[House Document 106-215]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]





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106th CONGRESS, 2d SESSION - - - - - - - - - - - HOUSE DOCUMENT 106-215
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                     106th CONGRESS, 2nd SESSION /
                       HOUSE DOCUMENT 106-215

The Declaration of Independence was the promise; the Constitution was
the fulfillment.


"The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for, among old
parchments, or musty records. They are written, as with a sun beam in
the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself;
and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power."

                                               Alexander Hamilton, 1775


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            For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
 Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP Washington, DC 20402-9328




 
                 The CONSTITUTION of the United States
                            with Index and
                    The Declaration of Independence


First Edition, 1986

Second Edition, 1987

Third Edition (with index), 1987

Fourth Edition, 1988

Fifth Edition, 1988

Sixth Edition, 1988

Seventh (Special Limited Inaugural) Edition, 1989

Eighth (Special Military) Edition, 1989

Ninth (Limited Eastern European) Edition, 1990

Tenth (Special Boy Scout) Edition, 1990

Eleventh (Special Girl Scout) Edition, 1990

Twelfth  Edition (with Declaration of Independence), 1990

Thirteenth Edition, 1991

Fourteenth (HMS Rose/Bill of Rights Tour) Edition, 1991

Fifteenth Edition, 1991

Sixteenth (Seville Expo '92) Edition, 1992

Seventeenth (Seville Expo '92, Spanish) Edition, 1992

Eighteenth (with Twenty-Seventh Amendment) Edition, 1992

Nineteenth (Reprint) 1997

Twentieth (Reprint) 2000



                   CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES                   

   We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of
Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.

                              Article. I.

   Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein grantd shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House
of Representatives.

   Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members
chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the
Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for
Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

   No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the
Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen.

   [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
Persons.]* The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after
the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every
subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law
direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and
Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

*Changed by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment.

   When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such
Vacancies.

   The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.


   Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,]* for six
Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

*Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment.

   Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first
Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes.
The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the
Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of
the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth
Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if
Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then
fill such Vacancies.]*

*Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment.

   No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age
of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.

   The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

   The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro
tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise
the Office of President of the United States. 

   The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When
sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside:
And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds
of the Members present.

   Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to
removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office
of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial,
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.


   Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the
Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or
alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

   The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such
Meeting shall be [on the first Monday in December,]* unless they shall
by Law appoint a different Day.

*Changed by section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment.

   Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns
and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall
constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House
may provide.

   Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its
Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two
thirds, expel a Member.

   Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment
require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on
any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be
entered on the Journal.

   Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other
Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

   Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest
during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and
in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in
either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

   No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof
shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during
his Continuance in Office.

   Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House
of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments
as on other Bills.

   Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the President
of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall
return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal,
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds
of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together
with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be
reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall
become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be
determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and
against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House
respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within
ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him,
the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it
shall not be a Law.

   Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question
of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States;
and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or
being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate
and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations
prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

   Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes,
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common
Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties,
Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

   To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

   To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian Tribes;

   To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on
the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

   To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and
fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

   To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and
current Coin of the United States;

   To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

   To promote the Progress of Science and use ful Arts, by securing for
limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their
respective Writings and Discoveries;

   To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

   To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas,
and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

   To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules
concerning Captures on Land and Water;

   To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that
Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

   To provide and maintain a Navy;

   To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval
Forces;

   To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

   To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and
for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the
United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of
the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the
discipline prescribed by Congress;

   To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of
the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over
all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals,
dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;--And

   To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this
Constitution in the Government of the United States or in any Department
or Officer thereof.

   Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of
the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred
and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

   The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may
require it.

   No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

   No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in
Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be
taken.*

*See Sixteenth Amendment.

   No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

   No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue
to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound
to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in
another.

   No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the
Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from
time to time.

   No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no
Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without
the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office,
or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

   Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit
Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in
Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

   No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts
or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties
and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the
Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be
subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

   No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any
Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as
will not admit of delay.

                              Article. II.

   Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of
four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same
Term, be elected, as follows

   Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof
may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators
and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress:
but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust
or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

   [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant
of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the
Government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes
shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number
of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest
on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But
in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the
Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this
Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.
In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]*

*Changed by the Twelfth Amendment.

   The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the
Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same
throughout the United States.

   No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United
States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be
eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty
five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

   [In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death,
Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said
Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress
may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or
Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what
Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act
accordingly, until the Disa bility be removed, or a President shall be
elected.]*

*Changed by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.

   The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a
Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the
Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive
within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of
them.

   Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the
following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I
will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States,
and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the
Constitution of the United States."

   Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and
Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States,
when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require
the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the
executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their
respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and
Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of
Impeachment.

   He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate,
to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur;
and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the
Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls,
Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United
States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and
which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the
Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the
President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

   The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which
shall expire at the End of their next Session.

   Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information
of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such
Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on
extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in
Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of
Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper;
he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take
Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
Officers of the United States.

   Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of
the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and
Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

                            Article. III.                              

   Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall
be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of
the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good
Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a
Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in
Office.

   Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and
Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States,
and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all
Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all
Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which
the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more
States;--[between a State and Citizens of another State;--]* between
Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the same State
claiming Lands under Grants of different States, [and between a State,
or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.]*

*Changed by the Eleventh Amendment.

   In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court
shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned,
the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress
shall make.

   The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be by
Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the
Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have
directed.

   Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them
Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the
Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in
open Court. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

                             Article. IV.

   Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State; And
the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such
Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

   Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

   A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime,
who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on
Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the
Crime.

   [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall
be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may
be due.]*

*Changed by the Thirteenth Amendment.

   Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction
of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the
Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

   The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall
be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of
any particular State.

   Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this
Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them
against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic
Violence.

                              Article. V.

   The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the
Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States,
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case,
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this
Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress;
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first
and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that
no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of it's equal Suffrage
in the Senate.

                             Article. VI.

   All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

   This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be
made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made,
under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of
the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any
Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary
notwithstanding.

   The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers,
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by
Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test
shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust
under the United States.

                            Article. VII.

   The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States
so ratifying the Same.

   done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the
Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of
America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our
Names,


                       G . Washington--Presid .                        
                       and deputy from Virginia                        


New Hampshire       John Langdon
                    Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts       Nathaniel Gorham
                    Rufus King

Connecticut         Wm. Saml. Johnson 
                    Roger Sherman


New York            Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey 	    Wil: Livingston 
                    David Brearley
                    Wm. Paterson 
                    Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania        B Franklin 
                    Thomas Mifflin
                    Robt Morris 
                    Geo. Clymer
                    Thos. FitzSimons 
                    Jared Ingersoll
                    James Wilson
                    Gouv Morris

Delaware            Geo: Read 
                    Gunning Bedford jun 
                    John Dickinson 
                    Richard Bassett 
                    Jaco: Broom

Maryland            James McHenry 
                    Dan of St Thos. Jenifer 
                    Danl Carroll

Virginia            John Blair-- 
                    James Madison Jr.

North Carolina 	    Wm. Blount 
                    Richd. Dobbs Spaight 
                    Hu Williamson

South Carolina 	    J. Rutledge 
                    Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
                    Charles Pinckney 
                    Pierce Butler

Georgia             William Few 
                    Abr Baldwin



Attest William Jackson Secretary



               In Convention Monday September 17th 1787.

                               Present
                            The States of


New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Hamilton from New York,
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina and Georgia.

Resolved, 
    That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United
States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this
Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of
Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the
Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification;
and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should
give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.
Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the
Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the
United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors
should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same,
and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the
President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this
Constitution.

    That after such Publication the Electors should be appointed, and the
Senators and Representatives elected: That the Electors should meet on
the Day fixed for the Election of the President, and should transmit
their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution
requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled,
that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and
Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the
Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the
Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress,
together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute
this Constitution.

                               By the unanimous Order of the Convention

                                               G . WASHINGTON--Presid .

W.  JACKSON Secretary.




                    *Congress OF THE United States


                begun and held at the City of New-York,
                   on Wednesday the fourth of March,
              one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine

 THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and
restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of
public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent
ends of its institution:

 RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring,
that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the
several States, as Amendments to the Constitution of the United States,
all or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said
Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the
said Constitution; viz.t.

 ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United
States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the
Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the
original Constitution. . . .

   FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG
   Speaker of the House of Representatives.
   JOHN ADAMS, Vice-President of the United States,
                       and President of the Senate.

ATTEST, 
    JOHN BECKLEY, Clerk of the House of Representatives.
    SAM. A. OTIS, Secretary of the Senate.


* On September 25, 1789, Congress transmitted to the state legislatures
  twelve proposed amendments, two of which, having to do with
  Congressional representation and Congressional pay, were not adopted.
  The remaining ten amendments became the Bill of Rights.


    AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA     

                             Amendment I.*                             

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

                             Amendment II.

   A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be
infringed.

                            Amendment III.

   No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without
the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.


*The first ten Amendments (Bill of Rights) were ratified effective
December 15, 1791.


                             Amendment IV.

   The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall
not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

                             Amendment V.

   No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury,
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia,
when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of
life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use
without just compensation.

                             Amendment VI.

   In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor,
and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

                            Amendment VII.

   In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the
United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

                            Amendment VIII.

   Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed,
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

                             Amendment IX.

   The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

                             Amendment X.

   The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.

                            Amendment XI.*

*The Eleventh Amendment was ratified February 7, 1795.

  The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one
of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or
Subjects of any Foreign State.

                            Amendment XII.*

*The Twelfth Amendment was ratified June 15, 1804.

   The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an
inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes
shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest number of votes
for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of
the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such
majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding
three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the
representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the
states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
[And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth
day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the President--]* The person having the greatest number of
votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be
a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of
the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person
constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible
to that of Vice-President of the United States.

* Superseded by section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

                            Amendment XIII.**

**The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified December 6, 1865.

   Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
jurisdiction.

   Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

                           Amendment XIV.***

***The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified July 9, 1868.

   Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States
and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any
law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty,
or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within
its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

   Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number
of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right
to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and
Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the
Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the
Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States,
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

   Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such
disability.

   Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and
bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall
not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall
assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or
emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims
shall be held illegal and void.

   Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.

                            Amendment XV.*

*The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1870.

   Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

   Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

                           Amendment XVI.**

**The Sixteenth Amendment was ratified February 3, 1913.

   The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes,
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several
States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

                           Amendment XVII.***

***The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified April 8, 1913.

   The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each
Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
State legislatures.

   When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any
State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments
until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may
direct.

   This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
Constitution.

                           Amendment XVIII.*

*The Eighteenth Amendment was ratified January 16, 1919. It was repealed
by the Twenty-First Amendment, December 5, 1933.

   [Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the
importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United
States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for
beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

   Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

   Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years
from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.]

                            Amendment XIX.*

*The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified August 18, 1920.

   The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

   Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.

                            Amendment XX.**

**The Twentieth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1933.

   Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end
at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and
Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which
such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and
the terms of their successors shall then begin.

   Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,
and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless
they shall by law appoint a different day.

   Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect
shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before
the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect
shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as
President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may
by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice
President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as
President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected,
and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice
President shall have qualified.

   Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death
of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose
a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them,
and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate
may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have
devolved upon them.

   Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of
October following the ratification of this article.

   Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures
of three fourths of the several States within seven years from the date
of its submission.

                            Amendment XXI.*

*The Twenty-First Amendment was ratified December 5, 1933.

   Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of
the United States is hereby repealed.

   Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State,
Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein
of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby
prohibited.

   Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the
several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from
the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

                            Amendment XXII*

*The Twenty-Second Amendment was ratified February 27, 1951.

   Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President
more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or
acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some
other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the
President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person
holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the
Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office
of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this
Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting
as President during the remainder of such term.

   Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of
threefourths of the several States within seven years from the date of
its submission to the States by the Congress.

                          Amendment XXIII.**

**The Twenty-Third Amendment was ratified March 29, 1961.

   Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the
United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

   A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the
whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the
District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than
the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed
by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the
election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a
State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as
provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

   Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

                           Amendment XXIV.*

*The Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified January 23, 1964.

   Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any
primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors
for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in
Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any
State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

   Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

                           Amendment XXV.**

**The Twenty-Fifth Amendment was ratified February 10, 1967.

   Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of
his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

   Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice
President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take
office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

   Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives
his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and
duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged
by the Vice President as Acting President.

   Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the
principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as
Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and
duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the
powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

   Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written
declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and
duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either
the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body
as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the
President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable
to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress
shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that
purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after
receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in
session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble,
determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is
unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice
President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;
otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his
office.

                            Amendment XXVI*

*The Twenty-Sixth Amendment was ratified July 1, 1971.

   Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged
by the United States or by any State on account of age.

   Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

                           Amendment XXVII**

**Congress submitted the text of the Twenty-Seventh Amendment to the
States as part of the proposed Bill of Rights on September 25, 1789. The
Amendment was not ratified together with the first ten Amendments, which
became effective on December 15, 1791. The Twenty-Seventh Amendment was
ratified on May 7, 1992, by the vote of Michigan.

   No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives
shall have intervened.

                                   Appendix

                    THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

          Action of Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776
  The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America   

   WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one
People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and
equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle
them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they
should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

   WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of
Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its
Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their
Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments
long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes;
and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed
to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by
abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train
of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces
a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it
is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards
for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these
Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter
their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of
Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all
having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for
the public Good. HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of
immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation
till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has
utterly neglected to attend to them.

   HE has refused to passother Laws for the Accommodation of large
Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of
Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and
formidable to Tyrants only.

   HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records,
for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his
Measures.

   HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.

   HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of
Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.

   HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for
that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners;
refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and
raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

   HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his
Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

   HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of
their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.

   HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of
Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

   HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace Standing Armies, without the
consent of our Legislatures.

   HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to
the Civil Power.

   HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign
to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent
to their Acts of pretended Legislation: FOR quartering large Bodies of
Armed Troops among us:

   FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

   FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:

   FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: FOR depriving us, in
many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:

   FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:

   FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring
Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging
its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument
for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies:

   FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

   FOR suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested
with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.

   HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection
and waging War against us.

   HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and
destroyed the Lives of our People.

   HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries
to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun
with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the
most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.

   HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas
to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their
Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

   HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured
to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian
Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction,
of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

   IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in
the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by
repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

   NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We
have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to
extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of
the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed
to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the
Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would
inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have
been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace,
Friends.

   WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the
World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by
Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and
Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE
AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to
the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and
the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and
that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War,
conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all
other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for
the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection
of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our
Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

                           DATES TO REMEMBER

May 25, 1787: The Constitutional Convention opens with a quorum of seven
states in Philadelphia to discuss revising the Articles of
Confederation. Eventually all states but Rhode Island are represented.

Sept. 17, 1787: All 12 state delegations approve the Constitution, 39
delegates sign it of the 42 present, and the Convention formally
adjourns.

June 21, 1788: The Constitution becomes effective for the ratifying
states when New Hampshire is the ninth state to ratify it.

March 4, 1789: The first Congress under the Constitution convenes in New
York City.

April 30, 1789: George Washington is inaugurated as the first President
of the United States.

June 8, 1789: James Madison introduces proposed Bill  of Rights in the
House of Representatives.

Sept. 24, 1789: Congress establishes a Supreme Court, 13 district
courts, three ad hoc circuit courts, and the position of Attorney
General.

Sept. 25, 1789: Congress approves 12 amendments and sends them to the
states for ratification.

Feb. 2, 1790: Supreme Court convenes for the first time after an
unsuccessful attempt February 1.

Dec. 15, 1791: Virginia ratifies the Bill of Rights, and 10 of the 12
proposed amendments become part of the U.S. Constitution.


                 INDEX TO CONSTITUTION AND AMENDMENTS

                                             Article, Section	   Page
Admiralty & maritime cases                   III,2                   13
Advice and consent                           II,2                    11
Age, as qualification for public office 
  president                                  II,1                    10
  representatives                            I,2                      1
  senators                                   I,3                      3
  voting                                     A26                     34
Ambassadors 
  Case controversies                         III,2                   13
  President's power                          II,2-3               11-12
Amendment procedure                          V                       15
Appellate jurisdiction                       III,2                   13
Appointment power                            II,2                 11-12
Appointments, temporary                      A17                     28
Apportionment of representatives             I,2;A14,2           1-2,26
Appropriations(s)                            I,8,9                  7,8
Arms, right to bear                          A2                      21
Army                                         II,2                    11
Assembly, right of                           A1                      21
Authors                                      I,8                      6
Bail, excessive                              A8                      23
Bankruptcy, Congress' power                  I,8                      6
Bill of Rights (Amends. 1-10)                A1-A10               21-23
Bills                                        I,7                    5-6
Bills of attainder                           I,9-10                   8
Borrowing, Congress' power                   I,8                      6
Cabinet officers' reports                    II,2                    11
Census                                       I,2                    1-2
Chief Justice, role in impeachment trials    I,3                      3
Commander in Chief                           II,2                    11
Commerce, Congress' power                    I,8                      6
Commission of officers                       II,3                    12
Compact                                      I,10                     9
Congress
  annual meetings                            I,4;A20,2           3-4,29
  declaring war                              I,8                      6
  legislative proceedings                    I,5                      4
  members' compensation and privileges       I,6;A27             4-5,34
  organization                               I,1                      1
  powers                                     I,8;A12          6-7,24-25
  special sessions                           II,3                    12
Congressional Record (Journal)               I,5                      4
Constitution, purpose                        Preamble                 1
Contracts, interference by states            I,10                     8
Controversies, court cases                   III,2                   13
Conventions                                  V;VII;A21         15,16,30
Copyrights & patents, Congress' power        I,8                      6
Counsel, right to                            A6                      22
Counterfeiting, Congress' power to punish    I,8                      6
Courts (see Judiciary)
Criminal proceedings, rights of accused      A5;A6                   22
Currency, Congress' power                    I,8                      6
Defense, Congress' power                     I,8                      6
District of Columbia                         I,8;A23               7,31
Double jeopardy                              A5                      22
Due process of law                           A5;A14,1          22,25-16
Electoral College                            II,1;A12;A23    9-11,24-25
                                                                  31-32
Equal protection of laws                     A14,1                25-26
Equity                                       III,2;A11            13,23
Ex post facto laws                           I,9-10                   8
Extradition of fugitives by states           IV,2                    14
Fines, excessive                             A8                      23
Foreign affairs, President's power           II,2                 11-12
Foreign commerce, Congress' power            I,8                      6
"Full faith and credit" clause               IV,1                    14
General welfare, Congress' power             I,8                      6
Grand jury indictments                       A5                      22
Grievances, redress of                       A1                      21
Habeas corpus                                I,9                      8
House of Representatives election to
  & eligibility for                          I,2                      1
  members' terms of office                   I,2;I,6                1,4
  Speaker of                                 I,2;A24;A25,3-4    2,32-33
  special powers
    impeachment                              I,2                      2
    Presidential elections                   II,1;A12        9-10,24-25
    revenue bills                            I,7                      5
  states' representation in                  I,2                    1-2
  vacancies                                  I,2                      2
Immunities (see Privileges and immunities) 
Impeachment 
  officials subject to                       II,4                    12
  penalties                                  I,3                      3
  power of, lodged in House                  I,2                      2
  reasons                                    II,4                    12
  trials, Senate                             I,3                      3
Indians, commerce with, Congress' power      I,8                      6
Inhabitant (see Resident)                    I,2;I,3                1,3
International law, Congress' power           I,8                      6
Inventors                                    I,8                      6
Judiciary inferior courts                    I,8;III,1             6,12
judicial review                              III,2                   13
jurisdiction                                 III,2                   13
nomination & confirmation of judges          II,2                 11-12
Supreme Court                                III,1                   12
terms of office & compensation               III,1                   12
Jury trials                                  III,2;A6;A7       13,22,23
"Lame duck" amendment                        A20                     29
Liquor                                       A18;A21              28,30
Marque and reprisal, letters of              I,8,10                 6,8
Men (see Persons) Militia (Military)         A2;A5                21,22
congressional powers                         I,8                      7
presidential powers                          II,2                 11-12
Money                                        I,8                      6
National debt                                VI                   15-16
Native Americans (see Indians)
Naturalization                               I,8                      6
Navy                                         I,8;II,2              7,11
"Necessary and proper" clause                I,8                      7
Nominate                                     II,2;A25             11,32
Oath of office, federal and state            II,1;VI              11,16
Original Jurisdiction                        III,2                   13
Pardons and reprieves, President's power     II,2                    11
People, powers reserved to                   A10                     23
Persons                                      A14                  25-26
Petition the government, right to            A1                      21
"Pocket veto"                                I,7                      5
Poll tax, prohibition                        A24,1                   32
Post offices & roads, Congress' power        I,8                      6
Presidency, succession to                    II,1;A20;A25   10-11,29-30
President                                                         32-33
  disability                                 A25,3                32-33
  election                                   II,1;A12;A22   9-10,24-25,
                                             A23               31,31-32
  eligibility for office                     II,1                    10
  legislation, role in                       I,7                      5
  oath of office                             II,1                    11
  powers & duties                            II,2-3               11-12
  term of office & compensation              II,1                  9-11
Press, freedom of                            A1                      21
Privileges and immunities (of citizens)      IV,2;A14,1        14,25-26
Prohibition                                  A18;A21              28,30
Property, taking for public use              A5                      22
Punishments, cruel and unusual               A8                      23
Race                                         A15                     27
Ratification of Constitution                 V;VII                15,16
Religion, freedom of                         A1                      21
Religious oaths                              VI                      16
Resident (see Inhabitant)                    II,1                    10
Search and seizure                           A4                      22
Seas, Congress' power                        I,8                      6
Secrecy                                      I,5                      4
Self-incrimination                           A5                      22
Senate
  election to & eligibility for              I,3                      3
  equal representation of states             V                       15
  officers                                   I,3                      3
  President of                               I,3;A12            3,24-25
  President of, pro tempore                  I,3;A25,3-4	3,32-33
  special powers
    impeachment trials                       I,3                      3
    Presidential appointments                II,2                 11-12
    treaties                                 II,2                 11-12
  terms of office                            I,3;I,6                2,4
  vacancies                                  A17                  27-28
Slavery, prohibition                         A13;A14,4         25,26-27
Soldiers, quartering of                      A3                      21
Speech, freedom of                           A1                      21
Spending, Congress' power                    I,8                      6
State of Union message                       II,3                    12
States
  and federal elections                      I,4                      3
  formation & admission to Union             IV,3                    14
  powers requiring consent of Congress       I,10                   8-9
  powers reserved to                         A10                     23
  protection against invasion, violence      IV,4                    15
  republican form of government guaranteed   IV,4                    15
  suits against                              III,2;A11         13,23-24
Sundays                                      I,7                      5
Supreme law of the land (Constitution)       VI                   15-16
Taxing power, in general                     I,7-8                  5-6
  direct taxes prohibited                    I,9                      8
  income taxes permitted                     A16                     27
Territories                                  IV,3                 14-15
Titles of nobility                           I,9                      8
Treason                                      III,3                   13
Treaty(ies)                                  I,10;II,2;         8,11,13
                                             III,2;VI             15-16
Trial                                        I,3;III,2;      3,13,22,23
                                             A6;A7
Veto, President's power                      I,7                      5
Vice-Presidency, succession to               A20;A25        29-30,32-33
Vice-President conditions for assuming
  Presidency                                 II,1;A20;A25      10,29-30
                                                                  32-33
  declaring President disabled, role in      A25,4                   33
  Senate, role in                            I,3;A12            3,24-25
  term of office                             II,1                     9
Voting rights                                A14;A24           25-27,32
  blacks, former slaves                      A15,1                   27
  eighteen-years-old                         A26                     34
  women                                      A19                     29
War powers (see Congress, declaring,
  war powers; President, powers & duties;
  States, protection against invasion)
Warrants                                     A4                      22
Weights and measures standards of            I,8                      6
Women (see Persons)




". . . a constitution, intended to endure for ages to come, and
consequently, to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs."

                                                          John Marshall


At the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention,

Benjamin Franklin was asked,

"What have you wrought?" 

He answered, 

". . . a Republic, if you can keep it."