             tributes to Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from West 
             Virginia, be printed as a Senate document, and that 
             Members have until 12 noon, Friday, August 6, 2010, to 
             submit said tributes.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
                                               Wednesday, June 30, 2010
               Mr. SCHUMER. Mr. President, it is with deep sadness that 
             I rise to honor my colleague and friend, Senator Robert C. 
             Byrd. I look at the simple eloquence of the roses and the 
             black felt on his desk, and he rises above that and hovers 
             above us in just about everything we do.
               The admiration that all of us in this body have for 
             Senator Byrd is genuine and palpable. We miss him dearly, 
             and I know I speak for the entire Senate when I say our 
             thoughts and prayers are with Senator Byrd's family as 
             they mourn his passing.
               Mr. President, no one loved the Senate more than Robert 
             Byrd. He devoted his life to this august institution and, 
             in doing so, became an institution himself. He is a 
             legend--a man who embodied the best ideals of this body. 
             It is fitting that on this day we remember Senator Byrd 
             the Senate is undertaking one of its most important 
             constitutionally mandated responsibilities: the 
             confirmation hearings for a Supreme Court Associate 
               Senator Byrd would remind us that we are in a process 
             where the first branch of government is giving its advice 
             and consent to a selection from the second branch of 
             government in choosing someone to sit on the highest part 
             of the third branch of government.
               He loved the Constitution, he loved the Senate, he loved 
             America, and he came from the bosom of America.
               I am struck by the history of this moment. We read about 
             the great Senators who served in this body--the Websters 
             and the Clays, the LaFollettes and the Wagners. Well, I 
             cannot help but feel privileged to have served, in my 
             brief time--certainly compared to the Senators here--with 
             a legend, with a man whose name will go down in history 
             beside those men as one of the great men in this body and 
             one of the great men in history.
               On Thursday, Mr. President, Senator Byrd will make one 
             final visit to this Senate Chamber that he so loved. There 
             could be no more appropriate way for us to say goodbye to 
             him and honor him than to yield the Senate floor to him 
             for one last time.
               People asked, why not the Rotunda? It was not that he 
             did not deserve tribute in the Rotunda, and, for sure, 
             tens of thousands would have lined up. But this is the 
             body he loved, and this is the body where his final day 
             here should be.
               I would like to share a few brief thoughts and reflect 
             on Senator Byrd's service to the people of West Virginia 
             and the Nation.
               The most important thing we should all remember about 
             Robert Byrd is his life story, for it embodies America, 
             the best of America. It embodies the American dream. 
             Because of his intelligence, his indefatigable energy, and 
             up-by-the-bootstraps determination, he rose from a 
             childhood marred by abject poverty to being three 
             heartbeats away from the Presidency.
               He made mistakes in his earlier career, which he freely 
             admitted later. Who has not? But he just grew and grew and 
             grew. That is what great men do: they grow larger and 
             stronger and better as they go through life. That could 
             certainly be said of Senator Byrd.
               Unlike many of the great men who preceded him, Senator 
             Byrd did not grow up as a member of a privileged class. He 
             was an orphan, raised in the Appalachian coal towns of 
             West Virginia. He graduated from high school at 16 as the 
             valedictorian, but like so many Americans of his day, he 
             was too poor and could not afford college.
               So as a young Member of Congress, he worked his way 
             through law school, and, at age 46, he earned the 
             diploma--with honors--that had eluded him in his youth.
               I remember his love of West Virginia. When I was new in 
             this body, just learning it--and part of the way I learned 
             it was by going to Senator Byrd's class on the rules of 
             the Senate; legendary to each freshman class of his time--
             but one day I was just seated at my desk, and Senator Byrd 
             rose to speak. It was a Friday afternoon. I believe it was 
             in the springtime. Business was finished and everyone was 
             rushing home. As you know, Mr. President, I usually rush 
             home. I love to be in New York. But as I was getting ready 
             to leave, Senator Byrd rose, and his speech captivated me.
               For 45 minutes he gave a speech on the beauty of West 
             Virginia in the springtime. The theme of the speech was to 
             urge visitors from other States to come experience it. It 
             was an amazing speech. It was almost like poetry. I am 
             sure Senator Byrd probably did not have to sit and spend 
             days preparing it. It just flowed off his lips, his love 
             of West Virginia, combined with his eloquence. It is one 
             of the speeches I will always remember in the Senate, and 
             I am just lucky and glad I was here for that moment.
               Then, speaking of my State of New York, Senator Byrd did 
             not just touch West Virginia, he touched every State. 
             Because he was here for so long, of course, he had such 
             power but cared about each of the Members and their 
               The most striking moment I had with Senator Byrd 
             occurred in the wake of 9/11. It was the day after that 
             Senator Clinton and I went up to New York, and we saw the 
             devastation. We could smell death in the air, see the 
             anguished looks of people holding signs: Have you seen my 
             husband? Have you seen my wife? The towers were gone, but 
             people did not know who had survived and who had not. Most 
             did not, of course.
               Then the next call we got, as we came back, was from 
             Senator Byrd. Senator Byrd said, ``Please come to my 
             office.'' We went to his office on the first floor of the 
             Capitol. He came to Senator Clinton and I and said, 
             ``Chuck, Hillary, I want you to consider me the third 
             Senator from the great State of New York.''
               We knew we needed help, and we needed it fast. Even 
             before we went to visit President Bush and asked him for 
             the help that New York needed, Senator Byrd, on his own, 
             invited us over and pledged his help. Like always, he 
             lived up to his word, not just in the next days or weeks 
             or months, but years. I would go to him 3, 4 years later 
             and say there is still this part of the promise made to 
             New York that hasn't been fulfilled. There he was, and he 
             did it. Without a doubt, the dear city I love, New York 
             City, would not have been able to recover as quickly or as 
             well without that man from the coalfields of West 
             Virginia, Senator Robert C. Byrd, helping us. He showed a 
             level of selflessness that is rarely seen, and I think I 
             can speak on behalf of Secretary Clinton and the people of 
             New York in telling Senator Byrd how grateful we are to 
               We all have so many memories of Senator Byrd, so many 
             things. We only served together a little less than 12 
             years, 11\1/2\ years, but he was like a jewel. He had so 
             many different facets that every one of us was touched by 
             him in many ways.
               So I relate my last strong memory of Senator Byrd. The 
             Presiding Officer remembers as well because it was at a 
             hearing of the Rules Committee where we are now having a 
             series of hearings under the suggestion of the Presiding 
             Officer and leadership to decide whether we should reform 
             the filibuster rule and what we should do about it. 
             Senator Byrd, frail at that point, about a month ago, came 
             to our hearing room. He sat next to me and then gave one 
             of the best orations I have heard in a committee. He was 
             92. He turned the pages of his speech himself. That wasn't 
             so easy for him. It was clearly--knowing the way he 
             thought and his way of speaking--written completely by 
             him. It was an amazing statement. It was impassioned, 
             erudite, balanced, and, as the Presiding Officer 
             remembers, it electrified the room. It was an amazing tour 
             de force. The man cared so much about the Senate. Despite 
             the fact he was ailing, there he was because he loved the 
             Senate. His remarks, if my colleagues read them, were 
             balanced. He understood the problems, but he understood 
             the traditions, and he tried, as usual, to weave the two 
               There are few Senators who could do that, in the more 
             than 200-year history of this body, the way he could. 
             There are also few Senators in this body who fought as 
             hard for their States as Senator Byrd did. I certainly 
             admire the people who are here who become national leaders 
             but never forget where they came from. There is a tendency 
             among some who come to Washington to sort of forget where 
             they came from. Not Senator Byrd. All across West 
             Virginia, men and women are able to realize the American 
             dream because he fought for them. He was unrelenting and 
             unapologetic in his desire to improve the lives of West 
             Virginians by making generous investments in 
             infrastructure and research. He brought that State into 
             the future and afforded generations of West Virginians 
             good-paying jobs, allowing them to provide for their 
             families and have the dignity all Americans deserve.
               Some of the more elite parts of the media would make fun 
             of what he did, but I thought our colleague, Senator 
             Rockefeller, said it best. I am paraphrasing; I read this 
             in the newspaper. He said Senator Byrd realized that until 
             you get a road and a water system to these isolated towns, 
             you couldn't open the door of the future for them, and he 
             knew that. Senator Byrd relentlessly, in town after town 
             after town, did that. He fought to increase access to 
             health care and ensure the people had the right to vote, 
             and he made sure every child in West Virginia had the 
             right to live up to his God-given potential through a 
             quality education.
               Every one of us could go on and on about Senator Byrd's 
             accomplishments, but I think what is even more important 
             than accomplishments is who he was as a person. He was 
             someone who knew where he stood but showed a profound 
             willingness to evolve, and that is a sign of extraordinary 
             character. It is all too easy for an elected official to 
             plug his ears and say: Sorry, that is my position; that is 
             the way it has always been, and that is the way it will 
             always be. Not Senator Byrd. He was unafraid to take new 
             arguments into consideration and expand his world view 
               What also struck me about him was his fundamental 
             humility, the best example of which is probably his 
             relationship with my dear friend and mentor, Ted Kennedy, 
             another legend in this body who is so sorely missed. Ted 
             somewhat unexpectedly ran against Senator Byrd to be the 
             Democratic whip in 1969. Senator Kennedy won. Two years 
             later there was a rematch and Senator Byrd became the 
             whip. One would think after this kind of animus that the 
             two of them would never come together, but in their lives 
             in the Senate they established a deep meaningful bond, a 
             tribute to both of them.
               Senator Kennedy would tell me stories about Senator Byrd 
             and some of the things he had done, serious and humorous. 
             To me it is so profound that within a year we have lost 
             the two giants among whom I was proud and lucky to serve.
               I will never forget when Senator Byrd, sick as he was, 
             was outside the steps of the Capitol to salute Ted Kennedy 
             after he passed earlier this year. It was Senator Byrd who 
             provided the crucial vote to fulfill Ted Kennedy's 
             lifelong passion: comprehensive health care reform. As 
             every Senator sat at their desk for the final passage 
             vote, the clerk called the roll. When Senator Byrd's name 
             was called, he raised his voice as loud as he could and 
             declared, ``Madam President, this is for my friend Ted 
             Kennedy. Aye!''
               Those two friends, those two legends today are together 
             again in heaven, and I would love to be able to hear the 
             conversations and reminiscences between them.
               Robert Byrd will be remembered forever. He will be 
             remembered as a man who loved this institution and guarded 
             its history. He will be remembered as a man who always 
             stood up for his State. He is a man who will be remembered 
             as someone who lived the American dream and fought to make 
             that dream a reality for countless others. Perhaps most of 
             all, he will be remembered as a loving father, 
             grandfather, and husband.
               Today the Senate mourns, the people of West Virginia 
             mourn, the Nation mourns.

               Mr. BROWNBACK. Mr. President, I rise to speak about 
             Senator Byrd, as many of my colleagues have, and make a 
             few comments about an extraordinary individual. Just the 
             sheer numbers are very impressive. He was married for 68 
             years, elected to 9 terms, had more than 20,000 days of 
             service in the Senate, approaching 19,000 roll call votes 
             cast, and had a 97 percent attendance record.
               Senator Byrd was the majority leader from 1977 to 1980, 
             and again from 1987 to 1988. He was President pro tempore 
             four different times when his party was in the majority. 
             The Senator from West Virginia was known for his defense 
             of the Constitution and the institutional prerogatives of 
             the Senate. He was the author of five books, and he was an 
             avid fiddler. The first place I ever saw Senator Byrd was 
             playing the fiddle on television. Boy, he could play. It 
             was impressive to see somebody of his stature playing an 
             instrument so brilliantly.
               In his biographical statement on his Web site, I found a 
             statement that I want to expand and build off of. It says:

               In every corner of West Virginia, the people of the 
             Mountain State know that there is one man on whom they can 
             always depend: U.S. Senator Robert C. Byrd. He has always 
             remained true to his faith and his family, while working 
             to build a better future for his State and his country.

               His remaining true to his faith and family was at the 
             core of Senator Byrd and his longevity, and at the core of 
             his service.
               While he spoke often and wrote well about the 
             institutional prerogatives of the Senate better than 
             anybody in the history of this body, it is that his life 
             centered around his core, remaining true to his faith and 
             his family. He was married for 68 years to his spouse, 
             Erma, who stayed by his side constantly, and of whom he 
             would speak often.
               Senator Byrd and I would speak about his faith on the 
             floor frequently. He was a man of deep faith and a man of 
             strong convictions, and that was his centerpiece. He would 
             often speak on this floor about his faith.
               I think what you saw in Senator Byrd in that statement 
             about his faith and his family is a cultural requirement 
             for the United States. This is a nation of strong faith, a 
             nation that values family. At the core of this country is 
             that cultural need and necessity, and the leaders of the 
             country need to have at their core a strong bearing within 
             them, and that is a part of their service. That was a big 
             part of Senator Byrd's service. His comments reflected the 
             way he lived. Often people say that the way you live 
             speaks louder than any words you say. That is what I found 
             with Senator Byrd. The way he lived was speaking louder 
             than any words.
               It was the Senator's commitment within his family and 
             his willingness to live that and his faith that spoke 
             louder than any of his words. When we would talk about 
             these things, you could see that they were at the depth of 
             his soul and being. Whether we agreed or disagreed on a 
             number of things--and there were many disagreements I had 
             with him on policy issues, no question about that--you 
             could never challenge his core convictions. His faith and 
             commitment to his family were things that were obvious by 
             the way he lived. You could have this sort of gentlemanly 
             debate about topics that would come up, but you could 
             never question or challenge the character and heart and 
             soul of that.
               What I found most endearing was Senator Byrd's 
             commitment to faith and family. He will be greatly missed 
             in this body. His treatise on the Senate that he gave to 
             all new Members--and to me as a new Member coming into the 
             Senate--I started it and got through a portion, not all of 
             it, but it was excellently written, well presented, and 
             certainly a good education as to what we should do in 
             preserving the constitutional integrity that the Founders 
             intended for this body to be. He, of course, was the 
             greatest defender of it.
               Others have spoken more eloquently about Senator Byrd, 
             but I don't think any eloquence could match the eloquence 
             with which he lived his life--particularly toward his 
             faith and his family. That is what we should recognize the 

               Mr. HARKIN. Mr. President, with the passing of our 
             colleague, Robert Byrd, a mighty oak in the forest of 
             Senate history has fallen. There are flowers on his desk, 
             but there is a tremendous void in our midst.
               As we all know, Senator Byrd was the longest serving 
             Senator in the history of this body. But what was most 
             remarkable about Robert C. Byrd was not his longevity but 
             his unique stature and accomplishment in the Senate. No 
             individual in our long history has been a more tenacious 
             champion of the traditions, prerogatives, and rules of 
             this body.
               Senator Byrd was very fond of noting how many Presidents 
             he had served under. He always answered, ``None.'' As he 
             explained it, he had never served under any President but 
             he had served with 12 Presidents as a proud member of a 
             separate and coequal branch of government.
               Likewise, no individual has had greater reverence for 
             the Constitution and for our Founders' vision for an 
             assertive, independent legislative branch. As the Almanac 
             of American Politics says in its profile of Senator Byrd: 
             ``He may come closer to the kind of Senator the Founding 
             Fathers had in mind than any other.'' For so many years, 
             if anyone on the Senate floor needed to look up something 
             in the Constitution, we knew where to turn. Senator Byrd 
             always carried a copy in his left breast pocket, directly 
             over his heart.
               It was Senator Byrd's reverence for the Constitution 
             that led to what I consider to be arguably his finest hour 
             in the Senate--his outspoken opposition to the rush to war 
             in Iraq in 2002 and his fierce warning to his fellow 
             Senators that we would regret surrendering our power on 
             this war to the President. Senator Byrd's speeches at that 
             time opposing the invasion became a sensation around this 
             country and on the Internet. A white-haired Senator, well 
             into his eighties, became an icon and a folk hero to young 
             people in universities all across America. Why? Because 
             when President Bush was at the peak of his popularity and 
             power, Senator Byrd dared to say that the emperor--any 
             President--has no clothes when it comes to declaring war. 
             Senator Byrd said the reason given for the invasion--
             Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction--was trumped 
             up, and he predicted the war would be a colossal mistake.
               I remember those impassioned speeches he gave at that 
             time. If only we had taken the advice of the wise Senator 
             from West Virginia, how many young American lives--over 
             3,000--would not have been lost, perhaps 10 times that 
             many injured, carrying the wounds and scars of that war 
             for the remainder of their lives, not to mention the 
             nearly $1 trillion spent out of our Treasury for that war 
             in Iraq.
               Later, in his outstanding book, Losing America--I 
             recommend this book to every young person. I see our pages 
             sitting here. Pick up that book by Robert C. Byrd. It is 
             called Losing America. He just wrote it about 5 or 6 years 
             ago. It became an instant bestseller. It is a great book. 
             In that book, Losing America, Senator Byrd decried the 
             Senate's willingness to cave in to the President. He did 
             not care about whether the President was a Democrat or 
             Republican. He said cave in to any President--it is 
             readiness, as he put it, ``to salute the emperor.'' He 
             referred back to his earlier book he had written on the 
             Roman Senate, noting that it was ``the progressive decline 
             of the already supine [Roman] Senate'' that led to the 
             decline of the Roman Republic, and he warned that the same 
             could happen in America.
               I have always had a special affinity for Senator Byrd 
             because we were both the sons of coal miners, both raised 
             in humble circumstances. I will miss seeing Robert Byrd at 
             his desk or in the well and going up to express my best 
             wishes and converse with him. He would always grab my 
             hand; he would look at me and say, ``We have coal miners' 
             blood running in our veins.'' We were the only two sons of 
             coal miners to serve in the Senate, at least at this time. 
             He always said that to me. I am going to miss that.
               In reading about the Senator's early years--lifting 
             himself out of poverty before running for the West 
             Virginia Legislature in 1946--I was reminded of Thomas 
             Edison's remark that ``opportunity is missed by most 
             people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like 
             work.'' In his early days, Robert Byrd was dressed in 
             overalls, and he worked. But he made his opportunities. He 
             made his own opportunities with that relentless work, his 
             self-education, and striving always.
               I will always appreciate the way he tutored me in the 
             ways of the Senate when I arrived in this body in 1985. I 
             was assigned to the Appropriations Committee, one of the 
             few freshman Senators to ever get that assignment. I will 
             not go into how all that happened, but I can remember 
             going to visit Senator Byrd--who then, of course, was the 
             ranking minority member, when I first came to the Senate, 
             on the Appropriations Committee--to ask for his guidance 
             and his willingness to work with me and to instruct me on 
             how to be a good member of the committee. For the next 25 
             years, he was either the chair of the committee or the 
             ranking member. So I was privileged to learn at the elbow 
             of a master appropriator and legislator.
               During his more than 58 years in Congress, Senator Byrd 
             witnessed astonishing changes, when you think about it. 
             Our population during his service grew by more than 125 
             million. He served for 25 percent of the time we have been 
             a republic. There has been an explosion of new 
             technologies. America grew more prosperous, more diverse, 
             more powerful. But across those nearly six decades of 
             rapid change, there was one constant: Senator Byrd's 
             tireless service to his country; his passion for bringing 
             new opportunities to the people of West Virginia; his 
             dedication to this branch of government, the U.S. 
             Congress, and to this Chamber, the U.S. Senate.
               Robert Byrd was a person of many accomplishments with a 
             rich legacy. In my brief time today, I wish to speak of 
             one area of his advocacy which I have had ample 
             opportunity to observe in my capacity both as the longtime 
             chair or ranking member of the Appropriations Subcommittee 
             for Education and as a longtime member and now chair of 
             the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
               During all these years, Senator Byrd was passionately 
             committed to improving public education in the United 
             States and expanding access to higher education, 
             especially for those of modest means.
               As we all know, as I said, he was raised in the 
             hardscrabble coalfields of southern West Virginia. His 
             family was poor, but they were rich in faith and values. 
             His adoptive parents nurtured in Robert Byrd a lifelong 
             passion for education and learning. He was valedictorian 
             of his high school class but too poor, too underprivileged 
             to go to college right away. Again, keep in mind, those 
             were the days before Pell grants and guaranteed loans or 
             even Byrd scholarships. He worked as a shipyard welder, 
             later as a butcher in a coal company town. It took him 12 
             years to save up enough money to start college. As we all 
             know, he was a U.S. Senator when he earned his law degree. 
             No other Member before or since has ever started and 
             finished law school while a Member of Congress.
               But degrees do not begin to tell the story of the 
             education of Robert C. Byrd. He was the ultimate lifetime 
             learner. As I told him once, it was as though he had been 
             enrolled during the last seven decades in the Robert C. 
             Byrd School of Continuing Education. That always brought a 
             smile on that one. I guarantee no one could ever get a 
             better, more thorough education at any one of our 
               Senator Byrd's erudition bore fruit in no less than nine 
             books that he wrote and published over the last two 
             decades. We know he wrote the book on the Senate, a 
             masterful, four-volume history of this institution that 
             has become a classic. What my colleagues may not know is 
             he also authored a highly respected history of the Roman 
               There are some who joked--and I am sure he would not 
             mind me saying this because we said it to him many times 
             in the past--there are some who think Robert C. Byrd 
             served in the Roman Senate. I can tell you, that part of 
             the Byrd legacy and legend just is not so. We always said 
             that. It always brought a smile, and he always chuckled 
             when we talked about that. He was an expert on the Roman 
             Senate. He knew it, and he knew who served in the Roman 
             Senate and how it worked to bring down the Roman Empire.
               I have talked at length about Senator Byrd's education 
             because this explains why he was so passionate about 
             ensuring every American has access to a quality public 
             education, both K-12 and higher education. Coming from a 
             poor background, Senator Byrd believed that a cardinal 
             responsibility of government is to provide a ladder of 
             opportunity so that everyone, no matter how humble a 
             background, has a shot at the American dream. Obviously, 
             the most important rungs on that ladder of opportunity 
             involve education, beginning with quality public schools, 
             including access to college and other forms of higher 
               During my quarter century now in this body, no one has 
             fought harder for public education than Senator Robert 
             Byrd. As longtime chairman, ranking member and, most 
             recently, the senior member of the Appropriations 
             Committee, he was the champion of education at every 
             turn--fighting to reduce class sizes, improve teacher 
             training, bringing new technologies into the classroom, 
             boosting access to higher education.
               In 1985, my first year here in the Senate, he created 
             the only national merit-based college scholarship program 
             funded through the U.S. Department of Education. Congress 
             later named it in his honor. The Robert C. Byrd Honors 
             Scholarship Program is a federally funded, State-
             administered scholarship program that rewards high school 
             seniors who have exhibited exceptional academic 
             excellence. Currently, there are more than 25,000 Byrd 
             scholars across the United States eligible for a $6,000 
             grant during 4 years in college.
               I can remember speaking with him about this and the 
             funding of it, and he reminisced more than once with me 
             about how he was valedictorian of his class, and that he 
             so wanted to go on to higher education but, because of his 
             economic circumstances and where he lived, it wasn't 
             available. So he wanted to make sure that young men and 
             women today who exhibit that great excellence in academic 
             performance were not denied the opportunity to go to 
             college simply because of the circumstances of their 
               Senator Byrd has something in common with Winston 
             Churchill. Both were prolific writers, and both were major 
             players in the events they chronicled in their writings.
               Senator Byrd was also a great student of literature, and 
             he loved to recite long poems from memory. I could never 
             understand how he could remember all of the poetry he 
             would recite here on the floor, in a committee meeting, or 
             sometimes in a meeting when a subject would come up and he 
             would remember a poem that perfectly fit the temper of 
             what people were talking about.
               I am sure Senator Byrd knew The Canterbury Tales, a lot 
             of it probably by heart. In The Canterbury Tales, 
             describing the Clerk of Oxford, Chaucer might just as well 
             have been describing Robert C. Byrd. Chaucer wrote: 
             ``Filled with moral virtue was his speech; And gladly 
             would he learn and gladly teach.''
               Senator Byrd's speeches were a wonder to behold, full of 
             eloquence and erudition and moral virtue. Senator Byrd 
             never stopped learning and he never stopped teaching. 
             Americans for generations to come will continue to learn 
             from his writings and his example.
               Senator Robert C. Byrd was a great Senator, a great 
             American, a loving and wonderful family man. He has both 
             written our Nation's history and has left his mark on it. 
             The United States of America has lost a patriotic son. We 
             have lost a wonderful friend and a mentor. Tomorrow, here 
             in the hallowed Chamber of the U.S. Senate, which he so 
             loved and served for so many years, Robert C. Byrd will 
             lie in state. We would do well to honor his memory by 
             making a renewed commitment to making the U.S. Senate work 
             and to work for all of the people of this country. May he 
             rest in peace with his beloved Erma, and may the Senate 
             always remember and honor his lifetime of service.
               Mr. President, I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Delaware is 

               Mr. KAUFMAN. Mr. President, I spoke about Senator Byrd 
             yesterday. One of the ways you measure anyone is by their 
             friends. The manner in which Senator Harkin just spoke 
             about Senator Byrd shows what a great man Senator Byrd 
             was, to have a friend as thoughtful and as caring as 
             Senator Harkin. They are both a credit to the Senate. ...

               Mrs. FEINSTEIN. Mr. President, I rise today to join my 
             colleagues in mourning the loss of one of the Senate's 
             legendary Members--Robert C. Byrd, the honorable senior 
             Senator from the great State of West Virginia.
               It wasn't too long ago that I looked right over there 
             and I saw a desk draped in black with roses and it was one 
             titan of the Senate--Senator Ted Kennedy. Today, I look 
             down here and I see a desk draped in black with white 
             roses and it is a second titan of the Senate.
               I had the privilege of serving with Senator Byrd on the 
             Appropriations Committee for some 16 years. I have had 
             occasion to watch him. He could be very tough, he could be 
             very caring, and he could have that twinkle in his eye. He 
             could depart from the present text into Greek tragedy; 
             into old Roman speaking. He had an incredibly curious 
             mind. I think he is going to be greatly missed from this 
               I think of him representing the State of West Virginia 
             in the Senate for more than 51 years and serving 6 years 
             in the House of Representatives. During all those 57 
             years, he served with the kind of devotion and passion 
             that he showed in his last year here in the Senate, when 
             he was very troubled by declining health. He has truly 
             left an indelible imprint on the State of West Virginia 
             and on this body. No one has ever shown more determination 
             or greater love for the U.S. Senate than Robert C. Byrd. 
             His tenure has been legendary.
               He held a number of key leadership positions, including 
             secretary of the Senate Democratic Caucus, Senate majority 
             whip, twice as Senate majority leader, the Senate's 
             minority leader, and three times as chairman of the Senate 
             Appropriations Committee.
               During the period of 1989 to 2010, Senator Byrd was 
             President pro tempore of the Senate--the most senior 
             Democrat and third in the line of Presidential succession; 
             also as President pro tempore emeritus when the Democrats 
             were in the minority.
               Senator Byrd cast more roll call votes than any other 
             Member of this institution--18,689 in total. That is truly 
             remarkable. Just think about how many of this Nation's 
             laws he helped shape.
               He was a veritable expert on the inner workings of the 
             Senate. There was no one who was more well versed in this 
             institution's intricate rules, protocols, and customs than 
             Robert Byrd. He literally wrote one of the most 
             comprehensive books on the Senate. He knew Riddick's Rules 
             of Procedure, virtually all 1,600 pages.
               Many of us in the Senate have also spoken of his ardent 
             devotion and consummate knowledge of the Constitution of 
             the United States. His well-worn, treasured copy of this 
             document was kept in his vest pocket, and year after year 
             I would see him pull it out. The only thing that would 
             change is that his hand, as the years went on, shook a 
             little bit more. But his devotion to that document did 
               He was a staunch defender of the prerogatives of the 
             three equal branches of government, and he was very quick 
             to note that he served alongside, not under, 12 
               When he first joined the House of Representatives in 
             1953, Harry S. Truman was President. His tenure in 
             Congress then followed alongside the Presidencies of 
             Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, 
             Richard M. Nixon, Gerald R. Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald 
             Reagan, George H.W. Bush, William J. Clinton, George W. 
             Bush, and finally Barack Obama. That is an amazing list of 
             people to have served with.
               Bob Byrd was not only one of the Senate's famous power 
             brokers, but I think his fondness for classical history, 
             music, and poetry has impacted every one of us. As I said, 
             he frequently interspersed his Senate remarks with 
             passages from ancient Roman history, philosophy, and often 
             poetic verse. It used to amaze me how, late at night, he 
             could move from his set text and repeat some poem, word 
             for word, verse after verse.
               The nine decades of Robert Byrd's lifetime witnessed 
             great change both at the personal level and at the 
             national level. He lived to see and strongly support the 
             inauguration of our country's first African-American 
             President--something I know meant a great deal to him. He 
             was not always on the right side of the civil rights issue 
             at every stage of his life, but he became a champion for 
             equality, a lion for progress. His transformation was 
             truly inspirational.
               Senator Byrd was born into very humble beginnings in 
             1917. He grew up during the Great Depression. He was the 
             adopted son of a coal mining family in a small town in 
             southern West Virginia. He was the valedictorian of his 
             high school class but was not able to afford college at 
             the time. This impoverished childhood might have hindered 
             others, might have stopped a weaker person, but not the 
             indomitable Robert Byrd. His inner thirst for knowledge 
             propelled him throughout his epic career. In fact, he 
             managed to find time during his tenure in the Senate to 
             finally fulfill his bachelor's degree from Marshall 
             University in 1994, at the tender age of 77. That shows 
             something, I think. He previously received a law degree 
             from American University's Washington College of Law in 
               The loss of his beloved wife Erma Byrd in 2006, I think, 
             was a dramatic blow to him. I had occasion to talk with 
             him during that time, and there was no question that this 
             was a great love, that it was an enduring love, and that 
             it was a lifetime commitment. I discussed with him how he 
             provided, day after day, week after week, and month after 
             month, the personal care to his wife as she became more 
             infirm and came toward the end of her life. This truly was 
             a major gift of love. ...
               Once again, I offer my sincerest condolences to his two 
             daughters Mona Fatemi and Marjorie Moore, his 
             grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and to the people 
             of West Virginia.
               This Nation--not only West Virginia, but all of us--owe 
             Senator Robert Byrd a great debt of gratitude for his 
               I know I will very much miss that indomitable spirit, 
             that insightful guidance, and the intense commitment to 
             the Senate.
               This man will be missed.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Delaware is 

               Mr. CARPER. Mr. President, I am pleased to follow my 
             colleague, Senator Feinstein, in tribute to Robert Byrd, 
             whom I always called ``Leader'' and who always called me 
             ``Governor.'' He was our leader. He was a leader for a 
             long time and will always be that in a very real sense to 
             many of us.
               I was born in Beckley, West Virginia, just about a dozen 
             miles or so from a community called Sophia, which is where 
             Robert and Erma Byrd once ran a little mom-and-pop 
             supermarket back in the late 1930s, early 1940s. I think 
             he was the butcher. He ran that supermarket and later on, 
             I think in World War II, he was a welder during the war. 
             As we know, in the late 1940s he had the opportunity to 
             run for the West Virginia Legislature and ran. He was a 
             great fiddler and went around his community, his district, 
             playing the fiddle. He always called himself a hillbilly.
               Ironically, I was down in the central part of our State 
             just about a month ago and had a chance to attend a picnic 
             for senior citizens, a cookout. A lot of people were 
             there. I was sitting at different tables and walking 
             around. I was sitting at this one table, and I learned 
             this lady sitting to my left was from West Virginia.
               I said, ``Where are you from?''
               She said, ``Sophia.''
               I said, ``That's right outside of Beckley, where I was 
               She said, ``Yes, I knew Robert and Erma Byrd when they 
             ran that mom-and-pop supermarket.''
               I said, ``You're kidding.''
               She said, ``No, I did.''
               I asked her to share some thoughts with me about it, and 
             she did.
               Two weeks later I was back in the Senate and Senator 
             Byrd was coming in in a wheelchair. In the last part of 
             his life he lost the ability to walk. He never lost his 
             voice, never lost his mind either. But he came in, and I 
             stopped to say hello to him, see how he was doing, and I 
             said, ``Leader, I just met a woman over in Delaware the 
             other day who knew you from your little supermarket in 
             Sophia, West Virginia.''
               I told him about it, and he smiled. He said, ``Do you 
             remember her name?''
               Ironically, I could not remember it. But if I had, he 
             would have. He was amazing.
               Some people think the reason he got elected to office so 
             many times, in the State legislature and the U.S. House of 
             Representatives and in the Senate, was because he was so 
             good at, frankly, looking out for West Virginia 
             economically, making sure they were not left behind. He 
             was also a pretty good politician.
               He was also good at names. I remember once, when we had 
             a funeral for my mom who died about 4 years ago, and we 
             had a celebration of her life just outside of Beckley. We 
             had it in the home, a very large home of a family that had 
             19 kids. One of them married my cousin, Dan Patton. Some 
             people have a diningroom; they had like a banquet hall for 
             their meals. We were all gathered in this banquet hall, 
             paying tribute to my mom, reflecting on her memory, and I 
             was walking around the house afterward, and I came across 
             a Congressional Record tribute on the wall of this house. 
             It was a tribute from Robert Byrd honoring this family. I 
             was just blown away. I couldn't wait to get back to the 
             Senate the next week and say to Senator Byrd, ``You will 
             never guess whose house I was in.''
               I told him the name of the house, the family, and he 
             said, ``I remember that guy. He is a barber. They have 19 
               This guy was just amazing. I used to call him on his 
             birthday. I used to call him not just on his birthday but 
             when he and Erma had an anniversary. I would call him on 
             Christmas and other special occasions just to see how he 
             was doing and let him know I was thinking about him.
               I think it was his 90th birthday, and I called him and I 
             said, ``Leader, I think it is your birthday today.''
               He said, ``Yes, it is.''
               I said, ``How old are you, anyway?''
               I knew.
               He said, ``Well, I'm 90.''
               I said, ``I just hope when I am 90 I can just sit up and 
             take nourishment.''
               ``Mr. President,'' he said, ``I hope you can, too.''
               He was amazing.
               He and Joe Biden share the same birthday. Sometimes I 
             would call Senator Byrd on his birthday and say, 
             ``Leader?'' He said, ``Governor, is that you?''
               I said, ``That's me. I always get this confused, who is 
             older, you or Biden?''
               He said, ``I still got him by a couple of years, but he 
             is catching up on me.''
               I guess now he will really have a chance to catch up.
               I came here as a freshman Senator. I had been in the 
             House, and a Governor before. I came in as a freshman in 
             2001. I was about the age of the pages down here. I 
             remember Senator Byrd really took a bunch of us under his 
             wing. He became sort of my mentor. I think the fact we had 
             this West Virginia connection made it even more special 
             for me, and I think maybe for him.
               He taught us how to preside. He explained to us the 
             rules of the Senate. He knew the rules better than anybody 
             else and he was able to work the rules, use the rules to 
             get things done--or not, to keep things from getting done. 
             Boy, he was good. He taught us how to behave in the 
             Senate, and he did that--not just for us but for people 
             who had been here for 20, 30, 40 years. If they were 
             acting up, making too much noise on the Senate floor, he 
             would stop them dead in their tracks.
               He once said to me the most important role for the 
             Presiding Officer is to keep order. That is what he said. 
             He said, ``If you can keep order, the rest is pretty 
             easy.'' I always remembered that.
               He presented to me my Golden Gavel. The Presiding 
             Officer has a Golden Gavel. You get it after presiding so 
             many hours in the Senate. But I was very honored to 
             receive mine from Senator Byrd.
               When I got here in 2001 I think he was 83, an age when 
             most people are ready to sit back and take it easy. He was 
             just picking up speed. As Senator Feinstein said, he could 
             take to the Senate floor without a note, give a speech on 
             just about any subject, throw in all kinds of anecdotes 
             with respect to ancient Rome and Greek mythology, recite 
             poems and stuff.
               I once said to him, ``How do you remember all those 
               He would say, ``I just make them up.''
               He was just kidding. He actually was able to remember 
             them. I sometimes have a hard time remembering where I am 
             supposed be for my next meeting.
               He was from West Virginia, the southern part of West 
             Virginia. As others have said, his views on race as a 
             younger man and as a new person in the Senate were not the 
             same views that he left with. He matured, grew up.
               He once said to me, ``The worst vote I ever cast, I 
             actually voted against and spoke against the Civil Rights 
             Act of 1964.''
               I think he sort of went to his grave regretting that. 
             But I think he went to his grave having atoned, if you 
             will, for that sin. He changed his views with respect to 
             race. In part it was a matter of conscience--he was a 
             person of deep faith--but I think also probably he 
             changed, in part, because of the prodding and cajoling of, 
             among others, one of his best friends, Senator Ted 
               As I said earlier, I loved to call him on special days. 
             I would almost always call him when I was back in West 
             Virginia, call him on my cell phone, call him at his home 
             in McLean. It wasn't his birthday or anything and I would 
             call him.
               I would say, ``Leader?''
               He would say, ``Is that you, Governor?''
               I would say, ``Yes, I am driving down to West Virginia 
             on the Virginia Turnpike heading toward Beckley.''
               He would say, ``No kidding.''
               I said, ``I am trying to remember which exit to get off 
             of. The first one is Harper Road, then there is another 
             one. The third one, I can't remember that. What is that?''
               He would say, ``That's my road, the Robert C. Byrd Drive 
               I would always have a good time with him for that. 
             Others have spoken about all the leadership roles he 
             played here, all the votes he cast, all that he did. He 
             did so much for West Virginia. I love to go back to West 
             Virginia. I think the friendliest people I have ever met 
             in my life are from West Virginia. It is kind of a 
             hardscrabble place. They have come a long ways, in no 
             small part because of his enormous help. He has been 
             accused of trying to hijack Washington and move it to West 
             Virginia and bring in all kinds of Federal agencies and 
               He was really trying to make sure West Virginia did not 
             get left out, and I think thanks to his intervention, they 
             did not.
               He made life a lot better for the folks who live in West 
             Virginia today, and who lived there for the last 58 years. 
             He also made life better for a generation of Americans, 
             maybe a couple of generations of Americans, in looking 
             back, and maybe even looking forward as well. He is going 
             to make their life better, looking forward, for the people 
             in this country who need health care, the people in this 
             country who need a decent place to live, a chance to buy a 
             home, a chance to get an education, the opportunity to 
             improve their station in life.
               More than anybody I know, for a guy who was born, 
             orphaned in North Carolina as an infant, who was traded 
             off by his mom in her last will and testament--she wanted 
             him to be raised by her sister who lived in West Virginia, 
             and her sister took this young man in. His name was not 
             Robert Byrd. But she took in her nephew. She and her 
             husband raised Robert Byrd in tough situations, 
             hardscrabble situations, and he sort of raised himself by 
             the bootstraps and worked hard all of his life to make 
             something of himself and to serve as a model for us in the 
             end, and a model for our country.
               I yield the floor.

               Mr. DODD. ... As someone who has spent three decades of 
             my life at this very desk--and it is the only desk I have 
             ever sat at since the day I arrived. This desk was planted 
             over in that far corner as the 100th Senator in the body 
             up until I--some 20 years ago when, through seniority, you 
             get to move your desk around. I ended up in this seat, 
             this spot about 20 years ago, next to this remarkable man 
             whose life we are going to celebrate and are celebrating 
             those days, Robert C. Byrd. He has been my seatmate for 
             the last two decades.
               As I said the other day, I was an 8-year-old child 
             sitting in the galleries of the other body watching my 
             father, on January 3, 1953, and a 35-year-old new 
             Congressman from West Virginia be sworn in as newly minted 
             Members of Congress. Some 6 years later, I sat in that 
             gallery up here, in the family gallery, watching my father 
             be sworn in as a Senator from Connecticut, along with a 
             new Senator from West Virginia named Robert C. Byrd, never 
             imagining, as a 8-year-old or as a 14-year-old, that I 
             would spend 20 years of my life at a desk next to the man 
             who has served longer than any other human being in the 
             history of our Nation.
               Process meant a lot to Robert C. Byrd. The Constitution 
             meant a great deal. I carry with me, and every day I have 
             for 20 years, the Constitution that Robert C. Byrd gave me 
             and autographed to me. It is rather threadbare and worn 
             today, but he revered this document. He could absolutely 
             quote it verbatim. He gave me a copy, as he did to all new 
             Members when they arrive, and the importance of 
             understanding the role of this body in our constitutional 
               He was such a great advocate of the civility and the 
             respect for each other as we try to fashion answers to our 
             Nation's problems. We have been through two major bills in 
             the last Congress. There have been a lot of other bills to 
             consider, but the health care debate and the financial 
             reform debate, I would argue, are the two largest in this 
             Congress, and they are two models of how an institution 
             can operate. ...
               Briefly, cloture is a method by which you end a 
             filibuster. In this Chamber, under our rules, we respect 
             the rights of the minority, including a minority of one.
               Members can talk as long as they can stand up, under 
             most circumstances, and continue. Robert C. Byrd, in fact, 
             held one of the records. It wasn't the record--Strom 
             Thurmond holds the record, a former Senator I served with 
             from South Carolina--but Robert C. Byrd conducted a 
             filibuster for more than 14 hours.

               Mr. COCHRAN. Mr. President, the Senate has lost its most 
             talented, dedicated, and best-informed Member about the 
             precedents, rules, and customs of the Senate, when the 
             distinguished President pro tempore, Robert Byrd, passed 
             away to join his beloved wife Erma in the heaven he was 
             confident existed for those who were true believers.
               I had the good fortune to work closely with Robert Byrd 
             as a fellow member of the Appropriations Committee for 30 
             years. I served as the ranking minority member when he was 
             chairman and as chairman when he was the ranking minority 
             member. I preferred being chairman. I thoroughly enjoyed 
             the opportunities to conduct the hearings, schedule the 
             committee markups, and negotiate with our House colleagues 
             to formulate and pass the bills that funded the 
             departments of the executive branch, the judiciary, and 
             the Congress.
               One of the highlights of my experience with Robert Byrd 
             was a trip we took to several European capitals. He was 
             comfortable discussing our mutual interests and 
             differences with the leaders of other nations. His mastery 
             of European history and politics was as impressive as his 
             well-informed understanding of American history and 
               On one leg of our trip, Senator Byrd asked my wife Rose 
             to come sit by him. He wanted to dictate something to her. 
             He started a recitation with names that were not familiar 
             to me, but eventually Rose realized that he was reciting 
             from memory the names of the monarchs of Great Britain, 
             the United Kingdom as we know it, and in the order in 
             which each had served throughout the entire history of 
             that great country. It was an unbelievable performance, 
             reflecting an awesome ability of recall, and a reverential 
             appreciation of a nation which has been our closest ally 
             in recent history.
               Robert Byrd was not only my friend, but a mentor, an 
             example of dedicated, disciplined, and determined 
             leadership. I will miss him, but I will always remember 
             his legacy of seriousness of purpose, and his love for the 
             Senate, its role in the legislative process, its powers of 
             advise and consent, and its continuity that has helped 
             make our government the most respected in the world.

               Mr. LEVIN. Mr. President, I want to take a few moments 
             to talk today about one of the best teachers I have ever 
             known: Senator Robert C. Byrd.
               The man we lost this week is known for many things: as 
             the longest serving Member of Congress in the Nation's 
             history; as an accomplished legislator; as an author and 
             historian; as a self-made man who reached exalted heights, 
             yet never forgot the coal miners and the families of the 
             mountain home community from which he came. I think of him 
             as a teacher, one who began teaching me from the moment I 
             came to the U.S. Senate, and one whose lessons I sought 
             right up to the time he was taken from us this week.
               Serving as a new Senator in the majority means, among 
             other things, hours spent in this Chamber, presiding over 
             the Senate. I was fortunate that for many of my early 
             years here, I spent much of that time in the Presiding 
             Officer's chair listening to Senator Byrd speak on the 
             history of this body, its traditions and practices, and 
             its historic debt to another great body that played a 
             major role in mankind's march toward democratic 
             government, the Roman senate.
               I was learning from him two decades later, when Senator 
             Byrd led a small group of us who filed a lawsuit and later 
             a legal brief challenging a law we believed to be 
             unconstitutional: the law granting the President the so-
             called line-item veto. He, like I and many others, saw 
             this law as bending the Constitution in ways that usurped 
             Congress' constitutional authority and responsibility. In 
             1998, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed. The majority in that 
             case, citing its ``profound importance,'' concluded that 
             the line-item veto ``may or may not be desirable,'' but 
             that it was surely not consistent with ``the procedures 
             designed by the Framers of article I, section 7 of the 
             Constitution'' the so-called Presentment Clause.
               I remember standing next to Senator Byrd at a press 
             conference celebrating that victory for the Constitution, 
             as he pulled out of his pocket the copy of that great 
             founding document he always carried with him. A copy of 
             the Constitution that sits today on my desk, in front of 
             me at all times, was inscribed to me by Senator Robert C. 
               I had hoped to visit with him this week to again listen 
             and learn. In February, Senator Byrd sent all of us, his 
             Senate colleagues, a letter setting out his position on 
             preserving the ability to engage in extended debate in the 
             Senate. It was yet another powerful defense of both the 
             enduring traditions of the Senate, and the need for 
             thoughtfulness in invoking those traditions. Senator 
             Byrd's letter sparked some thoughts of my own, and last 
             week, I discussed with his staff scheduling a meeting with 
             him this week to get his take. Once again, I was in need 
             of the insight and wisdom of Senator Robert Byrd.
               How I wish he were here today to continue teaching us. 
             While that was not to be, the lessons of Senator Byrd's 
             life and long service will endure.
               His career is a testament to hard work and 
             determination. This is a man who spent 10 years in night 
             school classes to earn his law degree, who when he focused 
             on an issue he did so with uncommon intensity. We can all 
             learn from his commitment and grit.
               Like any good teacher, Senator Byrd never stopped trying 
             to learn. He was a man of strong convictions who knew the 
             value of admitting when he was in error. He acknowledged 
             that earlier in his life, he had taken positions and held 
             opinions on the subject of civil rights that he later 
             regretted. When he shared those regrets, he created a 
             powerful teachable moment. We can all learn from his 
             willingness to learn and grow to the very end of his life.
               He was tireless in his defense of the role the 
             Constitution assigns to the Congress, and specifically the 
             Senate, in our democracy. In his letter to us in February, 
             he wrote: ``The Senate is the only place in government 
             where the rights of a numerical minority are so 
             protected.'' He called those protections ``essential to 
             the protection of the liberties of a free people.''
               Whether it was Congress' constitutional obligations to 
             render judgments on matters of war and peace or to 
             exercise the power of the purse, Senator Byrd was a 
             relentless fighter for the role the Founding Fathers 
             carefully set out for us. He was not defending Senate 
             authority for its own sake. His passion was not for Senate 
             prerogatives for their own sake, but for the brilliantly 
             conceived constitutional balance of powers essential to 
             our freedoms. He passionately believed that we must not 
             yield one ounce of the authority that the Constitution 
             entrusts to the peoples' elected representatives. We can 
             all learn from the conviction, the dedication, and the 
             intellectual power he brought to that cause, to the end of 
             making it our cause. Let the mission he so eloquently 
             espoused be our mission, though our power to persuade be 
             far less than Senator Byrd's.
               Robert Byrd had many loves--his late, beloved wife Erma, 
             West Virginia and its people, his God, and the 
             Constitution of the Nation he cherished. But the Senate is 
             his special legacy. For more than two centuries we have 
             kept our traditions intact: our unique respect for 
             extended debate and minority rights, and for the 
             legislative authority that the Constitution places in our 
             hands to exercise and defend. These traditions are 
             maintained because of Senators like Robert Byrd, Senators 
             who live them and fight for them. I learned more about 
             these weighty issues from this great teacher than from 
             anyone or anything in my years in the Senate.
               Robert Byrd is no longer with us, teaching us, leading 
             us. But the lessons of Robert Byrd's life and career will 
             endure, guiding all of us now occupying these desks, and 
             Senators who will occupy these desks for ages to come.

               Mr. KERRY. Mr. President, the Senate, in its 223-year 
             history, has never had a greater champion than Robert 
             Byrd. West Virginia, in its 147-year history, has never 
             had a more powerful advocate or public servant than Robert 
               Like so many Senators elected before and after me, I 
             learned very quickly how passionate Robert Byrd was about 
             this institution, its roots in the Constitution. As all of 
             us remember, he had that dog-eared copy of the 
             Constitution he carried in the front pocket of his suit, 
             and sometimes in the caucus or other times on the floor, 
             he would pull it out to help reinforce a point he was 
             making, even though we all knew he could recite the 
             Constitution by memory. But he consulted it often without 
             hesitation. In its words, he reminded us that he always 
             found wisdom, truth, and excitement--the same excitement 
             he felt as a young boy in Wolf Creek Hollow, reading by 
             kerosene lamp about the heroes of the American Revolution 
             and the birth of our Nation. Those words literally guided 
             him through the 57 years he spent in Washington as a 
             Member of the Congress and as a Senator.
               It is fair to say that no one knew the Senate--its 
             history, its traditions, and its precedents--better than 
             Robert Byrd. It is all there in the four-volume collection 
             of his speeches on the Senate, which we were all 
             privileged to receive from him.
               Every freshman Senator got a personal crash course on 
             the Senate's history from Robert Byrd himself. I was one 
             of five Democratic freshmen elected in 1984. The class of 
             1984 was privileged to share some lofty hopes and goals. 
             Four of the five of us eventually ran for President: Al 
             Gore, Paul Simon, Tom Harkin, and myself. All of us can 
             tell you that we arrived in the Senate with a thirst for 
             action and an impatience for delay. Then-Minority Leader 
             Robert Byrd didn't discourage any of that. In fact, he 
             encouraged it, and he helped all of us with our committee 
             assignments so we could push the list of our policy ideas 
             that we exuberantly believed we could and would pass into 
             law. But in meetings with us individually, he also helped 
             each of us to see the bigger picture, to impress upon us 
             the fact that one of our most important responsibilities 
             as Senators was to be caretakers of this institution--an 
             institution he regarded as both the morning star and the 
             evening star of the American constitutional constellation.
               To Robert Byrd, the Senate was, as he said, ``the last 
             bastion of minority rights, where a minority can be heard, 
             where a minority can stand on its feet, one individual if 
             necessary, and speak until he falls into the dust.'' 
             Indeed, earlier this year, when many of us felt 
             frustration over the Senate's rules governing 
             filibusters--specifically, the requirement of 60 votes to 
             cut off debate--Robert Byrd cautioned against amending the 
             rules to facilitate expeditious action by a simple 
             majority. In a letter sent to all of us, he observed that:

               The occasional abuse of the rules has been, at times, a 
             painful side effect of what is otherwise the Senate's 
             greatest purpose--the right to extended, or even 
             unlimited, debate. The Senate is the only place in 
             government where the rights of a numerical minority are 
             still protected.

               He added:

               Majorities change with elections. A minority can be 
             right, and minority views can certainly improve 
             legislation ... . Extended deliberations and debate--when 
             employed judiciously--protect every Senator, and the 
             interests of their constituency, and are essential to the 
             protection of the liberties of a free people.

               Robert Byrd also impressed upon us the fact that we did 
             not serve ``under'' any President; that as a separate but 
             equal branch of government, we served ``with'' Presidents, 
             acted as a check on the Executive's power. Robert Byrd was 
             the longest serving Member of Congress in all of our 
             Nation's history, and as such he served with 12 
               At no time in his career was Robert Byrd's defense of 
             legislative prerogatives more pronounced and more eloquent 
             than in arguing against granting the Bush administration's 
             broad power to wage preemptive war against Iraq. He chided 
             the Senate for standing ``passively mute ... paralyzed by 
             our own uncertainty,'' ceding its war powers to President 
               Robert Byrd was, as we all know, a lot more than the 
             guardian of the Senate. He was a major figure in the great 
             panorama of American history over more than half a 
             century. He was a thinker--thinking and reevaluating more 
             in his eighties and nineties than many Senators do in a 
             lifetime. He was an ardent supporter of the Vietnam war 
             but surprised many with his fierce opposition to President 
             Bush's invasion of Iraq. He was a protector of West 
             Virginia's coal industry but came to accept the mounting 
             scientific data of global warming and took part in finding 
             a solution. To do otherwise, he said, would be ``to stick 
             our heads in the sand.''
               Robert Byrd cast more than 18,500 votes in the Senate--a 
             record that will never be equaled. His last vote was June 
             17 against a Republican proposal to prevent the extension 
             of unemployment benefits. Earlier this year, even with his 
             health failing, he cast one of the most historic votes of 
             his career in support of legislation to expand health care 
             to all Americans--the life work of his old and departed 
             friend Ted Kennedy.
               Whether he voted with you or against you, it was never 
             hard ideology with Robert Byrd. He had no use for narrow 
             partisanship that trades on attack and values only 
             victory. I learned that as a candidate for President in 
             2004 when Senator Byrd came to my defense after opponents 
             aimed religious smears at me. I was forever grateful to 
             him for doing that.
               It all began one Sunday when Senator Byrd was home in 
             West Virginia and found that a brochure had been inserted 
             in a church bulletin saying that if elected President, I 
             would ban the Bible. Senator Byrd exploded. ``No one side 
             has the market on Christianity or belief in God,'' said 
             this born-again Baptist. Later at a rally in Beckley, he 
             accused my opponents of having ``improperly hijacked the 
             issue of faith'' and said that the suggestion that I 
             intended to ban the Bible was ``trash and a lie.''
               But Senator Byrd was not done. He also went to the 
             Senate floor to denounce this kind of politics:

               Paid henchmen who talk about Democratic politicians who 
             are eager to ban the Bible obviously think that West 
             Virginians are gullible, ignorant fools. They must think 
             that West Virginians just bounced off the turnip truck. 
             But the people of West Virginia are smarter than that. We 
             are not country bumpkins who will swallow whatever garbage 
             some high-priced political consultant makes up.

               That was Robert Byrd telling it the way he thought.
               Anytime Senator Byrd spoke, any of us who had the 
             privilege of serving with him remember his speeches were 
             filled with as many Bible references as historical 
             references. When the Senator spoke, the Senate came to a 
             halt. Senators would lean forward and listen, as they did 
             not necessarily do otherwise, and learn.
               It is fitting that this teacher in the Senate, this 
             guardian of the Senate, will lie in state in this Chamber 
             on the floor of the institution he revered and which also 
             had so much respect for him. He is as much a part of this 
             Chamber in many ways as the historic desks or galleries or 
             the busts of Senate presidents.
               He ran for public office 15 times, and he never lost. He 
             was first elected to the West Virginia Legislature in 1946 
             and served three terms in the House of Representatives 
             before his election to the Senate. It is no wonder that he 
             was such a keen observer of politics.
               I remember when I decided to run in 2004, I went to talk 
             with Senator Byrd. His advice, in fact, was among the 
             first I sought. He advised me to ``go to West Virginia,'' 
             ``get a little coal dust'' on my hands and face and ``live 
             in spirit with the working people.'' In keeping with his 
             advice, I did just that. What a great experience it was.
               He was deeply proud of West Virginia and its people. He 
             proudly defended his work to invest Federal dollars in his 
             State, the kind of spending that some people deride as 
             pork. Robert Byrd knew it was something else. It was 
             opportunity for his people. He took pride in the way that 
             Federal funding helped to lift the economy of West 
             Virginia, one of the ``rock bottomest of States,'' as he 
             put it. He breathed new life into so many communities 
             across that State with funding for highways, hospitals, 
             universities, research institutes, scholarships, and 
             housing--all the time giving people the opportunities that 
             he knew so many West Virginians of his generation never 
             had. ``You take those things away, imagine, it would be 
             blank,'' he once said.
               Robert Byrd's journey was, in many ways, America's 
             journey. He came of age in an America segregated by race. 
             But like America, he changed, even repenting, and he made 
             amends. Not only did he come to regret his segregationist 
             past, but he became an ardent advocate of all kinds of 
             civil rights legislation, including a national holiday 
             honoring Dr. Martin Luther King. And in the end, Robert 
             Byrd endorsed Barack Obama for President. ``I have lived 
             with the weight of my own youthful mistakes my whole life, 
             like a millstone around my neck,'' he wrote in 2008. ``And 
             I accept that those mistakes will forever be mentioned 
             when people talk about me. I believe I have learned from 
             those mistakes. I know I've tried very hard to do so.''
               That is the expression of a man with a big heart and a 
             big mind.
               The moments that define most men's lives are few. Not so 
             with Robert Byrd. He devoted his life to Erma and his 
             family and to public service, compiling an extraordinary 
             record of accomplishment and service in more than half a 
             century in Congress. His mastery of Senate rules and 
             parliamentary procedure was legendary. His devotion to his 
             colleagues and to this institution was unequaled. And his 
             contributions to his State and to the Nation were 
               Robert Byrd spent most of his life making sure the 
             Senate remained what the Founding Fathers intended it to 
             be: a citadel of law, of order, of liberty, the anchor of 
             the Republic. And in doing so, he takes his place among 
             the giants of the Senate, such as Daniel Webster, John C. 
             Calhoun and, of course, his and our dear friend Ted 
               May Robert Byrd rest in peace.

               Mr. GRAHAM. Mr. President, I rise to celebrate the life 
             and career of Senator Robert C. Byrd. I have been in the 
             body now since 2002, and Senator Byrd will go down in 
             history as not only the longest serving Senator to date--
             maybe forever--but also as one of the most effective 
             Members of the Senate.
               He was tough. During his prime, they tell me, there was 
             no tougher opponent and no better ally than to have 
             Senator Byrd on your side. And when he was on the other 
             side, you had a long day ahead of you.
               He talked about his early life. He is a human being, 
             like the rest of us. I think what he was able to do for 
             his people in West Virginia, and the country as a whole, 
             will stand the test of time, and he will be viewed for 
             many things, not just one. That is the way it should be 
             for all of us.
               I had the pleasure of getting to know him when I first 
             came to the Senate and I walked into one hell of a fight 
             over judges. The Senate was in full battle over the 
             filibustering of judges. The Senate had gone down a road 
             it had never gone down before--an open resistance to the 
             judicial nominations of President Bush across the board. 
             The body was about to explode. There were 55 Republicans 
             at the time, and we all believed that what our Democratic 
             colleagues were doing was unprecedented, unnecessary, and, 
             quite frankly, dangerous to the judiciary. I am sure they 
             had their view, too, and everybody has a reason for what 
             they do around here.
               The Gang of 14--affectionately known by some, and 
             discussed by others--was formed during that major 
             historical moment in the Senate. I remember talking to 
             some observers of the Senate who were telling me that if 
             the rules were changed to allow a simple majority vote for 
             the confirmation of judges, that would take the Senate 
             down a road it had never gone down before, and where it 
             would stop, nobody knew. At the same time, there was 
             another constitutional concept that meant a lot to me and 
             to others, and that is that people deserve a vote when 
             they are nominated by the President.
               Well, Senator Byrd and 13 other Senators--and he was a 
             big leader in this--came up with the compromise called 
             ``extraordinary circumstances.'' We agreed that we would 
             not filibuster judges unless there was an extraordinary 
             circumstance. We understood that elections had 
             consequences. What we had in mind was that we would 
             reserve our right to filibuster only if the person did not 
             meet the qualification test. I believe the advise and 
             consent role of the Senate has to be recognized, and I 
             respect elections but not a blank check. So there is 
             always the ability of any Senator here, or a group of 
             Senators, to stand up and to object--one party versus the 
             other--if you believe the person is not qualified.
               The second issue we dealt with was that we all reserved 
             unto ourselves the ability to object if we thought the 
             person was an activist judge--a political person who was 
             going to be put on the bench and the robe used to carry 
             out the political agenda rather than to interpret the law.
               The law meant a lot to Senator Byrd--the Constitution 
             did. One of my cherished possessions is a copy of the 
             Constitution signed by him, given to all the members of 
             the Gang of 14. That is just one example of where very 
             late in life he made a huge impact on the Senate. As 
             history records that moment, I daresay it is probably one 
             of his finest hours. Because the consequences of not 
             resolving that dispute the way we did could have changed 
             the Senate rules forever, and I think the judiciary for 
             the worse. So we have a lot to celebrate.
               His family, I know, mourns the loss of their loved one; 
             the people of West Virginia, their best champion has 
             passed. But we all pass. It is what we leave behind that 
             counts, and I think he has left a lot behind and something 
             both Republicans and Democrats can be proud of. Even 
             though you disagreed with him, as I did on many occasions, 
             I had nothing but respect for the man. He was a true 
             guardian of the Senate and what it stands for.
               I don't think we will ever find anybody who loved the 
             institution more than Senator Byrd. He will be missed. But 
             the best way we can honor his memory is to try to follow 
             in his footsteps when it comes to making sure the 
             constitutional role of the Senate is adhered to, and that 
             we understand the Senate is not the House, the Senate is 
             not the executive branch, the Senate is something special, 
             and let us keep it that way.

               Mr. REED. Mr. President, I rise to pay tribute to an 
             extraordinary Senator--Robert Byrd of West Virginia. 
             Chairman Byrd was the longest serving Senator in the 
             history of this country. He served with extraordinary 
             distinction not only on behalf of the people of West 
             Virginia but on behalf of all of us.
               The great lesson of his life is that through constant 
             self-improvement, through constant education, not only can 
             one rise to great heights but one can also contribute to 
             one's country and community.
               Senator Byrd was born in very humble circumstances. At 
             his birth, I do not think anyone would have predicted he 
             would become the longest serving Senator in the history of 
             the United States. In fact, tragically, within a year of 
             his birth, his mother passed away, and he went to live 
             with his mother's sister. But in those difficult 
             circumstances in West Virginia, he rose above it through 
             tenacious effort, through hard work.
               Through his life's path, he had an extraordinary 
             companion, the love of his life--Erma. Together they not 
             only had a family but they built a life of service to 
             others. I know how dear his dear Erma was to Senator Byrd.
               Their children, Mona, Marjorie, their sons-in-law, their 
             grandchildren, and their great-grandchildren all at this 
             moment are reflecting on the wonderful person Robert Byrd 
             was, how much he meant to them, and also I hope 
             recognizing how much he meant to all of us. In this very 
             difficult moment, I am sure his memory and his example 
             will sustain them as it sustains all of us.
               Senator Byrd, from these humble circumstances through 
             hard work in shipyards, in the coalfields of West 
             Virginia, rose up. He rose up because of his incredible 
             talent, not only intellectual talent, but I had the great 
             good fortune once to hear him play the fiddle. Anyone who 
             can play a fiddle like that has great hope of employment, 
             at least in the musical world. But he went beyond that.
               Again the lesson Senator Byrd teaches us all is constant 
             striving. He was someone who received his law degree while 
             a Member of Congress, the first and perhaps only person to 
             go to law school while he was also serving the people of 
             West Virginia and the Congress.
               He wrote what is regarded as the foremost history of the 
             Senate, not only this Senate but also the Roman Senate. He 
             did that because he was committed to finding out about 
             history, about life, about human challenges, about great 
             human endeavors, and using that knowledge to help others.
               He was someone whom we all revered. When I arrived in 
             the Senate, he was gracious and kind and helpful. I can 
             always remember he would greet me as ``my captain.'' He 
             had a deep affection for those who served, even someone as 
             myself who did not serve at the same level of distinction 
             as Dan Inouye, John Kerry, John McCain, and others. He is 
             someone who helped and supported me, and I appreciated 
             very much his kindness.
               I also appreciate the passion he brought in defense of 
             the Constitution of the United States and the passion he 
             brought to ensure the Senate and the Congress played its 
             rightful role in the deliberations of this government.
               He would say quite often that he had not served under 
             numerous Presidents; he had served with them as a Senator, 
             in the legislature, a coequal branch of government. He 
             fought not simply for personal prerogatives, he fought for 
             principle, that this government would be based on, as our 
             Founding Fathers designed it, the interplay between the 
             executive, legislative, and judicial branches. His passion 
             for the Constitution was evident and obvious.
               He also was passionate in the last few years about the 
             foreign policy of the United States. He spoke with 
             eloquence and with passion against our engagement in Iraq. 
             He saw it, as now it is becoming clearer and clearer, as a 
             strategic distraction from the true challenge, which was 
             to defeat our opponents, Al Qaeda and their affiliated 
             terrorist groups, and to do that to protect this country.
               He was a remarkable man, born of humble origin, self-
             educated, unceasingly educating himself and always seeking 
             to better and improve himself. I would suspect in his last 
             few days he was still striving to learn more.
               I simply close by thanking him for his service, thanking 
             his family for supporting him in his service, and thanking 
             the people of West Virginia for their wisdom in sending 
             Robert Byrd to the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Senate.

               Ms. LANDRIEU. Mr. President, I come to the floor this 
             afternoon to speak on a couple of different subjects. 
             Briefly I wish to say a few words about our extraordinary 
             and great colleague who has left the Senate and left this 
             world, but his spirit will be here for many years to come 
             and his presence will be felt here for decades, if 
             literally not centuries, and the extraordinary 
             contribution that Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia has 
             made to the Congress, to the Senate, to our country, and 
             to the world.
               My colleague, the Senator from Rhode Island, gave a 
             beautiful tribute a few minutes ago. I was in the Chamber 
             and listened to what he said. I wish to add that not only 
             did Robert Byrd rise up through educating himself--in 
             these days that is almost a foreign concept to so many 
             people. You go to school, you get a degree--but he did all 
             of that and more. He read so much. He was so curious about 
             so many aspects of life, not just politics, not just 
             government, but industry, art, and music that literally he 
             was one of the most inspirational human beings I have ever 
             had the pleasure to know or ever read about in that sense.
               Senator Reed said he lifted himself from literally an 
             orphan status in one of the poorest communities in the 
             world, West Virginia. Parts of it are much like a few 
             parts of our country that are extraordinarily poor, even 
             by world standards.
               He came from a very humble, orphaned beginning with 
             virtually no chance at anything much, and ended up, we 
             know, sitting at that desk, which is one of the great 
             desks of honor in this Chamber. As people who work here 
             know, the longer one is here, the closer one gets to the 
             center aisle. Since he held up the center aisle literally 
             with his presence every day, one cannot get any more 
             senior than that desk. We look at it now these days and 
             are reminded of him.
               He lifted himself, he lifted his family, but I would say 
             in that earnest curious way, he lifted an entire State and 
             an entire Nation. There are not many individuals who can 
             say that their life actually did that. But Robert Byrd is 
             one of them. West Virginia today is lifted so much higher. 
             The children of West Virginia, the families of West 
             Virginia, the communities of West Virginia literally were 
             lifted by the strength--the spiritual and intellectual 
             strength--and courage and tenacity of a man for whom there 
             is no peer in this room relative to that, or our Nation 
             across decades, through many of the great trials of this 
             Nation. He lifted this Nation to a better place and was 
             such a strong man and such a great man that he would even 
             admit when he made some very bad mistakes, which raises 
             him even higher in my eyes.
               He said toward the end of his life many times that his 
             stand on civil rights was not right. He apologized 
             profusely for being on the wrong side of history on that 
             issue. He did not make many mistakes such as that. But he 
             was such a great man that he admitted when he did.
               Senator Reed recalled that he always called him 
             ``captain,'' but Senator Byrd had a way of referring to 
             each of us in a special way. He would always say to me, 
             ``How are you today, Senator, and how is that fine father 
             of yours, Moon Landrieu?'' It would always make me feel so 
             wonderful that he would say he was such a great mayor. 
             ``How is Moon today and how is Verna?'' Can you imagine a 
             gentleman with so much on his mind that he would always 
             remember the parents I have and that we both admire so 
             much? It was a special way about him.
               Finally, when Katrina happened and all of us on the gulf 
             coast were devastated--frankly, I could not find a great 
             deal of comfort at the level of the administration that 
             was in power. I never thought they quite understood the 
             depths of the destruction that occurred. It worried me 
             then and it still troubles me to this day. But the first 
             meeting I had with Senator Byrd, when I was trying to 
             explain to him how devastating this situation was--because 
             it wasn't a hurricane, it was a flood and the Federal 
             levees had collapsed--he just sort of put his hand out and 
             said, ``Senator, have a seat.'' He said, ``I do 
             understand, and I am going to work with you. I am going to 
             help you. I am going to be here for the people of 
             Louisiana and the gulf coast as we try to get this 
               Mr. President, we were shortchanged by other Members of 
             Congress and by the White House. They never quite 
             understood. When the first allocation of funding was given 
             out, it was just an arbitrary number thrown out that we 
             were going to take $10 billion and help the gulf coast, 
             but no State could get more than $5.4 billion. Well, when 
             you looked at the facts at the time, the numbers were so 
             disproportionate to the injury that Louisiana and our 
             people had suffered, had you done it on just a disaster 
             basis--which we should have done in calculating it--we 
             should have gotten $15 billion relative to that 
               When I brought those numbers to Senator Byrd, he said, 
             ``We are going to work on it.'' And you know what, Mr. 
             President, he did. Unbelievable as it might be to the 
             people in this Chamber, because he was a very powerful 
             chairman of the Appropriations Committee, he could 
             actually do it, and he did.
               I didn't have to explain that much or beg that much. I 
             just had to present the data to him that showed this is 
             how many houses were destroyed, this is how many homes 
             were lost, this is what the President gave to x, y, and z; 
             what do you think, Senator Byrd? Is what we are asking 
             fair for us? And he said, ``Absolutely.'' So he gave us 
             literally billions of dollars.
               Today, St. Bernard Parish, the city of New Orleans, and 
             parishes all in the southern part of the State are 
             recovering because of one person, Senator Byrd, the chair 
             of the Appropriations Committee, who said, ``We are not 
             going to leave you at your hour of greatest need.''
               I will never forget, and my State will never forget, the 
             generosity and the courage it took for him to stand with 
             us through that difficult time. So I wanted to, in a small 
             way, add my voice to the many tributes that Senator Byrd 
             has received, and those are the most important ones that I 
             wanted to share today.

               Mr. LAUTENBERG. Mr. President, this is not my regular 
             seat in the Senate, but I came here to stand near the 
             place that Senator Robert C. Byrd occupied. His absence is 
             noted by the flowers and the black cloth that covers his 
               There is so much to say about Robert C. Byrd that to 
             have a serious discussion about who and what he was would 
             take far more time than we have available. He was an 
             unusual man, brilliant, genius, credited with encyclopedic 
               When I came to the Senate in 1983, I was not a young 
             man. I am now an older man. When I came, I wanted to meet 
             Senator Byrd. I came from the business world. I was 
             chairman and CEO of a significant corporation that carried 
             substantial esteem and respect for the record compiled by 
             the three of us boys from poor working-class families in 
             Paterson, New Jersey, an industrial city that had its 
             origins as an industrial place at the time of Alexander 
               I was privileged to meet a lot of people who could be 
             described as lofty and holding positions of importance. 
             When I went in to Senator Byrd's office to introduce 
             myself--I had met him a couple of times before I was 
             elected to the Senate seat from New Jersey--it was with 
             great awe and respect that I sat in front of this 
             individual who had given so much to our country, who taxed 
             our wits and made us think more deeply about our 
             responsibilities than sometimes we have. He was a tower of 
             knowledge and strength.
               I introduced myself to him, and we had a nice chat for a 
             while. He asked me about my background. I talked about my 
             life and my experiences, which are not anything like the 
             depth of Senator Robert Byrd's background. I came from a 
             poor family. I served in the Army. I received my education 
             at Columbia University because I was able to use the 
             scholarship that was given to soldiers who had served in 
             the military.
               As I listened to Robert Byrd, what he had accomplished 
             in his lifetime dwarfed anything I had ever seen. He was a 
             man born into poverty, orphaned at an early stage in life, 
             and turned over to relatives to be brought up. He taught 
             himself how to play the violin and attended law school 
             part time at night for years, finally getting his law 
             degree from the university. He was an incredible figure in 
             our time.
               We feel his absence already. In his latest years, he was 
             not fortunate enough to have the kind of health he had as 
             a younger man, but he always had the respect of everybody 
             who knew him.
               When we look at his history, if one has time to go to 
             the computer and get a biography that is held in Wikipedia 
             and see the more than 30 pages' worth of his 
             accomplishments and history, it was a privilege and an 
             honor for those of us who knew him when we look at the 
             positions he held. He had elegance. He had grace. He had 
             resilience. He was tough. He had a meticulous grasp of 
               I came out of the computer business. I used to tease 
             Robert C. Byrd. I called him ``my human computer.'' He had 
             so much knowledge that, frankly, I think it competed very 
             ably with the computers in the early 1980s when I came to 
             the Senate.
               When I visited him in his office, he asked me if I knew 
             the history of the monarchs of the British Empire. I said 
             I did not know much about them. I knew the recent one, the 
             sitting monarch at the time. He proceeded for more than 1 
             hour to give me the history of the monarchs of the British 
             Empire, starting with William the Conqueror, 1066, and 
             recalling everybody who was King or Queen of England, of 
             the British Empire. He talked about how long they served, 
             the precise dates they served, whether they died by the 
             hand of an assassin, whether they died from a disease, 
             whether they died from an accident. He knew all of that 
             detail. I was sitting in total bewilderment as to how one 
             could capture and remember so much of that information.
               When I asked to be excused because I had some other 
             business, he was ready to give me the history of the Roman 
             Senate. He did this not like most of us, with notes. He 
             had it in his brain while he recalled everything he 
             learned and did, the number of votes, where he cast them, 
             and on what issue. It was remarkable.
               He served at a period of time when we had some of the 
             most remarkable people this body has seen. Not to suggest 
             we do not have talent equal to the stature of some of 
             those who served then. It is worthy of mention that he was 
             the majority leader in the Senate from January 1977 to 
             January 1981 and again from 1987 to 1989, a relatively 
             short period. He preceded and served with people such as 
             Howard Baker on the Republican side, Bob Dole, Mike 
             Mansfield, and George Mitchell. He was an equal with those 
             powerhouses and stood as one of them. He stood out.
               He revered this Senate and the process with which we 
             then operated. We are far less committed to process. Bob 
             Byrd insisted we have the time, respect, courtesy, and 
             proper addressing of individuals, giving it a certain 
             loftiness that we otherwise would not have had.
               Nobody knew more about this body than Robert C. Byrd. He 
             was this Chamber's protector. He protected the Senate's 
             rules, the Senate's integrity, and he protected the 
             Senate's civility. He taught each and every one of us how 
             the Senate works--the ins, the outs. It is hard to imagine 
             serving a single day without him. He had such respect for 
             the management of this country of ours.
               We should be inspired by Robert C. Byrd's legacy to 
             become more cooperative and more civil in the days ahead. 
             We ought to reflect on those values tomorrow as we view 
             Senator Byrd's casket lying in repose in this Chamber that 
             he loved so dearly. He loved it so much that he reminded 
             all of us from time to time--he would pick up on a phrase. 
             Someone talked about serving under this President or that 
             President. He said, ``Sir, never, never under. We serve 
             with the President of the United States. We never serve 
             under them. We are a body of equal importance.'' And he 
             knew that from every possible position of responsibility 
             he held.
               What we should do as a Senate is accept the best that 
             Robert C. Byrd brought to us, to share the image he 
             brought to all of us and to the stature of this body.
               Robert C. Byrd's journey in life was simply remarkable. 
             He was born into deep poverty, growing up without the 
             comforts that many of us take for granted, such as running 
             water, and setting an example for all Americans of what 
             you might be if you make the effort and you have the 
             dedication to a higher purpose.
               Although he was high school valedictorian at the age of 
             16, he had to skip college because he did not have the 
             means to pay for it. He overcame that obstacle by becoming 
             a self-taught man and a student of history. How did he 
             learn to play the violin all by himself, and learn what he 
             did about education and law?
               He served half a century--51 years--in the Senate, 
             holding every critical position, including, as I 
             mentioned, majority leader and minority leader, and 
             President pro tempore. In that position he was third in 
             line for the Presidency of the United States.
               Still, he never forgot where he came from and his duty 
             to help everyday people. He pleaded their case, 
             particularly his beloved West Virginians, as well as those 
             across the country.
               I had the privilege to serve with Senator Byrd when he 
             was chairman of the Appropriations Committee. Some like to 
             make light of his position to fund projects in West 
             Virginia, but there was nothing cynical about his life's 
             cause to stamp out poverty in his home State and in this 
             country. Senator Byrd called bringing Federal dollars back 
             to his State one of his greatest achievements. He 
             understood that a new school meant a child would have a 
             better chance for a future. A new sewage system meant that 
             families might have clean water--unaccustomed as they were 
             to that in lots of places in his home State. A new highway 
             meant that farmers and companies could bring their product 
             and their produce to market in hours.
               I will use the expression that he ``elegantized'' the 
             beauty of the deeds of working people and brought meaning 
             to the purpose of their lives and their work.
               He was a forward-looking man. He, working with all of 
             us, recognized the importance of an appropriate 
             infrastructure--the importance of Amtrak, of the railroad 
             that serves so many millions of Americans every year. He 
             was a voice for stronger rail service, knowing that could 
             get people more reliable travel so they would not be stuck 
             in massive traffic jams when they had to get someplace. It 
             was an important part of an agenda that he had that was so 
               Years ago, when Amtrak--a favorite part of my view of 
             what has to happen with our infrastructure--was under 
             siege, we worked side by side to protect America's premier 
             rail network from being defunded. In 2007, when the Amtrak 
             law I authored was on this floor, we faced a difficult 
             vote to defeat a killer amendment. I remember standing 
             here as they were counting the yeas and nays, and Senator 
             Byrd had occasion to let his simple yes or no ring out 
             across this place. He put a stamp on that, and that meant 
             that he didn't like it or he did like it.
               He wanted everybody in this place to remember that he 
             was chairman of the Appropriations Committee. He 
             remembered when people voted with him and when they 
             didn't. He couldn't stand the hypocrisy of people who 
             would say, ``Oh, these earmarks are terrible,'' and then 
             they would put them in their list. He would remember it. 
             It was not a good thing, to meet with Robert C. Byrd's 
             disapproval, when you wanted something; especially after 
             so hypocritically voting against something and then 
             wanting that very thing for your own State.
               We have an obligation to honor the legacy of this giant 
             of an individual, this giant of a Senator, this giant of a 
             public servant, and that means never losing sight of the 
             millions of Americans out there who don't know whether 
             they will have a home now or have a job, or whether they 
             will be able to afford electricity or food or a roof to 
             sleep under, or a way to take care of their children. But 
             he reminded us on a constant basis what our commitment 
               It also means, I think in reflection, that we should be 
             renewing our commitment, as hard as it is--and it is easy 
             to kind of pontificate here--to working together. But let 
             us look at what is happening. Let us look at what has been 
             happening now. I don't think this is an appropriate time 
             to voice lots of criticism, but when we see how difficult 
             it is to move positive things through this institution, it 
             is hard to understand, because the fundamentals that 
             Robert C. Byrd brought to his work were that we were here 
             to serve the public. That was the mission.
               Rather than standing in the way of permitting things to 
             be considered--things of value--perhaps we ought to have a 
             Byrd lecture to the Senate-at-large every now and then and 
             let someone who knew him or studied him talk about what he 
             brought to the Senate, in addition to extraordinary 
             leadership; someone who could talk about the degree of 
             collegiality that is necessary for us to consider things--
             serious things--and to get them done.
               Senator Byrd recently said--and he said this on a 
             regular basis, ``The world has changed. But our 
             responsibilities, our duties as Senators have not changed. 
             We have a responsibility, a duty to the people to make our 
             country a better place.''
               It would be fitting if in the shadow of his passing that 
             we could take a sledgehammer to partisan gridlock, put the 
             unnecessary rancor aside and start functioning in a 
             deliberative fashion once again.
               I thank you, Senator Robert C. Byrd, for what you gave 
             to us and gave to this country. All of it will not be 
             recognized in these moments. But as history is reviewed, 
             people will remember--I hope they do--that even when he 
             made a mistake, a serious mistake in his early days--when 
             he was not eager to support desegregation; that he should 
             not have abided with segregationists; that this country 
             belonged to all the people and no one should be 
             discriminated against--that one can be forgiven with good 
             deeds after some bad ones. And he redeemed himself so 
             nobly, so wonderfully.
               So we say, as we have been saying for these days, thank 
             you, Robert C Byrd. We loved being with you, and we will 
             miss you.

               Mr. WEBB. Mr. President, I have not yet had the 
             opportunity on the floor to express my regret for the 
             passing of Senator Robert Byrd and my incredible respect 
             for the service he gave our country.
               I was only able to serve with Senator Byrd at the 
             twilight of his career. I knew him in my capacities as 
             Assistant Secretary and then Secretary of the Navy years 
             ago, and I admired him for many years as an individual of 
             fierce intellect. He was a strong proponent of the balance 
             of power, particularly protective of the powers of the 
             U.S. Congress as they relate to the executive branch, 
             which is an area I have also focused on over the years.
               Senator Byrd had great love for the people of 
             Appalachia. He was their greatest champion. He was a self-
             made man in every sense of the word--self-made 
             economically, born an orphan, and self-made in terms of 
             his own education.
               I recall that when I was Secretary of the Navy, I had 
             the authority to name various combatants, and I named a 
             submarine the USS West Virginia. When I made the statement 
             about why I named it that, I pointed out that West 
             Virginia, in every war in the 20th century, ranked either 
             first or second in terms of its casualty rate. He was 
             someone who never forgot the contributions of the people 
             of that much-maligned State to the well-being and 
             greatness of our country. He left his mark on all of us, 
             and I would be remiss if I didn't express my regret in his 

               Mr. WHITEHOUSE. Mr. President, I rise today to pay 
             tribute to our departed Senate dean, Robert C. Byrd of 
             West Virginia. Senator Byrd served in this Chamber longer 
             than any Senator in history, more than 51 years. Combined 
             with 6 prior years in the House of Representatives, 
             Senator Byrd's service spanned nearly a quarter of the 
             history of the Republic, from the Truman administration to 
             the Obama one, longer than the span of my life.
               To serve with Senator Byrd, as was my privilege for too 
             short a time, was to serve with a giant of the Senate, an 
             apotheosis of a long-ago age when oratory was an art. How 
             fortunate I was to sit on the Budget Committee several 
             chairs away from the man who wrote the Budget Act. I will 
             never forget a Budget Committee hearing last year at 
             which, with 35 years of hindsight, Senator Byrd reviewed 
             the very budget process that he had designed. On that 
             February morning, Senator Byrd delighted in describing his 
             crafting of the budget process and its implementation and 
             evolution over three and a half decades.
               Tomorrow, for the first time since 1959 when Robert C. 
             Byrd was a 40-year-old first-year Senator, a departed 
             Member of this body will lie in repose in its Chamber. The 
             tribute will surely be fitting, as the Senate's most 
             senior Member occupies the floor one final time.
               The man will be missed, but his legacy will continue to 
             guide this institution for generations to come, and the 
             institution to whose principles and welfare he dedicated 
             his life, the U.S. Senate, will endure with his lasting 
             imprint upon it.
                                                  Monday, July 12, 2010
               Mrs. BOXER. Mr. President, on Monday evening I came to 
             the floor and spoke from the heart about my friend Senator 
             Robert Byrd. I wanted to take the opportunity to submit a 
             more comprehensive statement about Senator Byrd and his 
               As I looked at his empty desk with flowers on it, I 
             thought back to last summer when we lost another giant, 
             Senator Ted Kennedy. And what distinguishes Senator Byrd, 
             like Senator Kennedy, from others was his unbelievable, 
             never-ending commitment to the people he represented and 
             to this country.
               It was never a question of Senator Byrd's length of 
             service--though his was exceptional--but rather his fierce 
             sense of fighting for West Virginians. As he told the New 
             York Times in 2005, ``I'm proud I gave hope to my 
               Senator Byrd was, of course, the Nation's longest 
             serving Senator. And he was a legend, for sure. When I 
             came here, I learned first hand that he always met with 
             the incoming Senators, to give them an introduction to the 
             rules of the road, the procedures and dignity of the 
             Senate, and to share his reverence for the Constitution. 
             The image that I will always have of Robert C. Byrd is him 
             reaching inside his suit pocket and bringing out the 
             Constitution, which along with the Bible was what he 
             cherished most.
               Senator Byrd was a giant in the Senate and a champion 
             for America's working families. We will miss his 
             eloquence, his sharp intellect, and his passionate 
               He was one of our Nation's foremost historians of the 
             Senate. He literally wrote the book on the Senate, a four-
             volume history. And he was not only an expert on the rules 
             of the Senate, he was a fierce defender of its traditions 
             and its role in our democracy.
               Senator Byrd fought to make sure every American had a 
             chance to live the American dream because he lived the 
             American dream.
               He grew up in coal country in southern West Virginia, 
             the youngest of five children. His mother died before he 
             was a year old, and he was raised by his aunt and uncle on 
             a farm with no telephone, electricity, or running water.
               He went on to graduate first in his high school class 
             and married his high school sweetheart, Erma, to whom he 
             was devoted throughout their 68 years of marriage until 
             her death in 2006. To support his wife and two daughters 
             in the early years, he worked as a gas station attendant, 
             a grocery store clerk and as a welder in a shipyard during 
             World War II.
               A naturally gifted speaker, he was elected to the West 
             Virginia House of Delegates in 1946 and to the West 
             Virginia Senate in 1950. He won a seat in Congress in 1952 
             and his U.S. Senate seat 6 years later. He had such a 
             passion for education that he remains the only American 
             ever to earn a law degree while serving in Congress. 
             President John F. Kennedy presented it to him at American 
             University in 1963.
               His career in Congress spanned 12 Presidents, and he 
             cast more than 18,500 votes in the Senate. He was Senate 
             majority leader, chairman of the Appropriations Committee 
             and President pro tempore of the Senate. He fought every 
             day to make life better for the people of West Virginia 
             and for all Americans.
               I can tell you, Mr. President, coming from the largest 
             State in the Union, we have had our share of problems. We 
             have had floods and fires and droughts and pests. And 
             every single time, after every earthquake or storm or 
             other disaster, Senator Feinstein and I came to our 
             colleagues to say that California needed the help of the 
             U.S. Government.
               Every time we needed assistance, Senator Byrd, as the 
             chairman of the Appropriations Committee, opened his doors 
             and his heart to us, sharing his experiences and helping 
             us in all of these cases when we were so in need. I am 
             sure many of my colleagues can recount similar 
             experiences. He was always there for us.
               And I remember so well his leadership in trying to bring 
             the troops home from Iraq. Twenty-three of us had stood up 
             and said no to that war, and afterward we worried very 
             much about what would happen with our troops in what was 
             shaping up to be a long war with no exit strategy. Opening 
             up his office here in the Capitol, Senator Byrd organized 
             us, saying, ``We need to talk about ways that we can bring 
             this war to an end.''
               He cared so much about everything he did here, from 
             working to create opportunity for West Virginians and all 
             Americans to maintaining the traditions and the dignity of 
             the Senate. And for me, just to have been in his presence 
             and to watch him work has really been an amazing 
             experience, and so I am proud to pay tribute to him today.
               Senator Byrd stayed here through thick and thin, with a 
             cane or a wheelchair, through the sheer force of will, 
             suffering to be in this place that he loved so much and 
             that he respected so much. There isn't a Member on either 
             side of the aisle that didn't respect Senator Byrd for his 
             intelligence, his strength, his extraordinary biography, 
             and his dedication to the people of his State.
               What a legacy he leaves. It is a great loss for his 
             family, for all of us in the Senate, for the people of his 
             beloved State of West Virginia and for all Americans. I 
             extend my deepest condolences to his family.
                                                 Tuesday, July 13, 2010
                         ORDER FOR PRINTING OF SENATE PRAYER
               Mr. REID. Madam President, I ask unanimous consent that 
             the prayer delivered by our Senate Chaplain on Thursday, 
             July 1, when the Senate gathered to remember Senator 
             Robert C. Byrd, be printed in the Record and as a part of 
             the memorial book of Senate tributes.
               There being no objection, the prayer was ordered to be 
             printed in the Record, as follows:
               [The Chaplain's prayer may be found on page 172.]

               Ms. SNOWE. Mr. President, I join with my colleagues 
             today to express my profound and heartfelt sadness on the 
             passing of Senator Robert C. Byrd, as the U.S. Senate, the 
             people of West Virginia, and our entire Nation mourn the 
             loss of a giant of public service--a distinguished, iconic 
             legislator whose life and legacy will forever be 
             synonymous with the greatest deliberative body the world 
             has ever known.
               Senator Byrd's counsel, wisdom, and knowledge of the 
             Senate was unmatched and awe inspiring. As the longest 
             serving Member of Congress and a former majority and 
             minority leader of the Senate, Senator Byrd was time and 
             again the conscience and champion of Congress and a 
             vigorous and stalwart sentinel of the first branch of our 
             government. Protector, steward, advocate, and guardian--
             these descriptions only begin to convey Senator Byrd's 
             lifelong commitment to the Senate in which he served for a 
             record 51 years and an unprecedented nine terms.
               No one fought more to ensure the preservation of the 
             U.S. Senate and its constitutional prerogatives than 
             Senator Byrd. No one was more masterful in comprehending 
             and harnessing the powers of parliamentary procedure in 
             the upper Chamber. No one was fiercer in battling against 
             any encroachments that would dilute or diminish the role 
             of Congress as a coequal branch of government. And no one 
             possessed greater command of Senate history and used it to 
             better effect than Senator Byrd, who himself authored a 
             four-volume history of the Senate.
               The same zeal with which Senator Byrd demonstrated his 
             allegiance to the legislative branch was every bit as 
             evident in his unshakable dedication to the U.S. 
             Constitution itself--a pocket-sized copy of which he 
             carried at all times. In fact, like many of my colleagues, 
             I will never forget as a member of the ``Gang of 14,'' 
             which was forged at a time when the very institution of 
             the Senate was caught in the crosshairs of a struggle over 
             judicial nominations, how each of us received a copy of 
             the Constitution from Senator Byrd. With one symbolic 
             gesture as only he could, Senator Byrd spoke volumes about 
             the historic imperative that was ours to seize if we were 
             to jettison the partisanship that threatened our Chamber.
               Senator Byrd's reverence for history stemmed of course 
             from the premium he placed on education, and as much as 
             anyone who ever occupied a seat in the Senate, Senator 
             Byrd exemplified the American story of the self-made 
             individual. During his remarkable trajectory from humble 
             beginnings in the southern coalfields of West Virginia, 
             Senator Byrd was an ardent believer in learning not only 
             as the great equalizer in American life, but as a catalyst 
             for personal and professional success. A self-educated 
             man, Senator Byrd's knowledge of Shakespeare, the Holy 
             Bible, and the pillars of thought from Ancient Greece and 
             Rome formed the basis of an eloquence and service that 
             will reverberate not only in the hallowed Halls of 
             Congress, but also throughout his beloved home State--
             which he served so passionately--for generations to come.
               Indeed, his roots in West Virginia were ever-present and 
             the indispensable lifeblood that spurred him to political 
             and legislative heights that were the capstone of his 
             landmark tenure in public service. Indisputably, he never 
             forgot where he came from, and in fact, always remembered 
             he stood on the shoulders of every West Virginian who sent 
             him back to the U.S. Senate term after term. And as much 
             as Senator Byrd revered Congress, the Constitution, and 
             his fellow West Virginians, nowhere was his devotion 
             greater than with his beloved Erma, his wife of nearly 69 
             years, and they now are finally together in their eternal 
             resting place.
               As a Senator from Maine, it is only fitting that I pay 
             tribute to Senator Byrd by citing the opening lines by the 
             immortal American poet and son of Maine, Henry Wadsworth 
             Longfellow, that I so often heard him quote from memory on 
             the Senate floor:

               Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State! Sail on, O Union, 
             strong and great! Humanity with all its fears, With all 
             the hopes of future years ...

               Our Ship of State sails better for Senator Byrd's having 
             lived, served, and led. But today, our Ship of State sails 
             at a slower pace as we pause to pay our respects and mourn 
             the loss of a man whose like we will never see again. The 
             Senate will not be the same without the Senator from West 
             Virginia, Robert C. Byrd.

               Ms. MURKOWSKI. Mr. President, I rise today to pay 
             tribute to my friend and dear colleague, Senator Robert C. 
             Byrd, who left us on Monday, June 28, 2010, at the age of 
             92. Senator Byrd was the longest serving Member of the 
             Senate. It is noteworthy that he was sworn in as a U.S. 
             Senator on January 3, 1959, the same day Alaska was 
             admitted as the 49th State.
               How does one do justice to a life as full, as human, as 
             authentic, as uniquely American as that of Senator Byrd's 
             in just a few minutes? Born in poverty, a self-described 
             foster son of an impoverished coal miner, a product of a 
             two-room schoolhouse, he went on to walk with Kings, to 
             meet with Prime Ministers, and to debate with Presidents. 
             Only in America could one come so far from so little. His 
             is a textbook case of American exceptionalism.
               Robert C. Byrd was a man of principle who was unwavering 
             in his priorities. The Lord came first, his family second, 
             and then the business of West Virginia and the Nation. 
             Senator Byrd was remarkable in that he could juggle all of 
             these obligations with apparent ease.
               He was a man who carried the Constitution in his breast 
             pocket, closest to his heart. A fierce protector of the 
             prerogatives of the Senate, he frequently recalled that 
             the Congress is mentioned in the Constitution before the 
             Executive. He once remarked, ``I am not the President's 
             man. I am a Senate man.''
               So many of our colleagues take delight in this quote 
             from the Almanac of American Politics and it bears 
             repeating. The Almanac described Senator Byrd as the one 
             among us who ``may come closer to the kind of senator the 
             Founding Fathers had in mind than any other.''
               On the occasion of his 90th birthday, Senator Ted 
             Stevens referred to Senator Byrd as a ``symbol of the 
             Senate,'' adding that, ``No man has taught the Senate more 
             than Robert C. Byrd.''
               Senator Byrd made it his personal responsibility to 
             educate new Senators in the history and traditions of the 
             Senate and to mentor us along. He made a real difference 
             in my orientation to the Senate. His statesmanship was an 
             inspiration to me. It was an inspiration to all of us.
               As contentious as our debates may seem, as partisan as 
             we often seem to the American public, the Senate prefers 
             to regard itself as a family. Yes, a family that fights, 
             but a family nonetheless.
               Senator Stevens once observed, ``As part of the Senate 
             family, Senator Byrd is not only a gentleman, he has been 
             a person who has reached out to us in personal times as 
               I came to know that well after I injured my leg in a 
             skiing accident last year. For a period of time I had to 
             navigate the Senate floor in a wheelchair. The Senate 
             floor is not exactly wheelchair friendly, but Senator Byrd 
             had adapted to the challenge. One day, as we were going to 
             the floor to vote, our wheelchairs met and we reached out 
             to hold hands as we wheeled our chairs to the well of the 
               Like Ted, I loved Robert C. Byrd. Yet I regret that I 
             never had the opportunity to enjoy the close friendship 
             that my colleague Ted Stevens did.
               Yes, they had their spats, but Senator Stevens and 
             Senator Byrd regarded each other as family. Senator 
             Stevens' daughter Lily referred to Senator Byrd as an 
             uncle. Senator Byrd published in the Congressional Record 
             excerpts from Lily's senior thesis from Stanford, The 
             Message of the Dome: The United States Capitol in the 
             Popular Media.
               Senator Stevens began working with Senator Byrd in 1968. 
             In 1972, they joined each other on the Senate 
             Appropriations Committee. Both served as President pro 
             tempore of the Senate, a position reserved for the most 
             senior Member of the Senate in the majority party. Yet as 
             Senator Byrd liked to note, Ted was a relative youngster.
               Working together on a bipartisan basis, Ted Stevens 
             helped Robert Byrd lift West Virginia out of poverty. And 
             Senator Byrd demonstrated great empathy for Senator 
             Stevens' crusade to end the third-world conditions that 
             plague Alaska's Native people in the more than 230 
             traditional villages of rural Alaska. Like the West 
             Virginia of Robert Byrd's childhood, rural Alaska lacked 
             the sorts of infrastructure that the rest of America takes 
             for granted--lack of road infrastructure, lack of basic 
             sanitation facilities, unreliable electricity, and 
               This may explain why Senator Byrd was greatly 
             sympathetic to Senator Stevens' crusade to bring indoor 
             plumbing to rural Alaska, to eliminate the honey bucket. 
             Alaska's Denali Commission was modeled closely after the 
             Appalachian Regional Commission, which Senator Byrd 
             championed for decades.
               Ted Stevens and Robert Byrd worked together to make 
             things better for the people of rural Alaska. Our Native 
             people deeply appreciate the Alaska legacy of Robert C. 
               On the occasion of Senator Stevens' farewell from the 
             Senate in 2008, a tearful Robert C. Byrd came to the 
             Senate floor and said this:

               Politics is a rough business, with lots of highs and 
             lots of lows. After a long time in politics, I come to 
             understand that the point of it all is helping people. 
             Thank God we will be judged in the next world by the good 
             we do in this world.

               On Monday, our dear friend, Senator Byrd, joined his 
             beloved wife Erma in heaven, where he will be judged by 
             all of the good he has done for his Lord, his family, the 
             people of West Virginia, and the Nation. I will miss him 
               On behalf of Alaska's people, I extend my condolences to 
             Senator Byrd's daughters Mona and Marjorie, his six 
             grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren, to the people 
             of West Virginia, and to all who knew and loved this great 
                                               Wednesday, July 14, 2010
               Ms. LANDRIEU. Mr. President, I rise today to honor the 
             memory of one of the Senate's giants, Robert C. Byrd. My 
             family and I were saddened to learn of his passing on 
             Monday morning at the age of 92. I will remember Senator 
             Byrd as a fierce defender of the Constitution, master of 
             Senate procedure and a proud fighter for West Virginia and 
             its rural heritage. Senator Byrd was more than just a 
             colleague, he was a mentor. He taught me--and everyone who 
             had the honor of serving with him--never to apologize for 
             standing up for your State.
               During more than a half century of service in Congress, 
             Senator Byrd gave a voice to those who would not have been 
             heard otherwise. There are times when it is easy to get 
             caught up in the petty bickering and partisan squabbles 
             that seem to be increasingly plaguing this Chamber. But, 
             we would all do well to follow the example Senator Byrd 
             set for all of us during his legendary Senate career and 
             never lose sight of the fact that we are sent here to 
             fight for those in our home States and across the country 
             who cannot fight for themselves.
               Senator Byrd's work on behalf of his constituents is 
             well known. West Virginians knew they could count on their 
             senior Senator to come here to Washington and deliver for 
             them. They were not alone. I will never forget how helpful 
             Senator Byrd was to my State. Louisiana lost a true 
             friend. Through storms and floods, Senator Byrd made sure 
             that promises made to the gulf coast, particularly to 
             Louisiana, were not broken. He kept an eye on the fair and 
             just distribution of funds to Gulf Coast States, and I and 
             everyone I represent will always be grateful for his 
             dedication to our recovery.
               One critical example is his effort to provide funding 
             for Louisiana's Road Home Program. Road Home, which is the 
             largest single housing recovery program in U.S. history, 
             was designed to provide compensation to Louisiana 
             homeowners whose houses were destroyed by Hurricane 
             Katrina or Rita. In late 2007, as Louisiana faced a 
             daunting program shortfall, it was Senator Byrd who 
             stepped up to help me secure $3 billion to keep this 
             rebuilding program going.
               A year later, Senator Byrd once again stood up for the 
             people of Louisiana, when he worked with me to include 
             $8.7 billion for gulf coast hurricane recovery and 
             protection in the emergency supplemental spending bill for 
             Iraq and Afghanistan. The funding provided for levees, 
             criminal justice needs, health care and housing for low-
             income hurricane survivors.
               Senator Byrd once said, ``The people of Louisiana have 
             the strength and the spirit to rebuild their homes and 
             their communities. We owe them the support to get the job 
             done.'' He did not just pay lipservice to the gulf coast. 
             He delivered for us time and again, because he understood 
             the importance of standing up for those who were hit so 
             hard by the tragic storms that battered the Louisiana 
               Senator Byrd was not just a colleague who put his weight 
             behind fighting for the gulf coast region. He was also a 
             walking encyclopedia of Senate history, and he was always 
             willing to impart his vast knowledge to anyone who wanted 
             to learn about the legends that walked these Halls for 
             more than two centuries before us.
               When I was first sworn in as a U.S. Senator, back in 
             1997, my entire family came to Washington for the event. 
             After it was over, I asked Senator Byrd if he would give 
             my family--both adults and children--a history lesson on 
             the Senate. He graciously obliged, and for 2 full hours 
             spoke eloquently and expertly on the history of this great 
             body. His lecture left a lasting impression on every 
             single member of the Landrieu family, and it is a memory 
             we will always cherish.
               Senator Byrd spoke with such passion about John C. 
             Calhoun, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Rebecca Felton, 
             Everett Dirksen and the many other historical figures who 
             shaped the Senate. It is only appropriate that he will 
             forever be mentioned in the same breath with these men and 
             women he so truly admired. And, it makes me proud to have 
             had the opportunity to serve with a man who left such an 
             indelible mark on this Chamber.
               As we reflect on Senator Byrd's remarkable life and 
             career, our prayers are with the Byrd family. But we all 
             take comfort in knowing that while he leaves behind one of 
             his great loves--the Senate--he is finally going home to 
             be with his greatest love--Erma.

               Mr. ALEXANDER. Mr. President, Senator Pete Domenici from 
             New Mexico served in this body for 36 years. During that 
             time, he was the first Republican chairman of the Budget 
             Committee and later chaired the Energy Committee where, 
             more than almost anyone, he helped spur the revival of 
             interest in nuclear energy. He was truly one of the most 
             consequential Senators of the last half century. As we 
             mourn the loss of another very consequential Member of 
             this Chamber, Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, I 
             thought it was appropriate to share Senator Domenici's 
             thoughts on the passing of Senator Byrd.
               I ask unanimous consent that Senator Domenici's 
             statement be printed in the Record.
               There being no objection, the material was ordered to be 
             printed in the Record, as follows:
                Statement of Senator Pete Domenici on the Passing of 
                               Senator Robert C. Byrd
               I'm sorry I can't be at Senator Robert Byrd's memorial 
             service in person because I'm celebrating the first family 
             reunion with my eight children--and their children--from 
             across the country. My wife will join me at this event, 
             and I will be prevented from attending the ceremony for my 
             great friend, Robert Byrd.
               I worked with Senator Byrd for my entire 36 years in the 
             Senate. Above all else, I found him a man that one could 
             trust implicitly. He and I both served on the Senate 
             Appropriations Committee for many years, where he was a 
             strong advocate for his home State. He and I both 
             supported local projects for our States and believed that 
             ``earmarks'' were not only legitimate, but part of the 
             Senator's duty to his State.
               When history is finally written of the U.S. Senate there 
             is little doubt in my mind that he will go down as one of 
             the greatest of all. He knew the rules and he played by 
             them. He knew the issues and he fought for them. He 
             understood America's greatness and he heralded it. But 
             most of all, he seemed to always remember the working men 
             and women of his State and this country. He will be 
             missed. I must say thank you, Robert, for your friendship 
             and all you did for me and all of us.
                                                Thursday, July 15, 2010
               Mr. BARRASSO. Mr. President, West Virginia, the U.S. 
             Senate, and our Nation have experienced an incredible 
             loss. Over the last few weeks, this Chamber witnessed 
             poignant eulogies and remembrances of the legendary 
             Senator Robert Byrd. Much has been said and written since 
             Senator Byrd's death on June 28, 2010.
               Those who have so eloquently written and spoken knew the 
             Senator much better than I--Presidents, Senators, world 
             leaders, dignitaries, as well as members of his family and 
             friends in West Virginia.
               He will be remembered as an intelligent, compassionate, 
             and illustrious figure. A giant.
               Many people have recalled his historic milestones, 
             distinguished career, and legendary speeches. I first met 
             Senator Byrd when I arrived in the Senate in 2007. I 
             introduced myself and told him about a friend and patient 
             of mine from Wyoming who had told me that Robert Byrd was 
             his favorite Senator. Like Senator Byrd, my friend uses a 
             wheelchair. Senator Byrd asked me why my friend liked him 
             so much. I told him it was because of their mutual 
             commitment to the Constitution.
               I went on to say that he thought Senator Byrd was the 
             ``best thing since sliced bread.'' Senator Byrd's eyes 
             brightened and widened with the reference to sliced bread. 
             He then gave me a complete history of sliced bread in 
             America and the date when the first mechanical bread 
             slicer was used in the United States. As a true man of the 
             people, Senator Byrd also sent a note and a copy of the 
             Constitution to my friend in Wyoming.
               When former Wyoming Senator Cliff Hansen died late last 
             year, I shared the news with Senator Byrd. Senator Byrd 
             said, ``I liked Cliff Hansen. Cliff Hansen was a friend of 
             mine. Cliff Hansen knew what he stood for.'' The same can 
             be said for Senator Byrd.
               As a public servant, he had few equals. As a 
             parliamentary expert, he had none. Every day, Senator Byrd 
             showed his enduring dedication to his family, the people 
             of West Virginia, the U.S. Constitution, and our Nation.
               Senator Byrd leaves us with a memory of the man--the 
             memory of his kindness, grace, and passion. He had a depth 
             of institutional understanding and knowledge of the 
             traditions of the U.S. Senate that will never be replaced. 
             While many of us are students of history, Senator Byrd 
             truly lived this Nation's history. His strength, 
             determination, and unyielding pursuit of knowledge serve 
             as a model for all of us.
               To his daughters Mona Byrd Fatemi and Marjorie Byrd 
             Moore, his grandchildren, and family, I extend my family's 
             sympathy and hope the coming days are filled with love, 
             enduring strength, and God's grace.
               Bobbi and I wish the Byrd family our best and our 
             prayers are with you.
                                                 Tuesday, July 20, 2010
               Mr. HATCH. Mr. President, I rise today to pay tribute to 
             our dear departed friend and colleague, Senator Robert 
             Byrd of West Virginia. I have been deeply moved by the 
             words of remembrance we have heard here in the Senate this 
             week and I am honored to have been here today as Senator 
             Byrd has lied in repose on the Senate floor. It is a 
             fitting tribute to the man who, over the course of an 
             astounding tenure of 52 years, came to embody the Senate, 
             its traditions, and its rules.
               Robert Byrd was born in North Wilkesboro, North 
             Carolina, in 1917. He was valedictorian of Mark Twain High 
             School and, through the course of his life, attended four 
             separate colleges in West Virginia as well as the American 
             University College of Law. In the early days of his 
             career, he was, at one time or another, a grocery clerk, a 
             butcher, and a shipyard welder before beginning his 
             political career in 1946, when he was elected to the West 
             Virginia House of Delegates. After 5 years in the West 
             Virginia Legislature, he was elected to the House of 
             Representatives in 1952, beginning what would be the 
             longest tenure in the history of the U.S. Congress.
               Senator Byrd came to the Senate in 1959. He served right 
             up until his death on June 28 of this year. During his 
             time in the Senate, he was known for his skills as a 
             Parliamentarian and his knowledge of Senate rules and 
             procedure. He put these abilities to great use, serving in 
             the Democratic leadership--as either the whip or the 
             leader--for nearly two decades. Senator Byrd's ability to 
             use the parliamentary rules to his advantage is legendary. 
             Indeed, I can think of few others who had such a great 
             understanding of what can be an arduous and difficult set 
             of rules and procedures.
               His knowledge of the traditions and history of the 
             Senate were also quite noteworthy. In 1989, the 
             bicentennial anniversary of our cherished Constitution, 
             Senator Byrd published a four-volume series on Senate 
             history, which is a definitive work in describing and 
             outlining the storied traditions of this great Chamber. 
             Senator Byrd's love of this body was known to all. He 
             expressed his love for the Senate at every opportunity and 
             much of his time was spent trying to preserve those rules 
             and traditions he held dear.
               Mr. President, this Chamber has suffered a great loss. 
             But, my sadness is tempered by the thought that Senator 
             Byrd is now reunited with his wife Erma, to whom he was 
             married for nearly 70 years. I want to express my 
             sincerest condolences to Senator Byrd's family.

               Mr. BUNNING. Mr. President, today I want to speak on the 
             loss of the great statesman, orator, and author, Senator 
             Robert Byrd. Senator Byrd served the State of West 
             Virginia and this great Nation in the Senate for over 50 
             years. It has been an honor to serve and craft legislation 
             with Senator Byrd to protect and promote the values of our 
             two States, which share a common border and economy. He 
             represented his State well.
               Following my election to the Senate, Senator Byrd 
             offered me valuable advice and direction on the operations 
             and rules of the U.S. Senate. Upon learning of his 
             passing, my wife Mary and I were deeply saddened by the 
               Starting from humble beginnings, Senator Byrd was a 
             great example of the virtue of hard work and 
             determination. After losing his mother during the 
             influenza epidemic of 1918, Senator Byrd was sent to live 
             with his aunt and uncle in the coal mining region of 
             southern West Virginia. With a combination of his strong 
             work ethic and quest for knowledge, Senator Byrd graduated 
             as valedictorian of his high school class. Despite his 
             stellar academic achievements, Senator Byrd was unable to 
             attend college following his high school commencement due 
             to financial constraints.
               At the age of 19, Senator Byrd married his high school 
             sweetheart and lifetime soulmate Erma Ora James. In an 
             effort to support his growing family, Senator Byrd took 
             jobs which included working as a gas station attendant and 
             butcher, to put his family first.
               After serving in the West Virginia House of Delegates 
             and Senate, Senator Byrd was first elected to the U.S. 
             House of Representatives and began serving in 1953. Unable 
             to stop his quest for knowledge, Senator Byrd began 
             attending night classes at the American University's 
             Washington College of Law where he received his degree a 
             decade later.
               Senator Byrd's love for this country and the Senate 
             itself could be seen in many ways such as the copy of the 
             U.S. Constitution tucked away in his jacket pocket and his 
             vast knowledge of the rules of the Senate. As he said to 
             many of us, ``he who knows the rules will rule.''
               He believed, as I do, in the power of the Senate. He 
             understood that the Senate should not be beholden to the 
             executive branch, but must remain separate and equal to 
             provide the necessary checks. As he stated:

               We must never, ever, tear down the only wall--the 
             necessary fence--this Nation has against the excesses of 
             the Executive Branch and the resultant haste and tyranny 
             of the majority.

               Even in his frustration of the current political climate 
             and through his remaining days, Senator Byrd continued to 
             fight for the protection of the rules of the Senate and 
             the rights of the minority, because as he wrote, ``I know 
             what it is to be majority leader, and wake up on a 
             Wednesday morning in November, and find yourself a 
             minority leader.''
               I extend my thoughts and prayers to his surviving 
             children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. During 
             this time of difficulty, there is strength in knowing 
             Senator Byrd has once again been reunited with his 
             sweetheart and the grandson he missed dearly.
                                                  Monday, July 26, 2010
               Mrs. HUTCHISON. Madam President, I join my colleagues in 
             paying tribute to our colleague Robert Byrd of West 
             Virginia. He served his beautiful Mountain State for a 
             record-setting 57 years in Congress, including 51 years in 
             this Chamber. He cast more roll call votes and served in 
             more leadership positions than any other Senator in U.S. 
             history, including 12 years as his party's leader. He 
             revered this body so much that he wrote four volumes on 
             Senate history from 1789 to 1989. Over nine terms, he 
             mastered parliamentary procedure in an effort to protect 
             the Senate's rules and to defend the legislative branch's 
             authority. He carried a copy of the Constitution in his 
             pocket, and he peppered his speeches with frequent 
             references to the intent of our Framers. When asked how 
             many Presidents he had served under, he replied, ``None. I 
             have served with Presidents, not under them.''
               Senator Byrd will enter the history books as one of the 
             Senate's true giants, but his beginnings were humble. His 
             biography is a shining testament to the American dream. He 
             was adopted in infancy and raised in impoverished coal 
             mining towns. His first job was to collect garbage scraps 
             for his family's hogs. Although he graduated valedictorian 
             of his 1934 high school class, at first he could not 
             afford college. He married his high school sweetheart, 
             Erma Ora James, with whom he enjoyed more than 68 happy 
             years. The outstanding work ethic and solid values that he 
             learned while growing up in Raleigh County helped him 
             later devote 10 grueling years of his life to studying 
             while simultaneously serving as a Member of Congress. When 
             he finally earned his law degree in 1963, President John 
             F. Kennedy awarded him his diploma.
               Senator Byrd served his beloved home State with 
             unprecedented devotion. He wrote in his autobiography that 
             ``it has been my constant desire to improve the lives of 
             the people who have sent me to Washington time and 
             again.'' Virtually every county in West Virginia will long 
             remember his hard work, dedication, and legendary 
             contributions. Like many Americans today, I commend him 
             for his outstanding service to his State, to our Nation, 
             and to the institution of the Senate.
                                                 Monday, August 2, 2010
               Mr. CORNYN. Mr. President, I join my colleagues in 
             appreciation and admiration of Senator Robert Byrd.
               By the time I took my seat in this Chamber, Senator Byrd 
             had already held his for more than four decades. He had 
             already held numerous leadership positions, including 
             Senate majority leader and President pro tempore. He had 
             already become a master of parliamentary procedure. He had 
             already championed many Federal projects that still bear 
             his name in his home State of West Virginia.
               Senator Byrd won the admiration of all his colleagues 
             for his study of the history of this body. He delivered 
             hundreds of addresses on Senate history and procedure, as 
             well as the debt we owe to the original Senate that 
             governed ancient Rome for centuries. For such work, 
             Senator Byrd has earned the gratitude of all future 
             generations of Americans.
               Texans especially appreciate Senator Byrd's attention to 
             the contributions of our Senators to the history of this 
             body. Senator Sam Houston, the original occupant of the 
             seat I hold, was described by Senator Byrd in this way:

               The flamboyant Sam Houston of Texas used to stride into 
             the old Senate Chamber wearing such eye-catching 
             accessories as a leopard-skin waist-coat, a bright red 
             vest, or a Mexican sombrero ... . He would while away the 
             time in the old Chamber by whittling, creating a pile of 
             shavings beneath his desk, and pages would bring him his 
             pine blocks and then clean up the shavings.

               Senator Byrd also devoted several speeches of his 
             history to the tenure of Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, which 
             were all collected into a single chapter upon publication. 
             In personal interviews with then-current and former 
             Senators, Senator Byrd documents a remarkably personal 
             account of Senator Johnson's leadership style and his 
             influence over landmark legislation, including the Civil 
             Rights Act of 1957.
               During his discussion of Senator Johnson's use of the 
             quorum call, Senator Byrd was asked to yield by his 
             friend, Senator Russell Long of Louisiana, who wished to 
             clarify his own recollection of the matter. Senator Long 
             then continued with a fitting tribute to the Senator from 
             West Virginia:

               I have no doubt that in years to come, his will be the 
             most authoritative text anyone will be able to find to say 
             what did happen and what did not happen in the Senate, 
             both while the Senator from West Virginia was a member and 
             in the years prior thereto.

               I can offer no better epitaph to Senator Byrd than that 
             offered by his former colleague more than two decades ago. 
             He and his beloved Erma have now been reunited, and we 
             offer our condolences to their children, grandchildren, 
             great-grandchildren, and all who miss him most.
                                               Thursday, August 5, 2010
               Mrs. LINCOLN. Mr. President, the death of Senator Robert 
             Byrd is a tremendous loss to the Senate, the State of West 
             Virginia, and the entire Nation. As the longest serving 
             Member of Congress, his political career spanned multiple 
             Presidencies, and he was a witness to countless American 
             advances and achievements. He has served his State and our 
             country for more than half a century, and he will be 
             greatly missed.
               Senator Byrd embodied the history and traditions of the 
             Senate, and his incredible knowledge of our Constitution, 
             Congress, and the legislative process benefited every 
             Member who served alongside him. I met with Senator Byrd 
             when I was first elected to the Senate, and I will be 
             forever grateful for his generosity and willingness to 
             assist his colleagues.
               I will always remember Senator Byrd as a committed 
             public servant who was deeply devoted to his State and his 
             country. He was known as the conscience of the Senate for 
             his dedication to the body's history, legislative process, 
             and rules, serving as a principled legislator. He made 
             many sacrifices to give his life to public service, and we 
             owe a lot to Senator Byrd for this reason. I am deeply 
             saddened by his passing and know he will be missed.

               Mr. CHAMBLISS. Mr. President, I rise to pay tribute to a 
             colleague whose devotion to this body, and to this Nation, 
             was personal, heartfelt, and legendary. I am talking about 
             none other than the senior Senator from West Virginia, 
             Senator Robert Byrd.
               Senator Byrd's time on Earth was a life characterized by 
             commitment. He exemplified this rare quality through his 
             68-year marriage to his high school sweetheart Erma James 
             Byrd. But this was far from the only deep commitment in 
             Senator Byrd's life. His dedication to the U.S. Senate was 
             proved by his actions and his storied career. His life in 
             the Senate began in 1958 with a victory that included 59 
             percent of the vote, the smallest margin of victory in 
             Senator Byrd's half century-plus career. During his 57 
             years in Congress, Byrd worked with 12 Presidents. He was 
             known for telling his colleagues that he did not serve 
             under any Presidents, but alongside them.
               In Senator Byrd's portrait in the Old Senate Chamber, 
             his image is surrounded by his wife, the Bible, and the 
             U.S. Constitution. This is only fitting, considering that 
             Senator Byrd used references from the Bible and the U.S. 
             Constitution in many of his speeches and in his everyday 
             dealings with fellow lawmakers. In a speech by Senator 
             Byrd on October 13, 1989, he said:

               The Constitution is the old landmark which they have 
             set. And if we do not rise to the call of the moment and 
             take a stand, take a strong stand, against our own 
             personal interests or against party interests, and stand 
             for the Constitution, then how might we face our children 
             and grandchildren when they ask of us as Caesar did to the 
             centurion, ``How do we fare today?'' and the centurion 
             replied, ``You will be victorious.'' As for myself, 
             whether I live or die, tonight I shall have earned the 
             praise of Caesar.

               I can say that Senator Byrd is deserving of the praise 
             of West Virginians, and, indeed, all Americans, for his 
             devotion to the Senate and to our Nation. He will be 
             missed by his colleagues, and we are grateful for his 
             life's work.

               Mr. McCAIN. Mr. President, no Senator has ever loved the 
             institution of the U.S. Senate more than Senator Robert 
             Byrd. I firmly believe that. He truly believed that the 
             upper Chamber of Congress was the greatest deliberative 
             body on Earth and he always strived to preserve its 
             traditions and history for the generations to come as well 
             as being the Senate's foremost instructor on Senate 
             procedure and process.
               I was able to be a student of Senator Byrd's instruction 
             when we worked together in 2005 to preserve Senate rule 
             XXII, commonly known as the filibuster. Senator Byrd 
             joined with me, along with 6 other Republican Senators and 
             6 Democrat Senators to form what became the ``Gang of 
             14.'' During the meetings between these 14 Members, which 
             were often held in my office, I fondly recall the silence 
             that would overcome the room when Senator Byrd spoke about 
             the history of the filibuster and the rights of the 
             minority in the Senate. It is not often that 13 Members of 
             the Senate are quiet for any given period of time. But 
             Senator Byrd's stature and intellect brought the room to a 
               Senator Byrd is remembered for being a strong majority 
             leader and minority leader for his party. But as he 
             reminded all of us during those meetings in my office, 
             when he served as majority leader during President 
             Reagan's time in office, Senator Byrd did not lead his 
             Democratic caucus to filibuster any of President Reagan's 
             judicial nominees. That was a different time with 
             different leaders, but Senator Byrd's actions reflect his 
             sincere desire for statesmanship and his respect for the 
             President's nominees. His speech on the Senate floor in 
             2005 regarding the filibuster reflected this desire when 
             he said:

               I rise today to make a request of my fellow Senators. In 
             so doing, I reach out to all Senators on both sides of the 
             aisle, respectful of the institution of the Senate and of 
             the opinions of all Senators, respectful of the 
             institution of the Presidency as well. I ask each Senator 
             to pause for a moment and reflect seriously on the role of 
             the Senate as it has existed now for 217 years, and on the 
             role that it will play in the future if the so-called 
             nuclear option or the so-called constitutional option--one 
             and the same--is invoked. I implore Senators to step 
             back--step back, step back, step back--from the precipice. 
             Step back away from the cameras and the commentators and 
             contemplate the circumstances in which we find ourselves. 
             Things are not right, and the American people know that 
             things are not right. The political discourse in our 
             country has become so distorted, so unpleasant, so 
             strident, so unbelievable ...

               He was not only a leader in 2005 against removing the 
             judicial filibuster rule, he was a lifelong leader in the 
             Senate against allowing Senators to issue secret holds. 
             His motives were noble, and he fought for its elimination 
             until the end. In his final speech, entered into the 
             Record but not delivered, he defended an individual 
             Senator's right to block legislation in secret. ``Our 
             Founding Fathers intended the Senate,'' he lectured 
             colleagues last month in one of his last appearances, to 
             have ``unlimited debate and the protection of minority 
               Senator Byrd's respect for Senate rules and procedure 
             were second only to his defense and passion for the 
             Constitution. Because of his leadership, we were able to 
             establish September 17 as Constitution Day. Now, annually, 
             students across the country will learn about and celebrate 
             the document that governs our Nation and hopefully 
             understand the significance of this unparalleled document 
             that has established freedom and sovereignty of our 
             citizens for hundreds of years.
               Senator Byrd spent practically all of his adult life 
             serving the American people for which we are all grateful. 
             Even when he disagreed with his peers in the Senate, he 
             respected their intellect and views. I am honored to have 
             served beside him. He once said, ``On the great issues, 
             the Senate has always been blessed with senators who were 
             able to rise above party and consider first and foremost 
             the national interest.'' I agree and hope the Senate 
             continues to attract candidates who will rise above 
             politics for the good of our country and who will 
             appreciate the history of the institution as Senator Byrd 
               Senator Byrd gave his life to the service of his country 
             and the Senate and the Nation will miss him and the 
             important leadership and sense of history that he brought 
             to this body every day.

               Mr. BEGICH. Mr. President, today I would like to add to 
             the heartfelt sentiments we have heard expressed by many 
             colleagues and many more around the country over these 
             past several weeks in paying tribute to our departed 
             colleague, Senator Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia.
               As an American, pondering what Senator Byrd has done, 
             the history he has been a part of, and the path he took 
             from the small towns of southern West Virginia's 
             coalfields, is inspiring. From the perspective of a new 
             Senator, I must say that the life and career of Senator 
             Byrd is more than a little daunting. I have served just 
             shy of 20 months, and I have voted in this Chamber 
             slightly more than 600 times.
               Those numbers seem like rounding errors compared to the 
             numbers we have heard over the last several days in 
             reference to the service of Senator Byrd: Elected to nine 
             full terms, more than 51 years in the Senate--more than 4 
             years longer than the next longest serving Senator; he 
             cast nearly 19,000 votes, 18,689, including 4,705 
             consecutive votes; he was twice majority leader; served 
             also as whip, conference secretary, minority leader, and 
             President pro tempore; and he served on the Appropriations 
             Committee continuously since being placed there in 1959 by 
             then-Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson as a freshman in this 
             body--more than 3 years before I was born and only about 2 
             weeks after Alaska became a State.
               I am told by colleagues who served longer with Senator 
             Byrd that while he was proud of those facts, the record he 
             cherished the most was the time he spent with the love of 
             his life, his childhood sweetheart and wife of 68 years, 
             Erma. Senator Byrd was a man of deep faith, but from what 
             I have heard of them as a couple, I do not doubt that all 
             the glories of the afterlife pale for Senator Byrd 
             compared to rejoining Erma.
               I came to the Senate too late to hear most of his 
             greatest speeches, but when he spoke, whether it was about 
             a funding bill or the wars that we continue to wage, you 
             listened. We all felt a great sadness when Senator Kennedy 
             died last year, but many of us probably came to appreciate 
             the depth of the historical significance of his departure 
             from this body months earlier when we heard and saw 
             another of the great legislators in American history, 
             Robert C. Byrd, weep openly and unabashedly as he paid 
             tribute to his friend and colleague. My service with 
             Senator Byrd was nowhere as lengthy as his with Senator 
             Kennedy, but I am profoundly affected by the honor of 
             knowing the man, even for these past 2 years.
               In the short time we did serve together, I have still 
             been able to learn from Senator Byrd. He was a statesman 
             and a pillar of this institution, and a genuine historical 
             figure that my son Jacob will learn about in school. But 
             the thing that I will take from watching Senator Byrd that 
             showed every day that we served together was that nothing 
             was more important than the work he did for the people of 
             the State that sent him here. All of us look to the people 
             of our States for guidance on the matters of the day, and 
             certainly Senator Byrd was attuned to the thoughts of the 
             people of West Virginia. But there was more to it than 
             just knowing what the people of his State thought.
               His whole career was about making West Virginia a better 
             place, expanding its infrastructure, educating its people, 
             supporting its industries, and providing the circumstances 
             in which economic development could take root and 
             flourish. Improving the lives of the people of his State 
             was what motivated Senator Byrd to come here almost 19,000 
             times for votes on any number of issues.
               As I think of the impact Senator Byrd's career has had 
             on West Virginia, I cannot help but think of the 
             similarities between our two States. Alaska and West 
             Virginia are both mostly rural, energy-producing States 
             with pockets of intractable poverty. It is a mark of 
             respect for his success at changing the world for the 
             better that West Virginia has fewer poverty-stricken 
             residents, and that remote regions of his State are less 
             difficult to travel to and from than when Senator Byrd was 
             first elected to Congress. He was an ardent supporter of 
             the Appalachian Regional Commission, ARC, which was 
             created to help solve the problems of poverty and 
             hopelessness in his State by upgrading insufficient public 
             infrastructure, building and maintaining educational 
             facilities, and providing access to public and private 
             sector assistance to improve health care, foster economic 
             development and diversity, and provide opportunities for 
             the people of the region beyond energy extraction and the 
             few other traditional industries that existed there.
               It is no surprise that when my predecessor, Senator Ted 
             Stevens, was looking for a way to improve the lives of 
             Alaskans, he saw in the ARC that his close friend and 
             colleague, Senator Byrd, had worked so hard to support a 
             model for the Denali Commission that he believed could 
             create similar hope and opportunity in our State. My 
             colleagues and I in the Alaska congressional delegation 
             today are just as dedicated to the potential the Denali 
             Commission represents for our State. We can only hope to 
             have as much positive impact on the lives of Alaskans as 
             Senator Byrd had with those of the West Virginians he was 
             so proud to represent.
               I do not have as many great stories about Senator Byrd 
             as many of our other colleagues, but I will close with 
             observations about the man, hard at work doing what he 
             knew was right for his people, which inspired me. As the 
             Senate worked to reform the Nation's health care system 
             last year, a number of votes were late at night or early 
             in the morning, and as many will remember, the weather 
             last December was uncharacteristically cold and snowy. As 
             an Alaskan and a relatively young man, getting to the 
             Capitol during a blizzard was not a big ordeal. Watching 
             Senator Byrd, in his nineties and in obvious frail health, 
             make his way to the Senate Chamber time and time again in 
             his wheelchair, including for a final vote very early on 
             the morning of Christmas Eve, was an inspiration. Seeing 
             it then, and reflecting on it in the last several days, 
             made me appreciate more fully the man's dedication to the 
             people he served.
               Every State deserves Senators with those motivations, 
             and while I will always marvel at the man's encyclopedic 
             knowledge of the Senate and countless other things, the 
             thing I will emulate about the life and career of Robert 
             C. Byrd, for however long the voters of Alaska choose to 
             have me as their Senator, is that my job is to make the 
             lives of Alaskans better.
               I believe Senator Byrd would approve.

               Mr. BROWN of Massachusetts. Mr. President, today I rise 
             to speak about our Nation's longest serving Senator who 
             dedicated his life to public service. Senator Byrd first 
             came to the Senate the same year I was born, 1959, and I 
             took office just a few months before he passed away. 
             Though I did not have the opportunity to know him well, 
             each day I learn more of his legacy and his impact on what 
             he referred to as the Second Great Senate.
               Robert Byrd was a staunch defender of the Constitution 
             and the institution of the Senate. Many have told the 
             story of how he carried his pocket Constitution in his 
             jacket wherever he went to remind us all of that 
             document's importance in making the laws of today. His 
             speeches on the Senate floor were legendary and 
             illustrated his devotion to the place where he served for 
             more than 50 years.
               In his role as a Senator from West Virginia, Robert Byrd 
             worked tirelessly to modernize his State and end its 
             economic isolation. But he did more than just serve his 
             State. Robert Byrd's dedication to the complexity and the 
             many traditions of the Senate was extraordinary. He was 
             passionately, and often solely, committed to the Founders' 
             wise intent that the Senate was to remain a bulwark 
             against the power of the Presidency.
               Through relentless effort, dedication, and commitment, 
             Robert Byrd rose from humble beginnings to become one of 
             our Nation's most skilled legislators. I thank him for his 
             many years of public service in representing West Virginia 
             and our Nation. My thoughts and prayers go out to his 
             family and friends as they mourn his great loss.

               Mr. BENNETT. Mr. President, I rise today to offer my 
             sincere condolences following the passing of my friend and 
             colleague, Senator Robert C. Byrd. This is obviously the 
             end of an era. Senator Byrd has seen the landing of a man 
             on the Moon, the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the 
             resignation of one President and the impeachment trial of 
             another, and countless other significant and historical 
             landmarks during his unparalleled Senate career.
               Each of us has his or her own memories of Senator Byrd's 
             kindness and devotion to the Senate as an institution. The 
             place will not be the same without him.
               My wife Joyce and I extend our deepest condolences to 
             his daughters and the entire Byrd family.
                     Proceedings in the House of Representatives
                                                  Monday, June 28, 2010
               The Chaplain, the Reverend Daniel P. Coughlin, offered 
             the following prayer:
               Beneath Your creative hand, O Lord, every garden needs 
             more attention.
               Education and formation of character is never a finished 
             product for Your people.
               Constant care and oversight as well as discerning 
             analysis and fresh energy are required daily for 
             governance of a good society.
               Therefore, Lord God, grant Your servants patience, 
             perseverance, and determination to work hard to attain the 
             goals Your Providence sets before us, today and every day 
             as long as life shall last.
               Reward the long labor of Senator Robert Byrd. Grant him 
             eternal rest.
                                                 Tuesday, June 29, 2010
                               MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE
               A message from the Senate by Ms. Curtis, one of its 
             clerks, announced that the Senate agreed to the following 
                                     S. Res. 572
               In the Senate of the United States, June 28, 2010.
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd served the people 
             of his beloved state of West Virginia for over 63 years, 
             serving in the West Virginia House of Delegates, the West 
             Virginia Senate, the United States House of 
             Representatives, and the United States Senate;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd is the only West 
             Virginian to have served in both Houses of the West 
             Virginia Legislature and in both Houses of the United 
             States Congress;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served for 
             fifty-one years in the United States Senate and is the 
             longest serving Senator in history, having been elected to 
             nine full terms;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has cast more than 
             18,680 rollcall votes--more than any other Senator in 
             American history;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served in the 
             Senate leadership as President pro tempore, Majority 
             Leader, Majority Whip, Minority Leader, and Secretary of 
             the Majority Conference;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has served on a 
             Senate committee, the Committee on Appropriations, which 
             he has chaired during five Congresses, longer than any 
             other Senator;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd is the first 
             Senator to have authored a comprehensive history of the 
             United States Senate;
               Whereas the Honorable Robert C. Byrd has played an 
             essential role in the development and enactment of an 
             enormous body of national legislative initiatives and 
             policy over many decades; and
               Whereas his death has deprived his State and Nation of 
             an outstanding lawmaker and public servant: Now, 
             therefore, be it
               Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
             and deep regret the announcement of the death of the 
             Honorable Robert C. Byrd, Senator from the State of West 
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives and 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
               Resolved, That when the Senate adjourns today, it stand 
             adjourned as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the deceased Senator.
                                   ROBERT C. BYRD
               (Mr. RAHALL asked and was given permission to address 
             the House for 1 minute.)

               Mr. RAHALL. Madam Speaker, as we all know, the country 
             and our State of West Virginia has lost a true public 
             servant. He was a dear friend to many of us. He was an 
             individual who defended our Constitution and an individual 
             who truly had the best interests of the American people in 
             mind every day.
               I would ask that the House take a moment of silent 
             prayer on behalf of the late Honorable senior Senator from 
             West Virginia, Robert C. Byrd.

               The SPEAKER pro tempore. Members will rise and observe a 
             moment of silence.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, I offer a privileged resolution 
             and ask for its immediate consideration.
               The Clerk read the resolution, as follows:
                                    H. Res. 1484
               Resolved, That the House has heard with profound sorrow 
             of the death of the Honorable Robert C. Byrd, a Senator 
             from the State of West Virginia.
               Resolved, That a committee of such Members of the House 
             as the Speaker may designate, together with such Members 
             of the Senate as may be joined, be appointed to attend the 
               Resolved, That the Clerk communicate these resolutions 
             to the Senate and transmit a copy thereof to the family of 
             the deceased.
               Resolved, That when the House adjourns today, it adjourn 
             as a further mark of respect to the memory of the deceased 

               The SPEAKER pro tempore. The gentleman from West 
             Virginia is recognized for 1 hour.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, I yield the customary 30 
             minutes to the gentlewoman from West Virginia (Mrs. 
             Capito). ... Mr. Speaker, I am honored to yield 1 minute 
             to the gentlewoman from California (Ms. Pelosi), the 
             Speaker of the House.

               Ms. PELOSI. I am honored to join you, Chairman Rahall 
             and Congresswoman Capito, in singing the praises of a 
             great man, Senator Byrd. I rise today to remember the 
             extraordinary life and legacy of Senator Robert C. Byrd of 
             West Virginia, a man who loved his State, loved this 
             country, and was such an important part of this Congress.
               Throughout his remarkable career, he worked for all 
             Americans, and he never stopped fighting for the people of 
             West Virginia. While we are here, we all take pride in 
             bearing witness to history. Senator Byrd shaped it, and in 
             shaping history, he built a better future for all 
               His story was the true embodiment of the American dream. 
             An orphan at a young age, Senator Byrd refused to allow 
             his circumstances to limit the reach of his potential or 
             his ability.
               A son of West Virginia's coal country, he was the first 
             in his family to be educated above the second grade. He 
             worked as a butcher and a welder and entered office to 
             serve his community and his neighbors. In doing so, he 
             would ultimately make America a better place for every 
               Though many note his mastery of the Senate, I note that 
             Robert Byrd's service began in the Congress here in the 
             House of Representatives in 1953. His service in the House 
             is a source of pride to all of us, though Senator Byrd 
             remarked that he was happy to leave behind the limitations 
             on speaking time that apply on the House floor. In fact, I 
             checked the Congressional Record myself on that. In the 
             year that Senator Byrd first came to Congress, I found 
             that in one single floor speech he managed to quote the 
             Book of Ecclesiastes, Shakespeare's The Merchant of 
             Venice, Daniel Webster, and Rudyard Kipling, all while 
             discussing trade policy. That was a sign of the great 
             oratory that would come over the next 57 years. In that 
             time, Senator Byrd would become Congress' foremost scholar 
             on the institutions of our democracy. He always spoke 
             truth to power. He served as a voice of reason. He was 
             always a gentleman, charming any friend or foe.
               Today, the entire Nation mourns the loss of this great 
             champion, leader, and public servant. For more than 57 
             years, Congress has benefited from his wisdom and passion. 
             For generations to come, Robert C. Byrd's name will remain 
             etched in history books for his accomplishments and for 
             his courage.
               Senator Byrd has gone home to be with his beloved Erma. 
             We hope it is a comfort to the Byrd family that so many 
             join them in grieving their loss at this sad time.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, I yield 1 minute to the 
             distinguished majority leader of the House of 
             Representatives, the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. Hoyer).

               Mr. HOYER. I thank the distinguished Member from West 
             Virginia, the chairman of our Natural Resources Committee, 
             Nick Joe Rahall, of whom Robert Byrd was very proud.
               I also am pleased to recognize the Speaker pro tempore, 
             Alan Mollohan, of whom Robert Byrd was very proud, and who 
             he considered a partner. I thank Congresswoman Capito for 
             allowing me to speak--in fact, out of order--on the 
             passing of the distinguished American who was larger than 
             life in so many respects.
               Today, we honor the life of Senator Robert Byrd. History 
             will reflect him as the longest serving Member Congress 
             has ever seen. But, of course, if it were only longevity 
             that we were honoring, it would simply be the hand of fate 
             that allowed that to happen. But what we really honor is 
             that Robert C. Byrd used his longevity to such 
             extraordinary benefit of the people he served in the State 
             of West Virginia, the people of this Nation, and the 
             legislative branch of government. I doubt that there have 
             been any peers to Robert C. Byrd in standing on the floor 
             of the U.S. Senate or of the House of Representatives or 
             in any forum in which he was temporarily present, that any 
             more strong advocacy of the equality and separateness of 
             the legislative branch was made clear.
               Robert C. Byrd was a giant. He was a giant in terms of 
             character. He grew during the course of his lifetime, 
             which is a mark of a great man. All of us are, to some 
             degree, captives of the environment in which we are raised 
             and in which we live. Robert C. Byrd is no different. But 
             Robert C. Byrd grew. He grew intellectually. He grew 
             culturally. But he did not, in growing, leave his base. He 
             did not forget the values that he learned in West 
             Virginia--the values of courtesy; of kindness; of caring; 
             of helping; of making sure that the people who were not 
             famous, who did not have power, who did not have positions 
             of note were never forgotten.
               Mr. Speaker, I remember an incident that I'm sure was 
             not unique to me. Early on in my career I went over on an 
             appropriation matter--like you, Mr. Speaker, as a member 
             of the Appropriations Committee. Senator Byrd invited me 
             in. He was then majority leader. He invited me into his 
             office. We sat down. And for the next 45 minutes--which, 
             as a junior Member of the House, I found extraordinary--he 
             regaled me on the history of the Senate and the books he 
             had written. I was mesmerized in the presence of this 
             giant of the legislative body.
               At the end, as I'm sure he did to so many of us, he gave 
             me a rectangular painting of a covered bridge in West 
             Virginia. Mr. Obey is going to speak at some point in 
             time--and Mr. Obey has a similar painting hanging in his 
             office. Now it's not the original because Bob Byrd gave it 
             to so many of us. But I looked at that and I thought to 
             myself, What a kind gesture. How impressed I was, this 
             young Member of Congress being accorded this kind of 
             respect from this giant in the U.S. Senate.
               Robert C. Byrd will be dearly missed by us all, and he 
             will be missed most of all when very difficult issues 
             confront the legislative body and there is a clamor that 
             the legislature agree with the Executive, for whatever 
             reasons; a clamor that all too often emanates from fear of 
             this, that, or the other, and that fear would ignore the 
             constitutional role played by the Congress of the United 
             States. It is then that we will miss Senator Byrd's 
             clarity of intellect, of conscience, of commitment to the 
             Constitution of the United States of America, as well as 
             to the rules of the U.S. Senate. He was a passionate 
             advocate for people, for principle, for the Constitution, 
             and for our country. Senator Byrd, we will miss you. But 
             we will remember fondly your contribution and be ever 
             thankful that we had the opportunity to serve with you.
               Some of you remember my dog Charlotte. My dog Charlotte 
             was with me for 15\1/2\ years. Some of you will recall for 
             10 of those years Charlotte came to work with me every 
             day. Charlotte was an English Springer Spaniel. I planted 
             a tree in my yard--it's a dogwood tree--and there's a 
             stone and a bronze plaque for Charlotte. Charlotte was one 
             of the loves of my life. I lived alone with her for 10\1/
             2\ years after Judy passed away.
               The first call I got the day after Charlotte passed was 
             from Robert C. Byrd saying how sorry he was that I had 
             lost Charlotte. That was an indication of his humanity, of 
             his caring for others.
               Yes, he was a great man. But he was a man who understood 
             the pain, the aspirations, and the hopes of all with whom 
             he came in contact.
               Thank you, Robert C. Byrd, our good and faithful 

               Mrs. CAPITO. Mr. Speaker, I yield such time as he may 
             consume to the gentleman from California (Mr. Lewis).

               Mr. LEWIS of California. Mr. Speaker, I very much 
             appreciate the gentlelady's yielding.
               Robert Byrd, a colleague and associate on the 
             Appropriations Committee, this incredible leader in our 
             committee, has made such a difference over the years. 
             Beyond that, I quickly developed great respect for his 
             support of the legislative role relative to our 
             constitutional responsibility. And over the decades he has 
             fought administration after administration, Democrat and 
             Republican alike, whose bureaucrats want to take away 
             authority from the legislative branch. His voice was heard 
             consistently reflecting the priorities of this 
             institution. And for that I will never forget him.
               As you have just heard from our leader, in recent years, 
             Senator Byrd and I developed a different kind of 
             friendship because of our love for our dogs. Indeed, it 
             was a reflection of this man, the wonderful human side of 
             this man, that has been the experience for me. We will--
             Arlene, my dog Bruin, and I--miss Senator Byrd.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, it's my honor to yield such 
             time as he may consume to the distinguished chairman of 
             our House Appropriations Committee, the gentleman from 
             Wisconsin (Mr. Obey).

               Mr. OBEY. I thank the gentleman for the time.
               Mr. Speaker, for most of the last 15 years, Senator 
             Robert Byrd led the Senate Democrats on the Appropriations 
             Committee. And for roughly that same amount of time, I had 
             the same privilege on the House side, and I got to know 
             him extremely well. I loved Robert Byrd. For one thing, he 
             and I shared a love of bluegrass music. I daresay he was 
             the finest fiddler in the history of the Congress, but 
             that's not the real reason that I hold him in such high 
               He began as a product of a segregated background, but 
             through sheer intense pursuit of knowledge, understanding, 
             and wisdom, he became a person who is a powerful 
             representative for the cause of equal opportunity for 
             everyone. I can think of no one in the history of the 
             Senate who demonstrated a greater capacity for personal 
             growth than did Robert Byrd. He was truly unmatched in his 
             recognition of our obligation to the Constitution and to 
             the institution of the Congress itself.
               And the greatest thing about him, in addition to his 
             dedication, was, simply put, he had guts; and he wasn't 
             afraid to demonstrate that on many occasions when the 
             Nation needed to see it demonstrated. He made the point 
             that he never served under any President. He served with 
             many, honorably and with distinction. They really don't 
             make them like him anymore.

               Mrs. CAPITO. Mr. Speaker, I yield myself such time as I 
             may consume.
               I rise today to thank my colleague from West Virginia's 
             Third Congressional District (Mr. Rahall) for offering 
             this resolution, honoring the passing of our senior 
             Senator, Senator Robert C. Byrd. I want to thank the 
             Speaker, my other colleague from West Virginia, for his 
             dedication and friendship to Senator Byrd through many 
             more years than I have served here in this Congress. As 
             the three of us know, this is a difficult time for all 
             West Virginians and the U.S. Senate.
               As my colleagues know, Senator Byrd was an institution 
             not only in West Virginia but also in the U.S. Senate. 
             Coming from very modest beginnings, the young man from 
             rural Raleigh County, West Virginia, rose from the 
             mountains of Appalachia to become a lion in the greatest 
             deliberative body on Earth, the U.S. Senate. His path to 
             success is truly emblematic of the American dream.
               Few can travel through our great State of West Virginia 
             without recognizing the effect Senator Byrd had on our 
             State. While he is well recognized for the many roads and 
             buildings that are named in his honor, it is the 
             leadership he displayed in bringing our delegation 
             together when it mattered most for West Virginia that is 
             truly a testament to the effect he has had on our State.
               During my tenure--which for him was recent, 10 years--he 
             rallied our delegation to save the 130th Air National 
             Guard unit from being cut, and he began working with all 
             of us toward a consensus on mine safety legislation after 
             the tragic Sago mine incident. He was an able leader and 
             led us all as leaders for West Virginia.
               Senator Byrd was also a wonderful ambassador for 
             Appalachia. West Virginians are very proud of our heritage 
             and our strong work ethic throughout our lives, and 
             Senator Byrd continued to share Appalachian culture--we 
             just heard from Mr. Obey on that--with his colleagues in 
             Washington. Whether it was displaying his musical talents 
             on the fiddle or his dedication to both American and world 
             history or the process of the U.S. Senate or the 
             protection of our Constitution, Senator Byrd was truly a 
             man of many talents.
               I will fondly remember, as I was attending a meeting in 
             Charleston, West Virginia, probably 12 years ago--I knew 
             about his fiddling, but I didn't know about his love of 
             music and his vocal ability--when he joined Kathy Mattea 
             in singing a duet of ``Amazing Grace.'' It was a great 
             moment for me, but for him, he was celebrating his three 
             loves: his music, his love of education, and his faith in 
               I also remember--and the other members of the delegation 
             will remember this, too--we were in his office, and he 
             served us lunch in his office. And when it came time for 
             dessert, he asked all of us if we wanted dessert. And 
             since we were all watching our waistlines, we sort of 
             waived off dessert and said, ``No, we really don't need 
             dessert. It's lunch. I think we are going to pass on 
               ``No, no. We must have dessert. We must have apple pie 
             and ice cream.''
               And then he proudly told us how he had maintained the 
             same weight for the last 57 years in the U.S. Congress. I 
             think that's a feat to be celebrated, quite frankly.
               He also talked a lot about--and we heard this, too--the 
             love of his dogs. I remember when his beloved Billy died. 
             He was crushed, and he wasn't afraid or ashamed or 
             embarrassed to express the love and the compassion that he 
             had and the companionship he felt with his dog. And I 
             think that's a common bond that a lot of people here in 
             the United States, but also in West Virginia, share.
               So with Senator Byrd's passing, West Virginia has truly 
             lost a favorite son. The U.S. Senate has lost an icon. And 
             as any Senator will tell you, Senator Byrd served as a 
             tremendous mentor in passing on Senate procedure to newly 
             elected Senators. In many ways, Senator Byrd was an 
             institution within the institution of the Senate, and the 
             Senate will not be the same without him.
               I will miss Senator Byrd's passion and ardent defense of 
             our Nation's Constitution. He was certainly one of a kind, 
             and I feel privileged to have served with him. I will 
             never forget the advice that he gave me when I first 
             sought his counsel when I first went in, in my first year 
             serving in this body. And he said, ``Shelley, you need to 
             be a workhorse, not a show horse.'' Senator Byrd will 
             always be remembered for his hard work as a workhorse and 
             also for his dedication to representing our great State of 
             West Virginia.
               I wish to extend to Senator Byrd's family my deepest 
             sympathies and know that he is at peace and at home with 
             his beloved Erma.
               So I would again thank Mr. Rahall for presenting this. 
             Senator Byrd will certainly be missed. And I want to pay 
             tribute to his tremendous service, sacrifice, strength, 
             honesty, and devotion to our State and Nation.
               I reserve the balance of my time.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, I am proud to yield 2 minutes 
             to the gentleman from Washington, Mr. Norm Dicks, the 
             distinguished chairman of our Defense Subcommittee on 
             Appropriations and a classmate of mine.

               Mr. DICKS. I thank the gentleman for yielding.
               I had the great honor of serving in the other body for 8 
             years as an assistant to Senator Warren G. Magnuson. And 
             during that time, Senator Byrd became the whip in the 
             Senate. I can remember how he was faithfully writing notes 
             every couple of days to Senator Magnuson, ``I put this in 
             the Record for you.'' He was absolutely committed to the 
             U.S. Senate, and he was a forceful advocate.
               I have served, as Chairman Obey has, in many conferences 
             with Senator Byrd. And when there was something that he 
             wanted--and oftentimes to protect the workers of West 
             Virginia on coal mining issues--the Congress responded 
             because he was such a forceful advocate.
               And one of the things I respected most about Senator 
             Byrd was his knowledge of the history of the Senate, the 
             history of the Congress, and his devotion to that history. 
             He would oftentimes talk about historic events and tie 
             them in to current days.
               Some people may have criticized him on spending issues, 
             but he used to say, and I always used to quote him on 
             this, the Congress can't give up the power of the purse 
             because the power of the purse is in the Constitution; and 
             it's part of the Constitution of the United States, a 
             right that was earned in England when the people of 
             England rose up against kings and demanded that Parliament 
             have the power of deciding how the money was to be spent.
               And as has been said by many here, he served with many 
             Presidents, but he was not cowed by the Presidency, and he 
             would stand up on the floor of the Senate many times and 
             talk about different wars, different situations we were 
             in, and demand that the Executive appreciate the power of 
             the Congress and respect the power of the Congress. And he 
             served--I think he was elected nine full terms. That's a 
             record that I doubt will ever be matched.
               He also went to law school during his time in the 
             Senate. Now, how many people could do that? I mean, it 
             just was remarkable. And I think President Kennedy gave 
             him his degree from American University just a few months 
             before he was, unfortunately, tragically assassinated in 
               Robert Byrd is a legendary figure. In my time here in 
             the Congress I had the great fortune of serving on the 
             Appropriations Committee for 34 years. But I served with 
             Senator Magnuson, who became chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee. Senator Byrd was there 
             throughout that entire time and a lot more.
               And I just rise today in respect for him, his legacy, 
             his commitment to the Congress. He had a wonderful family, 
             and I'm sure that they're going to miss him. But they 
             have, I think, the satisfaction of knowing that Robert 
             Byrd did a great job, a fantastic job for the State of 
             West Virginia, but also was a great Senator in a national 
               And so I just want to say to my colleague and classmate 
             from West Virginia, who I know served on Senator Byrd's 
             staff, and it was a great learning experience that you had 
             in the other body, as I did. And I think it helped to 
             prepare us for work here in the House of Representatives.
               So I just would say again that we have lost a great 
             American, a man of tremendous courage and commitment, and 
             someone we respected, and his legacy and memory will live 
             long in the history of the United States of America and in 
             the Congress.

               Mrs. CAPITO. Mr. Speaker, I have no further requests for 
             time, and I yield back the balance of my time.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, I yield 2 minutes to the 
             gentlewoman from Ohio (Ms. Kaptur), a member of the 
             Appropriations Committee as well.

               Ms. KAPTUR. I thank the distinguished dean of the 
             delegation for yielding to me. And with Speaker Mollohan 
             in the chair this evening, the people of the Buckeye State 
             of Ohio extend our deepest sympathies to the State of West 
             Virginia, to the Byrd family, to all of the staff that 
             served this truly remarkable human being and American, 
             Senator Robert Byrd.
               There's a great piece of music called Fanfare for the 
             Common Man by Aaron Copeland, and as I'm saying these 
             words this evening, I think of that music and of Senator 
             Byrd's remarkable life. He truly was a wise man of the 
             legislative branch who belonged to the American people. He 
             gave his life to us. His road had been a hardscrabble one 
             from the very beginning. He's the kind of American that 
             walked a tough road, who when he came here to serve, he 
             never forgot the people who came from backgrounds like 
               I had the great joy of serving with him on the 
             Appropriations Committee. Being one of the few women that 
             have ever served on that committee, when I arrived there 
             in the 1990s, I can remember him sitting across from me at 
             a conference committee, kind of looking over his glasses 
             with a glint in his eye at this woman who was a bit 
             younger than he was. He exhibited a great sense of welcome 
             with also some surprise that indeed history in America was 
               I respected and liked him so very, very much. And I 
             appreciated his kindness to me. He loved history. I hold 
             in my possession an autographed copy from him of The 
             Senate of the Roman Republic: Addresses on the History of 
             Roman Constitutionalism.
               I loved speaking with him. I loved being on a program 
             with him a few years ago with Leo Gerard, president of the 
             Steelworkers, and listening to Senator Byrd deliver an 
             impassioned speech about the American worker. He was such 
             an exemplary representative for the working men and women 
             of this country.
               His intellect, his humor, his knowledge of the rules and 
             history, his love of this institution and respect for it, 
             and his passion, his passion on every issue that he 
             handled. He had so much to teach all of us.
               I happen to be a Democrat. He was a real Democrat. He 
             set the pointer on a compass and that needle to represent 
             all people.
               He was a gentleman, he was civil, he was enlightened, he 
             worked so hard. I can remember his telling a story about 
             working on the railroads as a young man. That hard work 
             and that sense of honor he carried with him through his 
             entire service of over half a century to the people of our 
               I will end with saying, as I think of Fanfare for the 
             Common Man, that the enormous courage that he displayed in 
             the last years of his life is a lesson to us all. He 
             continued to serve, despite illness, despite difficulty, 
             his doggedness, his determination--he truly was a heroic 
             American. I personally shall miss him very, very much.
               I thank the people of the State of West Virginia for 
             continuing to send him to this Congress. He made us all 
             better by serving with him. He built a better and more 
             humane America. He was loved by this membership. We wish 
             him Godspeed, and eternal rest grant unto him, O Lord.
               I thank the gentleman from West Virginia for allowing me 
             this time tonight to pay tribute to a great and good man 
             and Senator for the ages. In knowing him, we have walked 
             with history, and are grateful.

               Mr. RAHALL. Mr. Speaker, it is now my deep honor to 
             yield to a close personal friend and fellow member of our 
             congressional delegation from West Virginia, Mr. Alan 
             Mollohan. Mr. Mollohan chairs the Appropriations 
             Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related 
             Agencies. He has served on many conferences with the late 
             Senator Byrd as well. Senator Byrd often said he had two 
             sons, and that would be Alan and myself.
               I'm very honored to yield such time as he may consume to 
             Alan Mollohan.

               Mr. MOLLOHAN. I thank my friend and colleague from West 
             Virginia for yielding. We have many tender memories of the 
               Mr. Speaker, it was with profound sadness that I learned 
             yesterday of the passing of Senator Robert C. Byrd. This 
             country knew Senator Byrd as one of the lions of the 
             Senate, a ferocious advocate for his State and a 
             principled spokesman for his beliefs, whether it was his 
             opposition to the war in Iraq or his commitment to improve 
             safety and working conditions in the coalfields of West 
               This Congress, both sides of the Capitol, knew Robert C. 
             Byrd as the chief defender of its constitutional 
             prerogatives, an unequaled master of its parliamentary 
             rules, an expert on its history, and one of the ablest 
             legislative tacticians either Chamber has ever seen.
               West Virginia knew Senator Robert C. Byrd as her own. 
             It's difficult to adequately describe the bond of profound 
             connection between the man and the State. People from 
             outside the State might assume that this connection was 
             built on the Senator's legendary success in delivering 
             Federal funds to West Virginia, and that would be wrong.
               West Virginians understand how important that success 
             was, of course. We know that those material contributions 
             are literally incalculable in dollars invested, roads 
             paved, buildings constructed, and jobs created. But the 
             bond between Senator Byrd and West Virginia went far 
             beyond that. It is almost as though his personal story not 
             only inspired West Virginians, as it would most Americans, 
             but that it captured so much of our State's culture and 
             our State's values. That personal history is known 
             throughout the State.
               Senator Byrd, the adopted son of a miner, graduated as 
             class valedictorian. He was the manual worker who earned a 
             law degree while serving in the U.S. Senate. He was the 
             husband who relied for almost 70 years on his beloved wife 
             Erma. Those qualities of discipline, of integrity, and 
             commitment forged in the mountains of West Virginia and 
             exercised in the Halls of Washington speak more strongly 
             to West Virginians than any material measure of his 
             immense contributions to the State.
               I cannot imagine Robert C. Byrd representing any State 
             other than West Virginia, and it is difficult to imagine 
             West Virginia without Senator Byrd.
               I knew Senator Byrd as a mentor. I was first elected to 
             Congress in 1983. After 28 years, I like to think of 
             myself as a reasonably seasoned veteran of this body. But 
             then I remind myself, before I took my first oath of 
             office, Senator Byrd had already served more years than I 
             have today. Twenty-eight years ago he was already a master 
             of the legislative branch.
               From my very first days in this House, Senator Byrd 
             never withheld his support or his counsel. I can remember 
             many times Senator Byrd calling Congressman Rahall and 
             myself over to his office just to consult, to ask what was 
             going on in West Virginia, or to take counsel himself on 
             what was going on in the House of Representatives, or just 
             to find out what was going on in our personal lives, how 
             our parents were, how our fathers were, how our mothers 
             were. Those were touching moments.
               Senator Byrd, many people have asked me, what is Senator 
             Byrd really like? He is such a disciplined person in 
             public. People want to know, what is he like in private? 
             And I think there are several insights that we have had 
             glimpses of in previous speakers here this afternoon into 
             what he was like as a man beyond a legislator. I can 
             remember his being very touching and very concerned about 
             his dog Billy, and bringing him to the Congress, or if he 
             were home, worrying about how he was getting along. Very 
             concerned and obviously loving toward a pet.
               But most poignant was Senator Byrd's relationship with 
             his wife Erma. It was long. She was his childhood 
             sweetheart. Senator Byrd used to tell the story about 
             courting Erma with another young man's candy. The young 
             man would come to school, and Senator Byrd and he would 
             catch up, and the young man would give Senator Byrd a 
             piece of candy. And Senator Byrd wouldn't eat that candy; 
             he would save it and give it to his future wife, his 
             sweetheart, Erma. That relationship lasted and grew and 
             was warm and inspiring throughout his life. And her 
             passing a number of years ago was a very sad time in the 
             life of Senator Byrd, obviously. It was also a very sad 
             time in the State of West Virginia. They were a couple 
             beloved by West Virginia.
               I remember another touching moment, when my father 
             passed almost 10 years ago. Senator Byrd attended the 
             funeral and continued on after the service for about an 
             hour's drive to where Dad was interred. And Senator Byrd 
             after the service, he pulled me aside and told me what a 
             lovely cemetery this was for Dad's resting place.
               Finally, I knew Senator Byrd as a friend. I cannot 
             remember a time when he was not in my life. And I will 
             miss my friend. My wife, Barbara, and I offer our deepest 
             condolences and our best wishes to Senator Byrd's family, 
             to his staff, and to that close, wonderful circle of 
             people who knew him and loved him.

               Mr. RAHALL. How much time do I have remaining, Mr. 

               The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. Dicks). The gentleman has 
             14\1/2\ minutes remaining.

               Mr. RAHALL. I yield myself such time as I may consume.
               Mr. Speaker, the gates of heaven opened wide early 
             yesterday morning. West Virginia lost a faithful son, the 
             Senate lost a father's watchful eye, and I lost my mentor 
             and close friend.
               I extend my prayers and thoughts to Senator Byrd's 
             daughters, to his grandchildren and great-grandchildren, 
             to all his family, and to his staff, especially many of 
             whom have been with him for so long. Sadly but surely, we 
             will not see the likes of Robert C. Byrd pass our way 
               He came from humble beginnings. A virtual orphan, he was 
             sent to be reared in the coalfields of our beloved State 
             of West Virginia, enduring the depths of the Great 
             Depression. But he was wealthy beyond belief with richness 
             of values, all instilled in him by his adoptive parents.
               A self-taught butcher, a welder, a Sunday school 
             teacher, a student, a self-disciplined scholar with 
             straight A's with 21 credit hours in his first semester of 
             college, a young man still, he wanted to serve. Armed with 
             little more than determination and a fiddle, he 
             successfully entered politics. ``Byrd by name, Byrd by 
             nature, let's send Byrd to the legislature.'' How often he 
             would fiddle that with a tin cup at the end of his fiddle, 
             raising his first campaign funds. I recall, because my 
             late father was the treasurer for those early campaigns of 
             Senator Byrd.
               Thus began what would become an unprecedented 
             legislative service. Marshaling sharp focus, unwavering 
             diligence, and old-fashioned hard work, he rose to 
             remarkable heights of rank and responsibility to serve the 
             Lord, and to serve our State and our Nation as well. Yet 
             Senator Byrd always remained true to his own essential 
             nature. He never got above his raisin'.
               He could mix with kings and queens and Presidents, and 
             while doing that he never forgot from whence he came, and 
             he always remained deeply proud of his roots. He often 
             remarked he would just as soon be eatin' beans and 
             cornbread and onions and sippin' buttermilk in the hills 
             and hollers of West Virginia as having lavish dinners with 
             kings and queens around the world.
               I recall working for him in the Senate Democratic 
             Cloakroom in 1972. During that time, a young man from 
             Delaware by the name of Joe Biden was elected to the U.S. 
             Senate. Within a month or two after Senator-elect Joe 
             Biden's ascension to the U.S. Senate, he lost his first 
             wife in a tragic car wreck. Senator Byrd turned to me and 
             said, ``Nick, do you mind if we take a drive up to 
             Wilmington, Delaware, so that we can pay our respects to 
             Senator Biden's wife?'' I said, ``Sure.''
               I drove the car. It was a cold, rainy night, late 
             November 1972. We arrived in Wilmington. We arrived at the 
             funeral home to face a long, winding line that was waiting 
             out in the rain to pay their respects. Senator Biden heard 
             we were in that line and sent word out he wanted us to 
             come up and immediately get up front and come inside where 
             it was warm. Senator Byrd said, no, he would not use his 
             office, he would not use his prestige or power to jump in 
             front of anybody already in line in front of him. So we 
             stood in that cold rain, waiting to pay our respects to 
             Senator-elect, at that time, Joe Biden's first wife.
               The only individual to serve in both houses of the West 
             Virginia Legislature and the U.S. Congress, Senator Byrd 
             also achieved the distinction of holding more elective 
             leadership offices in the U.S. Senate than anyone in the 
             body's history. His Senate service is the body's longest.
               Combined with his tenure in the House, Senator Byrd 
             holds the distinction of serving in Congress longer than 
             anyone else. His achievements and his unrivaled archive of 
             accomplishments were the result of one sole purpose, to 
             serve others. And he never tired of trying to find ways to 
             help a little more, to do a little better.
               Striving for the next rung was, for Senator Byrd, a 
             lifelong pursuit. He was forever setting goals. And he 
             challenged himself, his staff, his colleagues, all of us 
             to meet or exceed those goals.
               And you know one other remarkable feature about Robert 
             C. Byrd. He made political contests, as bitter as they may 
             seem at the time, the foundation for future and lasting 
             friendships. Recall, for example, as I know the gentleman 
             in the chair, Mr. Dicks, can recall very well, Senator 
             Byrd's one-vote victory over the late Senator from 
             Massachusetts, Ted Kennedy, whose son Patrick was just 
             here on the floor.
               Perhaps many considered that a bitter contest. But what 
             did Senator Byrd use it for? To establish a lasting and 
             true friendship with Senator Ted Kennedy from 
             Massachusetts, as we all know who passed shortly before 
             Senator Byrd, and for whom Senator Byrd had nothing but 
             the utmost and kindest words of praise, and truly defined 
             a friendship that perhaps has not been in American 
             politics for some time.
               This was a defining quality and a wellspring of 
             immeasurable joy that irrigated ever greater horizons for 
             Senator Byrd. His penchant for setting records and then 
             breaking his own was the inevitable result, but 
             ultimately, we are the ones who reaped the greatest 
               In his later years, when anyone questioned age as 
             somehow detrimental to service, Senator Byrd reveled in 
             ticking off the names and ages of the ancients in the Old 
             Testament and their continued service to the Lord: Moses 
             was 120, Senator Byrd would say; Noah lived to be 960; 
             Methuselah at 969 years old; and he would call out, While 
             I am but a spry 85.
               At 92, with the longest record of service in Congress 
             well established, Senator Byrd enjoyed public service so 
             much that it is possible he also had the longest, happiest 
             life on record. If only we could have captured the 
             energies produced by his immense job satisfaction. If only 
             we could package them and share them with others.
               Senator Byrd was cautious about the use of superlatives. 
             He felt they were tossed around too casually, and although 
             I do not doubt that he is now grimacing a bit at me for 
             saying this, the fact is it is just not possible to speak 
             about Senator Byrd without using superlatives: longest 
             serving, hardest working, most revered, best loved. And 
             the list goes on and on. Yes, he was passionate about 
             people. He was passionate about politics. He was caring. 
             He was all concerned about the lives of all of us in West 
               As we all know, we go through personal trials and 
             tribulations in our family--the loss of a loved one, 
             sibling problems, loss of a job. Senator Byrd, when he was 
             physically able, would so surprisingly show up in West 
             Virginia offering that comforting arm around the shoulder 
             and always telling those afflicted with tragedy to keep 
             the faith in God, to don't let them get you down, keep 
             plugging along. Senator Byrd himself, who never had a bad 
             word to say about anybody despite some of the words that 
             were said about him, was forever the true gentleman.
               Many in this body had their own personal remembrances of 
             Senator Byrd. He touched so many of us, encouraged us, 
             taught us, even argued with us. And I can recall the last 
             time perhaps, except for the miners' memorial that he 
             attended this past April in honor of our 29 fallen coal 
             miners, the time before that he was probably in his home 
             area of Raleigh County, Beckley, West Virginia, was a 
             dinner in which he was a surprise guest that honored yours 
             truly. And my wife, Melinda, and I fixed up our house, and 
             my wife even set up the ``big daddy suite'' in our home in 
             West Virginia. That big daddy suite is still there 
             waiting, as it always was, for Senator Byrd to pay a 
             surprise visit.
               We are all better for the life of Senator Robert Byrd. 
             We owe him generous helpings of gratitude and admiration, 
             and we shall all miss him.
               Again, to Senator Byrd's family, we offer our prayers, 
             our never-ending thanks for the fact that they shared 
             Senator Byrd's extraordinary life with a grateful State 
             and a grateful Nation.
               Now, our former senior Senator, our late senior Senator 
             is indeed with his beloved wife, Erma, who was always a 
             twinkle in his eye. For almost 69 years, they were married 
             before her passing some 4 years ago. The Senator is with 
             his beloved Erma, smiling down upon all of us.
               We say thank you, Senator Byrd. Thank you for all you've 
             given our great State. Thank you for all you have given 
             our Nation, because we shall miss you.
               Mr. Speaker, I yield back the balance of my time.

               Ms. JACKSON LEE of Texas. Madam Speaker, I was detained 
             when my colleagues were on the floor of the House paying 
             tribute to Senator Byrd and did not want this time to go 
             without acknowledging my deep sympathy to his family and 
             to my good friend from West Virginia and to acknowledge 
             how special this man was to the institution we call 
             Congress and to the freedom that this Nation stands for.
               I cannot account for my personal encounters with Senator 
             Byrd, but I can tell you, as someone who respects and 
             loves this institution, what a man he was who understood 
             that the Constitution and rules were not for selfish 
             reasons, but to empower people.
               He had no qualms in standing up against Presidential 
             authority that was wrong in the Iraq war. He had no qualms 
             in fighting to ensure that resources came to his great 
             State. He loved the institution. He was a holder of 
             knowledge, and what we will lose with his passing is that 
             special sensitivity to the rules and to the responsibility 
             we have to not play politics with this institution. We are 
             here to serve America, and Senator Byrd did serve America.
               May God rest his soul and may he rest in peace. Senator 
             Byrd, we will miss you.

               Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas. Mr. Speaker, it is 
             with the utmost respect and admiration for the late 
             Senator Robert Carlyle Byrd that I recognize his passing. 
             Senator Byrd was known as a man of the people. He 
             dedicated his life's work to the American citizens and his 
             beloved constituency in the Mountain State of West 
               Born November 20, 1917, in North Wilkesboro, North 
             Carolina, the young Byrd moved in with family in West 
             Virginia where he grew up and would later meet his soon-
             to-be wife, Erma Ora James. Their marriage spanned more 
             than six decades until her death in 2006. Initially, he 
             was unable to afford college, but eventually attended 
             Beckley College, Concord College, Morris Harvey College, 
             and Marshall College, all in West Virginia. Senator Byrd's 
             public service career began after he won a seat in the 
             West Virginia House of Delegates in 1946. Six years later, 
             he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. It 
             was during this time he began night classes at American 
             University's Washington College of Law in 1953. With a 
             tenacious spirit and made-up mind, he would earn his law 
             degree some 10 years later in 1963.
               Along the course of his professional and academic 
             career, Robert Byrd was elected to the U.S. Senate and 
             would serve 51 years making him the longest serving 
             Senator in history. His time in office was well spent and 
             fruitful where he would serve in a myriad of leadership 
             roles. Most notably: President pro tempore of the U.S. 
             Senate; Democratic Caucus Senate majority leader; Senate 
             minority leader; and chairman of the Senate Committee on 
               Senator Byrd, like many of us, lived a full life filled 
             with high peaks and low valleys. I too, had some 
             reservations about meeting this one-time member of the Ku 
             Klux Klan who for 14 hours filibustered the Civil Rights 
             Act of 1964. But, when our paths crossed, I soon learned 
             of the great character of man he truly was. He believed 
             wholeheartedly in the U.S. Constitution and a clear 
             demonstration was the pocket version he always carried in 
             his coat pocket. Another love he had was taking afternoon 
             walks on the west front side of the Capitol. It was where 
             I knew I could find him whenever I needed to seek the 
             voice of wisdom.
               I will miss those afternoon strolls with the historian 
             of the Senate. Senator Byrd loved the American people, 
             loved his State, and loved our great Nation. Although he 
             no longer is with us on the terrestrial, his legacy will 
             live deeply within the Halls of Congress and in the hearts 
             of humanity.

               Mr. HOLT. Mr. Speaker, I rise to recognize and honor the 
             memory of U.S. Senator Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia.
               Born in West Virginia, I have known Senator Byrd my 
             whole life. Senator Byrd faithfully served West Virginia 
             in Congress for more than 57 years. Throughout his career 
             in the House and the Senate, he improved the lives and 
             welfare of the people of West Virginia for whom he cared 
             so much. He worked endlessly to fight for democratic 
             principles, defend the Constitution, and ensure that the 
             American dream was in reach for all families.
               Senator Byrd grew up in the southern coalfields of West 
             Virginia, first working as a gas station attendant and 
             then in a local food market. He started his political 
             career in the West Virginia House of Delegates, serving 
             from 1947 to 1950, followed by 2 years in the West 
             Virginia Senate. After being elected to the U.S. House of 
             Representatives in 1952, he enrolled in law school night 
             classes despite not having a bachelor's degree. In 1958, 
             West Virginia elected him to the U.S. Senate where he 
             became its longest serving Member.
               Senator Byrd was an energetic defender of the U.S. 
             Senate as an institution, persistently seeking to preserve 
             its dignity and traditions. He literally wrote the book on 
             the Senate--a four-volume history of the institution that 
             is a treasure. To read his books and to read his speeches 
             is to see Senator Byrd as a self-taught great orator and 
             historian, someone who could readily quote from 
             Shakespeare, Greek tragedies, and the King James Bible.
               I will always remember him for his extraordinary 
             devotion and service to the people of West Virginia. He 
             paid exceptional attention to his constituents and their 
             individual concerns. Staff members told me that at night 
             they would receive calls at home from the Senator, 
             quizzing them on people who had signed his guestbook that 
             day and asking how he could help them. He would recognize 
             people in a crowd and ask them if his constituent service 
             to them years before took care of their problem.
               My thoughts and condolences go out to his daughters, his 
             family, and all of his friends and neighbors in West 
             Virginia. Senator Byrd dedicated every day of his service 
             in the U.S. Congress to strengthening the institution and 
             the country that he loved so deeply.
               He will be greatly missed. May he rest in peace with his 
             beloved wife Erma.
               Mr. FRANK of Massachusetts. Madam Speaker, I move that 
             the House do now adjourn.
               The motion was agreed to; accordingly (at 8 o'clock and 
             31 minutes p.m.), pursuant to House Resolution 1484, the 
             House adjourned until tomorrow, Wednesday, June 30, 2010, 
             at 10 a.m., as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the late Honorable Robert C. Byrd.
                                               Wednesday, June 30, 2010
               Mr. BOCCIERI. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent to 
             take from the Speaker's table the concurrent resolution 
             (S. Con. Res. 65) providing for the use of the catafalque 
             situated in the Exhibition Hall of the Capitol Visitor 
             Center in connection with memorial services to be 
             conducted in the U.S. Senate Chamber for the Honorable 
             Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from the State of West 
             Virginia, and ask for its immediate consideration in the 
               The Clerk read the title of the concurrent resolution.

               The SPEAKER pro tempore (Mr. Pastor of Arizona). Is 
             there objection to the request of the gentleman from Ohio?
               There was no objection.
               The text of the concurrent resolution is as follows:
                                   S. Con. Res. 65
               Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives 
             concurring), That the Architect of the Capitol is 
             authorized and directed to transfer the catafalque which 
             is situated in the Exhibition Hall of the Capitol Visitor 
             Center to the Senate Chamber so that such catafalque may 
             be used in connection with services to be conducted there 
             for the Honorable Robert C. Byrd, late a Senator from the 
             State of West Virginia.

               The concurrent resolution was agreed to.
               A motion to reconsider was laid on the table.

               Mr. GOHMERT. ... We lost a Senator this week. My time is 
             running short, so I want to get through as much of this 
             incredible speech as I can. I want it understood this was 
             a speech given by Senator Robert Byrd, in 1962, after the 
             Supreme Court decision to eliminate prayer in schools. 
             This is from the official Record. As time will permit, I 
             will read Senator Robert Byrd's speech from 1962.
               You know, one of the things I love about America is, for 
             the most part, it is a very forgiving country. A man who 
             had been part of the Ku Klux Klan later was repentant. He 
             was very sorry for being part of that organization, and he 
             changed his ways and was completely embraced by his 
             colleagues. This is Senator Byrd's speech from 1962:

               Mr. President, Thomas Jefferson expressed the will of 
             the American majority in 1776 when he included in the 
             Declaration of Independence the statement that ``all men 
             are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable 
             rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the 
             pursuit of happiness.''
               Little could Mr. Jefferson suspect, when penned that 
             line, that the time would come when the Nation's highest 
             court would rule that a nondenominational prayer to the 
             Creator, if offered by schoolchildren in the public 
             schools of America during class periods, is 
               The June 25 Supreme Court decision is sufficiently 
             appalling to disturb the God-fearing people of America and 
             to make us all reflect upon the extraordinary nature of 
             the times. For what, indeed, can we expect to happen next 
             if this is to be the way things are going? Following the 
             French Revolution, the atheist revolutionists hired a 
             chorus girl to enter a church as the ``Goddess of Reason'' 
             and thereby defile the name of the Almighty. Following the 
             Russian Revolution, the Bolshevik Government established a 
             giant museum, dedicated to the promotion of atheistic 

               I've been in that museum. I was sick to the point of 
             nausea, but back to Robert Byrd's speech.

               The American people were shocked by both moves. So it 
             was in those days. But what about today? Can it be that 
             we, too, are ready now to embrace the foul conception of 
               It is hard to believe, but, then, what are the facts of 
             the matter? Are we not in consequence of the Supreme Court 
             ruling on schoolroom prayer, actually limited in teaching 
             our children the value of God? And is this not, in fact, a 
             first step on the road to promoting atheistic belief?

               As I turn the page of Mr. Byrd's speech on the Senate 
             floor, let me parenthetically note that Robert Byrd's 
             Christian beliefs are what caused him to disavow his 
             membership and to ask forgiveness for his membership to 
             the KKK. It went to the heart and soul of the man, and 
             that is why he came to the floor in 1962 and gave this 
             speech. Continuing on:

               In reading through the Court decision on school prayer, 
             I am astonished by the empty arguments set forth by the 
             majority as opposed to the lucid opinion recorded by Mr. 
             Justice Potter Stewart, the lone dissenter. In answering 
             the arguments of the majority, Justice Stewart did not see 
             fit to engage in debate over matters of ancient history. 
             As he put it:

                  What is relevant to the issue here is not the 
                history of an established church in 16th century 
                England or in 18th century America but the history 
                of the religious traditions of our people, reflected 
                in countless practices of the institutions and 
                officials of our government.

               To that, I would say, ``Amen.''
               So this, indeed, the crux of the issue--the religious 
             traditions of our people.
               Wherever one may go in this great national city, he is 
             constantly reminded of the strong spiritual awareness of 
             our forefathers who wrote the Federal Constitution, who 
             built the schools and churches, who hewed the forests, 
             dredged the rivers and the harbors, fought the savages, 
             and created a republic.
               In no other place in the United States are there so many 
             and such varied official evidences of deep and abiding 
             faith in God on the part of government as there are in 
               Let us speak briefly on some of the reminders in 
             Washington that reaffirm the proposition that our country 
             is founded on religious principles. The continuance of 
             freedom depends on our restoring the same spiritual 
             consciousness to the mainstream of American life today 
             that made possible these monuments and tributes of the 
               A visitor entering Washington by train sees the words of 
             Christ prominently inscribed above the main arch leading 
             into Union Station. Here at the very entrance to the seat 
             of the Government of the United States are the words: 
             ``The truth shall make you free.'' John 8:32.
               Nearby is another inscription cut into enduring stone, 
             the words from the Eighth Psalm of the Old Testament: 
             ``Thou hast put all things under his feet.''
               A third inscription reiterates the spiritual theme: 
             ``Let all the end thou aimest at be thy country's, thy 
             God's and truth's.''
               All three inscriptions acknowledge the dependence of our 
             Republic upon the guiding hand of Almighty God.
                                   On Capitol Hill
               Throughout the majestic Capital City, similar 
             inscriptions testify to the religious faith of our 
             forefathers. In the capital, we find prominently displayed 
             for all of us to see the quotation from the book of 
             Proverbs, 4:7: ``Wisdom is the principal thing: Therefore, 
             get wisdom, and with all thy getting, get understanding.''
               The visitor to the Library of Congress may see a 
             quotation from the Old Testament which reminds each 
             American of his responsibility to his Maker. It reads, 
             ``What doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly and 
             love mercy and to walk humbly with God?'' Micah 6:8.
               Another scriptural quotation prominently displayed in 
             the lawmakers' library preserves the Psalmist's 
             acknowledgment that all nature reflects the order and 
             beauty of the Creator. ``The heavens declare the glory of 
             God, and the firmament showeth His handiwork.'' Psalms 
               Underneath the Statue of History in the Library of 
             Congress are Tennyson's prophetic lines: ``One God, one 
             law, one element, and one far-off divine event to which 
             the whole creation moves.''
               Additional proof that American national life is God-
             centered comes from this Library of Congress inscription: 
             ``The light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness 
             comprehendeth not.'' John 1:5.
               On the east hall of the second floor of the Library of 
             Congress, an anonymous inscription assures all Americans 
             that they do not work alone--``for a web begun, God sends 

               I realize that my time is expiring at this moment, 
             although there is much, much more in this wonderful speech 
             by the now late Senator Robert Byrd.


             Death of Senator Robert C. Byrd, President Pro Tempore of 
             the Senate

                  By the President of the United States of America

                                   A Proclamation

             As a mark of respect for the memory and longstanding 
             service of Senator Robert C. Byrd, President pro tempore 
             of the Senate, I hereby order, by the authority vested in 
             me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States 
             of America, that the flag of the United States shall be 
             flown at half-staff at the White House and upon all public 
             buildings and grounds, at all military posts and naval 
             stations, and on all naval vessels of the Federal 
             Government in the District of Columbia and throughout the 
             United States and its Territories and possessions until 
             sunset on the day of his interment. I further direct that 
             the flag shall be flown at half-staff for the same period 
             at all United States embassies, legations, consular 
             offices, and other facilities abroad, including all 
             military facilities and naval vessels and stations.

             I also direct, that in honor and tribute to this great 
             patriot, that the flag of the United States shall be 
             displayed at full-staff at the White House and on all 
             public buildings and grounds, at all military posts and 
             Naval stations, and on all naval vessels of the Federal 
             Government in the District of Columbia and throughout the 
             United States and its Territories and possessions on 
             Independence Day, July 4, 2010. I further direct that on 
             that same date, that the flag of the United States shall 
             be flown at full-staff at all United States embassies, 
             legations, consular offices, and other facilities abroad, 
             including all military facilities and naval vessels and 

             IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this 
             thirtieth day of June, in the year of our Lord two 
             thousand ten, and of the Independence of the United States 
             of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth.




             The Honorable

Robert C. Byrd

             November 20, 1917-June 28, 2010

             United States Senator

             West Virginia

             In Final Tribute from a Grateful Nation

             The Lying in Repose of Senator Byrd

             The Senate, United States Capitol

             Washington, D.C.

             July 1, 2010


             Dr. Barry C. Black. Let us pray.
               God our refuge and strength, close at hand in distress 
             and giver of all comforts, we thank You for giving us the 
             gift of Senator Robert Carlyle Byrd.
               Lord, we appreciate his wit and wisdom, his stories and 
             music, as well as his indefatigable commitment to the 
             principles of freedom that make America great.
               Thank You for blessing us with his passion for history 
             and his willingness to challenge conventional wisdom in 
             his quest to keep our Nation strong.
               Deal graciously with all who mourn, that, casting every 
             care on You we may know the consolation of Your love.
               Lord, comfort Mona and Marjorie and all of Senator 
             Byrd's loved ones, dispelling their fears with Your love, 
             easing their loneliness with Your presence, and renewing 
             their hopes with Your promises.
               In Your mercy turn the darkness of death into the dawn 
             of new life, and the sorrow of parting into the joy of 
               We pray in Your holy name. Amen.

             Memorial Service in Celebration of the Life of U.S. 
             Senator Robert C. Byrd
                                Friday, July 2, 2010
                                      11:30 AM

                                 *PROCESSIONAL                                 West Virginia National Guard Honor Cordon

                                 *PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE                         Led by President of the West Virginia Senate, Earl Ray Tomblin and
                                                                                Speaker of the West Virginia House of Delegates, Richard Thompson

                                 *THE NATIONAL ANTHEM                          249th Army Band (West Virginia National Guard), CW4 Thomas A. Goff,

                                 *LAYING OF THE WREATH                         Great-Granddaughters of Senator Byrd: Emma James Clarkson and Kathryn
                                                                                James Fatemi

                                 *INVOCATION                                   Bishop William Boyd Grove, Former Bishop for the West Virginia Episcopal
                                                                                Area of the United Methodist Church

                                 WELCOME AND TRIBUTE                           Governor Joe Manchin III

                                 TRIBUTES FROM FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES          U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell, Senate Minority Leader
                                 ............................................  Victoria Kennedy, Wife of the Late U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy

                                 ............................................  U.S. Senator John D. Rockefeller IV

                                 ............................................  Congressman Nick Joe Rahall for the Congressional Delegation

                                 ............................................  Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the United States House of

                                 ............................................  U.S. Senator Harry Reid, Senate Majority Leader

                                 ``Never Grow Old''                            Martin Luther King, Jr. Male Chorus, Marshall Murray, Director

                                INTRODUCTIONS                                 Governor Joe Manchin III

                                 TRIBUTE                                       William Jefferson Clinton, 42nd President of the United States of America                                 TRIBUTE                                       Joe Biden, Vice President of the United States of America                                 EULOGY                                        Barack Obama, President of the United States of America                                 ``Amazing Grace''                             Pipe Major Mark Burdette, Kanawha Valley Pipes and Drums                                 *BENEDICTION                                  The Reverend James L. Patterson, President, Partnership for African
                                                                                American Churches                                 *21 GUN SALUTE AND TAPS                       I-201st Field Artillery and 249th Army Band                                 *RECESSIONAL--``Country Roads''               Kanawha Tradition, the 249th Army Band, and Everyone Singing                                 *Please rise                                  .........................................................................
                Sign Language Interpreters for the Deaf and Hard of 
                    Hearing, Donna Whittington and Connie Pitman
                             Take Me Home, Country Roads

                                   By: John Denver

                            Almost heaven, West Virginia
                       Blue Ridge mountains, Shenandoah River.
                      Life is old there, older than the trees,
                 Younger than the mountains, growing like a breeze.

                            Country roads, take me home,
                            To the place where I belong,
                            West Virginia, mountain mama.
                            Take me home, country roads.

                         All my mem'ries gather 'round her,
                       Miner's lady, stranger to blue waters.
                         Dark and dusty painted on the sky,
                   Misty taste of moonshine, teardrops in my eye.

                            Country roads, take me home,
                            To the place where I belong,
                            West Virginia, mountain mama.
                            Take me home, country roads.

                 I hear her voice, in the mornin' hours she calls me
                      The radio reminds me of my home far away.
                        Driving down the road I get a feeling
                       That I should have been home yesterday,

                            Country roads, take me home,
                            To the place where I belong,
                            West Virginia, mountain mama.
                            Take me home, country roads.

                            Country roads, take me home,
                            To the place where I belong,
                            West Virginia, mountain mama.
                            Take me home, country roads.

                      From: Poems, Prayers and Promises (1971)
             Invocation--Bishop William Boyd Grove, former Bishop for 
             the West Virginia Episcopal Area of the United Methodist 

                 O Holy One, loving God, we cry out to You today in our 
                   sadness and loss.

                 Our mountains weep today, and our rivers run salty 
                   with the tears.

                 Our Senator, our advocate, our brother and our friend 
                   has left us

                 To be with Erma and with You.

                 But through our tears, we smile

                 As this beautiful day smiles upon the grieving 
                   mountains and the rivers

                 Of West Virginia.

                 We need not tell You his story as we pray.

                 You know the story, it is Your story.

                 You are its author, its beginning and its ending.

                 We simply thank You for the gift of Robert C. Byrd,

                 Who loved You with all his heart and mind and soul and 

                 And who loved his neighbor as himself.

                 His neighbors were the people of West Virginia, his 
                   fellow Senators

                 And the people of the world.

                 The neighbors that he loved were all the people

                 Of every race and language and station in life.

                 We thank You that beneath the Constitution in his 
                   shirt pocket

                 In his heart was Your Word, in which he believed, and 
                   which he followed;

                 Which enabled him to change his mind, and to change 
                   his heart

                 And to learn and grow from the moment of his birth 
                   until the day of his death.

                 So, we pray, receive our thanksgiving, and comfort our 
                   wounded hearts

                 As we thank You for the life and the gift of our 
                   Senator, and our friend.

                 In Your Holy Name we pray. Amen.
             West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin III. While we mourn the 
             loss of our son of West Virginia, today we come together 
             to celebrate the outstanding life of a man, the likes of 
             whom we shall never see again.
               In one of the five books that Senator Byrd authored he 
             said: ``We must study the great figures of our history and 
             carry them forward in our imaginations as living, 
             breathing presences we can in effect consult on vital 
             issues of the day.''
               Without question, Senator Robert C. Byrd is a pillar in 
             our Nation's history. His leadership and influence have 
             stretched well beyond the borders of the Mountain State.
               My first memory of Senator Byrd was as a young boy 
             working in the back of my grandfather's grocery store in 
             the small coal mining town of Farmington, West Virginia, 
             and hearing Bible Scripture being quoted from great 
             orators--my grandfather, Papa Joe, and Robert C Byrd. Both 
             held the same great occupation--grocery store butchers.
               And they were discussing Bible and business with great 
             fervor. I still remember it today. My personal memory of 
             meeting the Senator is no different than so many West 
             Virginians--meeting Senator Robert C. Byrd in every small 
             nook and cranny of this great State. That is why this loss 
             is so personal, because we are all family in West 
               Senator Byrd will be remembered for his tireless 
             contributions to the people of West Virginia and to the 
             United States of America.
               As the longest serving member of Congress--having cast 
             more votes and held more leadership positions than any 
             other Senator, and a historic 57 years of service in 
             Congress--it would be impossible to stand here and recite 
             all that our beloved Senator did for you and me.
               From highways and hospitals to schools and technology 
             centers--there are more than 50 projects in West Virginia 
             that bear his name, or that of his beloved wife, Erma.
               We will remember Senator Byrd for the strong family man 
             that he was. The love of his life, Erma, and their two 
             daughters, six grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren 
             provided unconditional support.
               We will remember Senator Byrd for the devoted public 
             servant that he was.
               For the thousands of jobs he created.
               For his efforts to protect our veterans and provide 
             health care to rural areas.
               We will remember his commitment to transforming our 
             economy. We will remember his ongoing quest to provide our 
             youth with the opportunity to learn, work, and succeed.
               We will remember his steadfast leadership, his wisdom, 
             his reason, his compassion, his strong voice, and 
               But, more important, we will remember his innate 
             qualities: honesty, integrity, loyalty, an intense respect 
             for democracy, and his unwavering love for the people and 
             the State of West Virginia.
               We will never forget his deeply rooted spiritual 
             conviction and his utmost respect for our Founding 
               The Senator truly epitomized the spirit of a West 
               He wore that Mountain State spirit on his sleeve and 
             never forgot where that journey in history began, back in 
             Wolf Creek Hollow, in Sophia, West Virginia.
               Nor did he forget the hard-working, salt-of-the-earth 
             people of West Virginia, who he loved as if they were 
             extended family.
               When he launched a career in public service some 60-plus 
             years ago, our State was a blank canvas--untouched by the 
             colors of the modern ways of life.
               Senator Byrd brought that blank canvas to life using 
             broad intellect and optimism and a can-do spirit that 
             resonated throughout the hills of West Virginia.
               In fact, when his political career was in its beginning 
             stages, there were only 4 miles of divided four-lane 
             highway in our State--and Senator Byrd made it his mission 
             to transform those barren lands.
               He was a true champion. A man of his word, and a true 
             patriot and guardian of the U.S. Constitution.
               Senator Byrd was looked up to by all of Congress and 
             often referred to as the ``Conscience of the Senate.'' A 
             long list of colleagues have sung his praises. Here are 
             just a few:
               Senator Bob Dole said, ``He has set a standard as a 
             Senator, as a legislative leader, and as a statesman that 
             will stand among the best as long as there is a Senate.''
               His dear friend Senator Ted Kennedy said that ``he 
             personifies what our Founding Fathers were thinking about 
             when they were thinking about a U.S. Senate.''
               He has been called a ``patriot and warrior of the U.S. 
               However, the best way that I can describe the Senator is 
             as the ``Architect of Appalachia.''
               He is the most historic figure to ever call West 
             Virginia home, and will forever live in our hearts and 
             those of our children.
               No one can replace our Senator. No one can fill his 
             shoes; we must never forget his tireless dedication as we 
             humbly follow in his footsteps.
               Senator Byrd, you've toiled and triumphed on behalf of 
             the Mountain State, and now your time to rest has come. 
             Your memory will live in our hearts forever.
               May God bless you and Erma.
               May God bless the State of West Virginia.
               May God bless America.

             Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell. Ten years ago 
             Senator Byrd honored me and the students at the University 
             of Louisville by making a trip to Kentucky to share some 
             of his wisdom about the Senate. I regret to say it's taken 
             me a decade to return the favor. But I do so with a deep 
             sense of gratitude, not only for that particular kindness, 
             but for many others he showed me over the years, and for 
             the many valuable lessons I have learned and relearned 
             from the life and example of Robert C. Byrd.
               Others have talked about his encyclopedic knowledge of 
             history and literature; his courtliness; his profound 
             reverence for the U.S. Constitution, his oratory. It's all 
             true. For about a quarter of the time our Government has 
             existed, Senator Byrd stood like a sentry in a three-piece 
             suit keeping watch over the legislative branch. But here 
             in West Virginia, one can't help but be reminded first and 
             foremost of the challenges he overcame to achieve all 
               It's one of the glories of our country that success 
             isn't restricted to the connected or the well born, that 
             anyone with enough talent and drive can rise to the 
             heights of power and prestige. It's remarkable to think 
             that the man who wrote the Gettysburg Address was raised 
             by a couple who couldn't even sign their own names. And 
             it's no less remarkable that the man we honor today, a man 
             who held every one of us spellbound with his knowledge and 
             his command of history, couldn't even afford a pair of 
             socks to wear to Sunday school as a boy.
               So here, in Charleston, we are reminded that the 
             American promise reaches even into the most remote corners 
             of Hardin County, Kentucky, and the winding hollows of 
             Raleigh County, West Virginia. The glory of our Nation is 
             reaffirmed every time another man or woman overcomes what 
             some call disadvantages to achieve great things. And 
             Robert Byrd may well be their patron saint.
               He was the ultimate self-made man, the high school 
             valedictorian who couldn't afford to go to college but who 
             could teach a room full of professors something new every 
             day--a walking argument for home schooling. He was the 
             orphan who grew up in a home without electricity or 
             running water, but who spent his adult life giving back to 
             his adopted State as much as his beloved adopted parents 
             gave him. Best of all, he was never embarrassed by the 
             poverty of his youth. He wore it like a badge of honor--
             because he knew his dignity lay not in material 
             possessions, but in being the child of a loving God, the 
             husband of a devoted wife, a citizen of the United States 
             of America, and a son of the Mountain State.
               Some people get elected to the Senate with the hope of 
             making it on the national stage. Not Robert Byrd. As he 
             once put it: ``When I am dead and am opened, they will 
             find West Virginia written on my heart.''
               He made it all look easy, but it didn't come easy. I 
             remember asking him once if he'd ever been to a football 
             game. He said he hadn't--and then he corrected himself. He 
             actually had gone to a game once, but only to the halftime 
             show, and even then he left halfway before it was over. He 
             was making better use of his time than we were, learning 
             the lessons of history, expanding his views, always 
             learning. Quoting one of the seven wise men of Greece, he 
             would say, ``I grow old in the pursuit of learning.'' He 
             was the only person I ever knew who had no interest in 
             leisure whatsoever. ``No ball game ever changed the course 
             of history,'' he said.
               The fact is, he was engaged in a different contest--not 
             for a perishable crown, but for an imperishable one. And 
             in the end, he could say with Paul that he had run the 
             race as if to win. We are consoled by the thought that 
             this man who believed, even in the twilight of his life, 
             that the prayers of his mother had always followed him, 
             has reached his father's house, and that Robert Carlyle 
             Byrd has heard those words he always longed to hear: 
             ``Well done, good and faithful servant, come share your 
             master's joy.''

             Victoria Kennedy. I am honored to be here and humbled to 
             speak for someone else who treasured the man we mourn and 
             celebrate today: A giant in the history of the Senate, and 
             a giant in the history of West Virginia, for whom the 
             smallest corner of this State could be the greatest of 
               My husband wrote of Robert Byrd's ``vast knowledge and 
             experience, his remarkable insight and wisdom.'' But he 
             was for Teddy so much more than that.
               Briefly foes, they became the best of friends. Coming 
             from very different places, across the years they came 
             together to keep America's promise.
               Robert Byrd moved with our country, and he moved our 
             country forward, from the ceaseless fight for economic 
             justice to the long struggle for health care--where, from 
             the floor of the U.S. Senate last Christmas Eve, he raised 
             his arm and his voice to cast the deciding vote. I was in 
             the gallery and the tears flowed down my cheeks when he 
             said: ``Mr. President, this is for my friend Ted Kennedy--
               And yes, as the years passed, they were together too in 
             the quest for civil rights and equal rights. His friend 
             Teddy had no patience for those who focused on a distant 
             past instead of the Robert Byrd who day after day, at the 
             center of our democracy, was giving heart, hand, and his 
             peerless parliamentary command to help those left behind 
             and to advance our highest hopes for the future.
               On the floor of the Senate in 2007, Senator Byrd 
             defiantly exclaimed: ``People do get older. Even, dare I 
             say it, old.'' But with his indomitable will the power of 
             his eloquence proved anew that ``youth is not a time of 
             life, but a state of mind.'' It was in the eighth decade 
             of his life and the fifth decade of his service in the 
             legislative branch, that he foresaw the folly of invading 
             Iraq and spoke for conscience and constitution against the 
             tides of onrushing war. Old, yes: He was like a prophet of 
             old. And not just here, but always, Robert Byrd stood for 
             the Constitution--and for the integrity and authority of 
             the Senate. Teddy, who shared his love of history, thought 
             of him as a modern incarnation of ancient virtues--a Roman 
             from West Virginia.
               To the citizens of this State he loved, there is another 
             epitaph from centuries ago that surely applies to him: 
             ``If you seek his monument, look all around you.'' He not 
             only changed the landscape and so many lives here, he 
             touched souls and people knew without being told that he 
             was on their side. I saw this as Teddy and I campaigned 
             across West Virginia with Senator Byrd during the 2004 
             Presidential contest. We crisscrossed the State in a big 
             bus. He was an incredible force, quoting Scripture, 
             striding the back of flatbed trucks, spellbinding his 
             audiences. Teddy told me we were watching a master--which 
             was high praise indeed from someone who was a master 
             campaigner himself. I'm not sure Robert Byrd would have 
             put it this way, but he was a rock star.
               Finally, to all of you, to the family and friends who 
             have lost him now and love him as before, let me share 
             what I have learned: The sorrow will be there, returning 
             each day, often randomly and quickened by little things; 
             but you will be sustained by the priceless grace of memory 
             and the gifts of faith. And so it was with Robert Byrd, as 
             he looked forward to being reunited as he now is with his 
             precious Erma.
               He made history that few others in the Senate Chamber 
             ever have. He lifted up countless lives as few Senators 
             from any State ever have.
               Someone will take Robert Byrd's seat, but no one will 
             ever fill his place.

             Senator John D. Rockefeller IV. Today, as West Virginians, 
             we mourn the incredible loss of our friend, our fighter, 
             our protector and our Senator--Robert C. Byrd.
               And today, we also celebrate his remarkable life.
               This is not an easy balance for us.
               From the southern hills to the northern panhandle, we 
             have shed many tears at the news of his passing.
               Yet we stand together as a people, with warmth in our 
             hearts knowing that his legacy will live on, and grateful 
             that the Nation today pauses to honor him.
               Senator Byrd was, in so many ways, the embodiment of 
             what it is to be a West Virginian.
               Working together with Robert C. Byrd was my greatest 
             honor. I spent decades working in partnership with him.
               He made me--and all of us--so very proud to be West 
               He took such a pure joy--and ferocious, unyielding 
             pride--not just in the Senate as an institution, but in 
             pulling the levers of power for West Virginia, for people, 
             for education and veterans, for health care and for 
             economic opportunity.
               It was in his blood. It was his sacred cause.
               Robert C. Byrd reached great heights because of the 
             purity of his purpose and the depth of his determination.
               Every day, I intimately witnessed that Senator Byrd 
             never forgot where he came from and he never let up--even 
             when his heart was broken.
               First, with the tragic death of his young grandson.
               And then, I know a part of him was lost forever when his 
             beloved Erma passed on.
               Watching him hurt was deeply agonizing for all who loved 
               I wished so much that there was anything I could do to 
             ease his pain.
               I was so moved by Senator Byrd's continuing on so 
             strongly as he did after losing Erma.
               When Senator Byrd and I would see each other on the 
             Senate floor since Erma's passing, he would take my hand, 
             ever so gently, and hold it to his cheek.
               To Sharon and I--and all of us in West Virginia--Robert 
             C. Byrd was our family.
               And it was his special touch that made us all shine.
               Thank you, Senator Byrd.
               We will miss you.
               From the bottom of our hearts, we thank you.
               And always, we honor you.

             Congressman Nick Joe Rahall. Reverend Clergy, Mr. 
             Presidents, Mr. Vice President, Mona and Marjorie, Senator 
             Byrd's family, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, his 
             hard-working staff, Members and colleagues of his from the 
             Senate, leaders of the Senate, Speaker of the House, 
             members of the State legislature.
               You know, I just never really thought he'd die. Just 
             never really thought he would.
               Although this day is not unexpected, it is unexpectedly 
             difficult to stand here to say goodbye to Senator Robert 
             C. Byrd--our Senator, our chairman, our mentor, our 
             friend, our Big Daddy. He was so eloquent and so erudite, 
             that it is daunting to find the words that can encompass 
             the enormity of the man and all that he has left behind.
               All around us, Senator Byrd has left his legacy to the 
             State and the Nation that he loved. We could talk about 
             the bricks and mortar, the records set both in West 
             Virginia and national legislatures, but Senator Byrd has 
             quite literally paved our way to the future. He has paved 
             a path to the future. But I believe that his most lasting 
             legacy will come from the example he set with his own 
             life, full of lessons for each of us to learn from and 
             build upon.
               Senator Byrd never stopped learning and never stopped 
             working, despite the obstacles that we all know and the 
             setbacks that would immobilize less determined 
             individuals. He was a great reader of what he called the 
             greatest book of all--the Bible, of histories from ancient 
             Rome to the 20th century, to poetry, and believe you me, 
             from memory. I heard it often whether to his staff driving 
             him back and forth between Washington and West Virginia or 
             even as his Congressman driving him back and forth to West 
             Virginia. I heard such recitations very often. And indeed 
             they kept me awake when I was driving the car. I have been 
             working for Senator Byrd for over 40 years on his staff 
             and in the Senate Democratic Cloakroom and now until the 
             last few days as his Congressman.
               When Senator Byrd had a problem, when he needed help on 
             an issue, he would always call his Congressman and I'd be 
             there to help him in any way I could.
               He loved beautiful words and he loved to share them. The 
             Congressional Record and our public libraries are much 
             richer for it.
               No Bible nor dictionary went unread by Senator Byrd.
               A lover of history, Senator Byrd deftly put history to 
             work with more passion and power and promise than anyone 
             in the Republic's history. But while he relished history, 
             he lived for the future--the future of his great State and 
             our great country. He was unapologetic to critics of his 
             efforts to bring Federal programs and dollars to West 
             Virginia. To him, it was a labor of love, and when Robert 
             C. Byrd loved, he loved deeply and for all the days of his 
               To Senator Byrd the Constitution was not a historical 
             relic, but rather the living, breathing soul of the 
             Republic. He was its greatest defender and its most 
             impassioned promoter.
               It is fitting that this lover of history, the guardian 
             of the Constitution, this son of the Senate, is being 
             memorialized even as the Nation celebrates Independence 
             Day. Senator Byrd may not have been a Founding Father, but 
             this adopted son of a West Virginia coal miner would have 
             been right at home among them.
               Yes, he could hobnob with kings and queens all over the 
             world and princes and princesses, and he could scold 
             Presidents of the United States. But you know, my friends, 
             as well as I know where he was most comfortable. That was 
             either in my parents' home in Beckley, West Virginia, in 
             Raleigh, West Virginia, or in my home or in your home. He 
             was much more comfortable sitting down to a dinner of 
             beans, and cornbread and onions, and sipping buttermilk.
               He competed only against himself, to work the hardest, 
             to do the most, to cast the greatest number of votes, to 
             be his very best. And in doing so, he inspired generations 
             of West Virginians.
               Yes, Senator Byrd, in the words of one of his favorite 
             poems, has now ``crossed the bar.'' He has set sail on a 
             journey to that farthest shore, where his beloved Erma 
             waits for him. I know that I speak for my colleagues 
             today, Representative Alan Mollohan and Representative 
             Shelley Moore Capito in saying Godspeed, my dear Senator.
               In his role as President pro tempore of the Senate, 
             Senator Byrd represented the entire Senate at significant 
             national events. His compatriot during those events, our 
             Speaker of the House of Representatives, who is joined 
             here today by our Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, our Speaker 
             knew Senator Byrd almost as well as we West Virginians. 
             They traveled together; they represented both bodies of 
             this great country of ours, in many different forums.
               The Speaker's and Senator Byrd's approaches to 
             statecraft are similar in that no detail is too small, 
             every vote counts, no vote is taken for granted and every 
             person matters. They both share a passion for people.
               Ladies and gentlemen, welcome the Speaker of the House 
             of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi.

             Speaker Nancy Pelosi. Good afternoon. Mr. President, Mr. 
             President, Mr. Vice President, Leaders Reid and McConnell, 
             Bishop Grove, so many friends of Senator Byrd who are 
             gathered here. I am so pleased to join my colleagues from 
             West Virginia--Mr. Rahall, who is a chairman and a great 
             leader in the Congress of the United States; Congressman 
             Alan Mollohan, he is a chairman as well; Shelley Moore 
             Capito. I am pleased to be with them as well as our 
             delegation from the House of Representatives led by our 
             Leader Steny Hoyer in the House.
               As Speaker of the House, I sadly have the privilege of 
             bringing the condolences of the House of Representatives 
             to Marjorie and to Mona and the entire Byrd family. As a 
             friend of Senator Byrd, I do so with great sadness.
               But happily, thanks to the Byrd family, some of us had 
             the opportunity to sing Senator Byrd's praises in his 
             presence in December, when he became the longest serving 
             Member of Congress in American history.
               I noted then that Senator Byrd's congressional service 
             began in the House of Representatives. In those 6 years in 
             the House, he demonstrated what would become the hallmarks 
             of his commitment: his love of the people of West 
             Virginia, his passion for history and public service, and 
             his remarkable oratorical skills.
               I am going to talk to you about his service in the House 
             briefly. In 1953, this is one of his earliest speeches, he 
             came to the floor of the House and he said: ``I learned 
             quite a long time before becoming a Member of this House 
             that there is an unwritten rule in the minds of some, 
             perhaps, which is expected to cover the conduct of new 
             Members in a legislative body to the extent that they 
             should be often seen but seldom be heard; I have observed 
             this rule,'' he said, ``very carefully up to this time and 
             I shall continue to do so. However, the Book of 
             Ecclesiastes says: `To everything there is a season, a 
             time to keep silence and a time to speak.''' And he 
             decided it was time for him to speak.
               He went on in that speech; it was one of his earliest 
             speeches. He went on in that speech to quote not only the 
             Bible, but Shakespeare, Rudyard Kipling, and Daniel 
             Webster. And, Mr. President, this was a speech about world 
               Though he thrived in the House, when he moved on to the 
             Senate, Senator Byrd remarked that he was happy to leave 
             behind the limitations on speaking time on the House 
               On a personal moment, I'll never forget a dinner I 
             hosted for him in the early 1980s in California when he 
             was running for reelection at that time.
               After dinner we didn't know what to expect. We were all 
             so nervous to be in the presence of such a great person. 
             And what did he do? He pulled out his fiddle and regaled 
             us with West Virginia tunes and told us great stories 
             about each and every one of you. That was an act of 
             friendship that I will never forget.
               Later, when I came to Congress, I told Senator Byrd how 
             my father, who had served in Congress, gave me the image 
             of a coal miner carved in coal. It is the only thing I 
             have from my father's office as a Member of Congress. It 
             had been a gift to him from Jennings Randolph, who had 
             represented West Virginia so well, and it sat in my 
             father's office when he was in the House of 
               It now sits in the Speaker's office. It is in my West 
             Virginia corner, along with a silver tray from Senator 
             Byrd which I love especially because it is engraved, 
             ``With thanks, from Robert and Erma.''
               In the beginning of my comments, I mentioned a speech of 
             Senator Byrd's on the House floor. That day, in 1953, he 
             quoted the words of Daniel Webster. These words, when you 
             come to the Capitol, are etched on the wall of the Chamber 
             high above the Speaker's chair. And these words would come 
             to define his leadership as he voiced them in that 
             earliest speech. Senator Byrd said, ``Let us develop the 
             resources of our land, call forth its powers, build up its 
             institutions, promote all its great interests and see 
             whether we also in our day and generation may not perform 
             something worthy to be remembered.'' Daniel Webster.
               Senator Byrd's service, and his leadership, were more 
             than worthy to be remembered for many generations to come. 
             As my colleague Mr. Rahall said, it is very appropriate 
             that we are celebrating Robert Byrd's life and putting him 
             to rest in the week of July 4th; he was a great American 
             patriot. And as Governor Manchin said, ``We shall never 
             see his like again.''
               May he rest in peace. Amen.

             Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid. I went to a library in 
             Nevada about 15 years ago and took out the old novel 
             Robinson Crusoe. When I came back to the Senate, Robert 
             Byrd was one of the first people I saw.
               We talked about the time we had spent back home, and I 
             mentioned that I had just read this classic story of a 
               Senator Byrd just leaned his head back, looked toward 
             the heavens and paused for a second. Then he said: ``28 
             years, 2 months and 19 days.''
               I was astonished. I couldn't tell you how many years 
             Robinson Crusoe had been shipwrecked, and I had just read 
             the book days before. Robert Byrd knew it to the day, and 
             he hadn't read it in more than 50 years.
               I was hardly the first to be dumbfounded by his 
             brilliance. We have all marveled at the breadth of Bob 
             Byrd's boundless mind--one he so generously gave to the 
             people of this State and this country.
               A few years before Barry Goldwater died, he wrote to 
             Robert Byrd from his home in Arizona, just to tell him how 
             much he admired Senator Byrd's gift for remembering and 
             reciting even the most obscure facts. ``Keep it up,'' 
             Goldwater wrote, ``because when you get to heaven, and I'm 
             there too, I hope I'll have someone to listen to.''
               Robert Byrd didn't just memorize and catalog for the 
             heck of it. In fact, he once advised a crowd here in 
             Charleston that the purpose of education is not simply to 
             make the mind a storehouse of information--but to 
             transform it into an inquisitive and innovative instrument 
             of knowledge.
               He could never quite quench his thirst for learning. It 
             was without limit and without equal.
               The first in his family to make it to the third grade, 
             Byrd once said he craved knowledge the way a hungry man 
             craves bread. And as he consumed it, he grew and he 
               He never stopped learning--learning from others, or even 
             from his own mistakes. And with every new lesson he 
             learned, he also learned how much more there was to know.
               Robert Byrd could dispense knowledge as well as he 
             absorbed it. Indeed, it was because he was a tireless 
             learner that he became a peerless teacher.
               I'll remember how--in his precise, poetic voice--he 
             taught us to protect the traditions that strengthen the 
             Senate of the United States, and warned us to avoid the 
             hazards that weakened the Senate of ancient Rome.
               He taught me to carry in my pocket a copy of the 
             Constitution all Senators swear to support and defend.
               I have it with me today--as I do every day--with a 
             personal note from Senator Byrd inscribed inside.
               Robert Byrd always kept that charter so close to his 
             heart because he loved his country. We will always keep 
             his memory so close to our hearts because we loved him.
               When the Founders conjured this Constitution Robert Byrd 
             so revered and treasured--when they imagined the people's 
             representatives who would fill the great positions they 
             prescribed--I believe they had the senior Senator from 
             West Virginia in mind. They had to.
               The authors outlined only a few characteristics of a 
             U.S. Senator--his age, citizenship, and residency. If only 
             they had kept writing, I'm confident they would have 
             described Robert C. Byrd in full.
               He was exactly what they intended: An eloquent, 
             steadfast steward of the Nation's founding principles--
             fiercely loyal to the State that chose him--forever 
             faithful to his constituents, his country, and his 
               It's hard to believe America's longest serving Member of 
             Congress was once a freshman Senator. But in the summer of 
             that first year--1959--the Charleston Gazette asked a 
             young Robert Byrd to name his highest ambition.
               ``If I live long enough,'' he replied, ``I would like to 
             be Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee.''
               Why did he dream that dream? Why didn't he aspire to the 
             White House, or the Governor's Mansion, or any other high 
               It's because Robert Byrd knew it was from that chair 
             that he could best help his neighbors back home. He knew 
             that was his first and most important job as their 
             representative in the Senate.
               Of course--just as he'd predicted--Robert Byrd did 
             indeed live long enough to hold the gavel he coveted. 
             Thirty years to the day after he assumed the title of 
             Senator, he assumed the title of Appropriations Committee 
             chairman--trading in the title of Majority Leader to do 
             so. And then he lived and served for two decades more.
               Though he did more than anyone before--and probably more 
             than anyone will again--he never thought he'd done enough 
             for West Virginians. As we watched him work, we learned 
             another lesson: to never forget why we serve or where we 
             come from.
               He once wrote, ``West Virginia is indelibly written on 
             my heart, and it will be there until my body is returned 
             to the dust.''
               No one has meant more to his State than Robert Byrd did 
             to West Virginia. The U.S. Senate has never meant more to 
             anyone than it did to Robert Byrd.
               It's true that his records for longevity are astounding. 
             After all, just think about this: He served in our 
             Nation's Congress for more than a quarter of the time it 
             has existed--and longer than a quarter of today's sitting 
             Senators, and the President, have been alive.
               It is by virtue of his endurance that Robert Byrd knew 
             and worked with many of the greats of American history. 
             But it is because of his enduring virtue that he will 
             forever be remembered as one of them.
               His career cannot alone be counted in the time he 
             worked--rather we should measure it in the lives of those 
             for whom he worked.
               His accomplishments aren't in the sum of the millions of 
             dollars he brought back to cities like Huntington and 
             Wheeling and Beckley, but the millions of families he 
             brought out of the same poverty he endured.
               On the last day of his life, Robert Byrd felt just as 
             strongly about that principle as he did the very first 
             time he rose to speak as a State legislator in the 
             beautiful State Capitol building behind us.
               In that speech--which of course he memorized before 
             delivering--he said: ``To me, the dollar is secondary. 
             Human misery and suffering--and the welfare of helpless, 
             dependent children--come first.'' He was teaching us from 
             day one, and didn't once stop.
               Now, that doesn't mean he didn't also love his 
             remarkable records of public service--rankings that will 
             forever be his and never be surpassed. He surely was proud 
             of them.
               In fact, I have no doubt that right now, Robert Byrd is 
             bowing his head forward, looking down from the heavens and 
             saying: ``57 years, 5 months and 26 days.''

             President William Jefferson Clinton. Thank you very much. 
             Governor, all the members of Senator Byrd's family, Mr. 
             President, Mr. Vice President, Madam Speaker, Congressman 
             Rahall and all the House Members here, Senator Reid, 
             Senator McConnell, all the Senators, thank you, Senator 
             Rockefeller, and thank you, Vicki Kennedy.
               I'd also like to thank all the people here who, at the 
             time of his passing worked, or ever worked for Robert 
             Byrd, who helped him to succeed for the people of West 
             Virginia. And I want to thank the Martin Luther King male 
             chorus. They gave us a needed break from all these 
             politicians talking up here.
               I want to say first that I come here to speak for two 
             members of my family. Hillary wanted to be here today, and 
             she paid her respects to Senator Byrd as he lay in state 
             in the U.S. Senate before making a trip on behalf of our 
             country to Central and Eastern Europe.
               I am grateful to Bob Byrd for many things, but one thing 
             that no one has given enough attention to--in my opinion--
             today is that while he always wanted to be the best 
             Senator, and he always wanted to be the longest serving 
             Senator, he wanted every other Senator to be the best 
             Senator that he or she could be. He helped Hillary a lot 
             when she came to represent the people of New York. I am 
             forever grateful for that.
               Now, everybody else has canonized Senator Byrd. I would 
             like to humanize him a little bit, because I think it 
             makes it much more interesting and makes his service all 
             the more important.
               First of all, most people had to go all the way to 
             Washington to become awed by--you might even say 
             intimidated by--Robert Byrd.
               Not me. I had advance experience before I got elected. 
             The first time I ever ran for office, at the opening of 
             campaign season in Arkansas, below the Ouachita and Ozark 
             Mountains, which were once connected to the Appalachians, 
             we had this big rally. And the year I started, don't you 
             know, Robert Byrd was the speaker.
               It was 1974, April, I'll never forget it. It was a 
             beautiful spring night. And he gave one of those 
             stemwinding speeches. And then he got up and he played the 
             fiddle, and the crowd went crazy. And you know, in 1974, 
             in a place like Arkansas or West Virginia, playing the 
             fiddle was a whole lot better for your politics than 
             playing the saxophone. So I was completely intimidated.
               And then all the candidates got to speak. They were all 
             limited to 4 or 5 minutes. Some went over. All the 
             candidates for Governor and every State officer, and then 
             the people running for the House of Representatives; there 
             were five of us. We were dead last. And I drew the short 
             straw. I was dead last among them.
               By the time I got up to speak, it had been so long since 
             Robert Byrd spoke, he was hungry again. And I realized, in 
             my awed state, I couldn't do that well. So I decided the 
             only chance I had to be remembered was to give the 
             shortest speech. I spoke for 90 seconds. And I won the 
             primary. I owed it to Robert Byrd.
               Now, when I was elected President, I knew that one of 
             the things I needed to do before I took the oath of office 
             was go to the Senate and pay my respects to Senator Byrd. 
             In 1974, when I first met him, he had already been the 
             leading authority on the institutional history of the 
             Senate and the Senate rules for some years, and he 
             certainly was by the time I was about to become President. 
             So I did that. And I got a copy of his history of the 
             Senate, and his history of the Roman Senate. And I read 
             them. I'm proud to say they're still on my bookshelf in my 
             office in Harlem in New York City today because I was so 
             profoundly impressed.
               Now, Robert Byrd was not without a sense of humor. For 
             example, I was once ragging him about all the Federal 
             money he was hauling down to West Virginia. I was from 
             Arkansas. We weren't any better off than you. And every 
             friend I had in Arkansas said, ``He's just a Senator. 
             You're sitting in the White House. We don't get squat 
             compared to what they get. What is the matter with you?'' 
             I was getting the living daylights beat out of me about 
             once a week.
               So I said to him, early in my first term, I said, ``You 
             know, Senator, if you pave every single inch of West 
             Virginia, it's going to be much harder to mine coal.'' And 
             he smiled, and he said, ``The Constitution does not 
             prohibit humble servants from delivering whatever they can 
             to their constituents.''
               But let me say something, seriously. He knew people who 
             are elected to represent States and regions and political 
             philosophies. They're flesh and blood people, which means 
             they will never be perfect. He knew they are subject to 
             passion and anger. When you make a decision that's 
             important when you're mad, there's about an 80 percent 
             chance you'll make a mistake. That's why he thought the 
             rules and the institution and the Constitution were so 
             important. And he put them before everything, even what he 
               I'll never forget when we were trying to pass health 
             care reform in 1993 and 1994. Senator Byrd was a 
             passionate supporter of the efforts we were making, just 
             as he was of the efforts that President Obama has made. 
             But we Democrats only had 55 votes, and we could not 
             defeat a filibuster. So I said, ``Well, Senator, why don't 
             you just let me stick this on the budget, because that's 
             the only thing they can't filibuster.'' That violated 
             something called the Byrd rule.
               They knew he was running the Senate. They just went 
             ahead and named the rule for him. So I said, ``You know, 
             you really ought to suspend this, because the budget is 
             going to be bankrupt if we don't quit spending so much 
             money on health care.''
               And he looked at me and he said, ``That argument might 
             have worked when you were a professor in law school. But 
             you know as well as I do, it is substantively wrong.'' He 
             wouldn't do it.
               Then, in his defense, he turned right around, and he 
             worked his heart out to break that filibuster, and he was 
             trying till the very end to get me to not give up the 
             fight, because he thought if we just tried hard enough, we 
             could find some errant Republicans who would make a 
             mistake and vote with us. He would never give it up.
               The point I want to make is, he made a decision against 
             his own interests, his own conviction, his own fight. And 
             that's one reason I thank God that he could go in his 
             wheelchair, in his most significant vote at the end of his 
             service in the Senate, and vote for health care reform and 
             make it real law.
               I will also say this. If you wanted to get along with 
             Senator Byrd, and you were having one of those 
             constitutional differences, it was better for your long-
             term health if you lost the battle. I won the battle over 
             the line-item veto. Oh, he hated the line-item veto. He 
             hated the line-item veto with a passion that most people 
             in West Virginia reserve for blood feuds, like the 
             Hatfields and the McCoys.
               You would have thought the line-item veto had been 
             killing members of the Byrd family for 100 years. It made 
             his blood boil. ``You've never been lectured by 
             anybody''--Nick Rahall said that. ``Until Bob Byrd has 
             lectured you, you have never known a lecture.'' I regret 
             that every new President and every new Member of Congress 
             will never have the experience of being dressed down by 
             Senator Robert Byrd.
               And I'll be darned if he wasn't right about that, too. 
             The Supreme Court ruled for him instead of me on the line-
             item veto.
               The point I want to make here is a serious one. He did 
             as good a job for you as he could. As far as he was 
             concerned, there was no such thing as too much for West 
             Virginia. But the one thing he would not do, even for you, 
             is violate his sense of what was required to maintain the 
             integrity of the Constitution and the integrity of the 
             U.S. Senate so that America could go on when we were 
             wrong, as well as right, so we would never be dependent on 
             always being right.
               Let me just say, finally, it is commonplace to say that 
             he was a self-made man; that he set an example of lifetime 
             learning. He was the first, and as far as I know, maybe 
             the only Member of Congress to get a law degree while 
             serving in the Congress. But he did more learning than 
             that. And all you've got to do is look around this crowd 
             today and listen to that music to remember.
               There are a lot of people who wrote eulogies for Senator 
             Byrd in the newspapers, and I read a bunch of them. And 
             they mentioned that he once had a fleeting association 
             with the Ku Klux Klan. What does that mean?
               I'll tell you what it means. He was a country boy from 
             the hills and hollers of West Virginia. He was trying to 
             get elected. And maybe he did something he shouldn't have 
             done, and he spent the rest of his life making it up. 
             That's what a good person does.
               There are no perfect people. There are certainly no 
             perfect politicians. And so, yes, I'm glad he got a law 
             degree. But by the time he got a law degree, he already 
             knew more than 99 percent of the lawyers in America, 
             anyway. He got a more important degree in human nature and 
             human wisdom, the understanding that came to him by 
             serving you in the Senate. People from the hills and 
             hollers of West Virginia, in their patriotism, provided a 
             disproportionate number of the soldiers who fought for our 
             independence from England. And they have provided a 
             disproportionate number of the soldiers in every single 
             solitary conflict since that time, whether they agreed or 
             disagreed with the policy.
               The family feeling, the clan loyalty, the fanatic 
             independence. The desire for a hand up, not a handout. The 
             willingness to fight when put into a corner. That has 
             often got the people from whom Senator Byrd and I sprang 
             in trouble. Because they didn't keep learning and growing 
             and understanding that all the African-Americans who have 
             been left out and let down and lived for going to church 
             and lived to see their kids get a better deal, and have 
             their children sign up for the military when they're 
             needed--they're just like we are. The Irish Catholics and 
             the Scotch Irish used to fight. They are so alike. 
             Everybody. The Italian immigrants, the people from Latin 
             America who have come to our shores. The people from all 
             over the world. Everybody who's ever been let down and 
             left out, ignored, and abused, or who's got a terrible 
             family story. We are all alike. That is the real education 
             Robert Byrd got, and he lived it every day of his life in 
             the U.S. Senate to make America a better, stronger place.
               So not long after Senator Byrd lost Erma, I said, ``In a 
             fleeting world ... he had proved, and so had she, that 
             some people really do love each other till death do they 
               I've been thinking about that today, thinking maybe we 
             ought to amend the marriage vows and say ``Till death do 
             us part'' and ``Till death do bring us back together.''
               I admired Senator Byrd; I liked him; I was grateful to 
             him. I loved our arguments, and I loved our common causes. 
             But most of all, I loved it that he had the wisdom to 
             believe that America was more important than any one 
             individual, any one President, any one Senator.
               That the rules, the institutions, the system had to 
             enable us to keep forming a more perfect union, through 
             ups and downs and good times and bad.
               He has left us a precious gift. He fought a good fight. 
             He kept the faith. He has finished his course, but not 
             ours. If we really would honor him today and every day, we 
             must remember his lessons, and live by them. Thank you.

             Vice President Joe Biden. Bishop, Reverend Clergy, Mona 
             and Marjorie, the entire Byrd family--if you didn't 
             already know it, it's pretty clear the incredible esteem 
             your father was held in. I know you've known that your 
             whole life.
                To my fellow Members of the Senate, you know, I was 
             telling the President, when I got elected the last time 
             and had the great honor of running with the President, on 
             the same day I was elected Vice President and U.S. Senator 
             for my seventh term. And I got sworn in for that seventh 
             term because we thought we might need a vote there in 
             those first couple weeks. And every time I sat with the 
             Leader--I never called Senator Byrd ``Senator,'' I always 
             called him ``Leader''--when I sat with the Leader, I could 
             see that look in his face and he said, ``Joe, you sure 
             you're making the right decision giving up the Senate for 
             Vice President?'' (Laughter.) Because as the Senators 
             know, he revered the Senate. As Danny Inouye said going 
             into the Chamber when we were going in to honor your 
             father, ``You know, Joe, had you stayed, you'd be number 
             two.'' I'm still number two, Danny. (Laughter.) I'm still 
             number two.
                Ladies and gentlemen, Mr. President, yesterday I had 
             the opportunity to pay my respects to Leader Byrd as he 
             lay in repose in the Senate Chamber. I met the family then 
             and again today.
                But although I and my colleagues behind me revere the 
             Senate, Robert C. Byrd elevated the Senate. For other 
             great men, their families would have chosen for them to 
             lay in state in the Rotunda. But Bob Byrd and his family 
             chose to lay him in state in the Senate Chamber. And to 
             me, this is completely appropriate, having served with him 
             for 36-plus years. For the Senate Chamber was Robert C. 
             Byrd's cathedral. The Senate Chamber was his cathedral, 
             and West Virginia was his heaven. (Applause.)
                And there's not a lot of hyperbole in that. Every 
             person in the Senate, as my colleagues behind you can tell 
             you, brings something special about them. I'll never 
             forget having privately criticized a Senator when I was 
             there the first year. I was sitting with the previous 
             leader, Senator Mansfield, who was an incredible guy. And 
             he told me that--he said, ``Why are you upset?'' And I 
             told him about a particular Senator railing against 
             something I thought was very worthy, the Americans With 
             Disabilities Act. And he went on to tell me that every 
             Member of the Senate represented something in the eyes of 
             their State that was special and represented a piece of 
             their State.
                Well, if there was ever a Senator who was the 
             embodiment of his State, if there was ever a Senator who, 
             in fact, reflected his State, it was Robert C. Byrd.
                The fact of the matter is, the pick of the banjo, the 
             sweet sound of the fiddle, ramp dinners in the spring, 
             country fairs in the summer, the beauty of the laurels in 
             the mountains, the rush of the rapids through the 
             valleys--these things not only describe West Virginia, but 
             from an outsider's point of view who has been here many 
             times at the invitation of Jennings Randolph and Robert C. 
             Byrd, it seems to me they define a way of life. It's more 
             than just a State.
                And Robert C. Byrd was the fiercest defender of not 
             only the State, but the way of life--I think the fiercest 
             defender that probably this State has ever known in its 
                You know, Robert Byrd did use the phrase, ``When I die, 
             West Virginia will be written on my heart.'' And I used to 
             kid him, I said, ``You have so many Scotch-Irish down 
             there, you don't acknowledge it was an Irish Catholic 
             named Joyce who said that first.'' (Laughter.) Reverend, 
             he quoted everybody else, but when he used that phrase, 
             he'd never acknowledge that it was James Joyce who said, 
             ``When I die, Dublin will be written in my heart.'' And 
             all he would do is laugh.
                The fact of the matter is, West Virginia was not only 
             written in his heart but he wore it on his sleeve. He took 
             such pride in this place. He took such pride in all of 
             you. I remember he asked me, one of the few races he had, 
             whether I'd come down because I was the young guy and I'd 
             come down and demonstrate to everybody that I could not 
             keep up with Robert C. Byrd, which happened to be true. 
             And I was--I think, Nick, you were at the dinner. We had a 
             Jefferson-Jackson Day dinner down here, and Robert C. Byrd 
             did something that never happened before in all the 
             dinners I've spoken at. He stood up and he said, ``We're 
             honored to have Senator Joe Biden from Delaware here 
             tonight, and Joe, I'd like to introduce you to West 
             Virginia.'' Then he spent, as Nick will remember, the next 
             probably 10 minutes talking about everyone in the audience 
             by name--where they were from, what they had done, how 
             they had fought through difficulty. And then he said, kind 
             of like Johnny Carson, ``Here's Joe.'' (Laughter.)
                Well, I thought it was pretty impressive--literally. 
             Robert C. Byrd asked me to speak, but he knew the 
             privilege was mine, not the people to whom I was speaking. 
             He was devoted to all of you like few Senators in the 36-
             plus years I was there, that I have ever known.
                He was fiercely devoted, as you've all heard, to his 
             principles. Even once he became powerful, he always spoke 
             truth to power, standing up for the people he proudly was 
             part of, and you've heard it many times today but it bears 
             repeating again, in defense of the Constitution he 
                I always wear a flag pin, but I was afraid he'd be 
             looking down today because every time I'd wear the flag 
             pin on the floor, he would grab me, take my pin, and put 
             on a Constitution pin. That's the pin I'm wearing. So, 
             Boss, I'm wearing the pin. (Applause.)
                Robert C. Byrd said many things, but he once said, ``As 
             long as there is a forum in which questions can be asked 
             by men and women who do not stand in awe of a chief 
             executive, and one can speak as long as one's feet will 
             allow one to stand, the liberties of the American people 
             will be secure.''
                Twelve Presidents knew Robert C. Byrd. He served, as he 
             pointed out, concurrently with them, not under them. 
             (Applause.) And 12 Presidents--were they all here and 2 
             are here--can attest to the fact that he always showed 
             respect but never deference. And he stood in awe of none.
               He had an incredible, prodigious memory that I will not 
             take the time to regale you about. I just remember one 
             time sitting with the Queen of England at a formal dinner, 
             and he recited the entire--the entire lineage of the 
             Tudors and every year each one had served. And she sat 
             there, and I thought her bonnet was going to flip off her 
             head. (Laughter.) It was like, what did I just hear? She 
             learned about relatives she probably forgot she had. 
                As also noted, Robert C. Byrd was a parliamentary 
             library, a keeper of the institution of the Senate, and he 
             was the institution itself. But to me and many people here 
             today, like guys I see, Bill Bradley and Jim Sasser, who 
             long left the Senate for greener pastures, and I hope 
             better remuneration--we used to kid about that, too--but 
             for a lot of us, he was a friend, and he was a mentor and 
             he was a guide.
                Nick and I were talking a little bit earlier, I 
             commuted every day for 36 years in the U.S. Senate--250 
             miles a day. Robert C. Byrd was a stickler about when he'd 
             set votes. And I'd drive down from Delaware to Washington, 
             and I'd call Nick on this big old car phone I first had--
             it was about that big. And I'd say, ``Nick, I can see the 
             dome. Hold the vote, I can see the dome.''
                Finally, Nick caught on, he said, ``Joe--Senator--how 
             far away can you see the dome?'' (Laughter.) Because he'd 
             be the one to go to the Leader and say, ``Can you hold the 
             vote 2 more minutes for Biden?'' As long as I was 
             behaving, he held the vote. But when I found myself in 
             disagreement, if I'd need to catch a 7:00 train--he'd set 
             a vote for 7:00. (Laughter.) And Nick knows this--I'd walk 
             up to him and I'd stand--I always stood down in the well. 
             And he stood in the first riser, and I'd say, ``Mr. 
             Leader, ``you set the vote for 7:00. Any possibility for 
             setting it at 10 to 7:00 so I could get the train?'' He'd 
             go like this--he'd look at the clock, look at me, look at 
             the clock and say, ``No.'' (Laughter.) ``No.''
                But that's because I misbehaved once. I voted with 
             George Mitchell on a matter relating to miners and that 
             was a big mistake. (Laughter.) He literally took the roll 
             call sheet--there's these sheets, as the staff members 
             know--with every Senator's name and how they voted. He 
             took the roll call sheet, had it framed, had my name 
             circled in red, and literally had it screwed to the ornate 
             doorframe in his office then as the chairman of the 
             Appropriations Committee. So every single Senator coming 
             to see him would walk out, and at eye height, they'd see 
             Biden circled in red and know darn well they better not 
             vote against Robert C. Byrd ever. (Laughter and applause.) 
             You think I'm joking. I'm not joking.
                And then I got in his good graces--I tried to run for 
             President, he said, ``I don't want any Senators running 
             for President.'' I said, ``Why, Mr. Leader?'' He said, 
             ``Because you'd never come back and vote when I need 
             you.'' (Laughter.) So I made a promise that no matter 
             where I was, if he called me and said he needed my vote, 
             I'd drop whatever I was doing and I'd come. And I kept the 
             commitment--the only one I might add. That got me back in 
             his good graces again.
                The point is that this is a man who knew exactly what 
             he was doing. After I was elected in 1972 as a 29-year-old 
             kid, I was number 100 out of 100 in Senate seniority. And 
             Leader Byrd offered up--he was then the whip--he offered 
             his office to me to come down from Delaware so I could 
             have a place to interview staff members. It was in his 
             office, and in the connection his secretary put through, 
             that I received a call telling me about an accident which 
             took the life of my wife and my daughter. And when they 
             were buried, we held a memorial service a couple days 
             later in Delaware where thousands of people showed up, and 
             it was a bone-chilling slate day of rain. And people 
             couldn't get in the church.
               And I never knew it initially, but Robert C. Byrd--and I 
             think you may have driven him up, Nick--drove up on his 
             own with Nick to that church. He stood outside for the 
             better part of an hour in a driving rainstorm where the 
             temperature was below 32. When my brother saw him and 
             asked him to come in, he said no; he wouldn't displace 
             anyone. He stayed there for the entire service. When the 
             service was over, he got in his vehicle and he drove back, 
             never attempting to be noticed, never seeking that to 
             know, as my deceased wife used to say, the real measure of 
             generosity is when you do it and no one ever knew you did 
                Well, Robert C. Byrd did that. I was appreciative of 
             what he did, but I quite frankly didn't understand till a 
             couple years later I was in his office, and behind his 
             desk was a huge boot cast in bronze. It was Michael's 
             boot; it was his grandson's boot. And all of a sudden, it 
             came so crystal clear to me who this guy was. I'd known 
             him, but I understood immediately what he was about. For 
             him it was all about family. It was not just Erma, his 
             beloved wife of nearly 69 years. It was not just his 
             daughters, his grandchildren, great-grandchildren--all of 
             whom are in our prayers today. It was an awful lot of you. 
             I'll bet if he were here he could look out and name you, 
             and tell you what your father or mother did for him, what 
             your grandmother or grandfather did for him, and how you 
             made such and such of yourself.
                Clearly in his own life, Robert Byrd suffered a lot of 
             hardships. You all know the story--losing his mom, being 
             raised and adopted by an aunt and uncle, growing up in a 
             home without electricity or water, having to work at an 
             early age. He had an incredible determination, one that I 
             don't think any of my colleagues have ever witnessed, 
             would be my guess. But, you know, this man was--it wasn't 
             just that, as President Clinton pointed out, that at age 
             46 and as a sitting Congressman, he went and got a law 
             degree without having a college degree. And at age 77, he 
             went to Marshall University and completed his work, 
             getting his college degree. (Applause.)
                Because to him, in my view--and I don't know, the 
             family would tell you this--to him, I think he felt there 
             was something wrong with the fact that he got the law 
             degree without graduating. He didn't need that 
             undergraduate degree, but it was Bob Byrd. To quote John 
             Stennis, ``Plow into the hedgerow and to the end of the 
               The remarkable thing about him is he traveled a hard 
             path. He devoted his life, though, to making that path a 
             little easier for those who followed. This is a guy who 
             continued to taste and smell and feel the suffering of the 
             people of his State. He tasted it. That's why it was so 
             deeply ingrained in him.
                It wasn't just a moral obligation. This guy remembered. 
             And he unapologetically--as has been pointed out--did 
             everything to improve the lives of the people of West 
             Virginia by stealing all the money from Delaware, 
             Tennessee, Texas, California, that he could possibly get. 
                Remember, Governor, two campaigns ago he's getting beat 
             up for trying to move--was it two campaigns ago?--to have 
             the FBI moved down to West Virginia. And the national 
             press was beating him up. I was on the floor with him, and 
             he just had gotten ripped in a press conference about 
             that. He--you know how he used to grab you by the arm, 
             walk you back--he walked me back, he said, ``Joe, I hope 
             they keep throwing me in the briar patch.'' (Laughter.)
                But I tell you what, you West Virginians owe a lot of 
             people in Delaware for a lot of money we should have 
             gotten and you got. (Laughter.) I just want you to know 
             that. So be nice to the rest of us. (Applause.)
                By the way, if you doubt any of it, you just drive 
             here, you cross the Robert C. Byrd Drive, the Robert C. 
             Byrd Appalachian Highway, the Robert C. Byrd Library and 
             Learning Center, the Robert C. Byrd Clinic, the Robert C. 
             Byrd Federal Building in Charleston and on and on.
               But, ladies and gentlemen, of course, it's more than the 
             name we're not going to forget. It's his courage. He died 
             like he lived his life. He never stopped fighting. How 
             many people would have hung on as long as he did? How many 
             people would have the ability to get back out of that 
             hospital bed and get in a wheelchair and come in and vote? 
             He never stopped thinking about his people and the things 
             he cared about.
                Speaking recently, Robert Byrd said, ``Like Jefferson 
             and Adams, I'm inspired to continue serving the land I 
             love to the very best of my abilities, for the whole of my 
               Well, he served the land he loved. He served the people 
             he loved. He served the people who were in his blood. And 
             because of that service, you had gained greatly. And with 
             his loss, you're the first who will feel that loss.
               But it's not just West Virginia alone. It's all of us. 
             When I learned of his death, I was on an errand for the 
             President in Cleveland, and I said, ``You know, to 
             paraphrase the poet, we shall not see his like again.'' 
             Had he been there, he would have said, ``Joe, that's 
             Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, Scene II''--(laughter)--``and 
             the actual quote is, `I shall not look upon his like 
                Mr. Leader, we're not going to look upon your like 
             again. I'm not even going to ask God to bless you because 
             he already had and I know where you are. And may God bless 
             your family. May God bless this State and this country. 
             And may God protect our troops. Thank you. (Applause.)

             President Barack Obama. Thank you. To Mona and Marjorie, 
             and to Senator Byrd's entire family, including those 
             adorable great-granddaughters that I had a chance to 
             meet--Michelle and I offer you our deepest sympathies.
               To Senator Byrd's friends, including the Speaker of the 
             House, the Majority Leader, the Republican Leader, 
             President Clinton, Vice President Biden, Vicki Kennedy, 
             Nick Rahall, and all the previous speakers; Senator 
             Rockefeller for the outstanding work that you've done for 
             the State of West Virginia; to his larger family--the 
             people of West Virginia--I want you all to know that all 
             America shares your loss. May we all find comfort in a 
             verse of Scripture that reminds me of our dear friend: 
             ``The time of my departure has come. I have fought the 
             good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the 
               It's interesting that you've heard that passage from 
             several speakers now, because it embodies somebody who 
             knew how to run a good and long race, and somebody who 
             knew how to keep the faith--with his State, with his 
             family, with his country and his Constitution.
               Years from now, when I think of the man we memorialize 
             today, I'll remember him as he was when I came to know 
             him, his white hair full like a mane, his gait steadied 
             with a cane.
               Determined to make the most of every last breath, the 
             distinguished gentleman from West Virginia could be found 
             at his desk until the very end, doing the people's 
             business, delivering soul-stirring speeches, a hint of the 
             Appalachians in his voice, stabbing the air with his 
             finger, fiery as ever, years into his 10th decade.
               He was a Senate icon. He was a party leader. He was an 
             elder statesman. And he was my friend. That's how I'll 
             remember him.
               Today we remember the path he climbed to such 
             extraordinary peaks. Born Cornelius Calvin Sale, Jr.--
             Corny, he joked, for short--his mother lost her life in 
             the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918. From the aunt and 
             uncle who raised him, amid West Virginia's coal camps, he 
             gained not only his Byrd name but a reverence for God 
             Almighty, a love of learning that was nurtured at Mark 
             Twain High School. And there he met Erma, his sweetheart 
             for over 68 years, by whose side he will now rest for 
               Unable to afford college, he did what he could to get 
             by, finding work as a gas station attendant, a produce 
             salesman, a meatcutter, and a welder in the shipyards of 
             Baltimore and Tampa during World War II. Returning home to 
             West Virginia after the war, he ran for the State House of 
             Delegates, using his fiddle case as a briefcase, the 
             better to stand out on the stump.
               Before long, he ran for Congress, serving in the House 
             before jumping over to the Senate, where he was elected 
             nine times, held almost every leadership role imaginable, 
             and proved as capable of swaying others as standing alone, 
             marking a row of milestones along the way. Longest serving 
             Member of Congress. Nearly 19,000 votes cast. Not a single 
             loss at the polls--a record that speaks to the bond that 
             he had with you, the people of his State.
               Transplanted to Washington, his heart remained here, in 
             West Virginia, in the place that shaped him, with the 
             people he loved. His heart belonged to you. Making life 
             better here was his only agenda. Giving you hope, he said, 
             was his greatest achievement. Hope in the form of new jobs 
             and industries. Hope in the form of black lung benefits 
             and union protections. Hope through roads and research 
             centers, schools and scholarships, health clinics and 
             industrial parks that bear his name.
               His early rival and late friend, Ted Kennedy, used to 
             joke about campaigning in West Virginia. When his bus 
             broke down, Ted got hold of the highway patrol, who asked 
             where he was. And he said, ``I'm on Robert Byrd highway.'' 
             And the dispatcher said, ``Which one?'' (Laughter.)
               It's a life that immeasurably improved the lives of West 
             Virginians. Of course, Robert Byrd was a deeply religious 
             man, a Christian. And so he understood that our lives are 
             marked by sins as well as virtues, failures as well as 
             success, weakness as well as strength. We know there are 
             things he said--and things he did--that he came to regret. 
             I remember talking about that the first time I visited 
             with him. He said, ``There are things I regretted in my 
             youth. You may know that.'' And I said, ``None of us are 
             absent some regrets, Senator. That's why we enjoy and seek 
             the grace of God.''
               As I reflect on the full sweep of his 92 years, it seems 
             to me that his life bent toward justice. Like the 
             Constitution he tucked in his pocket, like our Nation 
             itself, Robert Byrd possessed that quintessential American 
             quality, and that is a capacity to change, a capacity to 
             learn, a capacity to listen, a capacity to be made more 
               Over his nearly six decades in our Capitol, he came to 
             be seen as the very embodiment of the Senate, chronicling 
             its history in four volumes that he gave to me just as he 
             gave to President Clinton. I, too, read it. I was scared 
             he was going to quiz me. (Laughter.)
               But as I soon discovered, his passion for the Senate's 
             past, his mastery of even its most arcane procedures, it 
             wasn't an obsession with the trivial or the obscure. It 
             reflected a profoundly noble impulse, a recognition of a 
             basic truth about this country that we are not a nation of 
             men, we are a nation of laws. Our way of life rests on our 
             democratic institutions. Precisely because we are 
             fallible, it falls to each of us to safeguard these 
             institutions, even when it's inconvenient, and pass on our 
             republic more perfect than before.
               Considering the vast learning of this self-taught 
             Senator--his speeches sprinkled with the likes of Cicero 
             and Shakespeare and Jefferson--it seems fitting to close 
             with one of his favorite passages in literature, a passage 
             from Moby Dick:

               And there is a Catskill eagle in some souls that can 
             alike dive down into the blackest gorges, and soar out of 
             them again and become invisible in the sunny spaces. And 
             even if he forever flies within the gorge, that gorge is 
             in the mountains; so that even in his lowest swoop the 
             mountain eagle is still higher than any other bird upon 
             the plain, even though they soar.

               Robert Byrd was a mountain eagle, and his lowest swoop 
             was still higher than the other birds upon the plain. 
               May God bless Robert C. Byrd. May he be welcomed kindly 
             by the Righteous Judge. And may his spirit soar forever 
             like a Catskill eagle, high above the heavens. Thank you 
             very much.

             Benediction--Rev. James L. Patterson, president, 
             Partnership for African American Churches
               A benediction seems to indicate finality to a life 
             celebration such as this. However, according to the faith 
             that Senator Byrd held so deeply, this celebration will 
             never end, it simply moves to a more celestial location, 
             and it is from there that Senator Byrd and his wife Erma 
             are looking down and observing us at this moment and 
             wondering what all the fuss is about. The Senator would 
             say he was simply doing his duty for the citizens of West 
               The Apostle Paul best described the effectiveness of the 
             Senator's service when he said, he fought a good fight, he 
             finished his course, he kept the faith, therefore there is 
             laid up for him a crown of righteousness which the 
             Righteous Judge himself shall present to him at that day. 
             (2 Timothy 4:7) So Heavenly Father as he has cared for and 
             watched over us all these years we pray that You will care 
             for and watch over him.
               Now unto God who is able to do exceedingly and 
             abundantly above all that we could ask or think, according 
             to the power that works in us, be glory but now and 
             forever more (Ephesians 3:20).


                                   Robert C. Byrd

             November 20, 1917-June 28, 2010

                      A Funeral Service Celebrating the Life of

Robert C. Byrd

                              July 6, 2010--11:00 a.m.
                        Prelude           ...............  ....................  ...............  ...............                             Opening Sentences
                             John 11, John 14, Matthew 11
                           Dr. William H. Smith                                                  ...............                       Special Music
                           ``What a Friend We Have In Jesus''
                           Memorial Baptist Church Sanctuary Choir                       Prayer
                           Dr. Barry C. Black, Senate Chaplain                       Special Music
                           ``There Is a Fountain''                                        Scripture Reading
                                      Psalm 23
                           Dr. William H. Smith                       Duet
                           ``Amazing Grace''
                           Bobby Taylor, fiddle with bass guitarist                       Family Remembrances                       Special Music
                           ``How Great Thou Art''                                     Scripture Reflection
                              Matthew 25:14-30
                           Rev. Thomas Phythian, Hospice Chaplain                       Special Music
                           ``This Is My Father's World''                       Homily
                           Dr. William H. Smith                       Solo
                           ``His Eye Is On the Sparrow''
                           Michael Ryan, MGySgt, USMC (Retired)                       Benediction                       Recessional                       Postlude                                                 ...............
Robert C. Byrd

 Photo: Linda Davidson, the Washington Post

             ``When I am gone and opened,

             they will find West Virginia on my heart''

                                 U.S. Senator Robert C. Byrd

                     Senator Byrd is survived by his daughters,
                     Mona Carole Fatemi and her husband Mohammad
                    and Marjorie Ellen Moore and her husband Jon;
                 grandchildren Erik Byrd Fatemi, Mona Byrd Pearson,
                      Darius James Fatemi, Mary Anne Clarkson,
                Fredrik Kurosh Fatemi and the late Jon Michael Moore;
                      great-grandchildren Caroline Byrd Fatemi,
                     Emma James Clarkson, Kathryn James Fatemi,
                      Hannah Byrd Clarkson, Michael Yoo Fatemi,
                           Anna Cristina Honora Fatemi and
                                James Matthew Fatemi.
                              James Stroud Clarkson III
                                 Darius James Fatemi
                                  Erik Byrd Fatemi
                                Fredrik Kurosh Fatemi
                                  Randy Lee Pearson
                               Austin John Reinshuttle

                                Honorary Pallbearers:
                        The Honorable John D. Rockefeller IV
                         The Honorable Howard H. Baker, Jr.
                              The Honorable Ted Stevens
                            The Honorable Robert J. Dole
                           The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye
                           The Honorable Nick J. Rahall II
                           The Honorable Alan B. Mollohan
                           The Honorable Walter J. Stewart
                                  Tinker St. Clair
                                Cecil E. Roberts, Jr.
                                   James E. Nobles
                                  James H. English
                                     James Allen
                                     Fred Minton
                                    George Perry
                                    Hugh McGloin
                                    Perry Woofter

               The family requests that in lieu of flowers, memorial 
             contributions be made either to The West Virginia Council 
                Churches (make checks payable to The Montcoal Mining 
             Disaster Fund) or the Humane Society of the United States.

                              Rev. Dr. William H. Smith
                       Rev. Richard Buerkle, Associate Pastor
                         Dr. Barry C. Black, Senate Chaplain
                       Rev. Thomas Phythian, Hospice Chaplain
                         Rev. Katie McKown, Associate Pastor
                                 Ann Brown, Organist
                              Russell Krumnow, Pianist

             Memorial Baptist Church
                                 Arlington, Virginia


Loving Memory

             The Twenty-Third Psalm

      The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want.

      He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:

        He leadeth me beside the still waters.

      He restoreth my soul: He leadeth me in the

        paths of righteousness for His name's sake.

      Yea, though I walk through the valley of

        the shadow of death, I will fear no evil:

        for thou art with me; Thy rod and

        thy staff they comfort me.

      Thou preparest a table before me in the presence

        of mine enemies: thou anointest my head

        with oil; my cup runneth over.

      Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me

        all the days of my life: and I will

        dwell in the house of the Lord forever.

                                 In Loving Memory of

                            The Honorable Robert C. Byrd
                                United States Senator

                                  November 20, 1917
                                    June 28, 2010

                                  Funeral Services
                                    11 am Tuesday
                                    July 6, 2010
                               Memorial Baptist Church
                                    3455 Glebe Rd
                              Arlington, Virginia 22207

                           The Reverend Doctor Barry Black
                              The Reverend Katie McKown
                              The Reverend Tom Phythian
                        The Reverend Doctor William H. Smith

                              Columbia Gardens Cemetery

 Photo: Linda Davidson, the Washington Post

                            ``When I am gone and opened,
                     they will find West Virginia on my heart''
                                   U.S. Senator Robert C. Byrd         

             The Honorable Robert C. Byrd
                           November 20, 1917-June 28, 2010

8   The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.

   He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:

     he leadeth me beside the still waters.

   He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of

     righteousness for His name's sake.

   Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow

     of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me;

     thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

   Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of

     mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil;

     my cup runneth over.

   Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the

     days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the

     LORD for ever.

             Dr. Barry C. Black. Lord God, creator of all, we thank You 
             that You have made each of us in Your own image and given 
             us gifts and talents with which to serve You.
               We thank You for Senator Robert C. Byrd, Your servant 
             and my friend. We're grateful for the years we shared with 
             him, for the good we saw in him, for the love we received 
             from him, and for the wisdom we gained from him.
               Now give us strength and courage to leave him in Your 
             care, knowing that You have promised that one day we'll be 
             reunited with loved ones.
               As we too journey toward death, teach us to number our 
             days that we may have hearts of wisdom.
               Support us in all the seasons ahead, until the shadows 
             lengthen and the evening comes; and the busy work is 
             hushed, and the fever of life is over, and our work is 
             done. Then in Your mercy give us a safe lodging and a holy 
             rest and peace at the last.
               We pray in Your powerful name. Amen.

             Granddaughters Mary Anne Clarkson and Mona Byrd Pearson.
               Mary Anne. Washington Irving once said, ``There is a 
             sacredness in tears. They are not the mark of weakness, 
             but of power. They speak more eloquently than ten thousand 
             tongues. They are messengers of overwhelming grief ... and 
             unspeakable love.'' As we walked the funeral march to the 
             Capitol behind our grandfather's caisson in Charleston, we 
             gazed into the crowds of mourners and saw, much as we see 
             in the church pews today, just that: tears of grief and 
             unspeakable love for a lost friend, colleague, statesman, 
             advocate, mentor, husband, father, grandfather, and great-
               Mona. The man you know as Senator Robert C. Byrd was 
             even more than that. To us, it was not his great service 
             to West Virginia and this Nation, his powerful oratory on 
             the floor of the Senate, or his numerous records and 
             accomplishments. To us--his grandchildren--he was simply 
             ``Papa,'' and all we wanted was his love, attention, and 
             approval. His professional life was not what was 
             important; it was his private side, reserved for us, his 
             family, that we treasured.
               Mary Anne. Toward the end of his life, one of Papa's 
             great pleasures was going to my parents' house on summer 
             weekends to enjoy the pool and his family. He loved to sit 
             out in the Sun because he wanted to have the best tan in 
             Washington at the end of the August recess. And not 
             unexpectedly, Papa wasn't content to sit on the sidelines 
             and watch everyone else enjoying the pool. So at the age 
             of 90, he decided to learn how to swim. And then Papa 
             would challenge my girls to contests to see who could hold 
             their breath under water the longest. So, although our 
             grandfather always sought perfection, he had these 
             beautiful moments of imperfection, of seeming less than 
             the giant of a man that he was.
               Mona. And a giant he was. Robert C. Byrd ran the Senate, 
             but my grandmother, Mamma, ran the family and the home. 
             She made sure that Papa never had to worry or concern 
             himself with the domestic side of life. In some ways that 
             was to his detriment and it was a family joke how little 
             Papa knew about household things. Papa once decided to 
             demonstrate to everyone how he could take care of himself 
             by making a cup of tea. He heated the water, put it in the 
             mug, and carefully proceeded to cut open a tea bag and 
             pour its contents directly into the cup. After stirring 
             the loose tea into his mug, he then proudly displayed the 
             results to us. He was first perplexed by our hilarity, but 
             after we explained how the rest of us used a tea bag, he 
             laughed harder than any of us.
               Mary Anne. Years later, as Mamma's health was failing, 
             Papa focused his attention on her care, firmly grasping 
             the opportunity to repay her for all the years of selfless 
             devotion and care she had given to him. He jumped in with 
             his typical vigor and took charge of the household that 
             was once her domain--mopping the floors, scrubbing the 
             bathrooms, and managing the checkbook he had given her 
             nearly 69 years earlier. She never wanted for better care. 
             She was never alone, and at night, when she was close to 
             the end of her suffering, he would hold her hand and sing 
             to her, always telling her how much he loved her.
               Mona. Perhaps the thing Papa loved most outside of Mamma 
             and work was music. As children, our fondest memories were 
             of him playing his fiddle. When Papa played the fiddle he 
             was a different and carefree person. I always remember the 
             joy and happiness when we gathered at home to listen to 
             him play. He often said that the two things that relieved 
             stress in his life were confiding in Mamma and playing 
             music. One of his biggest regrets was that the tremors in 
             his hands prevented him from playing his fiddle, but he 
             could still sing. On his 90th birthday his staff held a 
             party at a hotel near the Capitol. Some of you may have 
             been there. They had arranged for a high school band to 
             play some of the old bluegrass favorites and when he 
             joined in to sing it was amazing to see his youth return 
             and the years and sorrows melted away.
               Mary Anne. Much has been said about the buildings, 
             roads, and hospitals and other parts of West Virginia that 
             my grandfather caused to be built. But he did more than 
             that: he shaped people and he shaped ideas. From him, I 
             learned first hand, the nature of hard work, the value of 
             a promise kept, attention to detail, loyalty, and the 
             results of persistence. So in a very real sense, Mona and 
             I, as well as our entire family and many others are also 
             his legacy.
               Mona. In closing, we'd like to read a poem, The Measure 
             of a Man, by Jeremy Teoh. We believe it captures the 
             lessons of Papa's life, for us to carry forward and live 
               Mona: A man is not measured by the frequency of his 
                But rather by the echoes of his actions.
               Mary Anne: A man is not measured by the strength of his 
                But rather the strength of his will.
               Mona: A man is not measured by the amount of money in 
             his coffers,
                But rather by how much he is willing to share.
               Mary Anne: A man is not measured by the amount of his 
                But rather the way he shepherds.
               Mona: A man is not measured by his courage alone,
                But rather by the courage he can give others.
               Mary Anne: A man is not one who serves himself,
                But rather one who serves his people.
               Mona: A man is not one who follows orders,
                But rather one who follows his heart.
               Mary Anne: But the true measure of a man is,
                One who can love people around him,
                Without asking for anything in return,
               Mona: Except the little glimmer of hope that,
                Others will love him as well.
               Papa, we love you.

             Daughter Marjorie Byrd Moore. Much has been said about my 
             father, but I think if he were here today he would say 
             ``talk about Erma some.'' So I'd like to talk about both 
             of them by reading you a poem he composed to her in April 
             1933 at the age of 15. It's titled Sweet Memories of 
             Sweetheart Days.
             When I was but a youngster
             I thought I loved the dames,
             But the sweetest of all,
             I now recall,
             Was a girl named Erma James.

             Every day in our little ole school--
             I used to write 'er a note and come--
             At the change of classes, to her locker door
             And give 'er my chewing gum.

             A beautiful lass this little girl was
             With her eyes a charming blue
             Her hands small and dainty like
             Voice sweet as the morning dew--

             We wrote notes for many a day
             And it makes me very sad
             To tell that she wrote me a note one eve'
             And I, little fool, got mad.

             I kept on going to her house--
             Oh! I would that I had kissed her!
             But never a word would I
             Speak to Erma
             But always to her sister.

             Finally on the 12th of June
             After a month or two of delay
             I greased her pretty nose in fun
             For it was my darling's birthday--

             And then of course we
             Were sweethearts again--
             And good were the times we had
             We'd go to the store and we'd
             Go to the show,
             And play rook with her
             Mother and dad.

             After school in those good ole' days
             We would always get together
             We would have our chats on rainy days
             And play in pretty weather--

             Sometimes we would both play hookey together
             And at home we would stay and play
             Eat apples, mints, and eskimo pies
             And then be sick next day.
             But finally came the
             summer time
             And little ``baby'' went away
             But we'd write letters and
             Send our love--
             To the other far away.

             As old Sept. rolled
             Around again,
             And school days were
             Getting near,
             Little Erma came back
             To the ole' home town
             And I saw the little dear.

             With her came
             Aunt Lala,
             Whom I quickly came to like
             We had a party and rode
             A Ford and took
             Pictures on the ole Turnpike.

             School days began but we still had our fun
             And then came Halloween--
             When the gobs and goblins, and bats and cats,
             And witches are to be seen.

             All these are in the past and now comes
             The present
             What will be in the days to come?
             I still love Erma the best of all
             And I guess she loves me some.

             But now as Christmas beckons softly
             And Santa's at the door,
             I must remember, in stark December,
             Of the sweetheart I adore.

             How dear to my heart is this girl of my childhood.

               And I believe their love will endure through eternity.
               I love you Daddy.

             Erik Fatemi. When I was about 5 years old, my grandfather 
             would ask me a series of questions practically every time 
             I saw him. ``Erik, who discovered America? What year? Who 
             wrote the Declaration of Independence?'' And so forth. And 
             if I got the answers right, he would give me a quarter.
               At that time, of course, I didn't understand who Robert 
             C. Byrd was to the rest of the country. To me he was Papa. 
             Though I did get the sense he was important somehow. For 
             instance, whenever I visited his office, I noticed there 
             were a lot of people there who did exactly what he told 
             them, and they seemed to be in a hurry about it.
               I also noticed he had a lot of quarters. So I decided it 
             was in my best interest to learn the answers to those 
             history questions. ``Christopher Columbus!'' I'd say. 
             ``1492! Thomas Jefferson!'' And then my palm would start 
             getting itchy for some cold, hard cash.
               It was my first lesson in the awesome power of 
             appropriations to improve people's education.
               I learned a lot of lessons from my grandfather over the 
             course of my life, both as a grandson and a staffer on the 
             Appropriations Committee. We all learned from him. I think 
             one reason we're sad he's gone is that this self-taught 
             man taught us all so much. He made us want to work harder, 
             learn more, be better people. Whether you were a 
             grandchild, or a staffer, or a fellow Senator, or just 
             another President of the United States, when you met with 
             my grandfather, you made sure you had the right answer.
               And pity the poor staffer who gave him a memo that 
             misspelled a word or left out a comma. You did not want to 
             be that person.
               Tina Evans, one of his longtime staffers, wrote me the 
             day he died, ``Some bosses demand excellence; Senator Byrd 
             assumed excellence, and those of us who won his trust were 
             determined never to let him down.''
               That only worked because he pushed himself harder than 
             he pushed anyone else. Many of us have wondered what we 
             might be capable of if we really focused, worked hard, and 
             tried to achieve something. Many of us wonder; he did it. 
             He died knowing exactly what he was capable of.
               Where he ranks among the great U.S. Senators will be for 
             the historians to decide. But this we can say today: He 
             was the best Senator he possibly could have been, and he 
             did it for longer than anyone else in history.
               This is a story that few people know. Two years ago--
             summer 2008--was a difficult time for my grandfather. He 
             was still chairman of the Appropriations Committee, but 
             every day brought more speculation: Will he step down? 
             Will he be removed? Who will take his place? Will it be 
             this Senator? Will it be that Senator? It was not the sort 
             of time on Capitol Hill that brings out the best in 
               There was a full committee hearing coming up, and my 
             grandfather decided to let another Senator chair it rather 
             than himself. It was the correct decision, but it was not 
             an easy one for this very proud man to make. He knew it 
             was the beginning of the end of his tenure.
               I was visiting his house the Sunday before that hearing. 
             My parents happened to be there, too, and we got to 
             talking about the situation in the Senate. My grandfather 
             was somber, pensive. And then he did something unusual for 
             our family. He asked us to hold hands with him and pray. 
             I'll never forget what he asked for. He said, ``Father, 
             give me the strength to do a few more things for my 
               He was 90 years old. God knows he had earned the right 
             to pray for something else. And yet there was that 
             plaintive plea--just ``a few more things.''
               As it turned out, he did do a few more things. He 
             endorsed the Nation's first Black President. He cast the 
             deciding vote for health care reform, in the middle of the 
             night, in a snowstorm. And just a few weeks before he 
             died, he spent more than an hour grilling witnesses at a 
             Senate hearing about how to improve the safety of coal 
             mines in West Virginia.
               Those few things he did between ages 90 and 92 were more 
             than what some people do in a lifetime.
               And yet it's true that in his final years, his thoughts 
             turned more and more to crossing the bar, and rejoining 
             his wife, my grandmother. And so, when I would visit him, 
             we spent less time discussing politics, like we used to 
             do, and more time reliving memories from the distant past, 
             when I was a kid.
               The last time we spoke was Father's Day--a week before 
             he died. He was quiet. I had brought my girls to visit, 
             too, and normally that would liven him up, but not this 
             time. And so after a while we gave him a hug and started 
             walking toward the door. And then he called out, ``Who 
             discovered America?''
               It had been almost 40 years since I had earned a quarter 
             for answering that question. But I had to show him I 
             hadn't forgotten. ``Christopher Columbus!'' I said.
               He said, ``Do you remember when I'd ask you that? And 
             then I'd give you a quarter?''
               ``Sure, Papa,'' I said. ``I remember.''
               How could I forget that? How can any of us forget this 

             Dr. William H. Smith.

             How the mighty are fallen!
             ``Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of 
             How the mighty are fallen.
             Weep ye daughters of Israel. Let there be no dew. Neither 
               let there be rain.
             Swifter than eagle, stronger than lion, yet
             How the mighty are fallen!

               With the poetry of David we join our hearts to 
             acknowledge the passing of a great leader. Our Nation has 
             lowered its flags to half staff. The President and the 
             Congress have gathered to pay their respects. Now, 
             alongside the family we come to this final service to 
             recognize Robert Byrd as father, grandfather, great-
             grandfather and faithful Christian.
               I want us to look briefly at three passages of 
             Scripture; each one will help us see the witness of our 
             brother in Christ to the Gospel. Senator Byrd loved the 
             Gospel. He found the Gospel central to his life, and his 
             life calls us to embrace the good news of Jesus Christ, 
             the Gospel of salvation, so that we may live into eternity 
             and one day join him. He will not return to us in this 
             life, but we may go to him. That is the promise of the 
             Gospel. Praise be to God.
               It is right to use Scripture for these remarks today. 
             Senator Byrd loved the Bible, especially the King James 
             version of the Bible. At his first or one of his early 
             visits to Memorial I was preaching on the importance of 
             the Bible. After the service he put his arm around my neck 
             and drew me close to him. He quoted from memory the text I 
             had used in the sermon. Then he quoted about 10 verses 
             before my text and 10 verses after my text--all from 
             memory. I have studied the Bible all my life, but I would 
             be hard pressed to walk into a service and call from 
             memory 20 verses before and after a text that a pastor had 
             chosen to preach.
               He was a student of the Bible. He was a teacher of the 
             Bible. As a younger man he started a Sunday school class 
             that is still going today. He and Mrs. Byrd wrote a series 
             of devotionals for young people based on the Bible. So, we 
             remember him well today when we look at the Bible for 
             guidance. We have three passages to read that speak to us 
             about the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
               The first Scripture for our consideration comes from 
             Ephesians chapter two and verse eight. It reads: ``For by 
             grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of 
             yourselves: it is the gift of God. Not of works, lest any 
             man should boast.''
               On one occasion Senator Byrd and I were sitting together 
             downstairs in Fellowship Hall. We were having a churchwide 
             dinner to celebrate an anniversary. He said to me but 
             loudly enough for anyone at the table to hear, ``I want to 
             be acceptable.'' I responded to him with some amazement 
             and said, ``Senator Byrd, you are more than acceptable. 
             You are recognized by the Nation as a great leader.'' He 
             gave me a sharp look as if to suggest that I should know 
             better than to have made that comment. He then said, ``I 
             don't mean all that; I just want to be acceptable to 
             Jesus.'' Chagrined, I replied, ``Yes sir; you are right. 
             That is most important for all of us.''
               Senator Byrd shared his testimony when we had our first 
             visit together. You can find that testimony in his 
             autobiography. He was a believer. He described himself as 
             a born-again, old-time religion, Bible-based Christian. He 
             was baptized along with Mrs. Byrd at age 19 at Crab 
             Orchard Baptist Church by Pastor Merlin Smith.
               Senator Byrd understood that we are saved or put right 
             with God, not by our accomplishments in life, our good 
             works, but by God's grace, God's unmerited favor. All of 
             us come to the Lord in the same way: we confess our sins; 
             we repent of our sins; we invite Jesus into our hearts as 
             Lord and Savior, and we receive spiritual renewal or 
             regeneration through the work of the Holy Spirit.
               Listen to a second Scripture about the Gospel of 
             salvation. At the cemetery there is a beautiful stone 
             marker where Senator Byrd will be laid to rest alongside 
             his dear wife. On his headstone he had inscribed a passage 
             from John's Gospel, chapter 11. In John 11 we find that 
             the friend of Jesus, Lazarus, had died. The Lord came to 
             the grave of Lazarus. First he wept, but then he called 
             Lazarus to come forth. Jesus then commanded the attendants 
             surrounding the risen Lazarus with these words, chosen by 
             Senator Byrd for his headstone. Jesus said: ``Loose him 
             and let him go!''
               When we are saved or put right with God, Jesus begins a 
             process in our lives of setting us free. Just as Lazarus 
             had the grave clothes removed from him, so Jesus begins 
             this process of unbinding us. Piece by piece he removes 
             from us those things that hold us back. In this lifelong 
             process bad habits, bad thinking, bad experiences are 
             peeled away, strip by strip as we emerge to become the 
             person God created us to be.
               From Senator Byrd's generation another very wise 
             nonagenarian once said that we should live each day as if 
             it were our last, and learn each day as if we would live 
             forever. This wise man also knew God's grace. A graceful 
             life, a grace-filled life, means that we have the ability 
             to change. We can confess our sin. We can turn away from 
             our sins. We can receive the forgiveness of God; we can 
             embrace new insights and new directions. We can learn and 
             we can grow. Throughout our lives we are being saved. 
             ``Loose him,'' Jesus said, ``and let him go.''
               And now, the third Scripture for our reflection on the 
             Gospel of Salvation. Whenever I visited Senator Byrd I 
             would read the Bible with him. I always asked him what 
             passage we should read, and every time he responded first 
             with a call to read--I would read, and he would recite--
             the words of Jesus recorded in John 14. Dear family, hear 
             these words. They are for your comfort. Jesus said: ``Let 
             not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe 
             also in me. In my Father's house are many mansions: if it 
             were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a 
             place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I 
             will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I 
             am, there ye may be also. And whither I go ye know, and 
             the way ye know. Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not 
             whither thou goest; and how can we know the way? Jesus 
             saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no 
             man cometh unto the Father, but by me.''
               The Gospel of salvation means that when we depart this 
             life we go to be with God. Senator Byrd told me that he 
             was ready to depart and to be with the Lord. I know he was 
             eager to be reunited with Mrs. Byrd of whom he spoke every 
             time I was in his presence. He understood, however, and 
             said to me that our coming and our going are in the hands 
             of God.
               And I am glad that God, in his providence, sent Robert 
             Byrd our way to Memorial Baptist Church, that for a few 
             years, we had the privilege of being in worship together. 
             Folks have often asked me, ``Wasn't it difficult to preach 
             with Senator Byrd in the congregation?''
               People thought it was difficult because he was such an 
             important person that one could think that a preacher 
             would feel nervous in his presence. I did at first, and I 
             always felt honored to be in his presence, but he was 
             gracious to me and encouraging to me. He loved the Bible; 
             he loved the Gospel; he loved the church, and he 
             communicated his love for preachers. He soon put me at 
             ease. Whenever he was present I felt happy and encouraged. 
             I loved the fact that he walked down front and sat up 
             close. His presence always encouraged me.
               The second reason people thought his presence could be 
             difficult for a preacher is that Senator Byrd was 
             exuberant; he was expressive. When I made a point from the 
             Scripture he would say, ``Amen,'' and he would say it 
             loudly. When I was unclear, he would ask me right there in 
             the service, out loud, ``Would you say that again?'' And I 
             would say it again, but I would make it clearer. I 
             remember one time I was preaching on stewardship, a not 
             very popular subject--money. I made the point that you 
             could tell what a person believed by looking at their 
             checkbook. Senator Byrd reached into his coat pocket and 
             pulled out his checkbook, and he held it up, and he 
             proclaimed, ``Here's mine; let's all get them out!'' I 
             don't think anyone present at that service will ever 
             forget that moment. He made stewardship exciting. I loved 
             preaching when he was present.
               I want you to know that he asked me privately if his 
             participation bothered me or caused me any distress. He 
             would not have entered into call and response if I had 
             been uncomfortable with it. He was gracious, always 
             gracious and encouraging to me. He wanted the best 
             experience for the person preaching and for those in 
             worship. He wanted us to be exuberant and expressive, and 
             excited about God. When he was in worship we caught some 
             of that exuberance.
               Was it difficult to preach when Senator Byrd was 
             present? My answer is, ``No. It was not difficult. Just 
             the opposite. Whenever he was present I felt that he made 
             me a better preacher.''
               Most of all I was encouraged by him because I know that 
             this great national leader was a person of faith. He 
             understood and embraced the Gospel of salvation. He knew 
             that we are saved when we receive God's gracious welcome. 
             Nothing to do with our accomplishment, but all to do with 
             the grace of God won for us on the cross of Christ. He 
             knew that throughout our lives we are being saved. God is 
             not finished with us when we first come to know him. All 
             our lives we are changing and growing toward his perfect 
             purposes for us. Finally, we will be saved when we depart 
             this life and come face to face with our Creator.
               Sunday by Sunday, Memorial Baptist Church when gathered 
             in worship prayed for God's servant, Robert. His name was 
             called the Sunday before he died. We are thankful to God 
             for him, for his life and for his witness. May we receive 
             from our Lord the words I believe he has heard, ``Well 
             done, thou good and faithful servant.'' Praise be to God.