[Senate Document 108-7]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

                                   Strom Thurmond


                         MEMORIAL ADDRESSES AND

                             OTHER TRIBUTES

                                 IN THE CONGRESS OF

                                  THE UNITED STATES



                          hon. strom thurmond



                               1902 -2003

                          hon. strom thurmond



                               1902 -2003


             [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] T1870.000

Strom Thurmond

                               Memorial Addresses and

                                   Other Tributes

                                 HELD IN THE SENATE

                            AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                                OF THE UNITED STATES

                          TOGETHER WITH A MEMORIAL SERVICE

                                     IN HONOR OF

                                    STROM THURMOND

                   Late a Senator from South Carolina


                      One Hundred Eighth Congress

                             First Session




                            Compiled under the direction

                                       of the

                             Joint Committee on Printing
             Proceedings in the Senate:
                Tributes by Senators:
                    Allard, Wayne, of Colorado.....................
                    Bennett, Robert F., of Utah....................
                    Biden, Joseph R., Jr., of Delaware.............
                                                                 16, 52
                    Brownback, Sam, of Kansas......................
                    Bunning, Jim, of Kentucky......................
                    Byrd, Robert C., of West Virginia..............
                    Cochran, Thad, of Mississippi..................
                    Craig, Larry E., of Idaho......................
                    Daschle, Thomas A., of South Dakota............
                    DeWine, Mike, of Ohio..........................
                    Dodd, Christopher J., of Connecticut...........
                    Dole, Elizabeth, of North Carolina.............
                    Domenici, Pete V., of New Mexico...............
                    Dorgan, Byron L., of North Dakota..............
                    Frist, Bill, of Tennessee 
                                                    3, 4, 8, 25, 26, 51
                    Graham, Lindsey O., of South Carolina 
                                                              4, 28, 38
                    Hatch, Orrin G., of Utah.......................
                    Hollings, Ernest F., of South Carolina.........
                                                                  4, 43
                    Hutchison, Kay Bailey, of Texas................
                    Kyl, Jon, of Arizona...........................
                    Leahy, Patrick J., of Vermont..................
                    Levin, Carl, of Michigan.......................
                    McConnell, Mitch, of Kentucky..................
                    Sessions, Jeff, of Alabama.....................
                                                                  9, 53
                    Stabenow, Deborah Ann, of Michigan.............
                    Stevens, Ted, of Alaska........................
                    Warner, John W., of Virginia...................
             Proceedings in the House of Representatives:
                Tributes by Representatives:
                    Wilson, Joe, of South Carolina.................
             Memorial Service......................................

               James Strom Thurmond was born December 5, 1902, in 
             Edgefield, SC. After graduating from Clemson University in 
             1923, he became a high school teacher and athletic coach. 
             Soon thereafter he became the county superintendent of 
             education and then State senator. At night he studied law 
             under his father, and was admitted to the South Carolina 
             bar in 1930. He practiced law until 1938 when he became a 
             circuit judge.
               At the age of 21 he joined the U.S. Army Reserve, 
             becoming a second lieutenant. When World War II was 
             declared, he was 40 years old. Even though he was beyond 
             draft age, and, as a judge, held a draft-exempted status, 
             he volunteered for active duty the day war was declared 
             against Germany. He served with the Headquarters First 
             Army in American, European, and Pacific theaters.
               On June 6, 1944, Strom Thurmond took part in the D-day 
             invasion with the 82d Airborne Division and arrived by a 
             glider on the beaches at Normandy. He was awarded 5 battle 
             stars and 18 decorations, medals, and awards, including 
             the Legion of Merit with oakleaf cluster, the Bronze Star 
             Medal for valor, the Purple Heart, the Belgian Order of 
             the Crown, and the French Croix de Guerre. After the war 
             he became a major general in the U.S. Army Reserve.
               In 1947 he became Governor of South Carolina. In 1948 
             Governor Strom Thurmond ran for President as a States 
             rights Democrat, carrying 4 States and winning 39 
             electoral votes.
               In 1954 Strom Thurmond was elected to the U.S. Senate as 
             a write-in candidate. This made him not only the first and 
             only person in U.S. history elected to the Senate in this 
             manner, but the only person ever elected to any major 
             office in the United States in this manner.
               Senator Strom Thurmond set a record for the longest 
             individual speech ever delivered in the Senate--24 hours 
             and 18 minutes, from August 28 to August 29, 1957.
               In 1964 Senator Thurmond switched from the Democratic 
             Party to the Republican Party, a move that marked the 
             beginning of the ``southern strategy'' that has reshaped 
             the Republican Party.
               In 1981, when Ronald Reagan became President, Senator 
             Thurmond was chosen as Senate President pro tempore, 
             placing him third in the line of succession to the 
             Presidency. He was chosen as President pro tempore two 
             more times and once as President pro tempore emeritus--a 
             total of four occasions serving in that capacity.
               On March 8, 1996, Senator Thurmond, at the age of 93, 
             became the oldest person ever to serve in the Senate.
               On May 25, 1997, he became the longest serving Senator 
             in the history of the Senate, surpassing the record of 41 
             years and 10 months held by Carl Hayden.
               In 1998, Senator Thurmond became the second Senator ever 
             to cast 15,000 votes.
               During his Senate career, he served as chairman and 
             ranking member of both the Armed Services Committee and 
             the Judiciary Committee. He was chairman emeritus of the 
             Veterans' Affairs Committee and a member of the Labor and 
             Human Resources Committee.
               Senator Thurmond worked tirelessly for the State of 
             South Carolina and for the Nation in general. South 
             Carolina showed its gratitude by honoring the Senator in 
             many ways. The people of Edgefield County, SC, built and 
             erected a life-sized statue of Strom Thurmond on the 
             Edgefield town square. The Strom Thurmond Lake, Dam and 
             Highway in Clarks Hill; the Strom Thurmond Mall in 
             Columbia; and the Strom Thurmond National Guard Armory 
             have all been named in his honor.
               There is a Strom Thurmond High School, Auditorium and 
             Student Center. There are numerous Strom Thurmond chairs 
             and scholarships. There's the Strom Thurmond Foundation, 
             which assists in educating 80 to 100 needy, worthy 
             students annually.
               Some of the numerous awards that Senator Thurmond 
             received are the Disabled American Veterans Outstanding 
             and Unselfish Service Awards (1964 and 1981); the Medal of 
             the Knesset, Israel (1982); the Audie Murphy Patriotism 
             Award (1982); the NY Board of Trade ``Textile Man of the 
             Year'' (1984); the Presidential Citizens' Medal from 
             President Ronald Reagan (1989); and the Presidential Medal 
             of Freedom by President George Bush (1992).

                                 MEMORIAL ADDRESSES


                                   OTHER TRIBUTES


                                    STROM THURMOND
                              Proceedings in the Senate
                                                Thursday, June 26, 2003
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. FRIST. Mr. President, a few moments ago we were made 
             aware that at 9:45 tonight a close friend, a confidant, a 
             colleague to most of us in this body, Strom Thurmond, 
             passed away.
               It was a century ago when Mark Twain was alive and Teddy 
             Roosevelt was President that James Strom Thurmond was born 
             in South Carolina and at that time began a life unmatched 
             in public service. Just about all of us in this body have 
             had the real privilege of serving alongside Strom 
             Thurmond. A longtime friend of Senator Thurmond, Hortense 
             Woodson, once said of him: ``Everything he's done has been 
             done to the full. There's no halfway doings about Strom.''
               Indeed, Strom Thurmond will forever be a symbol of what 
             one person can accomplish when they live life, as we all 
             know he did, to the fullest. To his family and his 
             friends, we offer our sincerest sympathies.
               It was unexpected that he would die this evening while 
             we are in the middle of completing a very historic bill, 
             and it would be clearly appropriate for us to make 
             recognition of his passing for a moment now, with plans, 
             either after completion of the bill tonight or tomorrow, 
             for people to make more extended statements.
               Again, we extend to his family our deepest sympathies 
             and our continued prayers.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Democratic leader.

               Mr. DASCHLE. Mr. President, I join with the majority 
             leader in expressing our heartfelt condolences to the 
             family and to the State of Strom Thurmond. In many 
             respects, he was a legend. Many of us had the good fortune 
             to serve with him as a Senator. He was a Governor, a 
             Presidential candidate, a soldier, a father, a citizen. In 
             many respects, he fought, lived, contributed, and 
             legislated in a way that will be written about and 
             commented on for years and decades to come.
               Much more will be said, but I think as we consider his 
             contribution tonight we can say, as we consider the 
             opportunity that we had to serve with him, Republicans and 
             Democrats, that it was our privilege to do so.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from South Carolina.

               Mr. HOLLINGS. Mr. President, my friend and colleague of 
             36 years in the Senate is gone. A giant oak in the forest 
             of public service has fallen.
               I started with Senator Thurmond as a young law student 
             in 1946 when he first ran for Governor and have been more 
             or less with him over these many, many years. I will have 
             a real recount of our work together later. That is the way 
             it was even though we ended up on opposite sides of the 
             aisle. There was never any doubt about the interests of 
             South Carolina.
               We have all these arguments going on now with respect, 
             for example, to judges. He and I got together very early. 
             We agreed when his President was in office from his 
             particular party that he had the appointment, but he 
             always asked me about it and, of course, I in turn asked 
             him about it. We checked with each other. That is the kind 
             of way we worked together over 36 years.
               I can say a living legend of South Carolina now has been 
             terminated. But I want to give Nancy and the children my 
             heartfelt condolences. Peatsy and I have known them and 
             been with them over many, many years. I will have more to 
             say at a later time. I thank the leadership for their 
             recognition. I hope, perhaps, when we complete our work 
             tonight, we might adjourn out of respect for our 

               Mr. FRIST. Why don't we take just a moment of silence in 
             honor of Strom Thurmond.
               (Moment of silence.)
                                   STROM THURMOND
               Mr. GRAHAM of South Carolina. Mr. President, I rise to 
             make a brief statement, like my colleague from South 
             Carolina, Senator Hollings, about the passing of Senator 
             Thurmond. This is something I really don't know how to put 
             in words. All of us from South Carolina knew Senator 
             Thurmond in so many ways. But his colleagues in this body, 
             the vast majority of you, have served with him for many 
             years. You have great admiration and fondness for Senator 
             Thurmond but I stand before you as his successor. I often 
             state back home that we change Senators every 50 years and 
             that so many people have been waiting to take Senator 
             Thurmond's place. The jokes just go on and on about what a 
             rich life he has lived.
               Tonight his family is mourning his passing. Whether a 
             person lives to be 100 or 200, it is difficult to lose 
             your father. If you lose someone you love, it is always 
             difficult. But when you think about Senator Thurmond, you 
             always have a smile on your face.
               He lived a rich life. He lived at times a controversial 
             life. But the biggest testament I can give to Senator 
             Thurmond is that he changed. He changed with the times.
               Those of you who embraced him during difficult times 
             your love was much appreciated. Recently people have tried 
             to freeze Senator Thurmond in time which is unfair to him 
             or anyone else. Those who knew him best understood that he 
             changed with the times. And his legacy in my State across 
             party lines, across racial lines, and across regional 
             lines was that he was the go-to guy. If you had a problem 
             with your family or with your business, the first thought 
             in your mind, if the government was involved, or if 
             somebody was treating you unfairly, was get on the phone 
             and call Senator Thurmond. You would get a phone call 
             back, and he would go to bat for you. Whether you owned 
             the company, or you were the janitor, whether you were 
             black, white, rich or poor, his office and he as a person 
             had a reputation of going to bat for individuals. To me, 
             that is his greatest legacy.
               I stand before you as his successor--but not only that, 
             as his friend. He embraced my campaign in 1995. He came to 
             campaign for me when he was 93 years of age. And I was 
             worried to death about whether he could make it through 
             the day. Three days later I was glad to see him leave 
             because he about killed me.
               He had enthusiasm and passion like no one I have ever 
             met in my life. He did things he didn't have to do. He was 
             a sitting judge in South Carolina in his forties. He left 
             the judgeship to go volunteer for the Army. He landed in a 
             glider on D-day, he was shot up, the pilot was killed, and 
             he fought the Germans until they quit, and then he went 
             over to Japan and fought until they quit.
               This man, your friend, my friend, South Carolina's 
             favorite son, is gone but he will never be forgotten. His 
             biggest legacy is in the small things he did--not the 
             large things he did. There are so many large things he 
             accomplished. But he lives on in families. Great 
             relationships were established, and good constituent 
             service. He won his last election by getting more African 
             American votes than any Republican in the South.
               All I can say about Senator Thurmond is that we pray for 
             his family, we mourn his loss, but we thank God that He 
             provided us a great public servant.
               Well done, Senator Thurmond.
               Thank you, Mr. President.
                           HONORING SENATOR STROM THURMOND
               Mr. HATCH. Mr. President, I wish to take a minute to say 
             a few words in honor of Strom Thurmond, our friend and 
             former colleague, who passed away today.
               From the moment Strom Thurmond set foot in this Chamber 
             in 1954, he has been setting records. He was the only 
             person ever elected to the U.S. Senate on a write-in vote. 
             He set the record for the longest speech on the Senate 
             floor, clocked at an astounding 24 hours and 18 minutes. 
             He was the longest serving Senator in the history of the 
             U.S. Senate. He was also the oldest serving Senator. Many 
             of my colleagues will recall the momentous occasion in 
             September 1998 when he cast his 15,000th vote in the 
             Senate. With these and so many other accomplishments over 
             the years, he has appropriately been referred to as ``an 
             institution within an institution.''
               In 1902, the year Strom Thurmond was born, life 
             expectancy was 51 years--and today it is 77 years. Strom 
             continued to prove that, by any measure, he was anything 
             but average.
               He saw so much in his life. To provide some context, let 
             me point out that during his lifetime, Oklahoma, New 
             Mexico, Arizona, Alaska and Hawaii gained statehood, and 
             11 amendments were added to the Constitution. The 
             technological advancements he witnessed, from the 
             automobile to the airplane to the Internet, literally 
             spanned a century of progress. Conveniences we have come 
             to take for granted today were not always part of Strom 
             Thurmond's world. Perhaps this explains why, during 
             Judiciary Committee hearings, he was often heard asking 
             witnesses who were too far away from the microphone to 
             ``please speak into the machine.''
               The story of his remarkable political career truly could 
             fill several volumes. It began with a win in 1928 for the 
             Edgefield County superintendent of schools. Eighteen years 
             later, he was Governor of South Carolina. Strom was even a 
             Presidential candidate in 1948, running on the 
             ``Dixiecrat'' ticket against Democrat Harry Truman.
               I must admit, he came a long way in his political 
             career, given that he originally came to the Senate as a 
             Democrat. I am happy to say that wisdom came within a few 
             short years when Strom saw the light and joined the 
             Republican Party.
               When I first arrived in the Senate in January 1977, he 
             was my mentor. As my senior on the Judiciary Committee, it 
             was Strom Thurmond who helped me find my way and learn how 
             the committee functioned. He was not only a respected 
             colleague, but a personal friend.
               During his tenure as chairman of the Judiciary 
             Committee, Strom Thurmond left an indelible mark on the 
             committee and the laws that came through it. He became 
             known and respected for many fine qualities and 
             positions--his devotion to the Constitution, his toughness 
             on crime, his sense of fairness.
               He was famous for his incredible grip. Many of us in 
             this Chamber had the experience of Strom Thurmond holding 
             our arm tightly as he explained a viewpoint and asked for 
             our support. I might add that this proved to be a very 
             effective approach.
               Strom was also known to have a kind word or greeting for 
             everyone who came his way, and for being extremely good to 
             his staff. Despite his power and influence, he never 
             forgot the importance of small acts of kindness. For 
             example, whenever he ate in the Senate dining room, he 
             grabbed two fistfuls of candy. When he returned to the 
             floor of the Senate, he handed the candy out to the Senate 
             pages. Unfortunately, it was usually melted into a 
             kaleidoscope of sugar by then. I have a feeling that the 
             pages preferred it when Strom took them out for ice cream.
               Strom Thurmond was truly a legend--someone to whom the 
             people of South Carolina owe an enormous debt of gratitude 
             for all his years of service.
               Clearly, the people of South Carolina recognize the 
             sacrifices he made and are grateful for all he did for 
             them. In fact, you cannot mention the name Strom Thurmond 
             in South Carolina without the audience bursting into 
             spontaneous applause. He truly was an American political 
               Abraham Lincoln once said, ``The better part of one's 
             life consists of friendships.'' With a friend like Strom 
             Thurmond, this sentiment could not be more true. I am a 
             great admirer of Strom Thurmond, and I am proud to have 
             called him my friend.
               One final note about Strom Thurmond. He was a great 
             patriot. A decorated veteran of World War II who fought at 
             Normandy on D-day, Strom Thurmond loved this country. Let 
             me close by saying that this country loved him, too.
               Mr. FRIST. Tomorrow, the Senate will be in a period for 
             morning business. Members will be able to pay tribute to 
             our departed friend and colleague Strom Thurmond. We will 
             give Members an opportunity to submit statements for the 
             Record so they can be compiled for a printed tribute to 
             Senator Thurmond. There will be no rollcall votes 
               Again, I thank my colleagues for their hard work over 
             the past several weeks. We will have more to say about 
             recent accomplishments of the Senate tomorrow and the 
             events which culminated in tonight's passage--or this 
             morning's passage--of the historic prescription drug 
             benefits bill.
                        ADJOURNMENT UNTIL 10:15 A.M. TOMORROW
               Mr. FRIST. If there is no further business to come 
             before the Senate, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate 
             stand in adjournment as a mark of further respect for the 
             late Senator Strom Thurmond.
               There being no objection, the Senate, at 1:15 a.m., 
             adjourned until Friday, June 27, 2003, at 10:15 a.m.
                                                  Friday, June 27, 2003
               The Senate met at 10:15 a.m. and was called to order by 
             the President pro tempore (Mr. Stevens).
               The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Today's prayer will be 
             offered by our guest Chaplain, the Reverend Daniel P. 
             Coughlin, Chaplain of the U.S. House of Representatives.
               The guest Chaplain offered the following prayer:
               Before the Congress of the United States leaves to 
             celebrate Independence Day, we pause to pray to You, Lord 
             God, for the repose of the soul of Senator Strom Thurmond. 
             Lord, reward this most senior statesman for his many years 
             of pledged service to this country.
               As the Source of life and justice that will last 
             forever, You have inspired the Founders of this Nation, 
             individuals such as Senator Thurmond and citizens across 
             this land, to continually seek what is right: to pursue 
             lasting values for themselves and for all their brothers 
             and sisters; and to pray always that they may grow in 
             virtue and so strengthen this democracy.
               Our national celebration this year is an occasion for us 
             to thank and praise You for this form of government, for 
             its leaders and for the natural and human resources with 
             which You continue to endow this great Nation.
               May we also take this moment to pray for the new 
             Chaplain of the U.S. Senate, Chaplain Barry Black. Guide 
             him by Your holy inspiration to ably respond to the needs 
             of the Senators and this community. Gift him with the 
             spirit of wisdom and prayer. And may he always find joy in 
             serving You by serving in this august chamber. You, Lord 
             God are America's boast now and forever! Amen.
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. SESSIONS. Mr. President, I wish to take a few 
             minutes at this time to express my sympathy to the family 
             of Senator Strom Thurmond, one of America's most dynamic 
             leaders in this past century, a man who lived through 
             extraordinary change in his life, a man whose commitment 
             to his country was unwavering.
               I had the opportunity in 1997 to travel with him to 
             China. He was 94, I believe, at that time. His vigor and 
             his strength were extraordinarily impressive to me and all 
             of us who traveled with him. He wanted to see The Wall. He 
             wanted to meet the people of China. He would tell them: 
             America and China are friends. We want to be better 
             friends. He made very perceptive and appropriate remarks.
               Then we met Jiang Zemin at his resort in the month of 
             their vacation time and Strom made an extraordinary speech 
             that reflected so well America and had so comprehensive an 
             understanding of the relationships of our countries. That 
             just struck me particularly.
               We went out to a Chinese army base. He trooped the line 
             of a group of Chinese troops. I remember saying to him 
             afterward that I never thought I would be in Communist 
             China, seeing Strom Thurmond, the great cold warrior, 
             troop the line of a group of Chinese troops. But he was 
             extraordinary in that way.
               I had come up to this Senate in the mid-eighties as a 
             nominee and it wasn't a very pleasant experience. I will 
             never forget and will always appreciate his courtesy and 
             support for me at that time and enjoyed responding a 
             little bit to that when I was able to come back to this 
             Senate and he was leader on the Senate Judiciary 
             Committee, chairman of the Armed Services Committee. It 
             was just a pleasure to work with him.
               He lived through a complete change in the South. He 
             reflected the change that went on in our region of the 
             country. I think he did it in a positive and especially 
             important way. His leadership in moving from the days of 
             segregation to a new era of relations between the races 
             was very important and positive throughout the South.
               He served his country in an almost unprecedented way. He 
             was 40 years old when World War II began. He was an 
             elected judge in his home State and he was an Army 
             reservist. He insisted that he be allowed to be on active 
             duty and they allowed him to do so. I understand at first 
             it wasn't going to happen.
               He ended up in England when they were planning for the 
             Normandy invasion. A number of people were called upon to 
             fly gliders in during that invasion at the time. He 
             volunteered to fly on a glider, one of the most dangerous 
             missions there could be. The planes would pull up these 
             gliders and get them going and just let them go and they 
             would have to find a place to land down behind enemy 
             lines--extraordinarily high risk. Many were killed on 
             landing. Many were killed in combat, many were separated, 
             many were injured. That is the kind of man Strom Thurmond 
               I asked him one time, ``Strom, did you stay in until 
             Germany surrendered?''
               He said, ``Oh, yes, we stayed until Germany surrendered 
             and we were on a train coming back when they declared the 
             war on Japan was over. We were being sent to the East.''
               He was prepared to go there. As long as this country was 
             in combat he wanted to be there, committing his life, his 
             every effort to the defense of this Republic. He did so in 
             the Senate and he did so in uniform and as a leader in 
             South Carolina.
               He was beloved in his State, respected to an awesome 
             degree. He won his Senate race on a write-in vote with a 
             substantial majority, the only Member, I believe, in the 
             history of this Senate ever to be elected on a write-in 
             vote. That shows the power and the energy and the vigor 
             and the leadership of this man. I have appreciated his 
               I know his family is hurting at this time and my 
             sympathies are extended to them. I know the great members 
             of his staff, Duke Short and the whole team that worked 
             with him for so many years, are hurting today and our 
             sympathies go out to them as well as to the family.
               Mr. President, I know you served with Senator Thurmond 
             so many years. The two of you together have conducted a 
             remarkable effort to maintain our military strength and 
             leadership in the world. He was certainly committed to 
               There are many other things I could say. I will not at 
             this time. I just express my sympathy to his family, his 
             friends, the people of South Carolina, and those around 
             this great country who will mourn his passing.
               I thank the President and yield the floor.

               The PRESIDENT pro tempore. May the Chair request the 
             Senator to occupy the Chair so this Senator may speak 
             about Senator Thurmond?

               Mr. SESSIONS. I will be honored to.

               Mr. STEVENS addressed the Chair.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Sessions). The Senator from 

               Mr. STEVENS. Mr. President, next Tuesday it will be my 
             honor to be part of the funeral delegation to South 
             Carolina to attend the funeral of our departed President 
             pro tempore. When I first came to the Senate, I was in the 
             gallery up there watching the debate on the Alaska 
             statehood bill. A filibuster was being led against that 
             bill by the Senator from South Carolina. As a matter of 
             fact, he held up the bill for a considerable period of 
               Because of his opposition, we developed a strategy of 
             trying to get the bill passed by the Senate without 
             amendment--passed by the Senate as it had come to us from 
             the House, without amendment. It was, I think, the only 
             statehood bill in history that ever passed both Houses in 
             identical form without amendment by the Senate. We did 
             that because we knew if the bill went to conference and 
             came back, Strom Thurmond would have another shot at the 
             bill and another filibuster.
               I remember that today because I remember how, when I did 
             finally arrive here in 1968 as a Member of the Senate, 
             Strom came up to me and said, ``I remember you, boy.''
               And he remembered I had been part of the group from the 
             Eisenhower delegation that worked on our bill. We formed a 
             friendship that day that I never expected to have.
               Strom was, as I have said, a distinguished member of the 
             U.S. armed services. He was the oldest officer to land in 
             Normandy. As we all know, he landed in a glider. The pilot 
             was killed. I talked about that with Strom because I had 
             been trained to fly gliders. Even though I was a pilot, 
             some of us were trained to fly gliders in case they needed 
             glider pilots and I had anticipated I might have gone to 
             Normandy. Instead, I was sent to China. When I returned 
             and was a Member of the Senate here, we often discussed 
             our wartime service. Of course, he was considerably older 
             than I was and his experience was entirely different. But 
             over the years I grew, really, to have great fondness for 
             Senator Thurmond, despite our original, really, 
             antagonism. Believe me, as an advocate for statehood for 
             my State, anyone who was going to filibuster that bill was 
             not exactly a friend at that time. But as we grew together 
             and grew older together here in the Senate, Strom became a 
             person who did give me a lot of guidance. At one time he 
             was chairman of the Armed Services Committee and I was 
             chairman of the Defense Subcommittee for Appropriations, 
             and we did a lot of work together.
               But my memory of Strom really goes back to the time 
             after 1981 when we had a dinner for the new President pro 
             tempore as we had taken the majority in the Senate. Strom 
             became President pro tempore. I was the assistant leader. 
             Senator Baker was the leader. We had a dinner at one of 
             the local hotels. Senator Baker and his wife Joy and I and 
             my wife Catherine were at the head table. When it became 
             Strom's time to thank the people there for honoring him, 
             he started talking with the people at the head table, and 
             he came to me. I had just been remarried. Catherine and I 
             were married in December 1980. Just before that dinner, 
             she had informed me we were going to have a child.
               Strom stood up and was introducing people. He came to me 
             and made some kind remarks about me. And he turned and 
             said, ``Here is his lovely lady who has now joined our 
             family. She is a beautiful woman, and isn't it nice that 
             she is with child?''
               I thought Catherine was going to break my arm and bust 
             my head. I grabbed Strom and asked him to come over and 
             tell Catherine I had not told him that. She did listen to 
             him for a moment or two. And he smiled, and said, ``Child, 
             he never told me. He never told me anything about that.'' 
             He said, ``I just looked at you. I can tell when a woman 
             is in flower.''
               Mr. President, being from Alabama, you can understand 
             the way he pronounced that.
               It is something I will never forget.
               When our child came, he became Uncle Strom to Lily 
             Stevens. Every day he sat here in that chair, he would ask 
             me about Lily. Lily, as a matter of fact, last evening had 
             a tear in her voice as she called to tell me she had heard 
             about Strom.
               Strom was really a member of this Senate family. He got 
             to know every one of us in a way that I think no one else 
             did because no one else was near 100 years old. He was 
             like a 1,000-pound gorilla around here; he did what he 
             wanted to do, but he did it in a way which really 
             reflected his southern heritage. He was a southern 
             gentleman to the core.
               I have to tell the Senate that there are many things 
             Senator Strom Thurmond did in his life with which I didn't 
             agree. There were many votes he cast here on the floor 
             that I opposed. But I can't think of a person who more 
             epitomized being a Senator and what it meant to be a 
             Senator. He lived up to his principles, and he lived up to 
             the idea of what this democracy is about. He was, I 
             believe, one of the finest Senators who will ever serve in 
             this body.
               I am honored, following him as President pro tempore, to 
             go back and participate in the services and to once again 
             remind his people who sent him to the Senate that he was a 
             person who became a very distinguished Senator whom 
             history will always admire.
               Thank you very much.

               Mr. WARNER. Mr. President, I am deeply moved this 
             morning, as are Senators all over America today--not only 
             those who are present in the Senate, but so many who have 
             gone on from the Senate to other careers--about the loss 
             of our distinguished colleague Senator Thurmond. I think 
             it is coincidental, and indeed most fitting, that the 
             presiding officer in the Chamber this morning is the son 
             of the distinguished Senator from Rhode Island, Senator 
             John Chafee.
               I first met Senator Thurmond when I joined the then-
             Secretary of the Navy, John Chafee, as his principal 
             deputy and in later years to succeed him. Really, our 
             first call was to come to the Senate to meet with Richard 
             Russell, John Stennis, Strom Thurmond, John Tower, and 
             Barry Goldwater. I remember our calls as the brand-new 
             team of the Secretary of the Navy during the height of the 
             war in Vietnam--at least one of the periods of great 
             intensity--was in 1969. Senator Thurmond greeted us in his 
             office in the same way that he greeted me throughout my 25 
             years in the Senate. Each of those years--except since his 
             retirement in January that I shared with him, as did John 
             Chafee and others--it was a learning experience every day 
             you were with him.
               I stop to think of the men and women of the Armed Forces 
             today all across the world, engaged in fighting in 
             Afghanistan and Iraq, and guarding the outposts of 
             freedom. They have not lost Strom Thurmond because they 
             have the wealth of the memories of him. I don't know of 
             any class of individual--perhaps other than his immediate 
             family--for whom Senator Thurmond had a deeper or more 
             abiding love and devotion than those in uniform.
               This record last night covered briefly his distinguished 
             military career, and I don't doubt others will address 
             that. But we always remember that he was a judge in the 
             State of South Carolina. By virtue of his age at that 
             time--I think right on the brink of 40, give or take a 
             year--he would not have been subjected to the draft. He 
             would not, by virtue of his judicial position, have had to 
             leave that position and go into the Armed Forces--other 
             than by his own free will. He resigned his judicial post 
             to go into the ranks of the U.S. Army, where he served 
             with great distinction, going in on D-day with the 
             airborne assault divisions, landing, helping those who 
             were wounded--that was his first call--and then marshaling 
             the forces to mount the offensive against the German army, 
             and going through those matters until victory in May 1945.
               When we walked into his office, two things always struck 
             me. One was the portrait that was obviously painted in the 
             period when he was Governor--straight, tall, and erect, 
             eyes that were penetrating, eyes that reflected a 
             tremendous inner confidence and conviction, but eyes that 
             had a soft side, because he did have a soft side. He loved 
             humor. He was very often the object of a lot of humor, 
             including respectfully from this humble Senator. But what 
             a tower of strength. I served with him these many years on 
             the committee as really an aide-de-camp--yes, a fellow 
             Senator, but I was happy to be ``General'' Strom 
             Thurmond's aide-de-camp on many missions--missions that 
             took me abroad on occasions when he was chairman, and 
             missions from which I learned so much at the hand of the 
             great master on the subject of national events. He was 
             unwavering in his steadfast support of Presidents, be they 
             Democrat or Republican, and unwavering in his resolve for 
             the care of the men and women in uniform on active duty, 
             their families, the retirees. And, oh, Mr. President, did 
             he love the National Guard. There wasn't a bill that went 
             through the Armed Services Committee and conference when 
             he wouldn't tug on my shoulder and say let's beef up a 
             little bit for the Guard and Reserve here. Remember, in 
             times of crisis, they are among the first to respond.
               That bit of wisdom has proven ever so true. Going back 
             to the Balkans campaign, the Guard was actively engaged at 
             all levels of that campaign. The Air Guard, for example, 
             flew many of the missions carrying food, medicine, and 
             other supplies to the ravaged civilians and others in 
             Sarajevo. I remember I joined one time in one of those 
             missions. I remember it so well because the plane behind 
             ours was shot down and lost--just to point up the risks 
             that those Air Guard took on those missions.
               Now, today, in Operation Iraqi Freedom, worldwide 
             efforts against terrorism, once again the Guard and 
             Reserve are in the forefront--a Guard and Reserve that 
             have benefited through the many years of Strom Thurmond 
             being a Senator and receiving a fair allocation of 
             equipment and money, often in competition with the regular 
               But Strom Thurmond was there with his watchful eye on 
             the Armed Services Committee to ensure that degree of 
             fairness for the Guard and Reserve. He rose to the rank of 
             major general. I mentioned his portrait as you walked in. 
             Then, in a very discreet way, there was a large frame that 
             contained all of his many decorations. He rarely talked 
             about them. As a matter of fact, only after one tried to 
             elicit facts from him would he share facts about the 
             combat of war and what he received in World War II, and 
             the other recognitions by our government and other 
             governments for his contribution to freedom worldwide.
               So I say to my dear friend--really a big brother--I 
             thank him for all he has done for the world, for the 
             Nation, for this humble Senator and, I daresay, many 
             others of my comtemporaries, as we came along in this 
             institution on the learning curve that was often at the 
             hands of Strom Thurmond.
               My final thoughts are with his family, his wife and 
             children, all of whom I have known throughout these years, 
             and with whom I have had the privilege so often to be 
             photographed, from little sizes all the way up, as we do 
             through the years with our colleagues. But I know the 
             presiding officer's father, were he here today, would join 
             in the most fervent and heartfelt expressions with regard 
             to our comrade, our colleague, our dear friend, Strom 

               Mr. DORGAN. Mr. President, let me add my voice to those 
             of my colleagues who last evening and this morning have 
             expressed sympathy to the families of Senator Strom 
             Thurmond. I was privileged to serve in this Chamber for 
             many years while Senator Strom Thurmond was a Senator. He 
             was quite a remarkable American. He was a hero in many 
             ways. His life was controversial in some ways.
               I talked to Strom Thurmond one day about the Second 
             World War. Americans should know, when he was in his 
             forties, this man volunteered for service in the Second 
             World War, volunteered to fly at night in a glider and 
             crash land behind enemy lines, behind German lines. All of 
             the rest in that glider were young kids, 18-, 19-, 20-
             year-old GIs. This 40-plus-year-old lawyer and judge who 
             volunteered for service in the Second World War was in 
             that glider that crash landed behind enemy lines.
               He was quite a remarkable American and had a remarkable 
             political career. In his later years as he suffered health 
             challenges and difficulties, but he never complained, 
             ever. He showed up for all of the votes in the Senate even 
             at times when it appeared to us it was difficult for him 
             to do so.
               The American people, I know, will thank Senator Strom 
             Thurmond for the service he gave to his country. I wanted 
             to add my voice to the many others in this Chamber who 
             wish to remember the memory of this remarkable American.

               Mr. BIDEN. Mr. President, I would like to proceed in 
             morning business to briefly discuss two totally different 
             subjects, if I may.
               I rise initially to acknowledge the passing of a good 
             friend of mine. People may find it strange to hear the 
             Senator from Delaware say that, because they are used to 
             so much hyperbole from all of us in the Senate, in 
             Congress, and many in public office. They find it 
             difficult to believe that people with disparately 
             different views, as Strom Thurmond and I had, were good 
               I received a call not too many weeks ago from Nancy, 
             Strom Thurmond's wife, telling me she had just spoken to 
             the Senator. To use Nancy's phrase, she said that Strom 
             ``was now on God's time, Joe.'' I wondered for a moment 
             about exactly what she meant. She went on to say that he 
             doesn't have much time left, his body is shutting down.
               She said he made a request which both flattered me 
             greatly and saddened me significantly. She said he asked 
             her to ask me whether or not I would deliver a eulogy for 
             him at his burial, which is going to take place on Tuesday 
             next--this coming Tuesday.
               It might come as a surprise to a lot of people that on 
             Tuesday, somewhere approaching 4 or 5 o'clock, people--
             including representatives from Strom's family--will stand 
             up to speak of him and that I will be among them. I am a 
             guy who as a kid was energized, angered, emboldened, and 
             outraged all at the same time by the treatment of African 
             Americans in my State--a border State--and throughout the 
             South. When I was not much older than the young pages who 
             are now sitting down there I literally ran for public 
             office and got involved in public office and politics 
             because I thought I would have the ability to play a 
             little tiny part in ending the awful treatment of African 
             Americans. I will stand up to speak about Strom Thurmond.
               In the 1950s I was a child in grade school, and in the 
             late 1950s and into the 1960s I was in high school. As 
             hard as it is to believe now, that was an era where, when 
             you turned on your television, you were as likely to see 
             ``Bull'' Conner and his German Shepherd dogs attacking 
             black women marching after church on Sunday to protest 
             their circumstance, or George Wallace standing in a 
             doorway of a university, or Orville Faubus.
               This all started to seep into my consciousness when I 
             was in grade school, as it did, I suspect, for everyone in 
             my generation. It animated my interest, as I said, and my 
             anger. I was not merely intellectually repelled by what 
             was going on in the South particularly at the time, I was, 
             as is probably a legitimate criticism of me, angry about 
             it and outraged about it.
               The idea that I would come to the Senate at age 29--to 
             be precise, I got elected at age 29; by the time I got 
             sworn in, I turned 30--and 2 years later to be serving on 
             a committee with J. Strom Thurmond, him the most senior 
             Republican and me the most junior not only Democrat but 
             junior member of the committee. Over the next 28 years he 
             and I would become friends. He and I would, in some 
             instances, have an intimate relationship.
               The idea that my daughter, who is now a 22-year-old 
             grown woman, would, to this day, in her bedroom, have one 
             picture sitting on her dresser of all the pictures she has 
             since she was a child. From the moment she was born--her 
             father was a Senator and her entire life I have been a 
             Senator--she has had the privilege of being able to meet 
             Senators and Presidents and kings and queens. She has one 
             picture sitting on her bureau. It startled me when I 
             realized it the other night. She does not live at home. 
             She, like all young people, is on her own. It is a picture 
             of her and Strom Thurmond, taken when she was 9 years old, 
             sitting on her desk.
               If you had told me--first off, if you had told me when I 
             was 20 years old I was going to have a child, that would 
             have been hard to believe. But if you told me when I was 
             29 years old--when I did have two children--that one of my 
             children, as I approached the Senate roughly 30 years 
             later, would have a childhood picture of her or him in 
             Strom Thurmond's office, standing next to his desk with 
             his arm around her, and it was kept on her bureau, I would 
             have said, ``You have insulted me. Don't do that.''
               The only point I want to make today, as I do not intend 
             at this moment to attempt to eulogize Strom, is that I 
             think one of the incredible aspects of our democracy--even 
             more precisely, our government, our governmental system--
             that is lost today on so many is it has built into it the 
             mechanisms that allow you not only to see the worst in 
             what you abhor and fight it but see the best in people 
             with whom you have very profound philosophic disagreement.
               There is an old expression: Politics makes strange 
             bedfellows. That is read today by most young people, or 
             anyone who hears it, as meaning what it maybe initially 
             meant: that they are strange bedfellows because people 
             need things from each other, and they compromise. So you 
             end up being aligned with someone with whom you disagree, 
             out of self-interest.
               But the majesty of this place in which I stand--this 
             Senate, the floor of this place, the floor of the Senate 
             at this moment--is it has another impact on people I do 
             not think many historians have written very well about, 
             and I think it is almost hard to understand, even harder 
             to articulate; and that is, it produces relationships that 
             are a consequence of you looking at the best in your 
             opponent, the best in the people with whom you serve, the 
             best about their nature.
               I remember, as a young Senator--I guess I was 31--
             wandering on the floor one day. New Senators will not like 
             what I am about to say, but when you are a newer Senator, 
             you have less hectic Senate responsibilities than you do 
             when you are a more senior Senator. You are no less 
             important. But being chairman of a committee gives you the 
             honor of turning your lights on and turning them off, 
             meaning you are the first and last there. When you are not 
             a senior Member, you are not required to do that as much.
               So I was wandering literally onto the floor, like my 
             friend from Montana just has, and there was a debate going 
               (Mr. BURNS assumed the chair.)

               Mr. BIDEN. One of my colleagues, who also became a 
             friend, was railing against something I felt very strongly 
             about. And at the time, because of the circumstance in 
             which I got here, I was meeting regularly, once a week, 
             with one of the finest men I ever knew, the then-majority 
             leader Senator Mike Mansfield.
               When I got here, between the date I got elected and the 
             date I arrived, my wife and daughter were killed in an 
             automobile accident and I was not crazy about being here. 
             Senator Mansfield, being the great man he was, took on the 
             role of sort of a Dutch uncle. He would tell me what my 
             responsibility was and why I should stay in the Senate.
               And then, without my knowing it, really, at the time--
             looking back, it is crystal clear--he would ask me to come 
             and meet with him in his office once a week and talk about 
             what I was doing. But he acted sort of like he was the 
             principal and I was the young teacher, and I was coming to 
             tell him how my classes were going. But, really, it was 
             just to take my pulse and see how I was doing.
               Anyway, I walked on the floor one day, and a particular 
             friend of mine, Jesse Helms--he has become a close friend, 
             God love him. He is in North Carolina now in retirement--
             he was going on about something I had a very serious 
             disagreement with.
               I walked into Senator Mansfield's office--which was out 
             that door--and I sat down with him. He said, ``How is it 
             going?'' And I began to rail about how could this Senator 
             say such and such a thing? It had to do with the Americans 
             with Disabilities Act or what was being discussed then. 
             And Senator Mansfield, in his way, just let me go on, and 
             then he said, ``Joe--I will not bore you with the whole 
             story. This relates to Strom.'' He said, ``Joe, you should 
             understand one thing.'' And he told me the story about 
             Harry Truman.
               When Harry Truman first got to the Senate--I will 
             paraphrase this--he wrote back to his wife Bess and said, 
             ``I can't believe I am here. I can't believe how I got 
             here with all these great men.''
               Apparently, not long thereafter, he wrote back to Bess 
             and said he couldn't understand how all these other guys 
             got here.
               Well, he told me that story. And he said, ``Let me tell 
             you, every single solitary man and woman with whom you 
             will serve in the Senate has something very special that 
             their constituency sees in them. And your job is to look 
             for that.''
               I can't imagine anybody saying that today, can you? I 
             can't imagine, in this raw political environment we are 
             in, somebody having the insight Mike Mansfield had and 
             telling a novitiate, if you will, a new, young Senator, 
             that part of my job was to look for that thing in my 
             colleague, a colleague with whom I have a bitter 
             disagreement, to look for that thing in him that his 
             constituency recognized which was special and sent him 
               Maybe subconsciously, because of that, I became one of 
             Strom Thurmond's close friends and, as his AA will tell 
             you, one of his protectors, especially as he got older. 
             Mike Mansfield was right. I never called Mike Mansfield 
             ``Mike.'' I am standing here as a senior Senator saying 
             Mike Mansfield. I never called him Mike until the day he 
             died. I called him Mr. Leader. And Strom Thurmond had a 
             very special piece of him that his constituents saw that 
             had nothing to do with the most celebrated aspects of his 
               The most celebrated aspects of his career were the ones 
             I abhor the most: The filibuster to fight civil rights and 
             to keep black Americans in the shadow of white Americans 
             or signing the Southern Manifesto.
               It is funny--I say to my friend from Montana--I actually 
             got tied up with a lot of Southerners.
               Senator John Stennis became my friend. I had his office. 
             I have the table he presented to me in the conference room 
             that had been Richard Russell's, upon which--I am told--
             the Southern Manifesto was signed. I might note 
             parenthetically, if you all know John Stennis, he talked 
             at you like this all the time. He would hold his hand like 
             this. When I was looking through his office, when he was 
             leaving, to see whether I could take his office because of 
             my seniority, he reminded me of the first time I came by 
             his office as a young Senator to pay my respects, which 
             was a tradition then. And I sat down at that conference 
             table which he used as his office desk.
               He patted the leather chair next to me. After 
             congratulating me he said, ``Sit down. What made you run 
             for the Senate?''
               And like a darn fool I told him the exact truth. I said, 
             ``civil rights, sir.''
               As soon as I said it, I could feel the beads of sweat 
             pop out on my head, my underarms get damp. Why am I 
             telling this old segregationist that the reason was civil 
             rights? That is not a very auspicious way to start off a 
               He looked at me and said, ``Good.''
               That was the end of the conversation.
               Over the intervening years, we served 18 years. We 
             shared a hospital room in Walter Reed for 3 months. He was 
             in there, and I was. He became supportive of me in my 
             effort to run for President back in the 1980s. We became 
             good friends. But 18 years later, when I came back to look 
             at his office to see whether or not I would take his 
             office because it was a more commodious space, I walked 
             into the office. It was during that interregnum period 
             after the Presidential election. President Bush was about 
             to take office. There had been this transition.
               Anyway, I said to his secretary of many years--I am 
             embarrassed, I can't remember her first name. I think it 
             may have been Mildred. He was in the Senate 42 years, 
             maybe 43--``Is the chairman in?''
               She said, ``Senator, you can go right into his office.''
               I walked in. He was sitting in the same spot he was 18 
             years earlier. Only this time in a wheelchair with an 
             amputated leg was John Stennis. I said, ``Mr. Chairman, I 
               He said, ``Come in, sit down.'' He patted the chair. I 
             sat down. He startled me. He said, ``You all remember the 
             first time you came to see me, Joe?''
               I had not. And he reminded me. I looked at him and he 
             recited the story. And I said, ``I was a pretty smart 
             fellow, wasn't I, Mr. Chairman?''
               And he said, ``I wanted to tell you something then and I 
             am going to tell you now.'' He said, ``You are going to 
             take my office, aren't you?''
               I said, ``Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman.''
               He caressed that table--it was a big mahogany table 
             about half the size of the table in the Cabinet Room--as 
             if it was an animate object. He said, ``Do you see this 
             table, Joe?''
               I said, ``Yes, Mr. Chairman.''
               He said, ``This table was the flagship of the 
             Confederacy from 1954 to 1968.'' He said, ``Senator 
             Russell would have us every Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday--I 
             forget what day--and we would have lunch here. Everybody 
             had a drawer.'' And he opened one of the drawers. He said, 
             ``We planned the demise of the civil rights movement at 
             this table.'' He said, ``It is time now that this table go 
             from a man against civil rights to a man for civil 
             rights.'' I give you my word on that.
               I was moved by that. I looked at him, and he said, ``One 
             more thing, Joe, before you leave.'' He said, ``The civil 
             rights movement did more to free the white man than it did 
             the black man.''
               And I said, ``How is that, Mr. Chairman?''
               None of you here are old enough to remember him, but 
             again the way he talked, he went like this, he said, ``It 
             freed my soul.''
               The point I want to make that I am grappling with here 
             is the men and women who serve here, and Strom Thurmond in 
             particular, actually change. They actually grow. They 
             actually, because of the diverse views that are here and 
             the different geography represented, if you are here long 
             enough, it rubs against you. It sort of polishes you. Not 
             in the way of polish meaning smooth, but polishes you in 
             the sense of taking off the edges and understanding the 
             other man's perspective.
               I believe Strom Thurmond was a captive of his era, his 
             age, and his geography.
               I do not believe Strom Thurmond at his core was racist. 
             But even if he had been, I believe that he changed, and 
             the news media says he changed, they think, out of pure 
             opportunism. I believe he changed because the times 
             changed, life changed. He worked with, he saw, he had 
             relationships with people who educated him, as well as I 
             have been educated.
               Hubert Humphrey wrote a book--and I had the great honor 
             of serving with him--called ``The Education of a Public 
             Man.'' I watched Strom Thurmond as the percentage of his 
             staff increased in terms of black representation. He and I 
             were chairmen, or cochairmen, of the Judiciary Committee 
             for almost two decades--16 years I believe. I watched him. 
             He would lean over to me in the middle of a hearing 
             because we had a genuine trust and say, ``Joe, what did 
             they mean by that?''
               I will never forget we were holding a hearing on a 
             Supreme Court Justice, and at the end the last group of 
             witnesses we had--we had six witnesses--included a young 
             man representing the Gay and Lesbian Task Force. He was 
             chairing and I was the only one with him because the 
             hearing was already finished and these were people coming 
             to register opposition or support. They ranged from all 
             kinds of groups that were before us--extremely 
             conservative ones and liberal ones--to give everybody 
             their say. Everybody on the committee knew it was 
             basically over. Because of being the ranking Democrat or 
             ranking Republican or the chairman, you have to be there.
               I will never forget sitting next to him and he leaned 
             over and said, ``What is he saying?'' This young man was 
             explaining the point of view of why, in fact, to be gay 
             was not to be in any way maladjusted. But Strom came from 
             an era and a time that was different, so he looked at the 
             young man and he said, ``Have you received psychiatric 
             help, son?''
               Now, everybody in that room who was under the age of 40 
             laughed and thought he was being a wise guy. He was 
               He leaned over to me and he said, ``Joe, why do they 
             call it `gay' ''?
               He wasn't being snide. He literally, at 91 years old, 
             didn't understand that. I guess it must not have been 
             Rehnquist. It must have been someone later. He did not 
             understand. Remember, this man was over 100 years old. He 
             came from the Deep South. People from the far North don't 
             understand either. But he came from an environment that 
             was so different. But in this place, over time, he had the 
             ability, without even knowing it, to apply Mike 
             Mansfield's standard, which was to look at the other guy 
             or woman and try to figure out what is the good thing 
             about them that caused their people to send them here, 
             with all their warts, foibles and faults.
               I deem it a privilege to have become his friend. We were 
             equals in the sense that our vote counted the same. Our 
             influence on some issues was the same. But I am 60 and he 
             was 100. There was always a 40-year chasm between us. I 
             could say things to Strom and be irreverent with him. I 
             could grab him by the arm and say, ``Strom, don't''--which 
             I would not have been able to do if there had been a 10-
             year difference. I was like the kid. It is strange--I find 
             it strange even talking about it--how this relationship 
             that started in stark adversarial confrontation ended up 
             being as close as it was, causing Strom Thurmond to ask 
             his wife whether I would deliver a eulogy for him. I don't 
             fully understand it, but I do know it is something about 
             this place, these walls, this Chamber, and something good 
             about America, something good about our system, and it is 
             something that is sorely needed--to look in the eyes of 
             your adversary within our system and look for the good in 
             him, and not just the part that you find disagreeable or, 
             in some cases, abhorrent.
               I will end on a more humorous note. I had the privilege 
             of being asked to be one of the four people to speak at 
             his 90th birthday party. The other people were George 
             Mitchell, then majority leader, a fine man; Bob Dole; and 
             Richard Milhouse Nixon. It was before a crowd of a 
             thousand or more people, black tie, here in Washington. It 
             was quite an event. It kind of shocked everybody that I 
             was asked to be one of the speakers. It shocked me to be 
             seen with Richard Milhouse Nixon, even though he was 
             President when I arrived here.
               I did some research about Strom to find out about his 
             background before I did this tribute on his 90th 
             birthday--a combination tribute and roast. You know what I 
             found? I found a lead editorial--I don't have it now--from 
             the year 1947 or 1948 from the New York Times, and the 
             title, if memory serves me correct, is something like 
             ``The Hope of the South.'' It was about Strom Thurmond. 
             The New York Times, the liberal New York Times, in the 
             late forties--it must have been 1947--wrote about this 
             guy, Strom Thurmond, a public official in South Carolina, 
             who got himself in trouble and lost a primary because he 
             was too empathetic to African Americans. When he was a 
             presiding judge, he started an effort statewide in South 
             Carolina to get better textbooks and materials into black 
             schools, and he tutored young blacks and set up an 
             organization to tutor and teach young blacks how to read. 
             I think it was in 1946 or 1947. The essence of the 
             editorial was that this is ``the hope of the South.'' In 
             the meantime, he got beat by a sitting Senator for being 
             ``weak on race.''
               I think Strom Thurmond learned the wrong political 
             lesson from that and decided no one would ever get to the 
             right of him on this issue again. But I also was sitting 
             next to him when he voted for the extension of the Voting 
             Rights Act.
               The only point I want to make is, people change, people 
             grow, and people react to crises in different ways. I 
             choose to remember Strom Thurmond in his last 15 years as 
             Senator rather than choose to remember him when he started 
             his career.
               I do not choose that just as a matter of convenience. I 
             choose that because I believe men and women can grow. I 
             believe John Stennis meant it when he said the civil 
             rights movement saved his soul. I believe Strom Thurmond 
             meant it when he hired so many African Americans, signed 
             on to the extension of the Voting Rights Act, and voted 
             for the Martin Luther King holiday.
               I choose to believe that he meant it because I find it 
             hard to believe that in the so many decent, generous, and 
             personal acts that he did for me that it did not come from 
             a man who is basically a decent, good man, and the latter 
             part of his career reflects that.
               I choose it not just because I am an optimist. I choose 
             it not just because I want to believe it. I choose it not 
             just because I believe there is a chemistry that happens 
             in this body. I choose it because I believe basically in 
             the goodness of human nature and it will win out, and I 
             think it did in Strom.
               I will have more to say--or less to say but hopefully 
             more succinctly and in a more articulate way--at his 
               I close by saying to Nancy, Strom, Jr., and all of his 
             children, how much I cared about their father, how much, 
             in a strange way, he taught me, and how much I hope he 
             learned from those of us who disagreed so much with his 
             policy on race. The human side of this can never be lost. 
             They lost the blood of their blood, bone of their bone. It 
             was a tough time. But I am flattered that he asked me, and 
             I just hope that I and others are worthy of his memory 
             when we speak of him on Tuesday.
                               SENATOR STROM THURMOND
               Ms. STABENOW. Mr. President, I take a moment to send my 
             thoughts and prayers to the family of Senator Strom 
             Thurmond of South Carolina, a man of a remarkable career 
             who made his mark in the permanent history books of the 
             Senate and the country. I know he will be remembered at 
             the funeral next week that many colleagues will be 
             attending. We send our thoughts and prayers to his family 
             at what I am sure is a difficult time as they face this 
               Mr. FRIST. Madam President, I ask unanimous consent that 
             the Senate proceed to the immediate consideration of S. 
             Res. 191, which is at the desk, and I ask that the 
             resolution be read.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will report the 
               The assistant legislative clerk read as follows:

               A resolution (S. Res. 191) relative to the death of the 
             Honorable J. Strom Thurmond, former United States Senator 
             and President Pro Tempore Emeritus from the State of South 
                                     S. Res. 191
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond conducted his 
             life in an exemplary manner, an example to all of his 
             fellow citizens;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond was a devoted 
             husband, father, and most recently, grandfather;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond gave a great 
             measure of his life to public service;
               Whereas, having abandoned the safety of high position, 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served his country during 
             World War II, fighting the greatest threat the world had 
             thus far seen;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served South 
             Carolina in the United States Senate with devotion and 
               Whereas his service on behalf of South Carolina and all 
             Americans earned him the esteem and high regard of his 
             colleagues; and
               Whereas his death has deprived his State and Nation of a 
             most outstanding Senator: Now, therefore, be it
               Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
             and deep regret the announcement of the death of the 
             Honorable J. Strom Thurmond, former Senator and President 
             Pro Tempore Emeritus from the State of South Carolina.
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives and 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
               Resolved, That when the Senate adjourns today, it stand 
             adjourned as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond.

               There being no objection, the Senate proceeded to 
             consider the resolution.

               Mr. FRIST. Madam President, this resolution has been 
             submitted by myself and on behalf of Senator Daschle, 
             Senator Graham, and Senator Hollings in honor of the 
             Honorable and great J. Strom Thurmond.
               Last night shortly after 9:45, we were notified of the 
             death of Strom Thurmond. At that time, I pointed out that 
             it was a century ago--a long time ago--when Mark Twain was 
             alive and Teddy Roosevelt was still President, J. Strom 
             Thurmond was born in Edgefield, SC, and thus began a life 
             of public service unmatched in the modern history of 
               Strom Thurmond served as U.S. Senator from December 
             1954, 2 years after I was born, until January of this 
             year, nearly a half century of service in this body--this 
             body we have the honor of participating in on a daily 
               Though his period of service is a remarkable 
             accomplishment in and of itself, Strom led a remarkable 
             life even before coming to the Senate. Late last night and 
             over the course of the morning, if one turned on a 
             television set, they would hear anecdotes, stories about 
             this great man, and those pre-Senate years when he was a 
             teacher, an athletic coach, and a superintendent of 
               He studied law under his father, Judge J. William 
             Thurmond, and became a city attorney, county attorney, 
             State senator, and eventually circuit court judge. He 
             resigned his position as a circuit court judge to 
             volunteer to fight in World War II. This he did at the age 
             of 39, 18 years after serving as an Army reservist and 
             having earned a commission as a second lieutenant.
               Indeed, as we all know, age never was an obstacle for 
             Strom Thurmond. As a member of the 82d Airborne, Strom 
             landed in a glider at Normandy on D-day and helped secure 
             the foothold for the Allies to liberate the European 
               For his distinguished service, Strom was awarded 5 
             battle stars and 18 other decorations, including the 
             Legion of Merit with oakleaf cluster, the Purple Heart, 
             the Bronze Star for valor, the Belgian Order of the Crown, 
             and the French Cross of War. No wonder when a speechwriter 
             once used the word ``afraid,'' Strom Thurmond handed the 
             text back with the retort: I've never been afraid of 
               After the war, Strom returned home to South Carolina. He 
             was elected Governor in 1946 and then ran for President of 
             the United States as the States rights Democratic 
             candidate. Strom won 4 States and 39 electoral votes, and 
             that tally stands as the third largest independent 
             electoral vote in U.S. history.
               Though he did not win the Presidency, Strom was 
             determined to serve in Washington. He ran for the Senate 
             in 1954 and became the only candidate elected to Congress 
             by a write-in vote in American history, and he was re-
             elected eight more times.
               In the most recent years, it became increasingly 
             difficult for Strom to go back and forth to South 
             Carolina, but that did not stop the people of South 
             Carolina from coming to him, and it should not have. For 
             decades, Strom attended every county fair, handled every 
             constituent request, and sent a congratulatory note to 
             every high school graduate, many of whom came to intern in 
             his office. It has been said that almost 70 percent of 
             South Carolinians have met Strom Thurmond face to face.
               Over the course of his long and distinguished career, 
             Strom Thurmond was a witness to history. As a young man, 
             he knew people who stood in the presence of Andrew 
             Jackson. He campaigned for the votes of men who fought in 
             the Civil War. He and Herbert Hoover won their first 
             elective office in the same year, 1928.
               Strom more than saw history, he wrote it. He was the 
             first major southern Democrat to switch to the Republican 
             Party. He served for more than 17 years as President pro 
             tempore of the Senate. As chairman of the Armed Services 
             Committee, he ensured that our men and women of the Armed 
             Forces had the best training, the best equipment, and the 
             best leadership in the world.
               As we all know, Strom did set the record for the oldest 
             and longest serving Senator. He served with about one-
             fifth of the nearly 2,000 men and women who have been 
             Members of the Senate since 1789. He was nearly half the 
             age of the U.S. Constitution. Strom certainly faced his 
             trials. As the Dixiecrat candidate for President in 1948, 
             he campaigned on a platform of States rights, but in doing 
             so he also opposed civil rights, as he did for many years 
             as a Senator.
               History will reflect that part of Strom's life. We will 
             let history also reflect that when Strom saw that America 
             had changed, and changed for the better, he changed, too.
               A longtime friend of Senator Thurmond, Hortense Woodson, 
             once said of him: ``Everything he's done has been done to 
             the full. There's no halfway doings about Strom.''
               Indeed, Strom Thurmond will forever be a symbol of what 
             one person can accomplish when they live life to the 
             fullest. God bless our friend and our colleague from South 
             Carolina, Senator Strom Thurmond.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from South Carolina.

               Mr. GRAHAM of South Carolina. Madam President, I 
             compliment our majority leader for his statement. It was 
             very eloquent and it means a lot to Senator Thurmond's 
               I know personally that Senator Thurmond had a great 
             fondness for Senator Frist. He told me he is a very smart 
             man and he is a good doctor, too. If you ever need him, 
             look him up.
               I rise today in support of this resolution on behalf of 
             myself and Senator Hollings. I appreciate the majority 
             leader and Senator Daschle allowing this to occur. It is 
             offered in the spirit of Strom Thurmond's life. Something 
             can be said about Strom Thurmond in the Senate very 
             easily. He loved the Senate and the Senate loved him. His 
             colleagues who have served with him so long all have 
             personal stories of fun, good times, tough fights. He was 
             a valuable ally and a worthy opponent, and the Senate has 
             lost its longest serving Member. Many of us have lost a 
             very dear friend. That goes for the Senate family, the 
             people who help us with the doors, the clerks, and the 
             reporters of debates. Everyone enjoyed and appreciated 
             Senator Thurmond.
               It is important to comment on Senator Thurmond, the man. 
             His children have lost their father. Whether one is 100 or 
             200, it is always difficult, no matter how long one lives, 
             to give up their father and mother.
               I have talked to two of his three children today, and I 
             have expressed my condolences. They are doing very well 
             but they are sad because they have lost their daddy. I 
             have talked with his wife. We reminisced about their life 
             together, the raising of their children, and the 
             experiences they have had. So my prayers, along with the 
             prayers of everyone in the Senate, go to the family. He 
             was a good family man. If a script was written in 
             Hollywood about his life, it would not have ended any 
             better in this regard.
               He became a first-time grandfather at the age of 100 
             last week. He has three children under 30. He had his 
             first child when he was 68. He was just a phenomenal 
             person. He has done things that most of us could not dream 
             of doing in many ways.
               I am convinced that two things drove him in his final 
             years: That he wanted to finish out his term because he is 
             not a quitter, and when he was elected to serve his last 
             6-year term he meant to serve it out. He helped me to 
             become his successor, and I will be forever grateful. He 
             also wanted to see his grandchild born, and God allowed 
             him to do that. He was presented his grandson last week. 
             They tell me it was a very magic and touching moment. A 
             week later, he passed on.
               He has suffered personal tragedy, lost a daughter in an 
             accident. He has experienced much good and bad in his 
             life. He has touched so many people. It is a loss to the 
             Senate. It is a loss to his family. It is a loss to his 
               Duke Short, who served with Senator Thurmond in 
             Washington for so many years, was a very loyal and capable 
             staff director. I know that Duke and his family feel the 
               Dr. Abernathy in South Carolina has been with Strom 
             Thurmond since the 1940s when he worked with him as 
             Governor. Dr. Abernathy is a legend in his own right.
               There are so many people who have worked for Senator 
             Thurmond throughout the years, and I know they feel this 
             loss. Senator Thurmond has had enough interns to probably 
             fill up a football stadium. His first group of interns is 
             now on Social Security.
               He was elected in 1954. I was born in 1955. All I have 
             known in my life is Senator Thurmond, and for 36 years 
             Senator Thurmond and Senator Hollings served together. 
             Both of them are distinctive gentlemen, bigger than life. 
             A lot of us who have associated with Senator Thurmond feel 
             his loss.
               South Carolina has lost her favorite son. Much has been 
             said and will be said of Senator Thurmond's legacy. The 
             majority leader, Senator Frist, went over his life very 
             well, and it is just an amazing story to tell: Being a 
             superintendent of education in the 1920s; getting elected 
             for the first time in 1928; being a judge in South 
             Carolina at the start of World War II; deciding to give up 
             that job which would have exempted him from service, being 
             in his early forties; joined the 82d Airborne, landing in 
             a glider. The pilot of the glider was killed when it 
             landed. His men were wounded. He led them out and secured 
             the objective.
               When the war in Europe was over, he volunteered to go to 
             Japan and he fought until they quit. He was just an 
             unbelievable person who embraced life.
               People ask me, ``How did he make it so long?'' He just 
             had a passion. He had a passion for everything he did--his 
             family, his constituents. His legacy in South Carolina is 
             quite simple for every South Carolinian--black, white, 
             rich, poor, no matter whether you are from upstate, 
             downstate or middle of the State--I am sure every State 
             has different regions and different dialects but the one 
             thing we had in common: If we had a problem, we knew whom 
             to call. We knew to pick up the phone and call Senator 
             Thurmond because if he could help you, he would.
               The average, everyday South Carolinian, from the company 
             owner to the janitor, believed that Senator Thurmond was 
             on their side. And when they called, they received a call 
             back. When they wrote a letter, they received a letter 
             back. The reason I know that is people tell me everywhere 
             I go.
               One guy told me Senator Thurmond used to cut his grass. 
             These stories abound. Some of them have been embellished, 
             I am sure, but the only way that he could have lasted this 
             long in politics, doing as many things as he has done, 
             taking on the issues that he has taken on, is that at the 
             end of the day people saw that he had a servant's heart.
               Part of his legacy is the 1948 campaign, and it needs to 
             be mentioned. Senator Frist mentioned it. That was a tough 
             time in our country. He ran as a States rights candidate 
             with a lot of passion for the limited role of the Federal 
             Government. He won on the platform that divided the races. 
             That was a dark time in South Carolina. That was a dark 
             time in our Nation.
               Senator Thurmond made a choice later in life. He could 
             have done almost anything he wanted. But as the 1950s came 
             to a close and the 1960s came about and people started 
             insisting their Government treat them better, Senator 
             Thurmond made a choice. Instead of hanging on to the 
             rhetoric of the past and the politics of the past, he 
             embraced the future.
               Here is what he does not get much credit for. Instead of 
             going with the flow, which some people want to ascribe to 
             him, he in a subtle way led a change. He could have been a 
             barrier to change, but he made it easy for people in South 
             Carolina, politicians on the Democratic and Republican 
             sides, to embrace change because when Strom came out for 
             something, it made it easier for you to come out for 
             something because it gave you cover. When Strom Thurmond 
             appointed the first African American judge in the history 
             of South Carolina to the Federal bench, it made it easier 
             for the people in the statehouse to give appointments to 
             African Americans. That is what we do not need to lose.
               When he embraced traditional black colleges and started 
             giving them the same recognition and funding as every 
             other university in South Carolina, it made it easier for 
             the legislature to improve the quality of life for 
             everybody. At the end of his life, in 2001, he was awarded 
             lifetime recognition from the Urban League in South 
             Carolina, that is designed to build racial harmony, for 
             his lifetime of service to traditionally African American 
               That needs to be mentioned as much as the 1948 campaign. 
             He will be held accountable in history for that part of 
             his life. History should know that in many subtle ways, in 
             many bold ways, he allowed my State to move forward, and 
             everybody in my State is better off for it.
               From a personal point, when I was in the House, I was 
             the first Republican to be elected from my Third 
             Congressional District in 120 years. One reason I was able 
             to win when everybody behind me was beaten for 120 years 
             was Senator Thurmond, for the first time in his political 
             career, embraced a campaign very directly--because he had 
             been smart enough not to get involved in political races 
             and try to represent everybody. He took to me, and I am 
             the beneficiary of that. He said, ``I will come and 
             campaign for you, Lindsey.'' I said, ``Great.'' And I 
             turned to my staff and said, ``What do you do with a 92-
             year-old man?'' I was worried we would wear him out and we 
             could not utilize his services. I was worried about him at 
             age 92. Three days he campaigned for me. When he left, I 
             said, ``Thank God he is gone.'' He wore me out.
               He had a passion I had never seen. I picked him up at 
             the airport on day 1, in an airplane flown by his personal 
             pilot who was 75 years old, a single engine plane. We went 
             to a parade in September. It is hot in South Carolina in 
             September. We went from one end of town to the other 
             shaking hands. We went to the funeral home because he 
             remembered the guy who owned the funeral home always gave 
             him apples. He walked in unannounced because the Senator 
             wanted apples, and he got the apples. He campaigned all 
             day. We had a fundraiser that night. We went to a football 
             game that night. He made a speech at half time. We went to 
             a rodeo that started at 9 o'clock at night, and he got up 
             in the middle of the ring on a barrel and gave a speech. 
             He wanted to see the third shift change at the textile 
             plant. I said, ``I am too tired,'' and I went home. That 
             went on for 3 days.
               When he left, I asked him to sign a fundraising letter 
             for me. We were all worn out. He looked at the letter and 
             he said, ``You misspelled your own name and you are in the 
             Third District, not the Second District.''
               At 92 years of age, he had a passion and he helped me. I 
             stand appreciative. When I ran for the Senate, he endorsed 
             me in a primary. I can tell you, I would not be his 
             successor if he had not come out and said, ``Lindsey 
             Graham is the right guy to follow me.'' That will stick 
             with me forever.
               What have I learned from Senator Thurmond? If you are 
             willing to change, you can serve your State and Nation 
             well. If you care about people, they will take care of 
             you. Let it be said that God gave to this Nation, my 
             State, South Carolina, a public servant, a man of great 
             character and heart, and that we miss him, but we thank 
             God that he gave us J. Strom Thurmond.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from Utah.

               Mr. BENNETT. Madam President, I enjoyed hearing my 
             colleague from South Carolina tell his stories about Strom 
             Thurmond. I rise to join the tribute to the memory of 
             Strom Thurmond that is, very appropriately, the day after 
             his death.
               Most of the time when someone dies, we gather in great 
             sorrow and we mourn his passing and we think about what 
             might have been. In Strom's case, there is no reason to 
             think about what might have been. He did it all. There was 
             nothing left undone. There was nothing left to accomplish.
               This should not be a time of mourning or sorrow but a 
             time of celebration. So I rise to celebrate the life of 
             Strom Thurmond. The best way to do that, I think, is to 
             tell Strom Thurmond stories. All of us are full of Strom 
             Thurmond stories.
               I remember D-day, when the big celebration occurred on 
             the anniversary of D-day and Strom Thurmond was not there. 
             Arlen Specter, who was there, greeted him in the Senate 
             and said, ``Strom, it was a marvelous, marvelous 
             celebration, and you should have been there.'' And his 
             response was, ``I was there when it counted.'' It put us 
             in our place.
               My father had the experience of working with Strom 
             Thurmond. My father was elected in 1950, and, as has been 
             noted, Strom Thurmond was elected in 1954. They became 
             instant friends, not just political friends. There were 
             occasions when they disagreed politically, but they became 
             personal friends.
               When Strom married, my mother--old enough to be Strom's 
             wife's mother--kind of took Nancy under her wing and they 
             became friends. The Thurmonds and the Bennetts remained 
             close for a long, long time, to the point when my children 
             started getting married, my parents said, ``You have to 
             send Strom Thurmond an announcement.'' And we did and 
             thought we had taken care of our social obligation. Then 
             we get a phone call from Strom Thurmond's office, ``We got 
             this announcement, and we don't mean to be prying, but who 
             are you?'' ``Well, we are the children of Wallace 
             Bennett.'' There was a pause. Then the person on the end 
             of the line asked, ``And who's Wallace Bennett?''
               But Strom knew who Wallace Bennett was, and when I came 
             to the Senate, Strom greeted me very warmly and called me 
             Wallace. It took a little while for him to figure out that 
             I was not my father. And that was a compliment to me 
             because I was very proud of my father and the service he 
             performed in the Senate, and I took the opportunity to 
             touch base with Strom.
               From that, I thought: This man in his nineties is not 
             all that sharp. He confuses me. He does not have all of 
             this as straight as he might. Then I had a couple of 
             experiences that set me straight. We had an issue with the 
             State of Utah that was all wrapped up in the Armed 
             Services Committee. It was quite a complicated issue. 
             Someone said to me, ``Explain that to John Warner because 
             John Warner is second ranking to Strom and is handling all 
             of the detailed kind of things. You go talk to John 
             Warner.'' He said, ``You will be talking to somebody who I 
             know can handle the problem.''
               So I went to Senator Warner and I started outlining the 
             details of this situation to him. He cut me off. He said, 
             ``You are going to have to talk to the chairman.''
               I, having had this image of this old man, thought, I 
             don't really want to have to talk to the chairman. And, as 
             delicately as I could, I said to John, ``Can't we work 
             this through and kind of handle it?'' He said, ``No.'' He 
             said, ``That is a serious enough issue, I don't dare 
             handle that. You are going to have to talk to the 
               Just then, Senator Thurmond walked through the doors. 
             So, gathering up my courage as a freshman Senator, I 
             walked over to him and said, ``Senator Thurmond, I would 
             like to visit with you about--'' and I no sooner got the 
             title of the issue out of my mouth, than he said, ``It's 
             all taken care of.'' And he kept walking. I followed him 
             along, sure that he had not understood what I was talking 
             about. This was a complicated kind of issue, and he had 
             oversimplified it and assumed that it had been taken care 
               So I started to intrude again with some of the details. 
             He was very respectful and wasn't patronizing. But he 
             said, ``I know; I understand; all taken care of.''
               Well, thus dismissed, I went back to my staff and said, 
             ``I think we have a problem here. Senator Warner won't 
             handle it, and he insists that Senator Thurmond has to 
             handle it, and Senator Thurmond just said it has all been 
             taken care of.''
               We contacted the Armed Services Committee staff, and 
             they said, ``Oh, yes, that has all been dealt with. 
             Senator Thurmond stepped in, he understood the issue, he 
             made his decisions, he took care of it, and it is all 
             taken care of.''
               So I decided, well, I had better not underestimate this 
             man in spite of his age.
               Then I had the experience while I was on the campaign 
             plane with Senator Dole in the 1996 election when we were 
             flying around the eastern States on the day of the South 
             Carolina primaries. The word came in that Senator Dole was 
             winning the South Carolina primary. We had some exit polls 
             that looked pretty good. We decided to change our 
             itinerary and fly to South Carolina so that Senator Dole 
             could be there to receive the plaudits and applause and 
             the excitement of winning the South Carolina primary. So 
             we did. Of course, this had been a long day. We didn't 
             leave South Carolina to come back to Washington on the 
             campaign plane until after the returns were in and all of 
             the celebrations had been held.
               Senator Dole, very appropriately, went up into the front 
             part of the plane to take a nap as we were flying back. 
             Senator Thurmond had hitched a ride back to Washington on 
             the campaign plane. That left Senator Thurmond and me and 
             one or two others sitting around the table just behind the 
             front part of the plane chatting.
               It was now midnight, way past my bedtime, and here we 
             were having political discussions on a campaign plane in 
             the middle of the Presidential campaign--the kind of thing 
             that political junkies like me love to do. It was a great 
             discussion. But the interesting thing about it was that 
             Strom Thurmond not only understood the discussion and 
             participated in the discussion, but he led the discussion. 
             He was instructing us about political lore. He was telling 
             tales out of his past, which is what old people often do. 
             But he was also analyzing things for the future and had a 
             firm hand on everything. I thought I was talking to a man 
             at least 20 and maybe 30 years younger than his 
             chronological age. I understood: OK, this man still has 
             all of his faculties, mental as well as physical.
               We landed at Dulles Airport well after 1 o'clock in the 
             morning. Everybody was dragging except Strom, who strode 
             off to his car in fine style. I remember what he said on 
             that occasion about how you live a long time. He said you 
             eat right, you exercise regularly, and you keep a positive 
             outlook. He did all of those things, although I am not 
             quite sure about the eating right part because there were 
             times when I caught Strom eating some things that I am not 
             sure a dietician would recommend.
               The time came for him to run for re-election. I couldn't 
             believe at 94 he was going to run for re-election. Ninety-
             four is the time you retire. Being a skeptic, I had a hard 
             time believing the people of South Carolina would vote for 
             a 94-year-old man. So I sidled up to one of his top 
             staffers as we were getting ready for that campaign. I 
             said, ``Can Strom Thurmond really win one more time in 
             South Carolina? Is this going to be close?'' He said, 
             ``No, it is not going to be close at all. Strom is going 
             to win going away.''
               By the way, I remembered when the Republicans had taken 
             control of the Senate in 1994 and we were having our 
             discussions about platforms. One of the issues that was 
             raised by one of the freshman Senators newly elected was 
             term limits and how we needed to be for term limits. We 
             were debating back and forth. Strom was sitting there not 
             talking. Suddenly, he spoke up, and he said, ``I am for 
             term limits.'' We all kind of giggled a little. He said, 
             ``But if they are not enacted, I am going to run again.''
               Here he was running again--94 years old. And I was being 
             told by his staff that Strom would win overwhelmingly. I 
             said, ``Look, we all love him. We all love the history. 
             But 94 years old?'' He said, ``Let me tell you a story.''
               This is my favorite Strom Thurmond story.
               He said,

               Strom's AA got a phone call from a woman in South 
             Carolina who said, ``I need the Senator's help. Here is 
             the situation. My fiance and I got married just before he 
             shipped out in the Navy for a 6-month cruise in the 
             Mediterranean. We knew we would not like the separation, 
             but we decided, for a variety of reasons, that we should 
             get married now rather than wait until after he got back. 
             He has just called me and said he has been given leave. He 
             has 2 weeks of leave right now in the middle of this 6-
             month tour, except that he cannot leave the theater in 
             case something should arise that would require him to be 
             back on the ship within 24 hours. He has to stay in or 
             around the Mediterranean area where his ship is. So he 
             said, `catch an airplane, come over here, we can have a 2-
             week honeymoon in the Mediterranean and I can still be 
             available for the military situation, if it should arise.' 
               She said, ``I went down to get my passport and I was 
             told it takes 2 weeks to get a passport. By the time I get 
             a passport to fly over to be with my husband, his leave 
             will be up and he will have to get back on the ship. Can 
             the Senator help me get a passport any faster than 2 
               ``Well,'' said the staffer, ``I will find out.'' He 
             called the woman in South Carolina who was handling 
             passports and introduced himself and said, ``I am calling 
             on behalf of Senator Thurmond to see what we can do about 
             getting this woman's passport a little faster.'' The 
             passport lady said, ``It takes 2 weeks.'' ``Well, Senator 
             Thurmond would really be grateful.'' She said, ``I don't 
             care what Senator Thurmond wants. It takes 2 weeks. I 
             don't care who you are, and I don't care who he is. 
             Passports take 2 weeks.''
               ``Well,'' he said, ``I have to tell you that under these 
             circumstances, I am now going to have to call Senator 
             Thurmond. When there is a situation I can't handle myself, 
             I have to involve him. Those are my instructions.'' She 
             said, ``Call him. Tell him anything you want. He can call 
             me. I don't care. Passports take 2 weeks.''
               So he said, ``Well, I am not threatening you. I am just 
             telling you. I have to call Senator Thurmond.''
               So he hung up talking to the passport lady, and picked 
             up the phone and called Senator Thurmond. Now, it seems 
             Senator Thurmond was in Germany, and it was in the middle 
             of the night in Germany, but his instructions were that he 
             was to call Senator Thurmond in any such situation. So he 
             woke Senator Thurmond up, in the middle of the night in 
             Germany, and started to explain this situation.
               He did not get half way through the explanation I have 
             given here when Senator Thurmond asked, ``What is her 
               He said, ``Well, her name is--'' and he started to 
             describe the wife of the marine who was sent out with the 
               Senator Thurmond said, ``No, no, not her name, the 
             passport lady's name.''
               So he gave Senator Thurmond the passport lady's name.
               Senator Thurmond said, ``Thank you very much'' and hung 
               Ten minutes later the staffer got a phone call from the 
             passport lady. She exploded over the phone and said, ``He 
             called George Shultz. The Secretary of State now knows my 
               Senator Thurmond called George Shultz and he said, 
             ``George, you've been a marine. This is their honeymoon. 
             Can't you get this lady to give the woman a passport?''
               She got her passport. She got to the Mediterranean. She 
             had her honeymoon.
               The staffer said to me, ``Senator, South Carolina is 
             full of stories like that. South Carolina is full of 
             people like that. Strom Thurmond will win, big time. No 
             matter how old he is, no matter what his situation, that 
             is the kind of service Strom Thurmond has rendered as a 

               One of our colleagues was in the Senate doctor's office, 
             as we go in there from time to time, and he noticed Strom 
             coming out of the doctor's office with a very worried look 
             on his face. We were all very concerned about Strom and 
             his health in his later years. So the colleague said to 
             the doctor, ``What's the matter with Strom?''
               The doctor said, appropriately, ``I cannot discuss the 
             medical condition of one patient with another patient, so 
             I can't say anything to you.'' He continued, ``However, I 
             don't think it would be violating medical ethics to tell 
             you that Strom is a little worried about the fact that he 
             can no longer do one-arm pushups.''
               This was a man of legend. Eat right, exercise, keep a 
             positive attitude, always be available for your 
             constituents, even when it is the middle of the night in 
             Germany, and never worry about who you may call or upset 
             as long as you are working on behalf of a constituent. 
             This was Strom Thurmond.
               We have all kinds of stories. These are my favorite 
             ones. I offer them as part of the celebration of an 
             extraordinary life, a life fully lived, of someone about 
             whom we need not say: Well, we worry about what might have 
             been. In his case, there was nothing left over that might 
             have been because he did it all.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Cornyn). The Senator from 
             South Carolina.

               Mr. GRAHAM of South Carolina. Mr. President, I thank 
             Senator Bennett from Utah for that remembrance. It was 
             just exactly what needed to be said. I say to the Senator, 
             I know he loved you and your father dearly. On behalf of 
             the people of South Carolina, I thank you very much for 
             what you just said.
               Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the 
             resolution be agreed to, the preamble be agreed to, and 
             the motion to reconsider be laid upon the table.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
               The resolution (S. Res. 191) was agreed to.
               The preamble was agreed to.
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. DOMENICI. Mr. President, I rise to speak about my 
             friend, Senator Strom Thurmond. I do not have any prepared 
             remarks but I want to speak for a few moments about 
             Senator Strom Thurmond.
               Senator Strom Thurmond spent many, many years sitting in 
             the seat, for those observing the Senate Chamber, right 
             next to the seat where the distinguished majority leader 
             is sitting right now.
               I have eight children. Senator Thurmond, as everyone 
             knows, lived a very long life with his first wife without 
             children. I don't know if that had anything to do with his 
             huge interest in asking people such as me how my children 
             were, and I am not one who is very loathe to tell people 
             about my children's successes.
               So he used to say to me, and to anyone around, he would 
             point at me, and say, ``There is the Senator with all the 
             smart kids.'' Of course, I was embarrassed, and I would 
             bend down and say, ``Senator, there are lots of Senators 
             with smart children.''
               Then he would say, ``Well, you told me about one'' . . . 
             and he would explain what I told him. He would ask, ``how 
             is that one doing?''
               Well, obviously, those days are gone now. I was 
             privileged, with my wife Nancy, to go to the wedding of 
             his daughter here in this town not too many years ago. It 
             was a beautiful wedding, a big wedding. It was a beautiful 
             daughter and a beaming father, Strom Thurmond.
               He was already past 90, for certain, and how thrilled he 
             was to walk down the aisle and to be part of the normal 
             wedding activities.
               I note that with all the blessings he has received in 
             his life, and all the legacy that he leaves, he got one 
             blessing that he deserved; that is, that wedding and that 
             marriage yielded his first grandchild. And I just wonder 
             because he had already left the Senate; he was no longer 
             here; he was in a hospital, but I just wonder, how happy 
             that day must have been for him. He had a grandchild at 
             that very old age.
               There are Senators, such as from his home State, who 
             have known him through campaigns and actions and 
             activities that I hear of. I have read of these 
             activities, but I did not participate in them, so they 
             will do better than I in talking about them. But I am 71. 
             I am very lucky, I feel, in that I have spent 31 years in 
             the Senate. The only thing I did prior to that is, 6\1/2\ 
             years before I came here, I accepted a dare from a group 
             of friends to run for an office. I ran and got elected. 
             And that office was for city council, which put me in a 
             mayorship of sorts in our biggest city.
               So you know, if you write down, at 71, what I have done: 
             I ran for a nonpartisan office, got elected, served 4 
             years, waited 2 years, got elected to the Senate, and came 
             here. But we all know, if we are going to put down what 
             Strom Thurmond has done as a public servant, all of which 
             clearly is one's legacy, it would take me quite a while to 
             discuss it all. Just his military career would be a rather 
             good speech on the Senate floor.
               The other thing that, to me, is of such rare, rare 
             importance is that when you consider 100 years, and that 
             80 or 79 of those years he was an adult, you just think of 
             all the things that have changed during his adulthood. 
             Governance, governmental changes, cultural changes, 
             philosophical leanings and tendencies of our great country 
             changing. You have to conclude that this man, who 
             represented a State that also changed and had become a 
             great industrial State, and a great educational State, 
             with fantastic educational institutions, that this great 
             man also learned how to change. He changed with time, not 
             changing in the sense of giving up but rather of gaining 
             more for himself and becoming more rather than becoming 
               Now, I have known a lot of great Senators, more than 
             most, because there are only five or six Senators who have 
             been here longer than I, as of today, maybe five. So I 
             have known a lot of them. I think it is only fair to say, 
             for his family, for Nancy, for his children, there really 
             have never been any Senators like him that I have been 
             privileged to know.
               He was indeed unique. He was so different that you 
             cannot forget him. First, he was so personal to everyone. 
             He never forgot. He was always considerate. He spent more 
             time and effort at little things.
               I know nothing about his constituent work. Let those who 
             know speak. I speak of little things here in the Senate. 
             The Chair and I both watched during a week at the end of a 
             day's work, we watched Strom Thurmond while he was still 
             around and healthy and walking. We watched what he did. He 
             went with his staff from one event to another, perhaps 
             three, four, five events an evening, because he had been 
             invited and because it was somebody who said, ``Would you 
             come to my party?'' ``Would you come to my fundraiser?'' 
             ``Would you come to my birthday?'' ``Would you come and 
             join me; we have visitors from my State.'' What it was 
             that made him that kind of person, who knows? I don't 
             know. You don't know. The Senate doesn't know. I am not 
             sure his family knows. But the truth is, we know he did 
               All of these would appear, what I have said so far, to 
             be things that one might say are not very important. Well, 
             I stated them because I think they are very important. 
             They are of utmost importance. I think they are the 
             essence of who he is and what he is and what he was.
               But don't let anyone think he didn't do his work. When 
             you look at the committees he chaired, the events that 
             happened during those years he served as chair, be it on 
             the Judiciary, on Armed Services, or whatever, you have to 
             know he had a great capacity for work and he did his work 
             and got it done.
               Can you just imagine not having a chance to know him 
             when he was a judge? What a great judge he would have 
             been. Can you imagine, not having a chance to know him, 
             what a good school superintendent he must have been? Can 
             you imagine not getting to know him, what a good 
             commissioner he must have been at the local level where he 
             governed? For I believe he is what he was. And it is 
             probable that he took care to do everything right and he 
             took care to be concerned and worried about people, as he 
             did his job, and that he never forgot the people who were 
             good to him and meant something to his success.
               I, for one, am very sorry we will be going to a funeral. 
             But, I guess it is really only fair to say that he has 
             been very blessed. After all, we won't, any of us, ever go 
             to a funeral for a fellow Senator who has lived 100 
             years--none of us. This will be the only one. Because he 
             has been very, very blessed. The Lord has been kind and 
             decent to him. Those around him should be very proud. 
             Obviously, his kinfolk are sad.
               I remember at that wedding, while we were celebrating 
             youth, his daughter was a young lady. I remember meeting 
             his sister, two sisters I believe. They were alive and 
             there. I don't mean to cast any aspersions about the fact 
             they were alive. They were lively, I assure you. They knew 
             a lot. They were talking. They were carrying on 
             conversations. Strom Thurmond was talking with them about 
             us and my wife Nancy.
               They were quick to ask us to sit down, and you could 
             hardly believe that a man almost 100 was there with 
             sisters at a wedding for a very young daughter of his, who 
             has just since then had his first grandchild. What a 
             beautiful, beautiful tribute all of this is to Strom 
             Thurmond's family, to their heritage, and to those around 
             them and those who love them.
               My wife Nancy and I extend our heartfelt condolences to 
             Nancy and all of the other kinfolk, to his relatives, and 
             clearly to his daughter and son-in-law who have that young 
             grandchild of whom he must have been so proud.
               I yield the floor.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Senator from North Carolina.

               Mrs. DOLE. Mr. President, last evening we received the 
             news of the passing of a dear friend and leader in this 
             Chamber, Strom Thurmond.
               Strom retired this year at the age of 100 after more 
             than half a century serving the people of South Carolina 
             and our Nation as a U.S. Senator, as Governor of South 
             Carolina, and as a State legislator.
               Remarkably, his career in the Senate spanned the 
             administrations of 10 Presidents, from Dwight Eisenhower 
             to George W. Bush. His passing last night certainly will 
             be felt by so many Members of this Chamber who had grown 
             accustomed to the courtly gentleman from South Carolina. 
             But his life leaves a lesson for us all--in compassion, 
             respect, civility, dedication, and hard work.
               Before he was elected to the Senate in 1954, as the only 
             write-in candidate in history to win a seat in Congress, 
             Strom Thurmond was elected county school superintendent, 
             State senator, and circuit judge. He resigned his 
             judgeship to enlist in the Army in World War II. He landed 
             in Normandy as part of the 82d Airborne assault on D-day 
             and, the story goes, arrived in France on a glider, crash 
             landing in an apple orchard. He went on to help liberate 
             Paris, and he received a Purple Heart, five battle stars, 
             and numerous other awards for his World War II service.
               My husband Bob and I were honored to have known Strom 
             Thurmond for so many years and to count him among our very 
             special friends. He and Bob shared a great deal of common 
             history, dating from their World War II days. And his 
             southern gallantry always had a way of making this North 
             Carolinian feel right at home.
               I first worked with Strom Thurmond when I served as 
             Deputy Special Assistant to the President at the White 
             House. Strom was an impressive Senator even then. 
             President Reagan praised his expert handling of nominees 
             to the U.S. Supreme Court when he was chairman of the 
             Senate Judiciary Committee.
               In fact, it was Strom Thurmond's skill as chairman that 
             helped to shepherd through the nomination of Sandra Day 
             O'Connor as the Nation's first female on the U.S. Supreme 
             Court. I had always admired Strom Thurmond for his 
             constant dedication to the people of South Carolina and to 
             the industries of that State.
               Bob Dole has joked that someone once asked if Strom had 
             been around since the Ten Commandments. Bob said that 
             couldn't have been true; if Strom Thurmond had been 
             around, the 11th commandment would have been ``Thou shalt 
             support the textile industry.''
               And that industry still needs a lot of help. In fact, 
             when President Reagan called Strom to wish him a happy 
             79th birthday back in 1981, Strom Thurmond, with his 
             constant attention to South Carolina interests, used the 
             opportunity to talk to the President about the textile 
               Indeed, South Carolina is full of stories of how the 
             senior Senator from South Carolina managed to cut through 
             redtape to make sure that his residents got the things 
             they needed. And whenever South Carolinians called, or 
             anyone else for that matter, Strom Thurmond could always 
             be counted on to show up--at a Fourth of July parade, a 
             county festival, or a State fair, armed with his trademark 
             Strom Thurmond key chains.
               North Carolinians developed a fondness for Strom 
             Thurmond. He often flew in to Charlotte before driving to 
             his Edgeville, SC, home. He became so familiar in the 
             airport that many of the workers there knew him, and he 
             knew them, often stopping to share a kind word or a funny 
               I was so honored that just before Strom went home for 
             good to South Carolina, he came in his wheelchair, with 
             Nancy's help, to my little basement office to welcome me 
             to the Senate.
               Bob and I send our heartfelt condolences to Strom's 
             family: our dear friend, Nancy; and the children, 
             including daughter Julie, who worked with me at the 
             American Red Cross; and, of course, the people of South 
             Carolina, for whom he worked tirelessly throughout his 
             career in public service and to whom he chose to return 
             when his work was done in the Senate. He was a loving 
             husband, a proud father, and a new grandfather.
               Today, as I remember him, his life, and his legacy, I 
             think of the Bible in the 25th chapter of Matthew, when 
             the Lord said, ``Well done, thou good and faithful 
             servant. Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.''
               May God bless him and his family.
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. HOLLINGS. Madam President, last night with the 
             passing of our revered colleague, Senator Strom Thurmond, 
             I indicated I would have a longer recount of his work. The 
             Nation has lost one of its most distinguished and longest 
             serving public servants, my State has lost its greatest 
             living legend, and I would like to add to my comments.
               By any measure, Senator Thurmond ranks as a giant of 
             modern American politics. Few people in recent memory have 
             had greater influence on the shape and substance of 
             American politics, and few elected officials have shown 
             themselves more devoted to serving the people of their 
             State and Nation. There was no more hard-working 
             politician in America than Senator Thurmond. Right up to 
             the day he retired from the Senate, he remained devoted to 
             his constituents.
               Of course, any discussion of Senator Thurmond's 
             political and legislative legacy ultimately turns to a 
             discussion of Senator Thurmond the man. He was one of the 
             most amazing men anyone in this Chamber has ever met. He 
             was what we attorneys call ``sui generis.'' When God made 
             Strom, He broke the mold for sure. Merely listing all of 
             Senator Thurmond's ``firsts'' conveys the prodigious 
             energies and talents of the man.
               In 1929, he began his political career by becoming the 
             youngest person ever elected superintendent of education 
             in Edgefield County, SC. He entered statewide politics in 
             1933, when he was elected to the State senate. As a South 
             Carolina senator, he was known for his devotion to 
             improving public education and promoting opportunities for 
             the people of my State. His concern for the common man 
             motivated many of his legislative efforts, such as writing 
             the act that raised workers' compensation benefits and 
             sponsoring South Carolina's first Rural Electrification 
             Act. Although these efforts may seem far removed from our 
             concerns today, they were crucial to my State at the time.
               He left the Senate in 1938 to become Judge Thurmond. 
             Continuing his lifelong love affair with politics and 
             public service, he served as a South Carolina circuit 
             judge until the United States entered the Second World War 
             in 1941. Then Judge Thurmond took off his robe and 
             volunteered for active duty. He enlisted despite the fact 
             that, as a 39-year-old circuit judge, he was exempt from 
             military service.
               He fought in five battles in 4 years, and on D-day, he 
             rode a glider into Normandy with the 82d Airborne. For his 
             wartime service, Senator Thurmond was awarded 18 
             decorations, including the Purple Heart, Bronze Star Medal 
             for valor, and Legion of Merit with oakleaf cluster. He 
             remained in the Army Reserve after the war and was made 
             major general in 1959.
               After the war, he came home and ran for Governor. He was 
             elected in 1947, and his administration was known for its 
             progressive policies on education and infrastructure. 
             During his tenure, 60,000 new jobs were created in the 
             private sector, teacher pay was boosted to unprecedented 
             levels, and the State Farmers' Market was begun. These 
             initiatives helped start South Carolina on the road to a 
             dynamic, modern economy.
               In 1948, Governor Thurmond ran for President on the 
             States rights ticket. In 1954, he became the first person 
             ever elected to the Senate as a write-in candidate. That 
             election established him as a force in national politics 
             and a giant in South Carolina.
               He was re-elected to the Senate eight times, more than 
             any Senator. When he left in January, he was the oldest 
             and longest serving Senator in U.S. history. He served as 
             chairman of two powerful committees: Judiciary and Armed 
             Services. In those capacities, he played an important role 
             in keeping our national defense strong and ensuring the 
             quality of our Federal judiciary.
               He took controversial stands on civil rights and other 
             divisive issues, but over time he changed and ended up 
             garnering the support of many of those whom he opposed. He 
             will go down in history for his devotion to his 
               Senator Thurmond also changed the course of politics in 
             the South. His conversion to the Republican Party in 1964 
             heralded a new age in party affiliation in the South and 
             led the way for the region's transformation from a one-
             party, Democratic stronghold.
               Senator Thurmond is gone, but his legacy will live on 
             for many lifetimes. The people of South Carolina loved him 
             as they have loved no other politician. Today his loss is 
             mourned across my State, by Democrats and Republicans 
             alike. Those of us who have the privilege of serving in 
             the Senate lament the loss of an admired colleague whose 
             influence on this institution will stand for generations.

               Mr. LEVIN. Madam President, this is a sad day for the 
             family of our late and beloved colleague, Strom Thurmond. 
             I want to begin my remarks by extending my and Barbara's 
             heartfelt condolences to all of them for their great loss. 
             It is also, though, a day for all Americans, and most 
             especially those of us in the Senate community, to 
             remember a man who spent a lifetime--in fact more than the 
             average lifetime--in dedicated public service to this 
               When I joined the Armed Services Committee in 1979, 
             Senator Thurmond had already served on the committee for 
             20 years. I knew of him as a passionate and effective 
             advocate for a strong national defense even before I 
             joined the committee. In the 24 years that we served on 
             the committee together, I came to appreciate even more his 
             commitment to the welfare of the men and women who serve 
             and who have served in our Nation's military, as well as 
             their families.
               One of the reasons Senator Thurmond was such an 
             effective leader on national security issues is that he 
             spoke from his heart and from personal experience. He 
             served his country in uniform for 36 years. He was 
             commissioned in the Army Reserve even before he began his 
             remarkable career in politics. He retired as a major 
             general in the Army Reserve.
               In June 1944, Lt. Col. Strom Thurmond landed behind 
             German lines in a glider with the rest of the 82d Airborne 
             Division as part of the D-day invasion. He truly was a 
             member of what Tom Brokaw called ``the greatest 
               During Senator Thurmond's long tenure on the Armed 
             Services Committee, our Armed Forces faced challenge after 
             challenge in Western Europe, Vietnam, the Middle East, the 
             Persian Gulf, the Balkans, and Afghanistan. Through it 
             all, Senator Thurmond was unwavering in his support for 
             our men and women in uniform. His steadfast commitment to 
             our national defense was a rock upon which they and we 
             could all depend. He never stopped working to ensure that 
             our military is always ready to answer the call whenever 
             and wherever needed.
               Senator Thurmond served as chairman of the Senate Armed 
             Services Committee in the 104th and 105th Congresses. I 
             had the honor and pleasure to serve as his ranking member 
             in 1997 and 1998. I know from personal experience how 
             seriously Senator Thurmond treated his duties as chairman 
             and how hard he worked to be fair and even-handed with 
             every member of the committee. Our former colleague and 
             chairman, Senator Sam Nunn, was right when he said that 
             there was not a single national security issue facing this 
             country that has been or could be solved by one political 
             party. That legacy of bipartisanship on the Armed Services 
             Committee was continued under the chairmanship of Strom 
             Thurmond. I am sure that I speak for all of our colleagues 
             in saying just how much we appreciate not only the 
             commitment that Senator Thurmond brought to his duties as 
             chairman, but also his lifelong dedication to the defense 
             of our Nation and to the welfare of those who defend us.
               In my 24 years of service with Strom Thurmond, I never 
             knew him to be anything other than unfailingly optimistic, 
             always courteous, and ever-thoughtful of his Senate 
             colleagues and their families. I cannot say how many times 
             he gave me and all my colleagues advice on exercise, on 
             diet, and on taking care of ourselves and our families in 
             general. I wish I had followed his advice more often 
             because it was always given out of his true concern as a 
             friend. Strom himself was a marvelous specimen of physical 
             fitness. One need only receive a handshake or a shoulder 
             slap from Strom Thurmond to fully appreciate his strength 
             and stamina.
               Sadly Strom Thurmond has left this Earth and we will 
             always miss him. I hope his family takes comfort in 
             knowing, though, that he leaves an example of dedicated 
             public service that will stand as a inspiration for 
             generations to come.

               Mr. COCHRAN. Madam President, we are deeply saddened by 
             the death of our former colleague, Strom Thurmond. He was 
             a beloved friend, always gracious and affectionate.
               His service in the Senate was distinctive not only 
             because he served so many years but because of his love 
             for his job and his dedication to serving the interests of 
             the people of South Carolina.
               He was determined to make his influence felt in the 
             committees and on the floor. He took an active part in the 
             debates even on the most controversial issues.
               His 24-hour speech on the Civil Rights Act was a record-
             setting event. He also was a fervent and effective 
             supporter of our military forces and the veterans who had 
             risked their lives in military service to our Nation.
               I will always count it as one of my richest blessings 
             that I got to know Strom Thurmond and the members of his 
             family. My hope is that Nancy and their children will be 
             comforted by the warmth and sincerity of the esteem and 
             affection in which the Thurmond family will always be held 
             by their many close friends in the Senate family.

               Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I rise to pay tribute to my 
             colleague and dear friend, Senator Strom Thurmond, who 
             passed away last night at the age of 100.
               A few months ago, as he was about to retire from the 
             U.S. Senate, I said on this floor that I could not even 
             begin to imagine the Senate without Senator Thurmond. And 
             since he left this Chamber, I can't tell you how many 
             times, during a vote, when the clerk would reach the lower 
             half of the alphabet, I've looked up from wherever I was 
             on the floor--expecting to see the man who was, for so 
             long, South Carolina's senior Senator.
               He was truly an institution within this Chamber--a 
             ranking member, a committee chairman, a President pro 
             tempore, and the first ever President pro tempore 
             emeritus. He cast over 15,000 votes. His service spanned 
             the terms of 10 U.S. Presidents. And he was directly 
             involved in the confirmation hearings of all nine current 
             Supreme Court Justices.
               Strom Thurmond's life was one devoted to public service. 
             He was a teacher, a school superintendent, a State 
             senator, a judge, a war hero, Governor, and, of course, a 
             Senator for nearly 50 years.
               At each step in his life, Strom Thurmond was searching 
             for ways to serve his country. As a circuit judge in South 
             Carolina, he took a leave of absence to volunteer to 
             parachute behind enemy lines during the D-day invasion at 
             Normandy. For his valor in World War II, he received the 
             Purple Heart, five battle stars for bravery and numerous 
             other decorations. And shortly after the war ended, he was 
             elected Governor of South Carolina, an office he held for 
             4 years.
               But there is no doubt that when his constituents 
             remember Strom Thurmond, their thoughts will immediately 
             turn to his years as their Senator. He served them in this 
             body for over one-fifth of our Nation's history. For many 
             South Carolinians, when he retired earlier this year, he 
             was the only senior Senator they had ever known.
               Strom Thurmond did not merely serve in the Senate; he 
             did so, even during his final years, with unparalleled 
             vigor. His commitment to the people of South Carolina was 
             legendary--whether it was helping an elderly constituent 
             get a Social Security check, or ensuring that the widow of 
             a law enforcement officer could keep her husband's badge, 
             Strom Thurmond never forgot the people who sent him to 
               And the dozens of schools, buildings, parks, and streets 
             in South Carolina that bear his name today show that they 
             never forgot him either.
               I served with Strom Thurmond for 22 years in the Senate, 
             and my father served with him for 12--that's 34 years in 
             which a Dodd served in this body with Senator Thurmond. 
             Both of us certainly had our share of disagreements with 
             him. But those disagreements always came in the spirit of 
             respect, thoughtfulness, and collegiality that are 
             hallmarks of the Senate. And Strom Thurmond truly embodied 
             those qualities.
               To the Dodd family, though, Strom Thurmond was more than 
             just a colleague--he was a true and loyal friend. We will 
             never forget the loyalty and friendship he showed us even 
             during some trying and difficult times.
               It is impossible to look back at the years of Strom 
             Thurmond's life without being amazed. He lived through the 
             invention of the Model T Ford and the creation of the 
             Internet. As a child, he read newspaper accounts of 
             battles that were fought with bayonets in the trenches of 
             Europe. And in his later years, he watched satellite 
             television reports of conflicts won with smart bombs and 
             laser technology. He experienced the Great Depression of 
             the 1930s and the technology bubble of the 1990s.
               And as America matured and changed during his lifetime, 
             Strom Thurmond grew, as well.
               Senator Thurmond didn't just live through a century of 
             history. He was intimately involved in it. In each step 
             that America took, Strom Thurmond was there. In that 
             respect, and in so many others, Strom Thurmond was a truly 
             unique and rare individual.
               I offer my condolences to the entire family of Strom 
             Thurmond. We will miss him very much.

               Mr. CRAIG. Madam President, a constant of the universe 
             has changed. Strom Thurmond is no longer with us. We mourn 
             because this world is poorer for his passing, but we also 
             know he smiles down upon us from a better, happier place.
               True to the creed taught him by his father, Strom always 
             gave of himself, to his family, his beloved State of South 
             Carolina, and to his country. He understood that the 
             essence of leading is serving.
               Strom changed his times and changed with his times. Born 
             during the administration of Theodore Roosevelt, he 
             retired a thoroughly modern Senator.
               He wanted to be history's first 100-year-old Senator. 
             Through faith and force of will, he made it. Even more 
             happily, he wanted to see the birth of his first 
             grandchild, and he did, just recently.
               Like many great persons, Strom combined changeless 
             values with an amazing ability to adapt in a changing 
             world. In turns, he was a liberal and a conservative; a 
             Democrat, Independent, and Republican; a famous bachelor, 
             widower, husband, father, and now grandfather. He came to 
             the Senate from what they call the ``Old South,'' but when 
             I came to Congress, I saw in Strom a Senator committed to 
             equal opportunity and inclusiveness. He was young at 
             heart, had a sense of fun and adventure, and was always 
             open to new ideas. This is the way Strom should be 
             remembered, as an example of how the human spirit can grow 
             and mature gracefully.
               Yet, for all the changes, Strom's constituents were 
             reassured by a sense of his being changeless. What never 
             changed was a foundation of timeless values. He was 
             devoted to faith, family, patriotism, integrity, public 
             service, hard work, and compassion for everyday people.
               Only in recent years did Strom and I discover from a 
             genealogy Web site that we were distant cousins. After 
             that, we enjoyed greeting each other with, ``Hi, Cousin!''
               Today, I say, ``Farewell for now, Cousin. Your life has 
             honored and inspired your family, friends, and Nation.''
                                SUBMITTED RESOLUTION
               Mr. FRIST (for himself, Mr. Daschle, Mr. Graham of South 
             Carolina, Mr. Hollings, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Byrd, Mr. 
             McConnell, Mr. Reid, Mr. Akaka, Mr. Alexander, Mr. Allard, 
             Mr. Allen, Mr. Baucus, Mr. Bayh, Mr. Bennett, Mr. Biden, 
             Mr. Bingaman, Mr. Bond, Mrs. Boxer, Mr. Breaux, Mr. 
             Brownback, Mr. Bunning, Mr. Burns, Mr. Campbell, Ms. 
             Cantwell, Mr. Carper, Mr. Chafee, Mr. Chambliss, Mrs. 
             Clinton, Mr. Cochran, Mr. Coleman, Ms. Collins, Mr. 
             Conrad, Mr. Cornyn, Mr. Corzine, Mr. Craig, Mr. Crapo, Mr. 
             Dayton, Mr. DeWine, Mr. Dodd, Mrs. Dole, Mr. Domenici, Mr. 
             Dorgan, Mr. Durbin, Mr. Edwards, Mr. Ensign, Mr. Enzi, Mr. 
             Feingold, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Fitzgerald, Mr. Graham of 
             Florida, Mr. Grassley, Mr. Gregg, Mr. Hagel, Mr. Harkin, 
             Mr. Hatch, Mrs. Hutchison, Mr. Inhofe, Mr. Inouye, Mr. 
             Jeffords, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Kerry, Mr. Kohl, 
             Mr. Kyl, Ms. Landrieu, Mr. Lautenberg, Mr. Leahy, Mr. 
             Levin, Mr. Lieberman, Mrs. Lincoln, Mr. Lott, Mr. Lugar, 
             Mr. McCain, Ms. Mikulski, Mr. Miller, Ms. Murkowski, Mrs. 
             Murray, Mr. Nelson of Florida, Mr. Nelson of Nebraska, Mr. 
             Nickles, Mr. Pryor, Mr. Reed, Mr. Roberts, Mr. 
             Rockefeller, Mr. Santorum, Mr. Sarbanes, Mr. Schumer, Mr. 
             Sessions, Mr. Shelby, Mr. Smith, Ms. Snowe, Mr. Specter, 
             Ms. Stabenow, Mr. Sununu, Mr. Talent, Mr. Thomas, Mr. 
             Voinovich, Mr. Warner, and Mr. Wyden) submitted the 
             following resolution; which was considered and agreed to:
                                     S. Res. 191
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond conducted his 
             life in an exemplary manner, an example to all of his 
             fellow citizens;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond was a devoted 
             husband, father, and most recently, grandfather;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond gave a great 
             measure of his life to public service;
               Whereas, having abandoned the safety of high position, 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served his country during 
             World War II, fighting the greatest threat the world had 
             thus far seen;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served South 
             Carolina in the United States Senate with devotion and 
               Whereas his service on behalf of South Carolina and all 
             Americans earned him the esteem and high regard of his 
             colleagues; and
               Whereas his death has deprived his State and Nation of a 
             most outstanding Senator: Now, therefore, be it
               Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
             and deep regret the announcement of the death of the 
             Honorable J. Strom Thurmond, former Senator and President 
             Pro Tempore Emeritus from the State of South Carolina.
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives and 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
               Resolved, That when the Senate adjourns today, it stand 
             adjourned as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond.
               Mr. FRIST. On Monday, July 7, the Senate will be in a 
             period of morning business. This will provide an 
             opportunity for Members who have not yet had the 
             opportunity, to deliver statements honoring our friend and 
             colleague, Strom Thurmond. As I mentioned last night, we 
             will have the tributes to Senator Thurmond printed as a 
             Senate document for distribution.
               If there is no further business to come before the 
             Senate, I ask unanimous consent that the Senate stand in 
             adjournment under the provisions of H. Con. Res. 231; 
             further, that the Senate adjourn as an additional mark of 
             respect for Senator Strom Thurmond.
               There being no objection, the Senate, at 4:14 p.m., 
             adjourned until Monday, July 7, 2003, at 2 p.m.
                                                  Tuesday, July 8, 2003
                            PRINTING OF THURMOND TRIBUTES
               Mr. BROWNBACK. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent 
             that tributes to Senator Strom Thurmond be printed as a 
             Senate document.

               The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so 
                                                Wednesday, July 9, 2003
               Mr. BROWNBACK. I thank Senator Biden for the tremendous 
             eulogy he gave about Strom Thurmond at the funeral in 
             South Carolina last week. The Senator really did us very 
             proud with his representation of this body and his 
             relationship with Strom Thurmond. It was a touching event. 
             His eulogy of Strom Thurmond was beautiful. I heard a 
             number of people comment about it. It was very nice of him 
             to do that. It was very nicely done.

               Mr. BIDEN. Mr. President, I thank my colleague. It was a 
             great honor for me to participate.
                                                  Friday, July 11, 2003
               Mr. ALLARD. Mr. President, I rise to pay tribute to our 
             colleague and a friend, Strom Thurmond. We were all deeply 
             moved by the recent passing of this gracious gentleman, 
             and I would like to take a few minutes to reflect on his 
             rich life and to honor his memory.
               Strom Thurmond had a long and distinguished career. Over 
             recent weeks we have heard many descriptions of the 
             achievements of this remarkable man. But Senator Thurmond 
             was distinguished for much more than the length of his 
             Senate service or the number of ``firsts'' he achieved 
             during his life. Rather, Senator Thurmond is distinguished 
             by his love for America. For although Strom Thurmond was 
             perhaps best known as a politician, he was first and 
             foremost a patriot. His military service, his time as a 
             Governor, and his tenure in the U.S. Senate were all 
             fueled by his deep and abiding love for America.
               Just as deep as his love for America was his love for 
             South Carolina and its residents. Senator Thurmond and his 
             staff were well known for their accessibility and 
             outstanding constituent service. He believed in hard work 
             and service, and never shied away from his convictions.
               That same accessibility and attitude of service carried 
             over to his interaction with fellow Members as well. I was 
             honored to serve with Senator Thurmond on the Armed 
             Services Committee, and I still remember the helpful 
             guidance he gave me as a new member on the committee. His 
             passion for our military members and his concern for their 
             well-being was evident, and I hope that I can emulate that 
             same care.
               I also remember how generous Senator Thurmond was with 
             his personal time. Obviously as a senior Member of the 
             Senate and the Senate President pro tempore he had a 
             number of responsibilities. However, he still made time to 
             serve this Member. Several years ago I was honored when he 
             graciously agreed to speak at the Capitol Conference I 
             hold for Colorado constituents each year. To this day I am 
             deeply appreciative of the time that he spent making 
             remarks, fielding questions, and taking photos with my 
             constituents. Many of the participants later remarked on 
             his wit and vitality, remarkable for any Member, but 
             especially for one of his years. Even in their short time 
             with him they were able to see the courtesy and conviction 
             that we witnessed each day.
               I feel fortunate to have had the opportunity to get to 
             know Strom Thurmond as the person behind the military hero 
             and political legend. To see the small ways in which he 
             expressed his interest in and appreciation for those 
             around him, such as taking the Senate pages for ice cream. 
             He also expressed personal concern about the health and 
             well being of his staff and Members, which was perhaps 
             necessitated in some part by the candy he was always 
             handing out. I only hope that we can all learn from and 
             retain some part of his charm, confidence, depth of 
             conviction, and commitment.
               Although Strom Thurmond may no longer be here with us 
             physically, his legacy will live on. The U.S. Senate and 
             America are better for his strength, service, and self-
               Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to 
             express my sincere condolences to Senator Thurmond's 
             family and friends. He was a proud father, and recently, 
             grandfather. His love for his family was well known, and 
             our thoughts and prayers are with them. My wife Joan and I 
             hope that they are able to find comfort and peace during 
             these difficult days.
               I am proud to have called Strom Thurmond my colleague 
             and friend, and today I join the rest of America in 
             honoring this great service and mourning his passing.

               Mr. SESSIONS. Mr. President, I rise today as we remember 
             the Honorable Senator from South Carolina, Strom Thurmond. 
             The accomplishments of this man in his 100 years of life 
             were truly amazing. All that he did for his State and our 
             Nation make all Americans proud. He was a vigorous, 
             positive person who unrelentingly worked for a better 
               Senator Thurmond was born on December 5, 1902, in 
             Edgefield, SC. He received his undergraduate degree from 
             then Clemson College, now Clemson University, in 1923. He 
             studied law under his father, Judge William Thurmond and, 
             in 1930, was admitted to the South Carolina Bar. For 8 
             years, from 1930 to 1938, he served as the Edgefield town 
             and county attorney, and during that time, from 1933 to 
             1938, he served as South Carolina State senator, 
             representing Edgefield County.
               A true patriot, Senator Thurmond joined the U.S. Army 
             Reserve as a second lieutenant in 1924. He landed in 
             Normandy on D-day with the 82d Airborne Division during 
             World War II. For his military service, he earned 18 
             decorations, medals, and awards, including the Legion of 
             Merit with oakleaf cluster, Bronze Star for valor, and the 
             Purple Heart, among others.
               His political ambitions flourished when, in 1947, 
             Senator Thurmond was elected Governor of South Carolina. 
             In 1948, he decided to run for President of the United 
             States as the States rights Democratic candidate. He 
             carried 4 States and received 39 electoral votes, the 
             third largest independent electoral vote in U.S. history. 
             However, the most memorable moment for Senator Thurmond 
             came in 1954, when he was elected to the U.S. Senate as a 
             write-in candidate! To be elected to any position as a 
             write-in candidate, much less to the U.S. Senate, is a 
             true testament to one's political prowess. He was the 
             first person to ever be elected to a major office in the 
             United States by this method.
               Senator Thurmond served on many committees during his 
             service to America in the Senate. The duty and patriotism 
             he displayed is a fine indication of all that he devoted 
             to our Nation's military. It is quite fitting that Senator 
             Thurmond served on the Senate Armed Services Committee and 
             used his role to help enhance our military in every way 
             possible. He served as chairman of this committee from 
             January 1995 to January 1999 and was bestowed the great 
             honor of being named chairman emeritus in 1999. The time I 
             spent with Senator Thurmond on this committee was a 
             wonderful learning experience for me and the Senate Armed 
             Services Committee will miss Senator Thurmond. His 
             military service provided him with an excellent background 
             to understand the intricacies of our military and, without 
             question, helped in his decisionmaking ability for the 
             betterment of America.
               Additionally, I had the pleasure of serving with Senator 
             Thurmond on the Judiciary Committee, where he was a member 
             from 1967 until his retirement. He served as chairman of 
             this committee from 1981 to 1987 and served as chairman of 
             the Judiciary Subcommittee on Constitution, Federalism and 
             Property Rights from January to June of 2001. With a 
             background as a judge and lawyer, Senator Thurmond 
             cherished his role on this committee and always sought to 
             ensure fairness on many issues, including that of 
             appointing qualified judges to our Federal benches. I 
             particularly remember his strong support for me when I was 
             an unsuccessful judicial nominee in 1986. Senator Thurmond 
             was a supporter, friend, and advisor.
               To list the numerous honors and awards Senator Thurmond 
             received would take hours. However, I would like to point 
             out some of the accolades I find truly incredible. In 
             addition to his undergraduate degree from Clemson College, 
             he also holds 34 honorary degrees. In 1994, he was 
             inducted into the U.S. Army Rangers Hall of Fame. In 1997, 
             he was awarded the Department of Defense Medal for 
             Distinguished Public Service. In 1998, he was awarded the 
             Spirit of Hope award, named after Bob Hope, by the United 
             Service Organizations. Last year, he was awarded the 
             Washington Times Foundation American Century Award.
               His life covered a time of monumental change in the 
             South. His movement from a champion of racial segregation 
             to one who promoted equal rights reflected the change that 
             occurred throughout the region. His personal actions 
             helped lead others to reject the impermissible policies of 
             the past.
               One of the great memories I have of spending time with 
             Senator Thurmond is the time he asked me to accompany him 
             on a trip to China in 1997, as I began my term as Senator. 
             On this trip, we had some time to climb the Great Wall of 
             China. As is custom, an assistant is typically assigned to 
             older individuals as they make their journey along the 
             wall. Senator Thurmond declined any help and, at the time, 
             was the oldest person to ever climb the wall unassisted. 
             The Senator's ability to put things in perspective is 
             illustrated by the fact that when, upon reaching the top 
             of the wall, he stated, ``This is a big wall. Let's go.''
               As the leader of our delegation and President pro 
             tempore of the Senate at age 97, he handled every occasion 
             superbly. He was particularly elegant when we met with 
             Chinese Premier Jiang Zemin. I remember he concluded his 
             remarks with the words ``China and the United States are 
             friends. We want to be better friends.''
               It is almost impossible to travel anywhere in South 
             Carolina and not find Senator Strom Thurmond's name on a 
             street, building, lake, highway, or monument. All that he 
             did for South Carolina and for our Nation is a true 
             testament to the caliber of man that he was. The lives he 
             touched and the people he has positively affected are 
             numerous. I know that his service to our Nation is sorely 
             missed. You simply cannot put a value on the role he 
             played as a true public servant. Senator Thurmond will be 
             missed by many, many individuals in Congress, in South 
             Carolina, and in America. A true southerner, a true 
             American, and a true patriot, Senator Strom Thurmond will 
             forever be remembered as a man whose beliefs, ideals, and 
             character remained unparalleled for an entire century.
                                                  Monday, July 14, 2003
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mrs. HUTCHISON. Mr. President, it is a privilege today 
             to pay tribute to the memory of the late Strom Thurmond. 
             Often outspoken, sometimes controversial, but always 
             passionate, Strom was an unparalleled servant of the 
             people. He always put his Nation first, whether in combat 
             on the beaches of Normandy or here in the halls of the 
               He made a career of giving back to his country. But he 
             was also a wonderful human being.
               Strom often reminded me that Colonel William Barret 
             Travis, who was in command at the Alamo, was from his home 
             county in South Carolina. While Strom himself missed the 
             Alamo by a few years, he demonstrated that he too embodies 
             the spirit of the Alamo and the sense of duty and 
             commitment to his country that we Texans associate with 
             Colonel Travis.
               Strom's journey into the history books began back in the 
             1920s when he graduated from his beloved Clemson.
               He went on to become a teacher and athletic coach, 
             county superintendent of education, town and county 
             attorney, Eleventh Circuit Court Judge, South Carolina 
             Governor, soldier, president of the Reserve Officers 
             Association and finally, a U.S. Senator--a position he 
             held for a remarkable 48 years. For many, that would be 
             five lifetimes of careers. But not Strom. It was just 
             enough to keep him busy for the century he was on this 
               Strom lived every day of his life to the fullest.
               I'm still amazed that he volunteered to return to active 
             duty military service, though he was way past the age of 
             being drafted. At the age of 41 he landed on the beaches 
             of Normandy in a glider--staring death in the face, and 
               He served in the Pacific and European theaters, earning 
             18 decorations, medals and awards including the Legion of 
             Merit, the Purple Heart, and the Bronze Star for valor. He 
             rose to the rank of major general in the U.S. Army 
               In the Senate Strom focused particular attention on 
             taking care of our men and women in the military.
               I served with Strom while he chaired the Armed Services 
             Committee and saw the reflection of his time in the 
             service in everything he did. He worked for one purpose--
             to ensure our country's national defense remained strong. 
             From military health care to quality of life for service 
             members and their families, he knew that to recruit and 
             retain our Nation's finest, we had to treat them well.
               The Capitol has not been the same since Strom left last 
             year. The wit and wisdom he collected over a century of 
             living made him one of the most entertaining and 
             enlightening figures in modern politics. There will always 
             be an empty place in the heart of the Senate created by 
             his absence.
               The eulogies that came from both sides of the aisle at 
             his memorial service last week were testament to the 
             evolution Strom undertook during his time in the Senate. A 
             career once marked by division ended in unity and with 
               He will be greatly missed by his family, friends, 
             colleagues and his country. He began his career in public 
             service as a coach--eight decades later he was a coach and 
             teacher to us all to the very end.
                                                 Tuesday, July 22, 2003
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. BYRD. Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent to have 
             printed in the Record my remarks of December 9, 2002, 
             before the U.S. Capitol Historical Society.
               There being no objection, the material was ordered to be 
             printed in the Record, as follows:

               ``Who well lives, long lives; for this age of ours 
             should not be numbered by years, days and hours.''
               We are gathered here today to salute a friend and 
             colleague who has lived long and spent his days well.
               Strom Thurmond has been a teacher, an athletic coach, an 
             educational administrator, a lawyer, a State legislator, a 
             circuit court judge, a county superintendent, a soldier, a 
             Presidential nominee, and a Governor--and all of that was 
             packed into just his first 52 years.
               In 1954, Strom won his first election to the Senate as a 
             write-in candidate--beginning his Senate sojourn with the 
             singular achievement of being the only person in history 
             to be elected to the Senate in that fashion.
               As he began his Senate service with a ``first'' he also 
             leaves it by setting two more records--that of being the 
             longest serving Senator in U.S. history and also being the 
             oldest person to serve in the U.S. Senate. May I note here 
             that he is also the only person in the Senate who is old 
             enough to be my big brother. But, Strom, like Casey 
             Stengel, I'll never make the mistake of being 70 again. 
             Strom Thurmond's life is not just about length and 
             achievement, it is about personal service and commitment.
               Now, I am not speaking here about Strom's well-known 
             appreciation for the gentler sex. I am speaking about his 
             love of his country and his commitment to serve it.
               Consider the fact that Strom Thurmond volunteered for 
             service in World War II. He did that when he could have 
             stayed safely at home. Strom was beyond draft age in 1942.
               Additionally, as a judge, he held draft-exempted status. 
             Yet he went. And in 1944, Strom Thurmond was part of D-
             day--the invasion of the beaches of Normandy that signaled 
             the defeat of worldwide fascism. He risked his life to 
             serve the Nation he loved.
               After the war, Strom Thurmond served the State that he 
             loved by becoming its Governor.
               In 1948, Governor Strom Thurmond tried again to serve 
             the country that he loved by running for President as a 
             States rights Democrat. He carried 4 States and won 39 
             electoral votes. Undaunted, in 1954 Strom found another 
             way to serve his beloved State and country by being 
             elected to the U.S. Senate. It is in this role, that of 
             U.S. Senator, that we have come to understand the 
             extraordinary service of this man from South Carolina.
               Strom Thurmond is a man who, because of the quantity of 
             his years, has seen enormous change--the rise and fall of 
             Nazi Germany; the Russian Revolution; the rise and fall of 
             the Soviet empire; two world wars; space exploration; 
             civil rights upheaval; and incredible advances in 
             technology and medicine. Indeed, the world is very 
             different from the one that Strom Thurmond knew as a young 
             man. He has been witness to the ``vicissitudes of fortune, 
             which spares neither man nor the proudest of his works, 
             which buries empires and cities in a common grave.''
               And yet Strom has never lost his desire to serve, to 
             make his contribution, to add his voice and his views to 
             the rich conglomeration of beliefs and viewpoints which, 
             when mixed together, yield an idea called America.
               Strom is never one to become discouraged, disheartened 
             or disenchanted. He loves his country, and he has been a 
             faithful and devoted defender of the Nation's need for a 
             strong defense. No summer soldier, no sunshine patriot, 
               Youth is not a time of life--it is a state of mind. It 
             is not a matter of red cheeks, red lips and supple knees. 
             It is a temper of the will; a quality of the imagination. 
             Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over 
             timidity, of the appetite for an adventure over a life of 
             ease. This often exists in a man of 50, more than in a boy 
             of 20. Nobody grows old by merely living a number of 
             years; people grow old by deserting their dreams.
               Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm 
             wrinkles the soul.
               Whether 70 or 16, there is in every being's heart a love 
             of wonder; the sweet amazement at the stars and starlike 
             things and thoughts.
               You are as young as your faith, as old as your doubt; as 
             young as your self-confidence, as old as your fear; as 
             young as your hope, as old as your despair.
               In the central place of your heart, there is a wireless 
             station. So long as it receives messages of beauty, hope, 
             cheer, grandeur, courage, and power from the Earth, from 
             men and from the Infinite--so long are you young. When the 
             wires are all down and the central places of your heart 
             are covered with the snows of pessimism and the ice of 
             cynicism, then are you grown old, indeed!
               In the words of Pericles: ``It is only the love of honor 
             that never grows old.''
               Today, it is not the length but the quality of Strom 
             Thurmond's life which we celebrate. For that marvelous 
             life of character and courage I salute him. It is a 
             privilege to know him, an honor to serve with him, and an 
             education to ponder his remarkable life.

                          Multiplication Table of Happiness
               Count your garden by the flowers
               Never by the leaves that fall;
               Count your days by the sunny hours,
               Not remembering clouds at all;
               Count your nights by stars, not shadows,
               Count your life by smiles, not tears,
               And on this beautiful December afternoon,
               Count your age by friends, not years.

               Mr. McCONNELL. Mr. President, I rise today to pay 
             tribute to an American political icon, patriot, war hero, 
             and lifelong South Carolinian, Senator Strom Thurmond. 
             While many will recall Senator Thurmond's half-century 
             career on the political stage, I shall fondly remember the 
             many kindnesses he extended to my family and me. He was a 
             warmhearted, gentle man, and I will count it as one of my 
             life's honors to have served with him in the U.S. Senate.
               I join my colleagues in extending my heartfelt 
             condolences to his family who have lost a beloved husband, 
             father, and grandfather. Strom was a legend in the Senate 
             and touched many of us during his long career. In fact, I 
             will always remember Senator Thurmond's 90th birthday 
             party when he turned to the audience and said, ``If you 
             all eat right, exercise, and don't drink whiskey, you'll 
             be here for the 100th birthday party.'' Strom Thurmond was 
             a remarkable American; I don't think we'll see another one 
             like him for a long time, if ever.

               Mr. KYL. Mr. President, we mourn the loss of Strom 
             Thurmond, the legendary Senator who held his first public 
             office in the late 1920s and who died on June 27 in his 
             hometown of Edgefield, SC. The State of South Carolina 
             lost a beloved native son and the Senate lost a cheerful, 
             robust, honorable, and dedicated colleague. He was someone 
             who was always eager to help me and to accommodate my 
             concerns. It was an honor to work with him on issues of 
             national defense, foreign policy, and many other matters 
             important to the people of the United States.
               South Carolinians' outpouring of respect when he died 
             was massive. Senator Thurmond had been a judge, a soldier 
             who landed in Normandy as a member of the 82d Airborne 
             Division in 1942, a Governor of South Carolina, and 
             chairman of the Judiciary and Armed Services Committees in 
             this body. He was also someone who changed his mind on an 
             issue of great import--race in America--and he was a fine 
             example to his fellow citizens on that score.
               Strom Thurmond was an indomitable spirit. He represented 
             continuity in the U.S. Senate, becoming, in 1996, its 
             oldest serving Member and, in 1997, its longest serving 
             Member. Those are for the record books. But on a personal 
             level, I can say I admired tremendously his buoyant 
             spirit. I appreciated him for assisting me in so many 
             ways, and for his stalwart service to our country.
                                               Wednesday, July 23, 2003
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. LEAHY. Mr. President, shortly before Senator 
             Thurmond retired from the Senate, I included a tribute in 
             the Congressional Record on his long career. As the Senate 
             notes his passing so soon after his retirement, I ask 
             unanimous consent to have printed in the Record my earlier 
             remarks from October 2, 2002.
               There being no objection, the material was ordered to be 
             printed in the Record, as follows:

               Mr. President, I rise today to pay tribute to a 
             colleague who has a career of public service that may 
             never be matched again in the history of our country.
               Strom Thurmond sits on the other side of the aisle in 
             the Senate Chamber, but I consider him a friend with whom 
             I have worked closely. I will miss him.
               We often worked together in the field of antitrust laws. 
             We worked together on the National Cooperative Production 
             Amendments of 1993, the very first high technology bill 
             signed by President Clinton, and to improve the 
             protections against anticompetitive conduct in the Digital 
             Performance Rights in Sound Recordings Act.
               Senator Thurmond has been a legislator. I must admit 
             that when Senator Thurmond and I have worked together, it 
             has raised some eyebrows. Whenever we introduced 
             legislation together, he and I fondly remarked that the 
             bill was either a brilliant piece of drafting or one of us 
             had not read it.
               Needless to say, there have been many occasions when 
             Strom and I sat on opposite sides of an issue. Even though 
             there were issues about which we felt deeply, Senator 
             Thurmond always conducted himself with the utmost 
             integrity. Strom has always told the Senate how he felt 
             and did so with the people of South Carolina first and 
             foremost in his mind.
               Senator Thurmond has always been a gentleman. His warmth 
             and kindness one afternoon in the Senate dining room 
             framed what has to be one of the strangest meetings of all 
             times in that venue. In 1994, I invited Jerry Garcia and 
             the Grateful Dead to join me for lunch in the dining room. 
             As we sat down for lunch, Senator Thurmond entered the 
             room and came over to say hello. I took the opportunity to 
             introduce him to Jerry.
               It was quite a meeting of cultures. Besides our devotion 
             to the Senate, I share with Senator Thurmond the 
             distinction of being from a State that has provided the 
             Senate Judiciary Committee with three chairmen over the 
             history of the committee. South Carolina and Vermont each 
             have had three Senators who have chaired the committee. I 
             have learned much from the senior Senator from South 
             Carolina. Let me share with you one additional aspect of 
             Senator Thurmond's legacy to the Senate as he completes 
             this term and retires from office. In addition to all his 
             longevity records and legislative achievements and 
             buildings named for him, there is something else about him 
             I will always remember.
               When we hold hearings for Federal judges--and we have 
             held a number this year--I am always careful to carry on a 
             tradition that Senator Thurmond started. Senator Thurmond 
             always reminded nominees for high office that it is 
             essential to treat others with courtesy and respect. He 
             always reminded nominees that the people and lawyers who 
             appeared before them, whatever their position in the case, 
             whether rich or poor, white or black, man or woman, 
             whatever their religious or political affiliation, they 
             are each and every one deserving of respect and fairness.
               Senator Thurmond was right to remind judges--and even 
             Senators--of that simple rule. It is another contribution 
             he has made to all of us that will continue to serve us 
               Mr. President, as I said earlier, I will miss Strom 
             Thurmond. He has been named President pro tempore emeritus 
             for good reason.
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. DeWINE. Mr. President, I would like to take a moment 
             this evening to pay tribute to our dear friend and former 
             colleague, Strom Thurmond, a man who gave of himself 
             personally to his constituents and to his colleagues here 
             in the Senate.
               All of us will always remember Strom. We will remember 
             him seated right in front of the presiding officer at his 
             desk. We will remember him for his smile. We will remember 
             him for his greeting. Frankly, I don't think any of us 
             will ever walk into this Chamber again without almost 
             seeing him down there at his desk.
               He was a man who gave so much of himself to his 
             constituents. We will remember him for the way he treated 
             each one of us, the way he treated his constituents, and 
             the individual attention he gave to us and his 
               I saw the way he personally dealt with his constituents. 
             I also saw the personal attention he paid to me and the 
             personal interest he took in my family. In particular, I 
             am grateful to him for the hospitality and attention he 
             showed to my son Brian, who just recently graduated from 
             his beloved Clemson University.
               A few years ago, when I told Strom that my son Brian was 
             going to Clemson, I remember the big smile on his face. Of 
             course, I knew he was a graduate of Clemson. I could tell 
             how delighted and eager he was to share stories about his 
             experience at Clemson. And I remember a lot of those 
               Of course, the first thing he told me was, ``You know, I 
             went to Clemson''--which, of course, I did know. And I 
             then asked him, ``Strom, what year did you graduate from 
             Clemson?'' He said, ``1923.'' I said, ``Strom, that was 
             the year my dad was born''--which it was.
               During the 4 years that Brian was at Clemson, almost 
             every time I saw Strom on the floor, Strom would say, 
             ``How's your boy? How is that boy of yours doing down at 
             Clemson? Does he like it?'' Of course, I told him he did, 
             which Brian certainly did.
               After Brian graduated, Strom invited Brian and myself up 
             to his office. Strom showed him all the pictures on the 
             wall. Strom invited him over and had his picture taken 
             with Brian, a picture that Brian now has, and a copy of 
             another picture that I have of Brian and myself and Strom 
             that is in a prominent place in my office today in the 
             Russell Building.
               Strom Thurmond paid this same level of attention, which 
             he paid to his colleague in the Senate and to his 
             colleague's son, to all his constituents. And we know 
             that. We have all heard the stories. It did not matter 
             whether you were a U.S. Senator or whether you worked in a 
             filling station or who you were in his home State of South 
             Carolina; it did not matter. That was Strom Thurmond. It 
             did not matter who you were, Strom paid attention to you.
               We have all heard the stories about the birthdays and 
             the anniversaries, constituent problems. It did not 
             matter, Strom was there.
               Strom Thurmond has left a mark on his State and our 
             country through his kindness and his personal attention to 
             others--a mark that surely will not be forgotten or held 
             in anything less than the highest regard.
               We thank Strom for his service to our country, to South 
             Carolina, and to the people who will miss his kindness and 
             his friendship. We thank Strom for his extra efforts to 
             help those in need, those he loved, and those he came to 
             the Senate to represent.
               We will remember this man, our friend, fondly. He was a 
             man of courage, a man of integrity, a man of passion, a 
             man who loved this country dearly.
               We thank you, Strom. We miss you. We respect you.
                                                Thursday, July 24, 2003
                          IN REMEMBRANCE OF STROM THURMOND
               Mr. BUNNING. Mr. President, it is with great pride and 
             honor that I rise today amongst my fellow colleagues to 
             honor one of America's finest citizens, Senator Strom 
             Thurmond of South Carolina.
               When I look at Strom's career and all that he has 
             accomplished throughout his life, I often find myself 
             wondering how one man could possibly do so much in just 
             one lifetime. Strom Thurmond truly deserves the title of 
             Renaissance man. He has been a farmer, a teacher, a 
             lawyer, a judge, an author, a Governor, a war veteran, a 
             major general in the U.S. Army Reserve, a State senator, a 
             U.S. Senator, a Democrat, a Dixiecrat, a Republican, a 
             husband and a father. And most important to all of us--a 
             friend. He was born when Theodore Roosevelt was President 
             and lived through 18 different Presidencies. To put the 
             longevity of his political career in perspective, Strom 
             Thurmond won an election 18 years before President George 
             W. Bush was even born. This is also a man who enlisted 
             during World War II and jumped on D-day with the 82d 
             Airborne when he was in his forties.
               From 1954 when he ran and won a seat in the U.S. Senate 
             as a write-in candidate, until his death on June 26, 2003, 
             Strom Thurmond worked tirelessly and selflessly for the 
             people of South Carolina and the citizens of this great 
             Nation, casting more than 15,000 votes in his senatorial 
             tenure. Whether or not people ever agreed with Strom 
             politically, they certainly admired his zest and his 
               In his earlier days in Congress, Strom argued for 
             segregationist policies. In many ways, people have used 
             this to try and discredit this American icon. But most 
             people forget he later championed civil rights laws and 
             black institutions. As Winston Churchill said, ``To 
             improve is to change, to be perfect is to change often.'' 
             Strom Thurmond was an honest and principled man, but he 
             also was a man constantly striving to make this a better 
               I now ask my fellow Members of the Senate to join me in 
             honoring our good friend and colleague for all he did 
             throughout his life and throughout his tenure in the 
             Senate. His brilliance, leadership and unmatched wit will 
             be sorely missed by this legislative body and by the 
             entire Nation.
               On June 26, 2003, one of this Nation's brightest stars 
             faded away. Even though the light may be out, I believe we 
             all will find our own way to hold on to the many memories 
             and stories Strom Thurmond left behind with us.
                     Proceedings in the House of Representatives
                                                Thursday, June 26, 2003
                            South Carolina Loses a Legend
               Mr. WILSON of South Carolina. Mr. Speaker, it is with 
             great sadness tonight that I announce that Senator Strom 
             Thurmond passed away at 9:45. I was a former staff member 
             of Senator Thurmond, my wife was a staff person for 
             Senator Thurmond, and our three sons have been pages with 
             his office.
               With the death of Strom Thurmond, South Carolina has 
             lost its greatest statesman of the 20th century, just as 
             John Calhoun was the most revered South Carolinian of the 
             19th century. Strom Thurmond will never be replaced in the 
             countless hearts of those who loved and respected him.
               The entire Wilson family mourns this profound loss and 
             we extend our sympathy to the Thurmond family.
               Senator Strom Thurmond will endure as the leading 
             example of a public servant due to his love and devotion 
             to all the people of South Carolina regardless of status, 
             race, politics or region.
               He was our living legend. Strom's life was dedicated to 
             achieving peace through strength, as shown by his military 
             service in liberating Europe from Nazi fascists, his 
             tireless work in fighting for a strong national defense in 
             Congress which ultimately led to the defeat of Soviet 
               He pioneered the development of the South Carolina 
             Republican Party from effective nonexistence in the 1960s 
             to majority status by the end of the century. He has been 
             a role model of service to South Carolina's young people 
             and our family has had three generations on his staff: my 
             wife's two uncles were staff attorneys, my wife and I were 
             interns, and our three oldest sons were pages. A 
             distinguished highlight for our family was to host Senator 
             Thurmond on the last Sunday before his last election in 
             1996 at the First Presbyterian Church in Columbia.
               The legacy of Strom Thurmond will always be felt in 
             South Carolina because of his steadfast integrity and the 
             meaningful results of his thoughtful constituent service. 
             He was my personal hero, and I will miss him dearly.
                                                   Monday, July 7, 2003
                               MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE
               A message from the Senate by Mr. Monahan, one of its 
             clerks, announced that the Senate agreed to the following 
                                     S. Res. 191
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond conducted his 
             life in an exemplary manner, an example to all of his 
             fellow citizens;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond was a devoted 
             husband, father, and most recently, grandfather;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond gave a great 
             measure of his life to public service;
               Whereas, having abandoned the safety of high position, 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served his country during 
             World War II, fighting the greatest threat the world had 
             thus far seen;
               Whereas the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond served South 
             Carolina in the United States Senate with devotion and 
               Whereas his service on behalf of South Carolina and all 
             Americans earned him the esteem and high regard of his 
             colleagues; and
               Whereas his death has deprived his State and Nation of a 
             most outstanding Senator: Now, therefore, be it
               Resolved, That the Senate has heard with profound sorrow 
             and deep regret the announcement of the death of the 
             Honorable J. Strom Thurmond, former Senator and President 
             Pro Tempore Emeritus from the State of South Carolina.
               Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate communicate 
             these resolutions to the House of Representatives and 
             transmit an enrolled copy thereof to the family of the 
               Resolved, That when the Senate adjourns today, it stand 
             adjourned as a further mark of respect to the memory of 
             the Honorable J. Strom Thurmond.
                               Celebrating the Life of

                                  J. Strom Thurmond

             December 5, 1902-June 26, 2003

             Well done, thou good and faithful servant.

             Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.

                                       Matthew 25 : 21

             First Baptist Church

             Columbia, South Carolina

                    Prelude                                       Mrs. Joyce English
                    National Anthem                               Mrs. Barbara Bowens

                                 Greeting                            the Reverend Dr. Wendell R. Estep

                    Congregational Hymn 10                        How Great Thou Art

                                 Eulogies                            the Honorable John E. Courson
                                                                     the Honorable William W. Wilkins, Jr.
                                                                     the Honorable Kay Patterson
                                                                     the Honorable Joseph R. Biden, Jr.
                                                                     Mr. Bettis C. Rainsford

                                        Scripture           the Reverend Dr. Fred W. Andrea III
                                            Isaiah  40 : 28-31

                   Have you not known? Have you not heard?
                   The Lord is the everlasting God,
                       the Creator of the ends of the earth.
                   He does not faint or grow weary;
                       His understanding is unsearchable.
                   He gives power to the faint,
                       And strengthens the powerless.
                   Even youths will faint and be weary,
                       And the young will fall exhausted;
                   But those who wait for the Lord shall
                       Renew their strength,
                   They shall mount up with wings like eagles,
                   They shall run and not be weary,
                       They shall walk and not faint.

                    Solo    On Eagles Wings                       Mrs. Donna Ritter
                    Message                                       Dr. Andrea
                        Psalm 30 : 1-5

                   I will extol you, O Lord, for you have drawn me up,
                       And did not let my foes rejoice over me.
                   O Lord my God, I cried to you for help, and you
                       Have healed me.
                   O Lord, you brought up my soul from Sheol,
                       Restored me to life from among those gone
                       Down to the Pit.
                   Sing praises to the Lord, O you his faithful ones,
                       And give thanks to his holy name.
                   For his anger is but for a moment;
                       His favor is for a lifetime.
                   Weeping may linger for the night,
                       But joy comes with the morning.

                                 Presentation of Flags

                                    the Honorable Marshall Clement Sanford, Jr.
                                    Mr. Warren H. Abernathy
                                    Dr. Donald L. Fowler, Sr.
                                    USAR, Ret. 360th Civil Affairs Brigade

                                 Benediction                                                       Dr. Andrea
                                 Recessional    Amazing Grace                                      Mr. David M. Nichols
                                 Organ Postlude                                                    Mrs. Joyce English

                     Preceded in death by his parents
                     Eleanor Gertrude Strom
                     The Honorable John William Thurmond
                     His first wife Jean Crouch Thurmond
                     His brothers and a sister
                     Dr. John William Thurmond, Jr.
                     Dr. Allan George Thurmond
                     Miss Anna Gertrude Thurmond
                     Survived by his sisters
                     Martha Thurmond Bishop
                     Mary Thurmond Tompkins
                     His nieces and nephews
                     Betsy Thurmond Keller
                     Ellen Thurmond Senter
                     Dr. John William Thurmond III
                     Mary T. Tompkins Freeman
                     Dr. Walter Grady Bishop, Jr.
                     The Honorable William Thurmond Bishop
                     James Allan Bishop
                     Dr. John Barry Bishop
                     Preceded in death by his daughter
                     Nancy Moore Thurmond
                     Survived by his wife Nancy Moore Thurmond
                     His children
                     J. Strom Thurmond, Jr.
                     Julie Thurmond Whitmer
                     Paul Reynolds Thurmond
                     His grandchild
                     Martin Taylor Whitmer III

                     United States Army
                     United States Marine Corps
                     United States Navy
                     United States Air Force
                     United States Coast Guard
                     Joint Honor Guard provided by the South Carolina National Guard
                     Caisson and artillery supplied by the South Carolina Military Department
                     Commanded by Major General Stanhope S. Spears
                     Honorary Pallbearers
                     State Law Enforcement Division (SLED)
                     Strom Thurmond Foundation
                     PO Box 50214
                     Columbia, SC 29250
                     Aiken's First Baptist Church
                     PO Box 3157
                     Aiken, SC 29802
                     Edgefield County Hospital
                     PO Box 590
                     Edgefield, SC 29824
                     Interment at Willowbrook Cemetery
                     Edgefield, South Carolina
                     the Reverend Dr. Fred W. Andrea III
                     Dr. John Barry Bishop
                     Shellhouse Funeral Home, Inc.
                     Aiken, South Carolina
                     Edgefield Mercantile Funeral Home
                     Edgefield, South Carolina